You are on page 1of 24

6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Entropy
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Instatisticalmechanics,entropy(usualsymbolS)isrelatedtothenumberofmicroscopicconfigurationsthata
thermodynamicsystemcanhavewheninastateasspecifiedbysomemacroscopicvariables.Specifically,
assumingforsimplicitythateachofthemicroscopicconfigurationsisequallyprobable,theentropyofthesystem
isthenaturallogarithmofthatnumberofconfigurations,multipliedbytheBoltzmannconstantkB.Formally,

Thisisconsistentwith19thcenturyformulasforentropyintermsofheatandtemperature,asdiscussedbelow.
Boltzmann'sconstant,andthereforeentropy,havedimensionsofenergydividedbytemperature.

Forexample,gasinacontainerwithknownvolume,pressure,andenergycouldhaveanenormousnumberof
possibleconfigurationsofthecollectionofindividualgasmolecules.Atequilibrium,eachinstantaneous
configurationofthegasmayberegardedasrandom.Entropymaybeunderstoodasameasureofdisorderwithina
macroscopicsystem.Thesecondlawofthermodynamicsstatesthatanisolatedsystem'sentropyneverdecreases.
Suchsystemsspontaneouslyevolvetowardsthermodynamicequilibrium,thestatewithmaximumentropy.Non
isolatedsystemsmayloseentropy,providedtheirenvironment'sentropyincreasesbyatleastthatamount.Since
entropyisafunctionofthestateofthesystem,achangeinentropyofasystemisdeterminedbyitsinitialandfinal
states.Thisapplieswhethertheprocessisreversibleorirreversible.However,irreversibleprocessesincreasethe
combinedentropyofthesystemanditsenvironment.

Inthemid19thcentury,thechangeinentropy(S)ofasystemundergoingathermodynamicallyreversible
processwasdefinedbyRudolfClausiusas:

whereTistheabsolutetemperatureofthesystem,dividinganincrementalreversibletransferofheatintothat
system(Qrev).(Ifheatistransferredoutthesignwouldbereversedgivingadecreaseinentropyofthesystem.)
Theabovedefinitionissometimescalledthemacroscopicdefinitionofentropybecauseitcanbeusedwithout
regardtoanymicroscopicdescriptionofthecontentsofasystem.Theconceptofentropyhasbeenfoundtobe
generallyusefulandhasseveralotherformulations.Entropywasdiscoveredwhenitwasnoticedtobeaquantity
thatbehavesasafunctionofstate,asaconsequenceofthesecondlawofthermodynamics.

Entropyisanextensiveproperty.Ithasthedimensionofenergydividedbytemperature,whichhasaunitofjoules
perkelvin(JK1)intheInternationalSystemofUnits(orkgm2s2K1intermsofbaseunits).Buttheentropyof
apuresubstanceisusuallygivenasanintensivepropertyeitherentropyperunitmass(SIunit:JK1kg1)or
entropyperunitamountofsubstance(SIunit:JK1mol1).

Theabsoluteentropy(SratherthanS)wasdefinedlater,usingeitherstatisticalmechanicsorthethirdlawof
thermodynamics,anotherwisearbitraryadditiveconstantisfixedsuchthattheentropyofapuresubstanceat
absolutezeroiszero.Instatisticalmechanicsthisreflectsthatthegroundstateofasystemisgenerallynon
degenerateandonlyonemicroscopicconfigurationcorrespondstoit.

Inthemodernmicroscopicinterpretationofentropyinstatisticalmechanics,entropyistheamountofadditional
informationneededtospecifytheexactphysicalstateofasystem,givenitsthermodynamicspecification.
Understandingtheroleofthermodynamicentropyinvariousprocessesrequiresanunderstandingofhowandwhy
thatinformationchangesasthesystemevolvesfromitsinitialtoitsfinalstate.Itisoftensaidthatentropyisan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 1/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

expressionofthedisorder,orrandomnessofasystem,orofourlackofinformationaboutit.Thesecondlawis
nowoftenseenasanexpressionofthefundamentalpostulateofstatisticalmechanicsthroughthemodern
definitionofentropy.

Contents
1 History
2 Definitionsanddescriptions
2.1 Functionofstate
2.2 Reversibleprocess
2.3 Carnotcycle
2.4 Classicalthermodynamics
2.5 Statisticalmechanics
2.6 Entropyofasystem
3 Secondlawofthermodynamics
4 Applications
4.1 Thefundamentalthermodynamicrelation
4.2 Entropyinchemicalthermodynamics
4.3 Entropybalanceequationforopensystems
5 Entropychangeformulasforsimpleprocesses
5.1 Isothermalexpansionorcompressionofanidealgas
5.2 Coolingandheating
5.3 Phasetransitions
6 Approachestounderstandingentropy
6.1 Standardtextbookdefinitions
6.2 Orderanddisorder
6.3 Energydispersal
6.4 Relatingentropytoenergyusefulness
6.5 Entropyandadiabaticaccessibility
6.6 Entropyinquantummechanics
6.7 Informationtheory
7 Interdisciplinaryapplicationsofentropy
7.1 Thermodynamicandstatisticalmechanicsconcepts
7.2 Thearrowoftime
7.3 Cosmology
7.4 Economics
8 Seealso
9 Notes
10 References
11 Furtherreading
12 Externallinks

History
TheFrenchmathematicianLazareCarnotproposedinhis1803paperFundamentalPrinciplesofEquilibriumand
Movementthatinanymachinetheaccelerationsandshocksofthemovingpartsrepresentlossesofmomentof
activity.Inotherwords,inanynaturalprocessthereexistsaninherenttendencytowardsthedissipationofuseful
energy.Buildingonthiswork,in1824Lazare'ssonSadiCarnotpublishedReflectionsontheMotivePowerofFire
whichpositedthatinallheatengines,whenever"caloric"(whatisnowknownasheat)fallsthroughatemperature

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 2/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

difference,workormotivepowercanbeproducedfromtheactionsofitsfallfrom
ahottocoldbody.Hemadetheanalogywiththatofhowwaterfallsinawater
wheel.Thiswasanearlyinsightintothesecondlawofthermodynamics.[1]Carnot
basedhisviewsofheatpartiallyontheearly18thcentury"Newtonianhypothesis"
thatbothheatandlightweretypesofindestructibleformsofmatter,whichare
attractedandrepelledbyothermatter,andpartiallyonthecontemporaryviewsof
CountRumfordwhoshowed(1789)thatheatcouldbecreatedbyfrictionaswhen
cannonboresaremachined.[2]Carnotreasonedthatifthebodyoftheworking
substance,suchasabodyofsteam,isreturnedtoitsoriginalstateattheendofa
completeenginecycle,that"nochangeoccursintheconditionoftheworking
body".
RudolfClausius
Thefirstlawofthermodynamics,deducedfromtheheatfrictionexperimentsof (18221888),originatorof
JamesJoulein1843,expressestheconceptofenergy,anditsconservationinall theconceptofentropy
processesthefirstlaw,however,isunabletoquantifytheeffectsoffrictionand
dissipation.

Inthe1850sand1860s,GermanphysicistRudolfClausiusobjectedtothesuppositionthatnochangeoccursinthe
workingbody,andgavethis"change"amathematicalinterpretationbyquestioningthenatureoftheinherentloss
ofusableheatwhenworkisdone,e.g.heatproducedbyfriction.[3]Clausiusdescribedentropyasthe
transformationcontent,i.e.dissipativeenergyuse,ofathermodynamicsystemorworkingbodyofchemical
speciesduringachangeofstate.[3]Thiswasincontrasttoearlierviews,basedonthetheoriesofIsaacNewton,
thatheatwasanindestructibleparticlethathadmass.

Later,scientistssuchasLudwigBoltzmann,JosiahWillardGibbs,andJamesClerkMaxwellgaveentropya
statisticalbasis.In1877Boltzmannvisualizedaprobabilisticwaytomeasuretheentropyofanensembleofideal
gasparticles,inwhichhedefinedentropytobeproportionaltothelogarithmofthenumberofmicrostatessucha
gascouldoccupy.Henceforth,theessentialprobleminstatisticalthermodynamics,i.e.accordingtoErwin
Schrdinger,hasbeentodeterminethedistributionofagivenamountofenergyEoverNidenticalsystems.
Carathodorylinkedentropywithamathematicaldefinitionofirreversibility,intermsoftrajectoriesand
integrability.

Definitionsanddescriptions
Therearetworelateddefinitionsof
Anymethodinvolvingthenotionofentropy,theveryexistenceofwhich entropy:thethermodynamicdefinitionand
dependsonthesecondlawofthermodynamics,willdoubtlessseemto thestatisticalmechanicsdefinition.
manyfarfetched,andmayrepelbeginnersasobscureanddifficultof Historically,theclassicalthermodynamics
comprehension. definitiondevelopedfirst.Intheclassical
thermodynamicsviewpoint,thesystemis
WillardGibbs,GraphicalMethodsintheThermodynamicsofFluids[4]
composedofverylargenumbersof
constituents(atoms,molecules)andthe
stateofthesystemisdescribedbytheaveragethermodynamicpropertiesofthoseconstituentsthedetailsofthe
system'sconstituentsarenotdirectlyconsidered,buttheirbehaviorisdescribedbymacroscopicallyaveraged
properties,e.g.temperature,pressure,entropy,heatcapacity.Theearlyclassicaldefinitionofthepropertiesofthe
systemassumedequilibrium.Theclassicalthermodynamicdefinitionofentropyhasmorerecentlybeenextended
intotheareaofnonequilibriumthermodynamics.Later,thethermodynamicproperties,includingentropy,were
givenanalternativedefinitionintermsofthestatisticsofthemotionsofthemicroscopicconstituentsofasystem
modeledatfirstclassically,e.g.Newtonianparticlesconstitutingagas,andlaterquantummechanically

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 3/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

(photons,phonons,spins,etc.).Thestatisticalmechanicsdescriptionofthebehaviorofasystemisnecessaryasthe
definitionofthepropertiesofasystemusingclassicalthermodynamicsbecomeanincreasinglyunreliablemethod
ofpredictingthefinalstateofasystemthatissubjecttosomeprocess.

Functionofstate

Therearemanythermodynamicpropertiesthatarefunctionsofstate.Thismeansthatataparticular
thermodynamicstate(whichshouldnotbeconfusedwiththemicroscopicstateofasystem),thesepropertieshave
acertainvalue.Often,iftwopropertiesofthesystemaredetermined,thenthestateisdeterminedandtheother
properties'valuescanalsobedetermined.Forinstance,aquantityofgasataparticulartemperatureandpressure
hasitsstatefixedbythosevaluesandthushasaspecificvolumethatisdeterminedbythosevalues.Asanother
instance,asystemcomposedofapuresubstanceofasinglephaseataparticularuniformtemperatureandpressure
isdetermined(andisthusaparticularstate)andisatnotonlyaparticularvolumebutalsoataparticularentropy.[5]
Thefactthatentropyisafunctionofstateisonereasonitisuseful.IntheCarnotcycle,theworkingfluidreturns
tothesamestateithadatthestartofthecycle,hencethelineintegralofanystatefunction,suchasentropy,over
thisreversiblecycleiszero.

Reversibleprocess

Entropyisconservedforareversibleprocess.Areversibleprocessisonethatdoesnotdeviatefrom
thermodynamicequilibrium,whileproducingthemaximumwork.Anyprocesswhichhappensquicklyenoughto
deviatefromthermalequilibriumcannotbereversible.Inthesecasesenergyislosttoheat,totalentropyincreases,
andthepotentialformaximumworktobedoneinthetransitionisalsolost.Morespecifically,totalentropyis
conservedinareversibleprocessandnotconservedinanirreversibleprocess.[6]Forexample,intheCarnotcycle,
whiletheheatflowfromthehotreservoirtothecoldreservoirrepresentsanincreaseinentropy,theworkoutput,
ifreversiblyandperfectlystoredinsomeenergystoragemechanism,representsadecreaseinentropythatcouldbe
usedtooperatetheheatengineinreverseandreturntothepreviousstate,thusthetotalentropychangeisstillzero
atalltimesiftheentireprocessisreversible.Anirreversibleprocessincreasesentropy.[7]

Carnotcycle

TheconceptofentropyarosefromRudolfClausius'sstudyoftheCarnotcycle.[8]InaCarnotcycle,heatQHis
absorbedisothermallyattemperatureTHfroma'hot'reservoirandgivenupisothermallyasheatQCtoa'cold'
reservoiratTC.AccordingtoCarnot'sprinciple,workcanonlybeproducedbythesystemwhenthereisa
temperaturedifference,andtheworkshouldbesomefunctionofthedifferenceintemperatureandtheheat
absorbed(QH).CarnotdidnotdistinguishbetweenQHandQC,sincehewasusingtheincorrecthypothesisthat
calorictheorywasvalid,andhenceheatwasconserved(theincorrectassumptionthatQHandQCwereequal)
when,infact,QHisgreaterthanQC.[9][10]ThroughtheeffortsofClausiusandKelvin,itisnowknownthatthe
maximumworkthataheatenginecanproduceistheproductoftheCarnotefficiencyandtheheatabsorbedfrom
thehotreservoir:

(1)

ToderivetheCarnotefficiency,whichis1(TC/TH)(anumberlessthanone),Kelvinhadtoevaluatetheratioof
theworkoutputtotheheatabsorbedduringtheisothermalexpansionwiththehelpoftheCarnotClapeyron
equationwhichcontainedanunknownfunction,knownastheCarnotfunction.ThepossibilitythattheCarnot
functioncouldbethetemperatureasmeasuredfromazerotemperature,wassuggestedbyJouleinaletterto

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 4/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Kelvin.ThisallowedKelvintoestablishhisabsolutetemperaturescale.[11]Itisalsoknownthattheworkproduced
bythesystemisthedifferencebetweentheheatabsorbedfromthehotreservoirandtheheatgivenuptothecold
reservoir:


(2)

Sincethelatterisvalidovertheentirecycle,thisgaveClausiusthehintthatateachstageofthecycle,workand
heatwouldnotbeequal,butrathertheirdifferencewouldbeastatefunctionthatwouldvanishuponcompletionof
thecycle.Thestatefunctionwascalledtheinternalenergyanditbecamethefirstlawofthermodynamics.[12]

Nowequating(1)and(2)gives

or

ThisimpliesthatthereisafunctionofstatewhichisconservedoveracompletecycleoftheCarnotcycle.Clausius
calledthisstatefunctionentropy.Onecanseethatentropywasdiscoveredthroughmathematicsratherthan
throughlaboratoryresults.Itisamathematicalconstructandhasnoeasyphysicalanalogy.Thismakestheconcept
somewhatobscureorabstract,akintohowtheconceptofenergyarose.

Clausiusthenaskedwhatwouldhappenifthereshouldbelessworkproducedbythesystemthanthatpredictedby
Carnot'sprinciple.Therighthandsideofthefirstequationwouldbetheupperboundoftheworkoutputbythe
system,whichwouldnowbeconvertedintoaninequality

Whenthesecondequationisusedtoexpresstheworkasadifferenceinheats,weget

or

SomoreheatisgivenuptothecoldreservoirthanintheCarnotcycle.IfwedenotetheentropiesbySi=Qi/Tifor
thetwostates,thentheaboveinequalitycanbewrittenasadecreaseintheentropy

or

Theentropythatleavesthesystemisgreaterthantheentropythatentersthesystem,implyingthatsome
irreversibleprocesspreventsthecyclefromproducingthemaximumamountofworkpredictedbytheCarnot
equation.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 5/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

TheCarnotcycleandefficiencyareusefulbecausetheydefinetheupperboundofthepossibleworkoutputand
theefficiencyofanyclassicalthermodynamicsystem.Othercycles,suchastheOttocycle,Dieselcycleand
Braytoncycle,canbeanalyzedfromthestandpointoftheCarnotcycle.Anymachineorprocessthatconvertsheat
toworkandisclaimedtoproduceanefficiencygreaterthantheCarnotefficiencyisnotviablebecauseitviolates
thesecondlawofthermodynamics.Forverysmallnumbersofparticlesinthesystem,statisticalthermodynamics
mustbeused.Theefficiencyofdevicessuchasphotovoltaiccellsrequireananalysisfromthestandpointof
quantummechanics.

Classicalthermodynamics

Thethermodynamicdefinitionofentropywasdevelopedintheearly1850sbyRudolfClausiusandessentially
describeshowtomeasuretheentropyofanisolatedsysteminthermodynamicequilibriumwithitsparts.Clausius
createdthetermentropyasanextensivethermodynamicvariablethatwasshowntobeusefulincharacterizingthe
Carnotcycle.HeattransferalongtheisothermstepsoftheCarnotcyclewasfoundtobeproportionaltothe
temperatureofasystem(knownasitsabsolutetemperature).Thisrelationshipwasexpressedinincrementsof
entropyequaltotheratioofincrementalheattransferdividedbytemperature,whichwasfoundtovaryinthe
thermodynamiccyclebuteventuallyreturntothesamevalueattheendofeverycycle.Thusitwasfoundtobea
functionofstate,specificallyathermodynamicstateofthesystem.Clausiuswrotethathe"intentionallyformed
thewordEntropyassimilaraspossibletothewordEnergy",basingthetermontheGreektrop,
"transformation".[13][note1]

WhileClausiusbasedhisdefinitiononareversibleprocess,therearealsoirreversibleprocessesthatchange
entropy.Followingthesecondlawofthermodynamics,entropyofanisolatedsystemalwaysincreases.The
differencebetweenanisolatedsystemandclosedsystemisthatheatmaynotflowtoandfromanisolatedsystem,
butheatflowtoandfromaclosedsystemispossible.Nevertheless,forbothclosedandisolatedsystems,and
indeed,alsoinopensystems,irreversiblethermodynamicsprocessesmayoccur.

AccordingtotheClausiusequality,forareversiblecyclicprocess: Thismeansthelineintegral

ispathindependent.

SowecandefineastatefunctionScalledentropy,whichsatisfies

Tofindtheentropydifferencebetweenanytwostatesofasystem,theintegralmustbeevaluatedforsome
reversiblepathbetweentheinitialandfinalstates.[14]Sinceentropyisastatefunction,theentropychangeofthe
systemforanirreversiblepathisthesameasforareversiblepathbetweenthesametwostates.[15]However,the
entropychangeofthesurroundingswillbedifferent.

Wecanonlyobtainthechangeofentropybyintegratingtheaboveformula.Toobtaintheabsolutevalueofthe
entropy,weneedthethirdlawofthermodynamics,whichstatesthatS=0atabsolutezeroforperfectcrystals.

Fromamacroscopicperspective,inclassicalthermodynamicstheentropyisinterpretedasastatefunctionofa
thermodynamicsystem:thatis,apropertydependingonlyonthecurrentstateofthesystem,independentofhow
thatstatecametobeachieved.InanyprocesswherethesystemgivesupenergyE,anditsentropyfallsbyS,a
quantityatleastTRSofthatenergymustbegivenuptothesystem'ssurroundingsasunusableheat(TRisthe
temperatureofthesystem'sexternalsurroundings).Otherwisetheprocesscannotgoforward.Inclassical
thermodynamics,theentropyofasystemisdefinedonlyifitisinthermodynamicequilibrium.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 6/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Statisticalmechanics

ThestatisticaldefinitionwasdevelopedbyLudwigBoltzmanninthe1870sbyanalyzingthestatisticalbehaviorof
themicroscopiccomponentsofthesystem.Boltzmannshowedthatthisdefinitionofentropywasequivalenttothe
thermodynamicentropytowithinaconstantnumberwhichhassincebeenknownasBoltzmann'sconstant.In
summary,thethermodynamicdefinitionofentropyprovidestheexperimentaldefinitionofentropy,whilethe
statisticaldefinitionofentropyextendstheconcept,providinganexplanationandadeeperunderstandingofits
nature.

Theinterpretationofentropyinstatisticalmechanicsisthemeasureofuncertainty,ormixedupnessinthephraseof
Gibbs,whichremainsaboutasystemafteritsobservablemacroscopicproperties,suchastemperature,pressure
andvolume,havebeentakenintoaccount.Foragivensetofmacroscopicvariables,theentropymeasuresthe
degreetowhichtheprobabilityofthesystemisspreadoutoverdifferentpossiblemicrostates.Incontrasttothe
macrostate,whichcharacterizesplainlyobservableaveragequantities,amicrostatespecifiesallmoleculardetails
aboutthesystemincludingthepositionandvelocityofeverymolecule.Themoresuchstatesavailabletothe
systemwithappreciableprobability,thegreatertheentropy.Instatisticalmechanics,entropyisameasureofthe
numberofwaysinwhichasystemmaybearranged,oftentakentobeameasureof"disorder"(thehigherthe
entropy,thehigherthedisorder).[16][17][18]Thisdefinitiondescribestheentropyasbeingproportionaltothenatural
logarithmofthenumberofpossiblemicroscopicconfigurationsoftheindividualatomsandmoleculesofthe
system(microstates)whichcouldgiverisetotheobservedmacroscopicstate(macrostate)ofthesystem.The
constantofproportionalityistheBoltzmannconstant.

Specifically,entropyisalogarithmicmeasureofthenumberofstateswithsignificantprobabilityofbeing
occupied:

or,equivalently,theexpectedvalueofthelogarithmoftheprobabilitythatamicrostatewillbeoccupied

wherekBistheBoltzmannconstant,equalto1.380 65 1023J/K.Thesummationisoverallthepossible
microstatesofthesystem,andpiistheprobabilitythatthesystemisintheithmicrostate.[19]Thisdefinition
assumesthatthebasissetofstateshasbeenpickedsothatthereisnoinformationontheirrelativephases.Ina
differentbasisset,themoregeneralexpressionis

where isthedensitymatrix, istrace(linearalgebra)and isthematrixlogarithm.Thisdensitymatrix


formulationisnotneededincasesofthermalequilibriumsolongasthebasisstatesarechosentobeenergy
eigenstates.Formostpracticalpurposes,thiscanbetakenasthefundamentaldefinitionofentropysinceallother
formulasforScanbemathematicallyderivedfromit,butnotviceversa.

Inwhathasbeencalledthefundamentalassumptionofstatisticalthermodynamicsorthefundamentalpostulatein
statisticalmechanics,theoccupationofanymicrostateisassumedtobeequallyprobable(i.e.pi=1/,whereis
thenumberofmicrostates)thisassumptionisusuallyjustifiedforanisolatedsysteminequilibrium.[20]Thenthe
previousequationreducesto

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 7/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Inthermodynamics,suchasystemisoneinwhichthevolume,numberofmolecules,andinternalenergyarefixed
(themicrocanonicalensemble).

Themostgeneralinterpretationofentropyisasameasureofouruncertaintyaboutasystem.Theequilibriumstate
ofasystemmaximizestheentropybecausewehavelostallinformationabouttheinitialconditionsexceptforthe
conservedvariablesmaximizingtheentropymaximizesourignoranceaboutthedetailsofthesystem.[21]This
uncertaintyisnotoftheeverydaysubjectivekind,butrathertheuncertaintyinherenttotheexperimentalmethod
andinterpretativemodel.

Theinterpretativemodelhasacentralroleindeterminingentropy.Thequalifier"foragivensetofmacroscopic
variables"abovehasdeepimplications:iftwoobserversusedifferentsetsofmacroscopicvariables,theysee
differententropies.Forexample,ifobserverAusesthevariablesU,VandW,andobserverBusesU,V,W,X,
then,bychangingX,observerBcancauseaneffectthatlookslikeaviolationofthesecondlawof
thermodynamicstoobserverA.Inotherwords:thesetofmacroscopicvariablesonechoosesmustinclude
everythingthatmaychangeintheexperiment,otherwiseonemightseedecreasingentropy![22]

EntropycanbedefinedforanyMarkovprocesseswithreversibledynamicsandthedetailedbalanceproperty.

InBoltzmann's1896LecturesonGasTheory,heshowedthatthisexpressiongivesameasureofentropyfor
systemsofatomsandmoleculesinthegasphase,thusprovidingameasurefortheentropyofclassical
thermodynamics.

Entropyofasystem

Entropyistheabovementionedunexpectedand,tosome,obscureintegral
thatarisesdirectlyfromtheCarnotcycle.Itisreversibleheatdividedby
temperature.Itisalso,remarkably,afundamentalandveryusefulfunction
ofstate.

Inathermodynamicsystem,pressure,density,andtemperaturetendto
becomeuniformovertimebecausethisequilibriumstatehashigher
probability(morepossiblecombinationsofmicrostates)thananyothersee
statisticalmechanics.Asanexample,foraglassoficewaterinairatroom
temperature,thedifferenceintemperaturebetweenawarmroom(the
surroundings)andcoldglassoficeandwater(thesystemandnotpartof
theroom),beginstobeequalizedasportionsofthethermalenergyfrom Athermodynamicsystem
thewarmsurroundingsspreadtothecoolersystemoficeandwater.Over
timethetemperatureoftheglassanditscontentsandthetemperatureofthe
roombecomeequal.Theentropyoftheroomhasdecreasedassomeofitsenergyhasbeendispersedtotheiceand
water.However,ascalculatedintheexample,theentropyofthesystemoficeandwaterhasincreasedmorethan
theentropyofthesurroundingroomhasdecreased.Inanisolatedsystemsuchastheroomandicewatertaken
together,thedispersalofenergyfromwarmertocooleralwaysresultsinanetincreaseinentropy.Thus,whenthe
"universe"oftheroomandicewatersystemhasreachedatemperatureequilibrium,theentropychangefromthe
initialstateisatamaximum.Theentropyofthethermodynamicsystemisameasureofhowfartheequalization
hasprogressed.

Thermodynamicentropyisanonconservedstatefunctionthatisofgreatimportanceinthesciencesofphysicsand
chemistry.[16][23]Historically,theconceptofentropyevolvedtoexplainwhysomeprocesses(permittedby
conservationlaws)occurspontaneouslywhiletheirtimereversals(alsopermittedbyconservationlaws)donot
systemstendtoprogressinthedirectionofincreasingentropy.[24][25]Forisolatedsystems,entropynever
decreases.[23]Thisfacthasseveralimportantconsequencesinscience:first,itprohibits"perpetualmotion"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 8/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

machinesandsecond,itimpliesthearrowofentropyhasthesame
directionasthearrowoftime.Increasesinentropycorrespondto
irreversiblechangesinasystem,becausesomeenergyisexpendedaswaste
heat,limitingtheamountofworkasystemcando.[16][17][26][27]

Unlikemanyotherfunctionsofstate,entropycannotbedirectlyobserved
butmustbecalculated.Entropycanbecalculatedforasubstanceasthe
standardmolarentropyfromabsolutezero(alsoknownasabsolute
entropy)orasadifferenceinentropyfromsomeotherreferencestate
whichisdefinedaszeroentropy.Entropyhasthedimensionofenergy
dividedbytemperature,whichhasaunitofjoulesperkelvin(J/K)inthe
InternationalSystemofUnits.Whilethesearethesameunitsasheat
capacity,thetwoconceptsaredistinct.[28]Entropyisnotaconserved
Atemperatureentropydiagramfor
quantity:forexample,inanisolatedsystemwithnonuniformtemperature, steam.Theverticalaxisrepresents
heatmightirreversiblyflowandthetemperaturebecomemoreuniform uniformtemperature,andthe
suchthatentropyincreases.Thesecondlawofthermodynamicsstatesthat
horizontalaxisrepresentsspecific
aclosedsystemhasentropywhichmayincreaseorotherwiseremain entropy.Eachdarklineonthegraph
constant.Chemicalreactionscausechangesinentropyandentropyplaysan representsconstantpressure,andthese
importantroleindetermininginwhichdirectionachemicalreaction formameshwithlightgraylinesof
spontaneouslyproceeds. constantvolume.(Darkblueisliquid
water,lightblueisliquidsteam
Onedictionarydefinitionofentropyisthatitis"ameasureofthermal
mixture,andfaintblueissteam.
energyperunittemperaturethatisnotavailableforusefulwork".For
Greybluerepresentssupercritical
instance,asubstanceatuniformtemperatureisatmaximumentropyand
liquidwater.)
cannotdriveaheatengine.Asubstanceatnonuniformtemperatureisata
lowerentropy(thaniftheheatdistributionisallowedtoevenout)and
someofthethermalenergycandriveaheatengine.

Aspecialcaseofentropyincrease,theentropyofmixing,occurswhentwoormoredifferentsubstancesaremixed.
Ifthesubstancesareatthesametemperatureandpressure,thereisnonetexchangeofheatorworktheentropy
changeisentirelyduetothemixingofthedifferentsubstances.Atastatisticalmechanicallevel,thisresultsdueto
thechangeinavailablevolumeperparticlewithmixing.[29]

Secondlawofthermodynamics
Thesecondlawofthermodynamicsrequiresthat,ingeneral,thetotalentropyofanysystemcan'tdecreaseother
thanbyincreasingtheentropyofsomeothersystem.Hence,inasystemisolatedfromitsenvironment,theentropy
ofthatsystemtendsnottodecrease.Itfollowsthatheatcan'tflowfromacolderbodytoahotterbodywithoutthe
applicationofwork(theimpositionoforder)tothecolderbody.Secondly,itisimpossibleforanydeviceoperating
onacycletoproducenetworkfromasingletemperaturereservoirtheproductionofnetworkrequiresflowof
heatfromahotterreservoirtoacolderreservoir,orasingleexpandingreservoirundergoingadiabaticcooling,
whichperformsadiabaticwork.Asaresult,thereisnopossibilityofaperpetualmotionsystem.Itfollowsthata
reductionintheincreaseofentropyinaspecifiedprocess,suchasachemicalreaction,meansthatitis
energeticallymoreefficient.

Itfollowsfromthesecondlawofthermodynamicsthattheentropyofasystemthatisnotisolatedmaydecrease.
Anairconditioner,forexample,maycooltheairinaroom,thusreducingtheentropyoftheairofthatsystem.The
heatexpelledfromtheroom(thesystem),whichtheairconditionertransportsanddischargestotheoutsideair,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 9/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

alwaysmakesabiggercontributiontotheentropyoftheenvironmentthanthedecreaseoftheentropyoftheairof
thatsystem.Thus,thetotalofentropyoftheroomplustheentropyoftheenvironmentincreases,inagreement
withthesecondlawofthermodynamics.

Inmechanics,thesecondlawinconjunctionwiththefundamentalthermodynamicrelationplaceslimitsona
system'sabilitytodousefulwork.[30]TheentropychangeofasystemattemperatureTabsorbinganinfinitesimal
amountofheatqinareversibleway,isgivenbyq/T.Moreexplicitly,anenergyTRSisnotavailabletodo
usefulwork,whereTRisthetemperatureofthecoldestaccessiblereservoirorheatsinkexternaltothesystem.For
furtherdiscussion,seeExergy.

Statisticalmechanicsdemonstratesthatentropyisgovernedbyprobability,thusallowingforadecreaseindisorder
eveninanisolatedsystem.Althoughthisispossible,suchaneventhasasmallprobabilityofoccurring,makingit
unlikely.[31]

Theapplicabilityofasecondlawofthermodynamicsisalimitedtosystemswhicharenearorinequilibrium
state.[32]Atthesametime,lawsgoverningsystemswhicharefarfromequilibriumarestilldebatable.Oneofthe
guidingprinciplesforsuchsystemsisthemaximumentropyproductionprinciple.[33][34]Itclaimsthatanon
equilibriumsystemsevolvessuchastomaximizeitsentropyproduction.[35][36]

Applications
Thefundamentalthermodynamicrelation

Theentropyofasystemdependsonitsinternalenergyanditsexternalparameters,suchasitsvolume.Inthe
thermodynamiclimit,thisfactleadstoanequationrelatingthechangeintheinternalenergyUtochangesinthe
entropyandtheexternalparameters.Thisrelationisknownasthefundamentalthermodynamicrelation.Ifexternal
pressurePbearsonthevolumeVastheonlyexternalparameter,thisrelationis:

SincebothinternalenergyandentropyaremonotonicfunctionsoftemperatureT,implyingthattheinternalenergy
isfixedwhenonespecifiestheentropyandthevolume,thisrelationisvalidevenifthechangefromonestateof
thermalequilibriumtoanotherwithinfinitesimallylargerentropyandvolumehappensinanonquasistaticway(so
duringthischangethesystemmaybeveryfaroutofthermalequilibriumandthentheentropy,pressureand
temperaturemaynotexist).

Thefundamentalthermodynamicrelationimpliesmanythermodynamicidentitiesthatarevalidingeneral,
independentofthemicroscopicdetailsofthesystem.ImportantexamplesaretheMaxwellrelationsandthe
relationsbetweenheatcapacities.

Entropyinchemicalthermodynamics

Thermodynamicentropyiscentralinchemicalthermodynamics,enablingchangestobequantifiedandthe
outcomeofreactionspredicted.Thesecondlawofthermodynamicsstatesthatentropyinanisolatedsystemthe
combinationofasubsystemunderstudyanditssurroundingsincreasesduringallspontaneouschemicaland
physicalprocesses.TheClausiusequationofqrev/T=Sintroducesthemeasurementofentropychange,S.
Entropychangedescribesthedirectionandquantifiesthemagnitudeofsimplechangessuchasheattransfer
betweensystemsalwaysfromhottertocoolerspontaneously.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 10/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Thethermodynamicentropythereforehasthedimensionofenergydividedbytemperature,andtheunitjouleper
kelvin(J/K)intheInternationalSystemofUnits(SI).

Thermodynamicentropyisanextensiveproperty,meaningthatitscaleswiththesizeorextentofasystem.In
manyprocessesitisusefultospecifytheentropyasanintensivepropertyindependentofthesize,asaspecific
entropycharacteristicofthetypeofsystemstudied.Specificentropymaybeexpressedrelativetoaunitofmass,
typicallythekilogram(unit:J kg1 K1).Alternatively,inchemistry,itisalsoreferredtoonemoleofsubstance,in
whichcaseitiscalledthemolarentropywithaunitofJ mol1 K1.

Thus,whenonemoleofsubstanceatabout0 Kiswarmedbyitssurroundingsto298 K,thesumofthe


incrementalvaluesofqrev/Tconstituteeachelement'sorcompound'sstandardmolarentropy,anindicatorofthe
amountofenergystoredbyasubstanceat298 K.[37][38]Entropychangealsomeasuresthemixingofsubstancesas
asummationoftheirrelativequantitiesinthefinalmixture.[39]

Entropyisequallyessentialinpredictingtheextentanddirectionofcomplexchemicalreactions.Forsuch
applications,Smustbeincorporatedinanexpressionthatincludesboththesystemanditssurroundings,
Suniverse=Ssurroundings+Ssystem.Thisexpressionbecomes,viasomesteps,theGibbsfreeenergyequationfor
reactantsandproductsinthesystem:G[theGibbsfreeenergychangeofthesystem]=H[theenthalpychange]
TS[theentropychange].[37]

Entropybalanceequationforopensystems

Inchemicalengineering,theprinciplesofthermodynamicsare
commonlyappliedto"opensystems",i.e.thoseinwhichheat,
work,andmassflowacrossthesystemboundary.Flowsof
bothheat( )andwork,i.e. (shaftwork)andP(dV/dt)
(pressurevolumework),acrossthesystemboundaries,in
generalcausechangesintheentropyofthesystem.Transferas
heatentailsentropytransfer whereTistheabsolute
thermodynamictemperatureofthesystematthepointofthe
heatflow.Iftherearemassflowsacrossthesystem
boundaries,theyalsoinfluencethetotalentropyofthesystem.
Thisaccount,intermsofheatandwork,isvalidonlyforcases
inwhichtheworkandheattransfersarebypathsphysically Duringsteadystatecontinuousoperation,an
distinctfromthepathsofentryandexitofmatterfromthe entropybalanceappliedtoanopensystemaccounts
system.[40][41] forsystementropychangesrelatedtoheatflowand
massflowacrossthesystemboundary.
Toderiveageneralizedentropybalancedequation,westart
withthegeneralbalanceequationforthechangeinany
extensivequantityinathermodynamicsystem,aquantitythatmaybeeitherconserved,suchasenergy,ornon
conserved,suchasentropy.Thebasicgenericbalanceexpressionstatesthatd/dt,i.e.therateofchangeofin
thesystem,equalstherateatwhichentersthesystemattheboundaries,minustherateatwhichleavesthe
systemacrossthesystemboundaries,plustherateatwhichisgeneratedwithinthesystem.Foranopen
thermodynamicsysteminwhichheatandworkaretransferredbypathsseparatefromthepathsfortransferof
matter,usingthisgenericbalanceequation,withrespecttotherateofchangewithtimetoftheextensivequantity
entropyS,theentropybalanceequationis:[42][note2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 11/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

where

=thenetrateofentropyflowduetotheflowsofmassintoandoutofthesystem(where =

entropyperunitmass).

=therateofentropyflowduetotheflowofheatacrossthesystemboundary.
=therateofentropyproductionwithinthesystem.Thisentropyproductionarisesfromprocesses
withinthesystem,includingchemicalreactions,internalmatterdiffusion,internalheattransfer,and
frictionaleffectssuchasviscosityoccurringwithinthesystemfrommechanicalworktransfertoorfromthe
system.

Note,also,thatiftherearemultipleheatflows,theterm isreplacedby where istheheatflow


and isthetemperatureatthejthheatflowportintothesystem.

Entropychangeformulasforsimpleprocesses
Forcertainsimpletransformationsinsystemsofconstantcomposition,theentropychangesaregivenbysimple
formulas.[43]

Isothermalexpansionorcompressionofanidealgas

Fortheexpansion(orcompression)ofanidealgasfromaninitialvolume andpressure toafinalvolume


andpressure atanyconstanttemperature,thechangeinentropyisgivenby:

Here isthenumberofmolesofgasand istheidealgasconstant.Theseequationsalsoapplyforexpansion


intoafinitevacuumorathrottlingprocess,wherethetemperature,internalenergyandenthalpyforanidealgas
remainconstant.

Coolingandheating

Forheatingorcoolingofanysystem(gas,liquidorsolid)atconstantpressurefromaninitialtemperature toa
finaltemperature ,theentropychangeis

providedthattheconstantpressuremolarheatcapacity(orspecificheat)CPisconstantandthatnophase
transitionoccursinthistemperatureinterval.

Similarlyatconstantvolume,theentropychangeis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 12/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

wheretheconstantvolumeheatcapacityCvisconstantandthereisnophasechange.

Atlowtemperaturesnearabsolutezero,heatcapacitiesofsolidsquicklydropofftonearzero,sotheassumptionof
constantheatcapacitydoesnotapply.[44]

Sinceentropyisastatefunction,theentropychangeofanyprocessinwhichtemperatureandvolumebothvaryis
thesameasforapathdividedintotwostepsheatingatconstantvolumeandexpansionatconstanttemperature.
Foranidealgas,thetotalentropychangeis[45]

Similarlyifthetemperatureandpressureofanidealgasbothvary,

Phasetransitions

Reversiblephasetransitionsoccuratconstanttemperatureandpressure.Thereversibleheatistheenthalpychange
forthetransition,andtheentropychangeistheenthalpychangedividedbythethermodynamictemperature.For
fusion(melting)ofasolidtoaliquidatthemeltingpointTm,theentropyoffusionis

Similarly,forvaporizationofaliquidtoagasattheboilingpointTb,theentropyofvaporizationis

Approachestounderstandingentropy
Asafundamentalaspectofthermodynamicsandphysics,severaldifferentapproachestoentropybeyondthatof
ClausiusandBoltzmannarevalid.

Standardtextbookdefinitions

Thefollowingisalistofadditionaldefinitionsofentropyfromacollectionoftextbooks:

ameasureofenergydispersalataspecifictemperature.
ameasureofdisorderintheuniverseoroftheavailabilityoftheenergyinasystemtodowork.[46]
ameasureofasystem'sthermalenergyperunittemperaturethatisunavailablefordoingusefulwork.[47]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 13/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

InBoltzmann'sdefinition,entropyisameasureofthenumberofpossiblemicroscopicstates(ormicrostates)ofa
systeminthermodynamicequilibrium.ConsistentwiththeBoltzmanndefinition,thesecondlawof
thermodynamicsneedstoberewordedassuchthatentropyincreasesovertime,thoughtheunderlyingprinciple
remainsthesame.

Orderanddisorder

Entropyhasoftenbeenlooselyassociatedwiththeamountoforderordisorder,orofchaos,inathermodynamic
system.Thetraditionalqualitativedescriptionofentropyisthatitreferstochangesinthestatusquoofthesystem
andisameasureof"moleculardisorder"andtheamountofwastedenergyinadynamicalenergytransformation
fromonestateorformtoanother.Inthisdirection,severalrecentauthorshavederivedexactentropyformulasto
accountforandmeasuredisorderandorderinatomicandmolecularassemblies.[48][49][50]Oneofthesimpler
entropyorder/disorderformulasisthatderivedin1984bythermodynamicphysicistPeterLandsberg,basedona
combinationofthermodynamicsandinformationtheoryarguments.Hearguesthatwhenconstraintsoperateona
system,suchthatitispreventedfromenteringoneormoreofitspossibleorpermittedstates,ascontrastedwithits
forbiddenstates,themeasureofthetotalamountof"disorder"inthesystemisgivenby:[49][50]

Similarly,thetotalamountof"order"inthesystemisgivenby:

InwhichCDisthe"disorder"capacityofthesystem,whichistheentropyofthepartscontainedinthepermitted
ensemble,CIisthe"information"capacityofthesystem,anexpressionsimilartoShannon'schannelcapacity,and
COisthe"order"capacityofthesystem.[48]

Energydispersal

Theconceptofentropycanbedescribedqualitativelyasameasureofenergydispersalataspecific
temperature.[51]Similartermshavebeeninusefromearlyinthehistoryofclassicalthermodynamics,andwiththe
developmentofstatisticalthermodynamicsandquantumtheory,entropychangeshavebeendescribedintermsof
themixingor"spreading"ofthetotalenergyofeachconstituentofasystemoveritsparticularquantizedenergy
levels.

Ambiguitiesinthetermsdisorderandchaos,whichusuallyhavemeaningsdirectlyopposedtoequilibrium,
contributetowidespreadconfusionandhampercomprehensionofentropyformoststudents.[52]Asthesecondlaw
ofthermodynamicsshows,inanisolatedsysteminternalportionsatdifferenttemperaturestendtoadjusttoa
singleuniformtemperatureandthusproduceequilibrium.Arecentlydevelopededucationalapproachavoids
ambiguoustermsanddescribessuchspreadingoutofenergyasdispersal,whichleadstolossofthedifferentials
requiredforworkeventhoughthetotalenergyremainsconstantinaccordancewiththefirstlawof
thermodynamics[53](comparediscussioninnextsection).PhysicalchemistPeterAtkins,forexample,who
previouslywroteofdispersalleadingtoadisorderedstate,nowwritesthat"spontaneouschangesarealways
accompaniedbyadispersalofenergy".[54]

Relatingentropytoenergyusefulness

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 14/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Followingonfromtheabove,itispossible(inathermalcontext)toregardentropyasanindicatorormeasureof
theeffectivenessorusefulnessofaparticularquantityofenergy.[55]Thisisbecauseenergysuppliedatahigh
temperature(i.e.withlowentropy)tendstobemoreusefulthanthesameamountofenergyavailableatroom
temperature.Mixingahotparcelofafluidwithacoldoneproducesaparcelofintermediatetemperature,inwhich
theoverallincreaseinentropyrepresentsa"loss"whichcanneverbereplaced.

Thus,thefactthattheentropyoftheuniverseissteadilyincreasing,meansthatitstotalenergyisbecomingless
useful:eventually,thiswillleadtothe"heatdeathoftheUniverse".[56]

Entropyandadiabaticaccessibility

Adefinitionofentropybasedentirelyontherelationofadiabaticaccessibilitybetweenequilibriumstateswas
givenbyE.H.LiebandJ.Yngvasonin1999.[57]Thisapproachhasseveralpredecessors,includingthepioneering
workofConstantinCarathodoryfrom1909[58]andthemonographbyR.Giles.[59]InthesettingofLieband
Yngvasononestartsbypicking,foraunitamountofthesubstanceunderconsideration,tworeferencestates
and suchthatthelatterisadiabaticallyaccessiblefromtheformerbutnotviceversa.Definingtheentropiesof
thereferencestatestobe0and1respectivelytheentropyofastate isdefinedasthelargestnumber suchthat
isadiabaticallyaccessiblefromacompositestateconsistingofanamount inthestate anda
complementaryamount, ,inthestate .Asimplebutimportantresultwithinthissettingisthatentropy
isuniquelydetermined,apartfromachoiceofunitandanadditiveconstantforeachchemicalelement,bythe
followingproperties:Itismonotonicwithrespecttotherelationofadiabaticaccessibility,additiveoncomposite
systems,andextensiveunderscaling.

Entropyinquantummechanics

Inquantumstatisticalmechanics,theconceptofentropywasdevelopedbyJohnvonNeumannandisgenerally
referredtoas"vonNeumannentropy",

whereisthedensitymatrixandTristhetraceoperator.

Thisupholdsthecorrespondenceprinciple,becauseintheclassicallimit,whenthephasesbetweenthebasisstates
usedfortheclassicalprobabilitiesarepurelyrandom,thisexpressionisequivalenttothefamiliarclassical
definitionofentropy,

i.e.insuchabasisthedensitymatrixisdiagonal.

VonNeumannestablishedarigorousmathematicalframeworkforquantummechanicswithhiswork
MathematischeGrundlagenderQuantenmechanik.Heprovidedinthisworkatheoryofmeasurement,wherethe
usualnotionofwavefunctioncollapseisdescribedasanirreversibleprocess(thesocalledvonNeumannor
projectivemeasurement).Usingthisconcept,inconjunctionwiththedensitymatrixheextendedtheclassical
conceptofentropyintothequantumdomain.

Informationtheory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 15/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Whenviewedintermsofinformation
theory,theentropystatefunctionissimply Ithoughtofcallingit"information",butthewordwasoverlyused,soI
theamountofinformation(intheShannon decidedtocallit"uncertainty".[...]VonNeumanntoldme,"Youshould
sense)thatwouldbeneededtospecifythe callitentropy,fortworeasons.Inthefirstplaceyouruncertaintyfunction
fullmicrostateofthesystem.Thisisleft hasbeenusedinstatisticalmechanicsunderthatname,soitalreadyhasa
unspecifiedbythemacroscopicdescription. name.Inthesecondplace,andmoreimportant,nobodyknowswhat
entropyreallyis,soinadebateyouwillalwayshavetheadvantage."
Ininformationtheory,entropyisthe ConversationbetweenClaudeShannonandJohnvonNeumannregarding
measureoftheamountofinformationthat whatnametogivetotheattenuationinphonelinesignals[60]
ismissingbeforereceptionandis
sometimesreferredtoasShannon
entropy.[61]Shannonentropyisabroadandgeneralconceptwhichfindsapplicationsininformationtheoryaswell
asthermodynamics.ItwasoriginallydevisedbyClaudeShannonin1948tostudytheamountofinformationina
transmittedmessage.Thedefinitionoftheinformationentropyis,however,quitegeneral,andisexpressedin
termsofadiscretesetofprobabilitiespisothat

Inthecaseoftransmittedmessages,theseprobabilitiesweretheprobabilitiesthataparticularmessagewas
actuallytransmitted,andtheentropyofthemessagesystemwasameasureoftheaverageamountofinformationin
amessage.Forthecaseofequalprobabilities(i.e.eachmessageisequallyprobable),theShannonentropy(inbits)
isjustthenumberofyes/noquestionsneededtodeterminethecontentofthemessage.[19]

Thequestionofthelinkbetweeninformationentropyandthermodynamicentropyisadebatedtopic.Whilemost
authorsarguethatthereisalinkbetweenthetwo,[62][63][64][65][66]afewarguethattheyhavenothingtodowith
eachother.[19]

Theexpressionsforthetwoentropiesaresimilar.IfWisthenumberofmicrostatesthatcanyieldagiven
macrostate,andeachmicrostatehasthesameaprioriprobability,thenthatprobabilityisp=1/W.TheShannon
entropy(innats)is:

andifentropyismeasuredinunitsofkpernat,thentheentropyisgiven[67]by:

whichisthefamousBoltzmannentropyformulawhenkisBoltzmann'sconstant,whichmaybeinterpretedasthe
thermodynamicentropypernat.Therearemanywaysofdemonstratingtheequivalenceof"informationentropy"
and"physicsentropy",thatis,theequivalenceof"Shannonentropy"and"Boltzmannentropy".Nevertheless,some
authorsarguefordroppingthewordentropyfortheHfunctionofinformationtheoryandusingShannon'sother
term"uncertainty"instead.[68]

Interdisciplinaryapplicationsofentropy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 16/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Althoughtheconceptofentropywasoriginallyathermodynamicconstruct,ithasbeenadaptedinotherfieldsof
study,includinginformationtheory,psychodynamics,thermoeconomics/ecologicaleconomics,and
evolution.[69][70][71][72][73]Forinstance,anentropicargumenthasbeenrecentlyproposedforexplainingthe
preferenceofcavespidersinchoosingasuitableareaforlayingtheireggs.[74]

Thermodynamicandstatisticalmechanicsconcepts
EntropyunitanonS.I.unitofthermodynamicentropy,usuallydenoted"e.u."andequaltoonecalorieper
Kelvinpermole,or4.184JoulesperKelvinpermole.[75]
Gibbsentropytheusualstatisticalmechanicalentropyofathermodynamicsystem.
BoltzmannentropyatypeofGibbsentropy,whichneglectsinternalstatisticalcorrelationsintheoverall
particledistribution.
TsallisentropyageneralizationofthestandardBoltzmannGibbsentropy.
Standardmolarentropyistheentropycontentofonemoleofsubstance,underconditionsofstandard
temperatureandpressure.
Residualentropytheentropypresentafterasubstanceiscooledarbitrarilyclosetoabsolutezero.
Entropyofmixingthechangeintheentropywhentwodifferentchemicalsubstancesorcomponentsare
mixed.
Loopentropyistheentropylostuponbringingtogethertworesiduesofapolymerwithinaprescribed
distance.
Conformationalentropyistheentropyassociatedwiththephysicalarrangementofapolymerchainthat
assumesacompactorglobularstateinsolution.
Entropicforceamicroscopicforceorreactiontendencyrelatedtosystemorganizationchanges,molecular
frictionalconsiderations,andstatisticalvariations.
Freeentropyanentropicthermodynamicpotentialanalogoustothefreeenergy.
Entropicexplosionanexplosioninwhichthereactantsundergoalargechangeinvolumewithoutreleasing
alargeamountofheat.
EntropychangeachangeinentropydSbetweentwoequilibriumstatesisgivenbytheheattransferred
dQrevdividedbytheabsolutetemperatureTofthesysteminthisinterval.
SackurTetrodeentropytheentropyofamonatomicclassicalidealgasdeterminedviaquantum
considerations.

Thearrowoftime

Entropyistheonlyquantityinthephysicalsciencesthatseemstoimplyaparticulardirectionofprogress,
sometimescalledanarrowoftime.Astimeprogresses,thesecondlawofthermodynamicsstatesthattheentropy
ofanisolatedsystemneverdecreases.Hence,fromthisperspective,entropymeasurementisthoughtofasakind
ofclock.

Cosmology

Sinceafiniteuniverseisanisolatedsystem,theSecondLawofThermodynamicsstatesthatitstotalentropyis
constantlyincreasing.Ithasbeenspeculated,sincethe19thcentury,thattheuniverseisfatedtoaheatdeathin
whichalltheenergyendsupasahomogeneousdistributionofthermalenergy,sothatnomoreworkcanbe
extractedfromanysource.

Iftheuniversecanbeconsideredtohavegenerallyincreasingentropy,thenasRogerPenrosehaspointedout
gravityplaysanimportantroleintheincreasebecausegravitycausesdispersedmattertoaccumulateintostars,
whichcollapseeventuallyintoblackholes.Theentropyofablackholeisproportionaltothesurfaceareaofthe
blackhole'seventhorizon.[76]JacobBekensteinandStephenHawkinghaveshownthatblackholeshavethe
maximumpossibleentropyofanyobjectofequalsize.Thismakesthemlikelyendpointsofallentropyincreasing
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 17/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

processes,iftheyaretotallyeffectivematterandenergytraps.However,theescapeofenergyfromblackholes
mightbepossibleduetoquantumactivity,seeHawkingradiation.In2014Hawkingchangedhisstanceonsome
details,inapaperwhichlargelyredefinedtheeventhorizonsofblackholes,positingthatblackholesdonot
exist.[77]

TheroleofentropyincosmologyremainsacontroversialsubjectsincethetimeofLudwigBoltzmann.Recent
workhascastsomedoubtontheheatdeathhypothesisandtheapplicabilityofanysimplethermodynamicmodel
totheuniverseingeneral.Althoughentropydoesincreaseinthemodelofanexpandinguniverse,themaximum
possibleentropyrisesmuchmorerapidly,movingtheuniversefurtherfromtheheatdeathwithtime,not
closer.[78][79][80]Thisresultsinan"entropygap"pushingthesystemfurtherawayfromthepositedheatdeath
equilibrium.[81]Othercomplicatingfactors,suchastheenergydensityofthevacuumandmacroscopicquantum
effects,aredifficulttoreconcilewiththermodynamicalmodels,makinganypredictionsoflargescale
thermodynamicsextremelydifficult.[82]

Theentropygapiswidelybelievedtohavebeenoriginallyopenedupbytheearlyrapidexponentialexpansionof
theuniverse.

Economics

RomanianAmericaneconomistNicholasGeorgescuRoegen,aprogenitorineconomicsandaparadigmfounderof
ecologicaleconomics,madeextensiveuseoftheentropyconceptinhismagnumopusonTheEntropyLawandthe
EconomicProcess.[83]DuetoGeorgescuRoegen'swork,thelawsofthermodynamicsnowformanintegralpartof
theecologicaleconomicsschool.[84]:204f[85]:2935Althoughhisworkwasblemishedsomewhatbymistakes,afull
chapterontheeconomicsofGeorgescuRoegenhasapprovinglybeenincludedinoneelementaryphysicstextbook
onthehistoricaldevelopmentofthermodynamics.[86]:95112

Ineconomics,GeorgescuRoegen'sworkhasgeneratedtheterm'entropypessimism'.[87]:116Sincethe1990s,
leadingecologicaleconomistandsteadystatetheoristHermanDalyastudentofGeorgescuRoegenhas
beentheeconomicsprofession'smostinfluentialproponentoftheentropypessimismposition.[88]:545f

Seealso
Autocatalyticreactionsandordercreation Harmonicentropy
Brownianratchet Heatdeathoftheuniverse
ClausiusDuheminequality Lawsofthermodynamics
Configurationentropy Multiplicityfunction
Departurefunction Negentropy(negativeentropy)
Enthalpy Ordersofmagnitude(entropy)
Entropicforce Principleofmaximumentropy
Entropicvalueatrisk Stirling'sformula
Entropy(informationtheory) Thermodynamicdatabasesforpuresubstances
Entropy(computing) Thermodynamicpotential
Entropyandlife Thermodynamicequilibrium
Entropy(orderanddisorder) Waveletentropy
Entropyrate Phasespace
Entropyproduction
Geometricalfrustration

Notes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 18/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

1.Amachineinthiscontextincludesengineereddevicesaswellasbiologicalorganisms.
2.Theoverdotsrepresentderivativesofthequantitieswithrespecttotime.

References
1."Carnot,Sadi(17961832)"(http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/CarnotSadi.html).WolframResearch.2007.
Retrieved20100224.
2.McCulloch,Richard,S.(1876).TreatiseontheMechanicalTheoryofHeatanditsApplicationstotheSteamEngine,etc.
D.VanNostrand.
3.Clausius,Rudolf(1850).OntheMotivePowerofHeat,andontheLawswhichcanbededucedfromitfortheTheoryof
Heat.Poggendorff'sAnnalenderPhysick,LXXIX(DoverReprint).ISBN0486590658.
4.ThescientificpapersofJ.WillardGibbsinTwoVolumes(https://archive.org/stream/scientificpapers01gibbuoft#page/11/
mode/1up).1.Longmans,Green,andCo.1906.p.11.Retrieved20110226.
5.J.A.McGovern,"2.5Entropy"(https://web.archive.org/web/20120923080936/http://theory.phy.umist.ac.uk/~judith/stat_t
herm/node29.html).Archivedfromtheoriginal(http://theory.phy.umist.ac.uk/~judith/stat_therm/node29.html)on2012
0923.Retrieved20130205.
6."6.5Irreversibility,EntropyChanges,and``LostWork"(http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/FALL/thermodynamics/note
s/node48.html).web.mit.edu.Retrieved21May2016.
7.Lower,Stephen."Whatisentropy?"(http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/thermeq/TE2.html).www.chem1.com.
Retrieved21May2016.
8.Lavenda,BernardH.(2010)."2.3.4".Anewperspectiveonthermodynamics(OnlineAusg.ed.).NewYork:Springer.
ISBN9781441914309.
9.Carnot,SadiCarnot(1986).Fox,Robert,ed.Reflexionsonthemotivepoweroffire.NewYork,NY:LilianBarberPress.
p.26.ISBN9780936508160.
10.Truesdell,C.(1980).Thetragicomicalhistoryofthermodynamics18221854.NewYork:Springer.pp.7885.
ISBN9780387904030.
11.ClerkMaxwel,James(2001).Pesic,Peter,ed.Theoryofheat.Mineola:DoverPublications.pp.115158.ISBN9780
486417356.
12.RudolfClausius(1867).TheMechanicalTheoryofHeat:WithItsApplicationstotheSteamengineandtothePhysical
PropertiesofBodies(https://books.google.com/books?id=8LIEAAAAYAAJ).J.VanVoorst.p.28.ISBN97814981
67338.
13.Clausius,Rudolf(1865).UeberverschiedenefrdieAnwendungbequemeFormenderHauptgleichungender
mechanischenWrmetheorie:vorgetragenindernaturforsch.Gesellschaftden24.April1865.p.46.
14.Atkins,PeterJulioDePaula(2006).PhysicalChemistry,8thed.OxfordUniversityPress.p.79.ISBN0198700725.
15.Engel,ThomasPhilipReid(2006).PhysicalChemistry.PearsonBenjaminCummings.p.86.ISBN080533842X.
16.Licker,MarkD.(2004).McGrawHillconciseencyclopediaofchemistry.NewYork:McGrawHillProfessional.
ISBN9780071439534.
17.Sethna,JamesP.(2006).Statisticalmechanics:entropy,orderparameters,andcomplexity.([OnlineAusg.].ed.).
Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.p.78.ISBN9780198566779.
18.Clark,JohnO.E.(2004).Theessentialdictionaryofscience.NewYork:Barnes&Noble.ISBN9780760746165.
19.Frigg,R.andWerndl,C."EntropyAGuideforthePerplexed"(http://charlottewerndl.net/Entropy_Guide.pdf).In
ProbabilitiesinPhysicsBeisbartC.andHartmann,S.EdsOxfordUniversityPress,Oxford,2010
20.Schroeder,DanielV.(2000).Anintroductiontothermalphysics([Nachdr.]ed.).SanFrancisco,CA[u.a.]:Addison
Wesley.p.57.ISBN9780201380279.
21."EntropyOrderParametersComplexity.pdfwww.physics.cornell.edu"(http://www.physics.cornell.edu/sethna/StatMech/Ent
ropyOrderParametersComplexity.pdf)(PDF).Retrieved20120817.
22."Jaynes,E.T.,"TheGibbsParadox,"InMaximumEntropyandBayesianMethodsSmith,C.RErickson,G.J
Neudorfer,P.O.,EdsKluwerAcademic:Dordrecht,1992,pp.122"(http://www.mdpi.org/lin/entropy/cgibbs.pdf)
(PDF).Retrieved20120817.
23.Sandler,StanleyI.(2006).Chemical,biochemical,andengineeringthermodynamics(4thed.).NewYork:JohnWiley&
Sons.p.91.ISBN9780471661740.
24.Simon,DonaldA.McQuarrieJohnD.(1997).Physicalchemistry:amolecularapproach(Rev.ed.).Sausalito,Calif.:
Univ.ScienceBooks.p.817.ISBN9780935702996.
25.Haynie,Donald,T.(2001).BiologicalThermodynamics.CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521791650.
26.Daintith,John(2005).Adictionaryofscience(5thed.).Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN9780192806413.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 19/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

27.deRosnay,Joel(1979).TheMacroscopeaNewWorldView(writtenbyanM.I.T.trainedbiochemist).Harper&Row,
Publishers.ISBN0060110295.
28.J.A.McGovern,"HeatCapacities"(https://web.archive.org/web/20120819175243/http://theory.phy.umist.ac.uk/~judith/sta
t_therm/node50.html).Archivedfromtheoriginalon20120819.Retrieved20130127.
29.BenNaim,Arieh(21September2007)."OntheSoCalledGibbsParadox,andontheRealParadox"(http://www.mdpi.or
g/entropy/papers/e9030132.pdf)(PDF).Entropy.9(3):132136.doi:10.3390/e9030133(https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fe903
0133).
30.Daintith,John(2005).OxfordDictionaryofPhysics.OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN0192806289.
31.Saha,ArnabLahiri,SourabhJayannavar,A.M.(2009)."Entropyproductiontheoremsandsomeconsequences".
PhysicalReviewE.80:110.doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.80.011117(https://doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevE.80.011117).
32.Martyushev,L.M.Seleznev,V.D.(2014)."Therestrictionsofthemaximumentropyproductionprinciple".PhysicaA:
StatisticalMechanicsanditsApplications.410:1721.doi:10.1016/j.physa.2014.05.014(https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ph
ysa.2014.05.014).
33.Ziegler,H.(1983).AnIntroductiontoThermomechanics.NorthHolland,Amsterdam.
34.Onsager,Lars."ReciprocalRelationsinIrreversibleProcesses".Phys.Rev.37.405:1931.doi:10.1103/PhysRev.37.405
(https://doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRev.37.405).
35.Kleidon,A.et.,al.(2005).NonequilibriumThermodynamicsandtheProductionofEntropy.Heidelberg:Springer.
36.Belkin,Andreyet.,al.(2015)."Selfassembledwigglingnanostructuresandtheprincipleofmaximumentropy
production".ScientificReports5.5.doi:10.1038/srep08323(https://doi.org/10.1038%2Fsrep08323).
37.Moore,J.W.C.L.StanistskiP.C.Jurs(2005).Chemistry,TheMolecularScience.BrooksCole.ISBN053442201
2.
38.Jungermann,A.H.(2006)."EntropyandtheShelfModel:AQuantumPhysicalApproachtoaPhysicalProperty".
JournalofChemicalEducation.83(11):16861694.Bibcode:2006JChEd..83.1686J(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006J
ChEd..83.1686J).doi:10.1021/ed083p1686(https://doi.org/10.1021%2Fed083p1686).
39.Levine,I.N.(2002).PhysicalChemistry,5thed.McGrawHill.ISBN0072318082.
40.LateNobelLaureateMaxBorn(8August2015).NaturalPhilosophyofCauseandChance(https://books.google.com/bo
oks?id=er85jgEACAAJ).BiblioLife.pp.44,146147.ISBN9781298497406.
41.Haase,R.(1971).Thermodynamics.NewYork:AcademicPress.pp.197.ISBN0122456017.
42.Sandler,Stanley,I.(1989).ChemicalandEngineeringThermodynamics.JohnWiley&Sons.ISBN047183050X.
43."GRC.nasa.gov"(http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k12/Numbers/Math/Mathematical_Thinking/ideal_gases_under_const
ant.htm).GRC.nasa.gov.20000327.Retrieved20120817.
44.Franzen,Stefan."ThirdLaw."(http://www4.ncsu.edu/~franzen/public_html/CH433/lecture/Third_Law.pdf)(PDF).
ncsu.ed.
45."GRC.nasa.gov"(http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/entropy.html).GRC.nasa.gov.20080711.Retrieved
20120817.
46.Gribbin,John(1999).Gribbin,Mary,ed.Qisforquantum:anencyclopediaofparticlephysics.NewYork:FreePress.
ISBN068485578X.
47."Entropy:DefinitionandEquation"(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/189035/entropy).Encyclopdia
Britannica.Retrieved22May2016.
48.Brooks,DanielR.Wiley,E.O.(1988).Evolutionasentropy:towardaunifiedtheoryofbiology(2nded.).Chicago
[etc.]:UniversityofChicagoPress.ISBN0226075745.
49.Landsberg,P.T.(1984)."IsEquilibriumalwaysanEntropyMaximum?".J.Stat.Physics.35:159169.
Bibcode:1984JSP....35..159L(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JSP....35..159L).doi:10.1007/bf01017372(https://doi.or
g/10.1007%2Fbf01017372).
50.Landsberg,P.T.(1984)."CanEntropyand"Order"IncreaseTogether?".PhysicsLetters.102A(4):171173.
Bibcode:1984PhLA..102..171L(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhLA..102..171L).doi:10.1016/03759601(84)90934
4(https://doi.org/10.1016%2F03759601%2884%29909344).
51.Lambert,FrankL."AStudent'sApproachtotheSecondLawandEntropy"(https://web.archive.org/web/2009071717533
1/http://entropysite.oxy.edu/students_approach.html).entropysite.oxy.edu.Archivedfromtheoriginal(http://entropysite.o
xy.edu/students_approach.html)on17July2009.Retrieved22May2016.
52.Watson,J.R.Carson,E.M.(May2002)."UndergraduatestudentsunderstandingsofentropyandGibbsfreeenergy."(ht
tp://www.rsc.org/images/Vol_6_No1_tcm187042.pdf)(PDF).UniversityChemistryEducation.6(1):4.ISSN13695614
(https://www.worldcat.org/issn/13695614).
53.Lambert,FrankL.(February2002)."DisorderACrackedCrutchforSupportingEntropyDiscussions".Journalof
ChemicalEducation.79(2):187.doi:10.1021/ed079p187(https://doi.org/10.1021%2Fed079p187).
54.Atkins,Peter(1984).TheSecondLaw.ScientificAmericanLibrary.ISBN071675004X.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 20/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

55.SandraSaary(HeadofScience,LatifaGirlsSchool,Dubai)(23February1993)."BookReviewof"AScience
Miscellany" "(http://dlmcn.com/entropy2.html).KhaleejTimes.GaladariPress,UAE:XI.
56.Lathia,RAgrawal,TParmar,VDobariya,KPatel,A(20151020)."HeatDeath(TheUltimateFateoftheUniverse)"
(http://rgdoi.net/10.13140/RG.2.1.4158.2485).doi:10.13140/rg.2.1.4158.2485(https://doi.org/10.13140%2Frg.2.1.4158.2
485).
57.Lieb,ElliottH.Yngvason,Jakob(March1999)."Thephysicsandmathematicsofthesecondlawofthermodynamics".
PhysicsReports.310(1):196.doi:10.1016/S03701573(98)000829(https://doi.org/10.1016%2FS03701573%2898%2
9000829).
58.Carathodory,C.(September1909)."UntersuchungenberdieGrundlagenderThermodynamik".Mathematische
Annalen(inGerman).67(3):355386.doi:10.1007/BF01450409(https://doi.org/10.1007%2FBF01450409).
59.R.Giles(22January2016).MathematicalFoundationsofThermodynamics:InternationalSeriesofMonographsonPure
andAppliedMathematics(https://books.google.com/books?id=oK03BQAAQBAJ).ElsevierScience.ISBN97814831
84913.
60.M.Tribus,E.C.McIrvine,Energyandinformation,ScientificAmerican,224(September1971),pp.178184
61.Balian,Roger(2004)."Entropy,aProteanconcept".InDalibard,Jean.PoincarSeminar2003:BoseEinstein
condensationentropy.Basel:Birkhuser.pp.119144.ISBN9783764371166.
62.Brillouin,Leon(1956).ScienceandInformationTheory.ISBN0486439186.
63.GeorgescuRoegen,Nicholas(1971).TheEntropyLawandtheEconomicProcess.HarvardUniversityPress.ISBN0
674257812.
64.Chen,Jing(2005).ThePhysicalFoundationofEconomicsanAnalyticalThermodynamicTheory.WorldScientific.
ISBN9812563237.
65.Kalinin,M.I.Kononogov,S.A.(2005)."Boltzmann'sconstant".MeasurementTechniques.48(7):632636.
doi:10.1007/s1101800501959(https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs1101800501959).
66.BenNaim,Arieh(2008).Entropydemystifiedthesecondlawreducedtoplaincommonsense(Expandeded.).Singapore:
WorldScientific.ISBN9789812832269.
67."EdwinT.JaynesBibliography"(http://bayes.wustl.edu/etj/node1.html).Bayes.wustl.edu.19980302.Retrieved
20091206.
68.Schneider,Tom,DELILAsystem(DeoxyribonucleicacidLibraryLanguage),(InformationTheoryAnalysisofbinding
sites),LaboratoryofMathematicalBiology,NationalCancerInstitute,FCRDCBldg.469.Rm144,P.O.Box.B
Frederick,MD217021201,USA
69.Brooks,Daniel,R.Wiley,E.O.(1988).EvolutionasEntropyTowardsaUnifiedTheoryofBiology.Universityof
ChicagoPress.ISBN0226075745.
70.Avery,John(2003).InformationTheoryandEvolution.WorldScientific.ISBN9812383999.
71.Yockey,Hubert,P.(2005).InformationTheory,Evolution,andtheOriginofLife.CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0
521802938.
72.Chiavazzo,EliodoroFasano,MatteoAsinari,Pietro(2013)."Inferenceofanalyticalthermodynamicmodelsfor
biologicalnetworks"(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378437112009958).PhysicaA:Statistical
MechanicsanditsApplications.392(5):11221132.Bibcode:2013PhyA..392.1122C(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013
PhyA..392.1122C).doi:10.1016/j.physa.2012.11.030(https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.physa.2012.11.030).
73.Chen,Jing(2015).TheUnityofScienceandEconomics:ANewFoundationofEconomicTheory.
http://www.springer.com/us/book/9781493934645:Springer.
74.Chiavazzo,EliodoroIsaia,MarcoMammola,StefanoLepore,EmilianoVentola,LuigiAsinari,PietroPugno,Nicola
Maria(2015)."Cavespiderschooseoptimalenvironmentalfactorswithrespecttothegeneratedentropywhenlayingtheir
cocoon"(http://www.nature.com/srep/2015/150105/srep07611/full/srep07611.html).ScientificReports.5:7611.
Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E7611C(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E7611C).PMC5154591(https://www.ncb
i.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5154591) .PMID25556697(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25556697).
doi:10.1038/srep07611(https://doi.org/10.1038%2Fsrep07611).
75.IUPAC,CompendiumofChemicalTerminology,2nded.(the"GoldBook")(1997).Onlinecorrectedversion:(2006)
"Entropyunit(http://goldbook.iupac.org/E02151.html)".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 21/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

76.vonBaeyer,Christian,H.(2003).InformationtheNewLanguageofScience.HarvardUniversityPress.ISBN0674
013875.SrednickiM(August1993)."Entropyandarea".Phys.Rev.Lett.71(5):666669.
Bibcode:1993PhRvL..71..666S(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhRvL..71..666S).PMID10055336(https://www.ncb
i.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10055336).arXiv:hepth/9303048(https://arxiv.org/abs/hepth/9303048) .
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.666(https://doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.71.666).CallawayDJE(April1996)."Surface
tension,hydrophobicity,andblackholes:Theentropicconnection".Phys.Rev.E.53(4):37383744.
Bibcode:1996PhRvE..53.3738C(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvE..53.3738C).PMID9964684(https://www.nc
bi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9964684).arXiv:condmat/9601111(https://arxiv.org/abs/condmat/9601111) .
doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.53.3738(https://doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevE.53.3738).
77.Buchan,Lizzy."Blackholesdonotexist,saysStephenHawking"(http://www.cambridgenews.co.uk/News/Blackholes
donotexistsaysStephenHawking20140127060100.htm).CambridgeNews.Retrieved27January2014.
78.Layzer,David(1988).GrowthofOrderintheUniverse.MITPress.
79.Chaisson,EricJ.(2001).CosmicEvolution:TheRiseofComplexityinNature.HarvardUniversityPress.ISBN0674
00342X.
80.Lineweaver,CharlesH.Davies,PaulC.W.Ruse,Michael,eds.(2013).ComplexityandtheArrowofTime.Cambridge
UniversityPress.ISBN9781107027251.
81.Stenger,VictorJ.(2007).God:TheFailedHypothesis.PrometheusBooks.ISBN1591024811.
82.BenjaminGalOr(1987).Cosmology,PhysicsandPhilosophy.SpringerVerlag.ISBN0387965262.
83.GeorgescuRoegen,Nicholas(1971).TheEntropyLawandtheEconomicProcess.(http://www.slideshare.net/LocalMone
y/part1of3theentropylawandtheeconomicprocessnicholasgeorgescuroegen?qid=00ae73186a1c4aa58a8b47c1b
8bdcb1f&v=&b=&from_search=4)(FullbookaccessibleinthreepartsatSlideShare).Cambridge,Massachusetts:Harvard
UniversityPress.ISBN0674257804.
84.Cleveland,CutlerJ.Ruth,Matthias(1997)."When,where,andbyhowmuchdobiophysicallimitsconstrainthe
economicprocess?AsurveyofNicholasGeorgescuRoegen'scontributiontoecologicaleconomics"(https://web.archive.
org/web/20151208081407/https://www.ekf.vsb.cz/export/sites/ekf/projekty/cs/weby/esf0116/databazeprispevku/Ecologic
al_economics/1_1s2.0S0921800997000797main.pdf)(PDF).EcologicalEconomics.Amsterdam:Elsevier.22(3):203
223.doi:10.1016/s09218009(97)000797(https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fs09218009%2897%29000797).Archivedfrom
theoriginal(http://www.ekf.vsb.cz/export/sites/ekf/projekty/cs/weby/esf0116/databazeprispevku/Ecological_economics/
1_1s2.0S0921800997000797main.pdf)(PDF)on20151208.
85.Daly,HermanE.Farley,Joshua(2011).EcologicalEconomics.PrinciplesandApplications.(http://library.uniteddiversit
y.coop/Measuring_Progress_and_Eco_Footprinting/Ecological_EconomicsPrinciples_and_Applications.pdf)(PDFcontains
fullbook)(2nded.).Washington:IslandPress.ISBN9781597266819.
86.Schmitz,JohnE.J.(2007).TheSecondLawofLife:Energy,Technology,andtheFutureofEarthAsWeKnowIt.(http
s://secondlawoflife.wordpress.com/contents)(Linktotheauthor'sscienceblog,basedonhistextbook).Norwich:WilliamAndrew
Publishing.ISBN0815515375.
87.Ayres,RobertU.(2007)."Onthepracticallimitstosubstitution"(http://www.emrg.sfu.ca/media/photos/Ayers_Substituti
on20061.pdf)(PDF).EcologicalEconomics.Amsterdam:Elsevier.61:115128.doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.02.011(htt
ps://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ecolecon.2006.02.011).
88.Kerschner,Christian(2010)."Economicdegrowthvs.steadystateeconomy"(http://degrowth.org/wpcontent/uploads/20
12/11/Kerschner2010.pdf)(PDF).JournalofCleanerProduction.Amsterdam:Elsevier.18(6):544551.
doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.10.019(https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jclepro.2009.10.019).

Furtherreading
Adam,GerhardOttoHittmair(1992).Wrmetheorie.Vieweg,Braunschweig.ISBN3528333111.
Atkins,PeterJulioDePaula(2006).PhysicalChemistry(8thed.).OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN019
8700725.
Baierlein,Ralph(2003).ThermalPhysics.CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521658381.
BenNaim,Arieh(2007).EntropyDemystified.WorldScientific.ISBN9812700552.
Callen,Herbert,B(2001).ThermodynamicsandanIntroductiontoThermostatistics(2nded.).JohnWiley
andSons.ISBN0471862568.
Chang,Raymond(1998).Chemistry(6thed.).NewYork:McGrawHill.ISBN0071152210.
Cutnell,John,D.Johnson,Kenneth,J.(1998).Physics(4thed.).JohnWileyandSons,Inc.ISBN0471
191132.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 22/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Dugdale,J.S.(1996).EntropyanditsPhysicalMeaning(2nded.).TaylorandFrancis(UK)CRC(US).
ISBN0748405690.
Fermi,Enrico(1937).Thermodynamics.PrenticeHall.ISBN048660361X.
Goldstein,MartinInge,F(1993).TheRefrigeratorandtheUniverse.HarvardUniversityPress.ISBN0
674753259.
Gyftopoulos,E.P.G.P.Beretta(2010).Thermodynamics.FoundationsandApplications.Dover.ISBN0
486439321.
Haddad,WassimM.Chellaboina,VijaySekharNersesov,SergeyG.(2005).ThermodynamicsA
DynamicalSystemsApproach.PrincetonUniversityPress.ISBN0691123276.
Kroemer,HerbertCharlesKittel(1980).ThermalPhysics(2nded.).W.H.FreemanCompany.ISBN0
716710889.
Lambert,FrankL.entropysite.oxy.edu(http://entropysite.oxy.edu/)
MllerKirsten,HaraldJ.W.(2013).BasicsofStatisticalPhysics(2nded.).Singapore:WorldScientific.
ISBN9789814449533.
Penrose,Roger(2005).TheRoadtoReality:ACompleteGuidetotheLawsoftheUniverse.NewYork:A.
A.Knopf.ISBN0679454438.
Reif,F.(1965).Fundamentalsofstatisticalandthermalphysics.McGrawHill.ISBN0070518009.
Schroeder,DanielV.(2000).IntroductiontoThermalPhysics.NewYork:AddisonWesleyLongman.
ISBN0201380277.
Serway,Raymond,A.(1992).PhysicsforScientistsandEngineers.SaundersGoldenSubburstSeries.
ISBN0030960266.
SpiraxSarcoLimited,EntropyABasicUnderstanding(http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steamengi
neeringtutorials/steamengineeringprinciplesandheattransfer/entropyabasicunderstanding.asp)A
primeronentropytablesforsteamengineering
vonBaeyerHansChristian(1998).Maxwell'sDemon:WhyWarmthDispersesandTimePasses.Random
House.ISBN0679433422.
Entropyforbeginnersawikibook
AnIntuitiveGuidetotheConceptofEntropyArisinginVariousSectorsofScienceawikibook

Externallinks
EntropyandtheSecondLawofThermodynamics(https://www.youtu
Lookupentropyin
be.com/watch?v=ER8d_ElMJu0)anAlevelphysicslecturewith
Wiktionary,thefree
detailedderivationofentropybasedonCarnotcycle dictionary.
KhanAcademy:entropylectures,partofChemistryplaylist(https://
www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1A79AF620ABA411C)
Proof:S(orEntropy)isavalidstatevariable(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sPz5RrFus1Q)
ThermodynamicEntropyDefinitionClarification(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PFcGiMLwje
Y)
ReconcilingThermodynamicandStateDefinitionsofEntropy(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W
LKEVfLFau4)
EntropyIntuition(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJf6pHqLzs0)
MoreonEntropy(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dFFzAP2OZ3E)
TheSecondLawofThermodynamicsandEntropy(http://oyc.yale.edu/physics/phys200/lecture24)Yale
OYClecture,partofFundamentalsofPhysicsI(PHYS200)
EntropyandtheClausiusinequality(http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/chemistry/560thermodynamicskineticssp
ring2008/videolectures/lecture9entropyandtheclausiusinequality/)MITOCWlecture,partof5.60
Thermodynamics&Kinetics,Spring2008
TheDiscoveryofEntropy(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glrwlXRhNsg)byAdamShulman.Hour
longvideo,January2013.
Moriarty,PhilipMerrifield,Michael(2009)."SEntropy"(http://www.sixtysymbols.com/videos/entropy.ht
m).SixtySymbols.BradyHaranfortheUniversityofNottingham.
Entropy(http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Entropy)Scholarpedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 23/24
6/18/2017 EntropyWikipedia

Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Entropy&oldid=783736671"

Categories: Conceptsinphysics Entropy Philosophyofthermalandstatisticalphysics Statefunctions

Thispagewaslasteditedon4June2017,at09:19.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.
Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisaregisteredtrademark
oftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy#Entropy_and_adiabatic_accessibility 24/24