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Cast-in-place concrete is transported in an unhardened state, primarily as ready-mix, and placed in forms.
Ready mixed concrete is proportioned and mixed off the project site. The concrete is delivered to the site in
a truck agitator (often incorrectly called a cement truck) but can also be delivered in a non-agitating truck.
Specialized paving equipment may be used to mix and spread concrete for pavement


Most foundations and slabs-on-ground

Walls, beams, columns, floors, roofs

Large portions of bridges, pavements, and other infrastructure.


Cast-in-place concrete is the material of choice for slab-on-ground and foundations because of its long-term
durability and structural support. It is also used in all types of buildings for either structural support as
beams and columns, as well as for floors, walls, and roofs


Ready mixed concrete has many environmental benefits during construction and for the life of the structure.
See associated sustainability solutions and technical briefs (right) for more detail.

During construction:
Waste Minimization. Concrete is ordered and placed as needed and does not need to be trimmed or cut
after installation. Wash water is frequently recycled using trucks equipped with devices that collect wash
water and return it to the drum where it can be returned to the ready mixed concrete plant for recycling.
Extra concrete is often returned to the ready-mix plant where it is recycled or used to make jersey barriers
or retaining wall blocks; or it can be washed to recycle the coarse aggregate. Special set retarding
admixtures can be added to returned concrete to allow for storage and future use.

Local. Materials are usually extracted and manufactured locally. May contribute to LEED Credit M 5.

Recycled content. Fly ash, slag cement, or silica fume can substitute partially for cement, and recycled
aggregates can replace newly mined gravel. Recycled contentcan contribute to LEED Credit M 4.

During the life of the structure:

Energy Performance and Thermal Mass. Thermal mass improves energy performance when
appropriately insulated. When 3 in. or more in thickness, concrete forms an air barrier. May contribute to
LEED Credit EA 1.

Durable. Concrete stands up to natural disasters, wind-driven rain, moisture damage, and vermin. Less
replacement means reduced resource requirements.

Cool. Using light- or natural-colored material helps reduce the heat island affect. When used for exposed
horizontal surfaces may contribute to LEED Credit SS 7.

Low emitting. Concrete has low VOC emission and does not degrade indoor air quality.

Recyclable. Concrete is commonly recycled in urban areas into fill and road base material at the end of
service life. When existing concrete is recycled during construction, may contribute to LEED Credit M 2.

Mix. The design professional specifies the Concrete was the primary
appropriate concrete properties for a building material used to
particular project and use, and an appropriate construct the Pierce Transit
mix design is developed. The mix design North End Turna Around
specifies the amount and type of cementitious Facility in Tacoma,
materials, water, and aggregate (sand, gravel, Washington. A pedestrian
or crushed rock). Mixing, transporting, and ramp snakes between more
handling of concrete are coordinated with than 60 cast-in-place
placing and finishing operations. waterfall and landscaping
containers at the Turnaround.
Placement. Concrete should not be placed more The ramp connects the
rapidly than it can be spread, struck off, and assembly plaza with the
consolidated. It should be deposited continuously as downtown transit bus transfer
near as possible to its final position. In many types area below. The compex
of construction, concrete is placed in forms and geometry of the project,
consolidated. Consolidation compacts fresh concrete combined with the
to mold it within the forms around embedded items watertightness and durability
and reinforcement and eliminates stone pockets, considerations, made
honeycombing, and entrapped air. Vibration is the concrete the logical choice.
most widely used method for consolidating (PCA No. 10088).
concrete. Self-compacting concrete, also referred to self-consolidating concrete, is
able to flow and consolidate under its own weight and requires no vibration.

Curing. After the concrete is placed, a satisfactory moisture content and

temperature is required for concrete to develop adequate strength and durability;
this is called the curing process. Curing compounds or other surface treatments
prevent the rapid loss of moisture from the surface of concrete and aid in the curing

Finishing. Exposed concrete surfaces, usually the top surface, generally require
finishing if they will be visible. This includes driveways, pavements, sidewalks,
floors, slabs, and other flatwork. Options include various colors and textures, such
as exposed aggregate or a pattern-stamped surface. Some surfaces may require
only strikeoff or screeding (which removes excess concrete and evens out the
exposed surface) to the proper contour and elevation. Other surfaces may have a
broomed, floated, or trowel finish. Sawcut joints, if required, are made after the
concrete is sufficiently hard or strong to prevent raveling (is the disintegration of
the surface to leave loose or protruding aggregates).

To find a ready-mix supplier or contractor near you, check the National Ready-Mix
Concrete Association directory.

Cast in Place Concrete Information

Cast-In-Place (CIP) concrete is a building construction method where
locally supplied ready mix concrete, steel reinforcement and
formwork are delivered to the construction site and fabrication of
concrete elements takes place on location.
Some advances in concrete production include the use of industrial
waste products such as fly ash, slag and silica fume as cement
substitutes to enhance the durability and sustainability of concrete.
Poured-in-place and in situ are some other terms used to refer to
Cast-In-Place Concrete.

C on c r e te Wa l l s P ro v i d e a S tron g e r & D ri e r Ba s e me n t
Energy Performance
Cast-In-Place walls are energy efficient. The concrete in your basement is an excellent heat sink. Once the wall reaches
ambient room temperature it retains its heat even if the air cools. Add insulation to the wall (sandwich or exterior) and below
the slab to create a very stable temperature environment.

Structural Integrity
They are structurally superior. Solid concrete walls have greater strength than other materials and methods with the ability to

soil pressure
water pressure
construction loads

Faster Construction Time

They are the quickest method of foundation construction. An entire foundation is typically installed in several working days.
This fast construction cycle means that carpenters and other trades can start to work earlier.

Fewer problems - more serviceable. The durability of concrete walls is unequalled. Concrete foundation walls are resistant

fire and wind

decay, mold & mildew

Proven Performance
Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world! It has been used for centuries. Cast-In-Place concrete
walls and concrete as a building material have proven themselves time and time again.

H i g h e r R e s a l e Va l u e
Solid Cast-in-Place concrete foundations have consistently higher resale value - just ask your realtor.

Ve r s a t i l i t y
They are versatile in terms of shape, height, dimensions, and cross section (brick ledges, etc.). The modular design of the
forming systems and nature of concrete allows for construction of complex forms and shapes including:
curved and angled walls
walls with an unlimited number of ins-and-outs,
steps and openings
walls with different textures/patterns

Balancing the effects of growth against its environmental impact, the sustainability of cast-in-place walls is enhanced when
concrete is used for your foundation material.

Wa t e r Ti g h t n e s s
They are inherently water tight. Cast-In-Place walls are monolithic (no joints) which means a drier basement.