ELE 6A
Ramadan ElShatshat
Sinks
1 1
= +
1
+
1 Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3
Rtotal R1 R2 R3
V = I *R
Where :
V = voltage
I= current
R = resistance
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Singlephase Circuit 4
KCL
I A = I B + IC + I D
The summation of currents
entering a node is equal to
the currents leaving a node.
V = 0
The summation of voltages
in any closed loop is equal to
zero.
12k 4k
12V
6V
6k
2
2K 1
2K
6V
22K 2
2K
22K
I2
series). 10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
deg
2 1
=2 f = rad/sec f= Hz
T T
f is the frequency (60 Hz in USA, 50 Hz in Europe).
T is the time period (seconds).
1 T
Vrms = 0 v(t) dt
2
Vpeak
For sinusoidal signal the RMS value = Vrms =
2
b) Inductive reactance XL = L
1
c) Capacitive reactance XC =
C
X
=tan1
R
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Singlephase Circuit 14
Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
Inductive circuit
The phaseshift between the current and voltage is negative.
The current is lagging with respect to the voltage.
10
V(t)
a I b 5
V( t ) I(t)
L VL 0
V I( t )
5
R VR
10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
g
t
Capacitive circuit
The phase shift between the current and voltage is positive.
The current is leading with respect to the voltage.
10
a I b
v(t)
5
C Vc V( t )
i(t)
V 0
I( t )
R VR 5
g 10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
t
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Singlephase Circuit 16
Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
Complex Notation
Engineering calculations need the amplitude
(rms value) and phase angle of voltage and
current.
The amplitude and phase angle can be
calculated using complex notation.
The voltage, current, and impedance are
expressed by complex phasors.
9/12/2006 ELE 6A Singlephase Circuit 17
Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
Complex Notation
Impedance phasor: (resistance, capacitor, and inductance
connected in series)
Rectangular form:
1
Z = R + j L + ( ) = R + j (X L  X C ) = R + j X T
j C
Polar form: Z = Z
Z
X X
where: Z= R 2 + XT
2 = tan ( ) 1
R R
R = Z cos ( ) X = Z sin ( )
Complex Notation
Voltage phasor:
V= V = V cos + j V sin
Complex Notation
Current phasor
V V V
I= = = ( ) =
V
[cos ( ) + j sin ( )]
Z Z Z Z
Example 1:
18.75 j 18.74 90
Z = 5 j + (5 j  3.75) = 5 j + =5j+ = 5 j + 3 36.9 = 2.4 + j 3.2 = 4 53
3.75 5 j 6.25 53.1
j5
z 3.75 j5
Example 2: 1
j j 6
Z =  = =j
2 3 j j
Find V0
2 3
260 260
1 I= = = 2105
1 j 2 45
+
+
260V j/2
j2 j3
j/3 Vo Vo = I * Z = 215

Power calculation.
1) Instantaneous power
p (t) = v(t)i(t)= 2 V sin ( t ) 2 I sin ( t )
3) Reactive Power
Q = VI sin ( )
S = V I = V I [cos ( ) j sin ( )] = P j Q
Example 3
A generator supplies a load through a feeder whose impedance is Zfeeder = 1 +
j2. The load impedance is Zl = 8 + j6. The voltage across the load is 120 V.
Find the real power and reactive power supplied by the generator.
Zl