You are on page 1of 25

# Lecture Notes

ELE 6A

Circuit Elements
Sources

Sinks

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 2

Resistor Connections

1 1
= +
1
+
1 Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3
Rtotal R1 R2 R3

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 3

Ohms Law

V = I *R
Where :
V = voltage
I= current
R = resistance
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 4
KCL

## For any node in the circuit:

I A = I B + IC + I D
The summation of currents
entering a node is equal to
the currents leaving a node.

KVL

## For any closed loop:

V = 0
The summation of voltages
in any closed loop is equal to
zero.

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 6

Example 1
Find Io (-0.25 mA)
I0

12k 4k
12V
6V

6k

Example 2
Find I2 (1 A)

2
2K 1
2K

6V
22K 2
2K
22K

I2

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 8

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
Single phase circuit
components: a I b

## Voltage or current sources. L VL

V
Impedances (resistance,
inductance, and capacitance). R VR
The components are connected g
in series or in parallel.
10
The figure shows a simple 5
Vo

## circuit where a voltage source v (t) 0

(resistance and inductance in 5

series). 10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
deg

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 9

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

## The voltage source produces a sinusoidal voltage wave

v (t ) = 2 Vrms sin ( t)
where: Vrms is the rms value of the voltage (volts)
w is the angular frequency of the sinusoidal function (rad/sec)

2 1
=2 f = rad/sec f= Hz
T T
f is the frequency (60 Hz in USA, 50 Hz in Europe).
T is the time period (seconds).

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 10

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

1 T
Vrms = 0 v(t) dt
2

## The RMS value is calculated by T

Vpeak
For sinusoidal signal the RMS value = Vrms =
2

RMS value.

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 11

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

## The current is also sinusoidal

i (t) = 2 I rms sin ( t - )

## where: I rms is the rms value of the current.

is the phase-shift between current and voltage.

## The RMS current is calculated by the

Ohms Law: Vrms
I rms =
where: Z is the impedance Z
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 12
Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

## The impedances (in Ohms) are :

a) Resistance (R)

b) Inductive reactance XL = L

1
c) Capacitive reactance XC =
C

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 13

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

## The impedance of a Impedance calculation

resistance and a
reactance connected in a I b
series is :
XL VXL
Z= R +X
2 2
V
R VR

## The phase angle is : g

X
=tan1

R
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 14
Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Inductive circuit
The phase-shift between the current and voltage is negative.
The current is lagging with respect to the voltage.
10
V(t)
a I b 5
V( t ) I(t)
L VL 0
V I( t )

5
R VR
10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
g
t

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 15

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Capacitive circuit
The phase shift between the current and voltage is positive.
The current is leading with respect to the voltage.
10
a I b
v(t)
5
C Vc V( t )
i(t)
V 0
I( t )
R VR 5

g 10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
t
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 16
Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Complex Notation
Engineering calculations need the amplitude
(rms value) and phase angle of voltage and
current.
The amplitude and phase angle can be
calculated using complex notation.
The voltage, current, and impedance are
expressed by complex phasors.
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 17
Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
Complex Notation
Impedance phasor: (resistance, capacitor, and inductance
connected in series)
Rectangular form:
1
Z = R + j L + ( ) = R + j (X L - X C ) = R + j X T
j C

Polar form: Z = Z
Z
X X
where: Z= R 2 + XT
2 = tan ( ) 1
R R

R = Z cos ( ) X = Z sin ( )

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 18

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Complex Notation

Voltage phasor:

V= V = V cos + j V sin

## where : V is the rms value, and is the phase angle

Note: The supply voltage phase angle is often selected as
the reference with = 0

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 19

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Complex Notation

Current phasor

V V V
I= = = ( ) =
V
[cos ( ) + j sin ( )]
Z Z Z Z

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 20

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Example 1:
18.75 j 18.74 90
Z = 5 j + (5 j || 3.75) = 5 j + =5j+ = 5 j + 3 36.9 = 2.4 + j 3.2 = 4 53
3.75 5 j 6.25 53.1

j5

z 3.75 -j5

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 21

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Example 2: 1
j j 6
Z = || = =j
2 3 j j
Find V0
2 3
260 260
1 I= = = 2105
1 j 2 45
+
+

260V j/2
j2 j3
-j/3 Vo Vo = I * Z = 215
-

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 22

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Power calculation.
1) Instantaneous power
p (t) = v(t)i(t)= 2 V sin ( t ) 2 I sin ( t )

## 2) Real Power (Average Power)

P = VI cos ( ) Power factor

3) Reactive Power
Q = VI sin ( )

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 23

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
4) Complex Power
The complex notation can be used for power calculation.
The complex power is defined as : Voltage times the conjugate of the
current.

S = V I = V I [cos ( ) j sin ( )] = P j Q

## 9/12/2006 ELE 6A Single-phase Circuit 24

Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Example 3
A generator supplies a load through a feeder whose impedance is Zfeeder = 1 +
j2. The load impedance is Zl = 8 + j6. The voltage across the load is 120 V.
Find the real power and reactive power supplied by the generator.

Zl