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Endorsed by

Designation: A105/A105M – 09 Manufacturers Standardization Society
of the Valve and Fittings Industry
Used in USDOE-NE Standards

Standard Specification for
Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A105/A105M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope* system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system
1.1 This specification2 covers forged carbon steel piping shall be used independently of the other. Combining values
components for ambient- and higher-temperature service in from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the
pressure systems. Included are flanges, fittings, valves, and standard.
similar parts ordered either to dimensions specified by the NOTE 1—The dimensionless designator NPS (nominal pipe size) has
purchaser or to dimensional standards such as the MSS, been substituted in this standard for such traditional terms as “nominal
ASME, and API specifications referenced in Section 2. Forg- diameter,” “size,” and “nominal size.”
ings made to this specification are limited to a maximum
2. Referenced Documents
weight of 10 000 lb [4540 kg]. Larger forgings may be ordered
to Specification A266/A266M. Tubesheets and hollow cylin- 2.1 In addition to those reference documents listed in
drical forgings for pressure vessel shells are not included Specification A961/A961M, the following list of standards
within the scope of this specification. Although this specifica- apply to this specification:
tion covers some piping components machined from rolled bar 2.2 ASTM Standards:3
and seamless tubular products (see 4.2), it does not cover raw A266/A266M Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for
material produced in these product forms. Pressure Vessel Components
1.2 Supplementary requirements are provided for use when A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing
additional testing or inspection is desired. These shall apply of Steel Products
only when specified individually by the purchaser in the order. A675/A675M Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-
1.3 Specification A266/A266M covers other steel forgings Wrought, Special Quality, Mechanical Properties
and Specifications A675/A675M and A696 cover other steel A696 Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought or
bars. Cold-Finished, Special Quality, for Pressure Piping Com-
1.4 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound units ponents
and SI units. However, unless the order specifies the applicable A788/A788M Specification for Steel Forgings, General Re-
“M” specification designation (SI units), the material shall be quirements
furnished to inch-pound units. A961/A961M Specification for Common Requirements for
The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to Steel Flanges, Forged Fittings, Valves, and Parts for Piping
be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each Applications
system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system 2.3 MSS Standards:
shall be used independently of the other. Combining values SP 44 Standard for Steel Pipe Line Flanges4
from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the 2.4 ASME Standards:
standard. B16.5 Dimensional Standards for Steel Pipe Flanges and
1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units Flanged Fittings5
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the B16.9 Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings5
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each

For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, contact ASTM Customer Service at For Annual Book of ASTM
Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting the ASTM website.
Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Available from Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Current edition approved July 1, 2009. Published August 2009. Originally Industry (MSS), 127 Park St., NE, Vienna, VA 22180-4602, http://www.mss-
approved in 1926. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A105/A105M – 05.
DOI: 10.1520/A0105_A0105M-09. Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), ASME
For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi- International Headquarters, Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016-5990, http://
cation SA-105 in Section II of that Code.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.


%D 30 Hardness. including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase 7.1 shall be annealing.2. 5. then one tension test from each heat is required 5. Tensile strength. HB. DC 20005-4070.01 % below the specified carbon B16.5 Piping components of Special Class8 other than flanges which meet both of the following criteria: (1) over NPS TABLE 2 Mechanical RequirementsA 4 and (2) when the working pressure at the operating tempera.1. or quenched specification and Specification A961/A961M. normalized and tempered. 2 .2 One tension test shall be made from each heat-treating the design temperature exceeds the pressure-temperature rat.3.4 Piping components other than flanges which meet trolled within 625 °F [614 °C] and equipped with recording both of the following criteria: (1) over NPS 4 and (2) above pyrometers so that complete records of heat treatment are Class 300.60–1. St. or normalizing and tempering or quenching and When standard round 2-in. and Threaded5 maximum (0. 8 D For definition of special class. min. or 50-mm gage length or 22 smaller proportionally sized specimen with the gage tempering in accordance with Specification A961/A961M. Threaded and Welding End5 maximum (1. a deduction for each 1⁄32-in. when required by 5.10 Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Fer. When section thickness does not permit this positioning. and over in thickness. tion. B16.12 maxA.5. If more than one heat is included in such a charge. 5.1.1 The material shall conform to the mechanical property A961/A961M constitutes nonconformance with this specifica.1. Reduction of area.1 See Specification A961/A961M.1.3. 6 Available from American Petroleum Institute (API).6 API Standards: Phosphorus 0. Group 1.35 max Section IX Welding Qualifications5 Manganese 0.1 Flanges above Class 300. nickel. the finished product shall be a forging as forging.2).11 Forged Steel Fittings.50C 6.1 Additional requirements (see 12. or 50 mm.2 Except as permitted by Section 6 in Specification is the maximum heat-treated thickness of the represented A961/A961M. Wash. the test specimen shall be positioned as 5.40 maxA Refinery Use6 Nickel 0. Failure to comply with the requirements of Specification 7.3.35 %). min.30 maxA.040 max API-600 Flanged and Butt-Welding-End Steel Gate Valves6 Silicon 0. See Table 3 for computed minimum values.5 % extension-under- ington. chromium. Chemical Composition decrease in wall thickness below 5⁄16 in.035 max Sulfur 0. Heat Treatment near as possible to the prescribed location. normalizing.api.35 API-602 Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate Valves for Copper 0. B Determined by either the 0.08 max 3. [7. see 7. [0.7 as-forged components..47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges5 Element Composition. max 187 A For small forgings.1. requirements prescribed in Table 2 and Table 3.2 % offset method or the 0. an increase of 0. [7. B The sum of chromium and molybdenum shall not exceed 0. TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements rous Valves5 NOTE—For each reduction of 0.1. load method.1 One tension test shall be made for each heat of 5.9 mm] 30 5.B 3. 7 C For definition of Class 300.2 For normalized.3 Tension Tests: specification except for the following piping components: 7.34 Valves-Flanged. heat shall be tested.00 %.1 When the heat-treating temperatures are the same design temperature are not known.10–0. second heat-treated surface.2 Flanges of special design where the design pressure at 7. A The sum of copper. For round specimens only. shall correspond to the 1⁄4 T plane or deeper position.5 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: Carbon 0. see ASME B16. %: Basic minimum elongation for walls 5⁄16 in. this specification and tempered forgings. A105/A105M – 09 B16. the central axis of the test specimen shall prevail.1 Product furnished to this specification shall conform to 6.1 The steel shall conform to the chemical requirements of the percentage points of Table 3 specified in Table 1. Ordering Information Vanadium 0.1. exceed 1.05 %) will be permitted up to a maximum of 1. where T 4. NW. are con- 5. In addition.8-mm] 1.4.3 Flanges of special design where the design pressure or 7.06 % manganese above the specified Steels to which lead has been added shall not be used. Elongation in 2 in. molybdenum and vanadium shall not 3.1 Heat treatment is not a mandatory requirement of this 7. min. Group Yield strength. Mechanical Properties order. for quenched and tempered forgings. min. the requirements of Specification A961/A961M. http://www. see ASME B16. In case of a conflict between the requirements of this 7. General Requirements 4. and the furnaces (either batch or continuous type). % 2. and available. psi [MPa]B 36 000 [250] 1.35 %. length equal to 4D is used For strip tests.40 maxA Chromium 0. Socket Weld. psi [MPa] 70 000 [485] ture exceeds the tabulated values for Special Class 300. charge. 4. the defined in the Terminology Section of Specification A788/ midlength of the test specimen shall be at least T from any A788M.B Molybdenum 0. 5.1.32 %.34.05 2. strip tests. each ings of Class 300.2 Heat treatment. 1220 L.9 mm] from the basic minimum elongation 6.

9 30. mm mm.281) 7. and tested using the standard Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.062) 1.2 Weld repairs shall be made by a process that does not shall be used except when hollow cylindrically shaped parts are produce undesirably high levels of hydrogen in the welded machined from seamless tubulars. Retreatment where: 9. 7. in.35 mm] diameter or larger (see Test normalized and tempered. [0. A105/A105M – 09 TABLE 3 Computed Minimum Values continuous run as defined in 7. prepared. Rejection and Rehearing required but additional indentations may be made to establish 11. The hardness of all forgings so shop working or application shall be rejected and the manu- tested shall be 137 to 187 HB inclusive. When only one in. Where the wall thickness lies turer only when Supplementary Requirement S57 in Specifi- between two values shown above. The test specimen material shall be included with a for forgings made to dimensional standards such as those of furnace charge. then the forging shall be tested in automatic or semi-automatic press.3. suring elongation shall be four times the diameter of the test 10.4. it shall be hardness tested in two locations ⁄ 5 16 (0. Hydrostatic Tests Note—The above table gives the computed minimum elongation values for 8. or the forging was fully heat treated the production of a separately forged test bar such as an in the post weld cycle.4. accordance with the requirements of this specification.4 Hardness Tests: 12.1 Repair of defects by the manufacturer is permissible charge. areas.0 22. The 7.6 25. the product of a mill heat per furnace charge. shall qualification weldment shall.4 The mechanical properties of the procedure- Note 2).094) 2. and produced in equipment unsuitable for temperature was exceeded. ASME or for other parts made for stock by the manufacturer. the following equation: E 5 48T 1 15. The purchaser may verify that the require- (0. and for as-forged components.3. 9⁄32 (0. the original tempering maximum working.1 Two hardness tests shall be made for each heat of fied dimensions.00 to ensure it is within the hardness limits given in Table 2.2.1 Such tests shall be conducted by the forging manufac- each 1⁄32-in.00 9. a minimum of two forgings shall be fication marks as required in Specification A961/A961M shall tested with one reading from each forging. When more than one forging is pro. The largest feasible round special forgings made to the purchaser’s requirements.1 28.312) 7. 1⁄ 8 (0. a mini. the manufacturer may heat treat or T = actual thickness of specimen. or quenched and tempered.50 provided such testing does not render the forging useless.3. If the Methods and Definitions A370) parallel to the dimension of forging was not previously heat treated.50 7. specimen as described in Test Methods and Definitions A370 10.3 All forgings repaired by welding shall be post-weld section.3 Testing shall be in accordance with Test Methods and 1⁄ 4 (0. or 50 mm. One indentation per forging shall be 11. reheat treat the forgings as applicable and repeat the test specified in Section 7. facturer notified.250) 6.50 3⁄16 (0. specification designation included on test reports shall include mum of two forgings shall be hardness tested per batch or year date and revision letter. specimen of 0. When only one be the certification that the forgings have been furnished in forging is produced.156) 4. The gage length for mea.00 ment has been met by testing at any location on the forging.00 3⁄32 (0. or 50 within the hardness limits given in Table 2. Repair by Welding instead of one test from each heat in each heat-treatment 10. when agreed upon by the purchaser.4. The conform with the requirements listed in Table 2 for the thermal locations of the indentations shall be at the option of the condition of repair-welded forgings. when tested in accordance with be selected at random. [1⁄2 h/25.00 8. %. and the requirement specified. may be accepted on the accordance with Section 7 on completion of the cycle. the minimum elongation value is determined by cation A961/A961M is specified. application of identi- duced from each heat. 5⁄32 (0.2 21.188) 4.1 Each forging that develops injurious defects during the representative hardness. NOTE 2—A lot is defined as the product from a mill heat or if heat treated. or ten forgings.4 Forgings too small to permit obtaining a subsize of maximum section thickness. 3 .125) 3.50 1⁄16 (0. When hollow cylindrically shaped parts are machined heat treated between 1100 °F [593 °C] and the lower transfor- from seamless tubular materials.1 If the results of the mechanical tests do not conform to E = elongation in 2 in. One percent of the forgings per lot (see 10. min. % forging is produced.8 24. 12. 10.8-mm] decrease in wall thickness.3 Testing shall be performed in accordance with Test Prior approval of the purchaser is required to repair-weld Methods and Definitions A370. [6.6 18.4 19. whichever is the lesser number.250 in.4 mm] 7. basis of hardness only.1 Identification Marking—For forgings made to speci- 7.1 to ensure that forgings are Wall Thickness Elongation in 2 in. forgings made to dimensional standards. manufacturer but shall be selected to be representative of the forging as a whole. if any. Brinell test in Test Methods and Definitions A370. mation temperature for a minimum of 1⁄2 h/in.219) 5.2 Except when only one forging is produced. or alternatively annealed. it shall be tested in two locations. strip tests may be used.00 7⁄32 Definitions A370. [mm].4 27. Certification 7.

the manufacturer shall also provide the following. report the width of the gage length. this specification shall be followed by the letter: A for annealed. bar coding is acceptable 12. 4 . the basis for determining conformance with Table 2 and Table 3 shall be S4.1 and 13. supplied heat treated by purchaser request. tion and reduction in area. in ksi [MPa].3 When test reports are required for larger products. and such other markings as neces- 12.5 Any supplementary testing required by the purchase bar code may be applied to the box or a substantially applied order.2. Section 7 (Table 2).1 are chaser.2 Test Reports—When test reports are required. the 13. matter of agreement between the manufacturer and the pur- S2.2. The specification number marked on the forgings need the yield strength and ultimate strength. or less. tag.4 In addition to the marking required by Section 13. the letters “QT” shall be stamped on the forgings following this 14. not include specification year date and revision letter. if applied at the discretion of the 12. steel valves. and. S2.2. steel. the analysis for that element may be reported as “< 0. temperature service letter “W” following this specification number. shall be 0. NT for normalized and tempered.02 %. and order.1 Type heat treatment. the marking method shall be a purchaser. a minimum of supplier. 13.2. Specification A961/A961M and 13. based on heat analy- treated forgings per 7. S1. Section 6 (Table 1). Carbon Equivalent hardness testing per 7.1 The purchaser may check the hardness of any or all S3. S2.4 and either (1) tensile testing of heat S4.1 For small products where the space for marking is less forgings supplied at any location on the forging and the than 1 in.2 Determine the carbon equivalent (CE) as follows: it shall be so indicated on the test report.02 %. The purchaser may the amount of an unspecified element is less than 0.3 A lower maximum carbon equivalent may be agreed for normalized. as are necessary to identify the parts with test reports.3 Chemical analysis results. then specify in the order a specific bar coding system to be used. elevated. [25 mm] in any direction. or (2) tensile tests from as-forged sis. should be consistent with one of the published two readings. and 0.1 All forgings shall be heat treated as specified by the ing directly on the forging. contract.3.2 Tensile property results. pressure con- specification number. 13. Keywords 13. in percent. S4.” The bar coding system. the 12.48 for forgings with a between the supplier and purchaser. markings shall consist of the manufacturer’s symbol or name. and industry standards for bar coding. All forgings not within the and marking may be restricted to only such symbols or codes specified hardness range shall be rejected. or QT for upon between the supplier and the purchaser. high SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS The following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the purchaser in the inquiry. steel flanges. quenched and tempered. CE 5 C 1 Mn/6 1 ~Cr 1 Mo 1 V!/5 1 ~Ni 1 Cu!/15 S2. If used on small parts. Marking Small Forgings S1. maximum section thickness of greater than 2 in. cable: this specification number.4 Hardness results. Section 7 (Table 2). elonga.1 pipe fittings. When as a supplemental identification method.1 If the forgings have been quenched and tempered. Heat Treatment S3. report apply). as appropriate. piping applications.2 shall 12. N S4.2 When forgings not requiring heat treatment by 5. if longitudinal strip 13. applications.2. as agreed upon thickness of 2 in. A105/A105M – 09 12. steel forgings. Product Marking 14. Hardness S3. where appli. and tensile test results were obtained from as-forged forgings or as-forged test blanks.47 for forgings with a maximum section forgings or separately forged test blanks.4 Bar Coding—In addition to the requirements in tension specimens are used.2 Forgings repaired by welding shall be marked with the temperature service applications. carbon. test reports are mandatory hardness shall be 137 to 187 HB.2. taining parts.3 When test reports are required. Section 5.1 The maximum carbon equivalent. sary to identify the part with the test report (13.2 When the configuration or size does not permit mark- S2.

2009) (1) Revised 7.4 to clarify the number of hardness results required to be reported. PO Box C700. PA 19428-2959.05. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. A105/A105M . or service@astm. 5 . 610-832-9555 (fax).2. West Conshohocken. at the address shown below. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). (2) Revised 12. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee.4 to clarify hardness testing (e-mail). 100 Barr Harbor Drive. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. (Approved July which you may attend. or through the ASTM website (www.astm. that may impact the use of this specification. United States. and the risk of infringement of such rights. either reapproved or withdrawn. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. A105/A105M – 09 SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this specification since the last issue. are entirely their own responsibility.