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Lecture Notes

ELE 6A
Ramadan El-Shatshat

Single Phase circuit

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Circuit Elements
Sources

Voltage Source Current Source

Sinks

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Resistor Connections

1 1
= +
1
+
1 Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3
Rtotal R1 R2 R3

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Ohms Law

V = I *R
Where :
V = voltage
I= current
R = resistance
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KCL

For any node in the circuit:

I A = I B + IC + I D
The summation of currents
entering a node is equal to
the currents leaving a node.

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KVL

For any closed loop:

V = 0
The summation of voltages
in any closed loop is equal to
zero.

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Example 1
Find Io (-0.25 mA)
I0

12k 4k
12V
6V

6k

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Example 2
Find I2 (1 A)

2
2K 1
2K

6V
22K 2
2K
22K

I2

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
Single phase circuit
components: a I b

Voltage or current sources. L VL


V
Impedances (resistance,
inductance, and capacitance). R VR
The components are connected g
in series or in parallel.
10
The figure shows a simple 5
Vo

circuit where a voltage source v (t) 0


(generator) supplies a load
(resistance and inductance in 5

series). 10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
deg

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

The voltage source produces a sinusoidal voltage wave


v (t ) = 2 Vrms sin ( t)
where: Vrms is the rms value of the voltage (volts)
w is the angular frequency of the sinusoidal function (rad/sec)

2 1
=2 f = rad/sec f= Hz
T T
f is the frequency (60 Hz in USA, 50 Hz in Europe).
T is the time period (seconds).

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

1 T
Vrms = 0 v(t) dt
2

The RMS value is calculated by T

Vpeak
For sinusoidal signal the RMS value = Vrms =
2

Unless it is stated in the question, all the given values are in


RMS value.

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

The current is also sinusoidal


i (t) = 2 I rms sin ( t - )

where: I rms is the rms value of the current.


is the phase-shift between current and voltage.

The RMS current is calculated by the


Ohms Law: Vrms
I rms =
where: Z is the impedance Z
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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

The impedances (in Ohms) are :


a) Resistance (R)

b) Inductive reactance XL = L

1
c) Capacitive reactance XC =
C

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

The impedance of a Impedance calculation


resistance and a
reactance connected in a I b
series is :
XL VXL
Z= R +X
2 2
V
R VR

The phase angle is : g

X
=tan1

R
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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Inductive circuit
The phase-shift between the current and voltage is negative.
The current is lagging with respect to the voltage.
10
V(t)
a I b 5
V( t ) I(t)
L VL 0
V I( t )

5
R VR
10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
g
t

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Capacitive circuit
The phase shift between the current and voltage is positive.
The current is leading with respect to the voltage.
10
a I b
v(t)
5
C Vc V( t )
i(t)
V 0
I( t )
R VR 5

g 10
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
t
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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Complex Notation
Engineering calculations need the amplitude
(rms value) and phase angle of voltage and
current.
The amplitude and phase angle can be
calculated using complex notation.
The voltage, current, and impedance are
expressed by complex phasors.
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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
Complex Notation
Impedance phasor: (resistance, capacitor, and inductance
connected in series)
Rectangular form:
1
Z = R + j L + ( ) = R + j (X L - X C ) = R + j X T
j C

Polar form: Z = Z
Z
X X
where: Z= R 2 + XT
2 = tan ( ) 1
R R

R = Z cos ( ) X = Z sin ( )

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Complex Notation

Voltage phasor:

V= V = V cos + j V sin

where : V is the rms value, and is the phase angle


Note: The supply voltage phase angle is often selected as
the reference with = 0

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Complex Notation

Current phasor

V V V
I= = = ( ) =
V
[cos ( ) + j sin ( )]
Z Z Z Z

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Example 1:
18.75 j 18.74 90
Z = 5 j + (5 j || 3.75) = 5 j + =5j+ = 5 j + 3 36.9 = 2.4 + j 3.2 = 4 53
3.75 5 j 6.25 53.1

j5

z 3.75 -j5

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Example 2: 1
j j 6
Z = || = =j
2 3 j j
Find V0
2 3
260 260
1 I= = = 2105
1 j 2 45
+
+

260V j/2
j2 j3
-j/3 Vo Vo = I * Z = 215
-

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Power calculation.
1) Instantaneous power
p (t) = v(t)i(t)= 2 V sin ( t ) 2 I sin ( t )

2) Real Power (Average Power)


P = VI cos ( ) Power factor

3) Reactive Power
Q = VI sin ( )

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review
4) Complex Power
The complex notation can be used for power calculation.
The complex power is defined as : Voltage times the conjugate of the
current.

S = V I = V I [cos ( ) j sin ( )] = P j Q

Positive for Negative for


Inductive load Capacitive load

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Single Phase Circuit (AC)
Review

Example 3
A generator supplies a load through a feeder whose impedance is Zfeeder = 1 +
j2. The load impedance is Zl = 8 + j6. The voltage across the load is 120 V.
Find the real power and reactive power supplied by the generator.

Zfeeder (P=1295W, Q=1154 VAR)

Zl

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