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Alternative forms of a gene lead to different traits
We are diploid meaning each person inherits 2 homologs
1 from mom and 1 from dad
Chromosome contain a DNA molecule
A gene can be thought of as:
the portion of DNA that encodes a protein (or functional RNA)
Homologous chromosomes have genes at specific loci (place)

Can have alternative forms of a gene (alleles)

The appearance of an individual is its phenotype
If capital letter is dominant then what shows is:
ABd phenotype
The genetic composition of an individual is its genotype
AABbdd genotype
Homozygous Dominant AA
Heterozygous Bb
Figure 9.7 Homozygous recessive dd
In the garden of Mendel

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

The first person to systematically study heredity was

the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel

Mendel did quantitative experiments with garden peas

in his monastery
Mendels Experimental System

Mendel chose the garden

pea for several reasons
1. Many distinctive
varieties were available
2. Small and easy to grow
3. Short generation time
and lots of offspring
4. Both male and female
reproductive organs are Male
enclosed within the pea Female
Mendel crossed pea
plants that differed in
certain characteristics
and traced the traits
from generation to

This illustration shows

his technique for

Figure 9.3
Before the experiment,
Mendel let each variety
self-fertilize for several
generations, producing
true-breeding Parental
(P) generation.

Another word for

true-breeding is
CROSS is a cross
between parent
plants that differ
in only one
character. cross-fertilization


3:1 filial

Figure 9.5
Analyzing Mendels Results

Phenotypic ratio 3:1 Figure 9.6
Genotypic ratio 1:2:1
This tells you that one gene is involved!
The testcross detects heterozygotes

see Figure 10.5

** Law of segregation **
*1. Each parent contains two copies of the genes governing each trait (diploid)

*2. The pairs of alleles separate when gametes form

(A gamete carries only one allele of each pair)

*3. Gametes from two parents combine at random to form offspring

4. Alternative forms of a factor lead to different traits

- Alternative forms are called alleles
- The appearance of an individual is its phenotype
-The genetic composition of an individual is its genotype
- If the two copies are the same, homozygous
- If the two copies are different, heterozygous

5. The two alleles that an individual possesses do not affect each other

6. The presence of an allele does not ensure that its trait will be expressed
Alleles can be dominant or recessive
Aa x Aa
A monohybrid cross is the crossing of parental varieties differing in one

AaBb x AaBb
A dihybrid cross is the crossing of parental varieties differing in two characters.
What would result from a dihybrid cross? Two hypotheses are possible:
1. Dependent assortment - 2 characteristics stay together

2. Independent assortment - 2 characteristics independent

the inheritance of one character has no effect on the other.
The LAW of
Independent Assortment
By looking at two characteristics at once,
Mendel found that
during gamete formation,
the allele pairs of one trait (gene)
segregate independently
of allele pairs of another trait (gene)

if genes are unlinked (not physically close together

on same molecule)
(a) Hypothesis: Dependent assortment (b) Hypothesis: Independent assortment
P Generation
RRYY rryy RRYY rryy

Gametes RY ry Gametes RY ry
F1 Generation
RrYy RrYy 3Y_:1yy

F2 Generation Sperm
1 1 rY 1 Ry 1
RY ry
Sperm 4 4 4 4
1 1 1
RY ry
2 2 RY
2 RY 1
4 9 Yellow
Eggs RrYY rrYY RrYy rrYy
Eggs 16 round
ry 1 Ry 3 Green
4 RRYy RrYy RRyy Rryy 16 round
1 ry 3 Yellow
4 16 wrinkled
RrYy rrYy Rryy rryy
1 Green
Predicted results Actual results 16 wrinkled
(not actually seen) (support hypothesis)
Figure 9.8
Do ONE 16 square dihybrid cross so that
you can SEE the results. After that do two independent
monohybrid crosses and multiply.

P AABB x aabb A a B b
F1 AaBb A AA Aa B BB Bb

F1 self cross a Aa aa b Bb bb
AaBb x AaBb

9 A_B_ A 9:3:3:1 ratio tells you

3 A_bb that two independent
3 aaB_ (non-interacting, unlinked)
1 aabb genes are involved!
Mendels Laws
Mendels theory of heredity is one of the most important theories in the history of
It has been so well supported by experimental results that his major proposals
are considered laws (as honorary term, still just theories)

Mendels First Law, or Law of Segregation

Individuals are diploid. The two alleles of a gene separate when
forming gametes, and gametes combine randomly in forming offspring

Mendels Second Law, or Law of Independent Assortment

Alleles of unlinked genes are inherited independently (unlinked means
genes are on different chromosomes or far apart on same

Be able to explain and draw these

with Punnett squares and chromosomes!
The chromosomal basis of inheritance
The chromosome theory of inheritance states that
Genes are located at specific positions on chromosomes
The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts
for inheritance patterns

It is chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent

assortment during meiosis and thus account for Mendels laws.

What stage of Meiosis accounts for the

Law of Segregation?

What stage of Meiosis accounts for the

Law of Independent Assortment?
Independent Assortment
* Draw and understand
This with AaBb!

see Figure 9.24

If there are two sets of homologs there are

two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I 1/2 R 1/2 Y 1/4 RY
1/2 r 1/2 y 1/4 Ry
and 4 types of gametes (2n) 1/4 rY
1/4 ry
Inheritance follows the rules
of probability
The rule of multiplication
and the rule of addition
can be used to determine
the probability of certain
events occurring


Figure 9.11
Independent Events
The probability of independent events
= the product of the probability of each event

If both parents are heterozygous (RrYy)

what is the probability that they will produce a rryy child?

Probability of a sperm with r allele =

Probability of a ova with r allele =
Probability of a rr child is X =
rr yy
rr 1/4 x yy 1/4 = rryy 1/16

Dependent Events
The probability of dependent events
= the sum of probability of each event

Parents are heterozygous for a trait, R.

What is the chance that their child carries at least
one dominant R allele?

Probability of child carrying RR =

Probability of child carrying Rr =

Probability of child carrying R_ = + =

Figure 9.9