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Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography
Joanne Unrau – 6734607
University of Manitoba
May 23, 2017
Instructor: M. Updike
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Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

For my Social Role Valorization Implementation project, I chose to focus on one

student who I believe to be an object of devaluation and at risk of further devaluation.

Brian, a six-year old student in my grades 1 and 2 split class, is often not included in

activities with his classroom peers. His peers are quick to reject him and see him as

someone who is different because Brian exhibits some unusual behaviour. It is my hope

that by teaching Brian appropriate social skills his social image will improve and his

classmates will be more willing to include him.

To improve Brian’s social skills I have planned to use and have already

implemented some of the following strategies:

- Personalized social stories

- Direct teaching of desired behavior and modelling

- Have Brian imitate and practice desired behavior

- Introduce a Circle of Friends group

The following articles were used to inform my decisions and direct my instruction

of the above strategies. Each article provided insight on how I should implement certain

strategies, and whether or not the strategies I have chosen are assessed to be an effective

way of teaching social skills.

I found that most of the articles I researched in regards to social skills were geared

towards children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Brian does not have a

diagnosis of ASD, but rather of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

However, because of his difficulties with social behavior, communication skills,
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repetitive behavior, and his lack of friendships I believe that the information from these

articles are relevant to Brian and my implementation plan.

Article #1

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Alzyoudi, M., Sartawi, A., & Almuhiri, O. This study examines the impact of video
(2015). The impact of video modelling on modelling on teaching social skills to children
improving social skills in children with with autism.
autism. British Journal of Special
Education, 42(1), 53-68. doi:
10.1111/1467-8578.12057

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

Five participants, ages 5-7 with an assessment
of autism were chosen for this study. The study
was an A-B baseline design. Intervention
sessions were conducted twice a day for 6
weeks. During each session the four target
social skills were modelled via videotape
followed by free play. Each video session
lasted 3-5 minutes.

Retrieved from:
http://www.myaspergerschild.com/2013/07/video-
modeling-most-effective-social.html

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) In this study, each video session lasted 3-5
Video modelling proved to be an effective minutes. What is an optimal time for
intervention strategy for all 5 participants to presenting video modelling?
teach the following target behaviors 2.) Is the sampling size large enough to
- Social initiation skills generalize results of the effectiveness of the
- Conversational skills intervention?
- Non-verbal communication
- Answering/questioning skills

Students maintained skills learned and 2/5 were
noted to transfer skills learned to new settings.
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Implications for change project

This study indicates that video modelling is an effective tool to use to teach students with autism
appropriate social behaviors. Watching videos is often an enjoyable activity for students, which
may aid in focus and increased attention. This in turn may increase the likelihood of the student(s)
imitating the modelled behavior. Brian shows a strong interest in technology. Video modelling
may be an effective tool in teaching him our target social behaviors. The ease in making a video tape
for him to model is an advantage of this tool.

Article #2

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Chan, J. M., O’Reilly, M. F., Lang, R. B., This study evaluated the effects of using Social
Boutot, A., White, P. J., Pierce, N., & Stories on classroom behavior.
Baker, S. (2011). Evaluation of Social
Stories TM intervention implemented by
pre-service teachers for students with
autism in general education settings.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
5(1), 715-721. doi:
10.1016/j.rasd.2010.08.005

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

This was a multiple baseline study whose
participants were three 8 year old boys with
diagnosed autism spectrum disorders.

In this study, teachers were trained to
implement Social Stories. Teachers then
implemented Social Stories with each student
individually. The stories were presented on
computers and were read aloud by the
participant. After the reading, 3 comprehension
questions were asked, which concluded the
session.

In the immediate condition, the data on target Retrieved from:
behavior was collected within 10 minutes of https://sensoryliving.wordpress.com/
completing the intervention. In the delayed 2010/05/30/social-story-going-to-the-library-2/
condition, the data was collected after 3.5 hours
after implementation.
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List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) In this study, only 3 questions (no skill
The intervention showed some improvements in practice) were included after the
target behaviors for all three participants. presentation of the intervention. Is this
These behaviors included the best practice?
- Appropriate sitting behavior 2.) The time delay did not show huge
- Attending to the teacher differences in performance of target skill.
- Working independently Would reading the social stories more
frequently (2- 3 times instead of once)
Time delay did not produce differences in improve the performance of the skill?
performance of target skills.

Implications for change project

This study provides an intervention that seems feasible and uncomplicated to implement in a
classroom setting. As most interventions are not used in exclusion of others, I feel that social stories
could be used as one of the tools to teach Brian appropriate social skills. Brian responds well to
visual information. Social stories may help him in his understanding of the steps required to
performing certain social behaviors.

Article #3

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Frederickson, N., &Turner, J. (2003). Utilizing This study evaluates the Circle of Friends
the classroom peer group to address approach to improving social needs of students
children’s social needs: An evaluation of who experienced difficulty in this area.
the Circle of Friends intervention
approach. The Journal of Special
Education 36(4), 234-245. doi:
10.1177/002246690303600404

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

This study was carried out in 2 phases. Phase 1
used a between groups pre-post design and
included ten children aged 6-12. A graduate
student implemented the ‘circle of friends’
group over a 6-week period for all 10 students.
The wait-list group of 10 students did not
receive any intervention.

Phase 2 used a within subjects design where
nine students from the wait-list group received
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the ‘circle of friends’ intervention. Classroom http://circleoffriendshydas.com/
teachers ran the program over a 6-week period. scheduledevents.html

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) A graduate student instead of a classroom
- Increased social acceptance of focus teacher ran the phase 1 intervention. Is
children within classroom peer groups running the program by an outsider
- Positive influence on other children’s beneficial to the implementation of the
perspectives of focus children program?
- No changes or improvements in 2.) There was a 6-year range in age for
behaviour of focus children participants. Is there an optimal age range
for this intervention?

Implications for change project

While it does not seem that the Circle of Friends intervention was successful in teaching the focus
children new social skills in this study, it does suggest that this intervention could be used to
improve the social acceptance of the focus child by his/her peers. As a student who is treated as an
outsider by his classroom peers, Brian may benefit from a Circle of Friends program to gain greater
social acceptance. I am hoping to improve how Brian’s classmates view him and therefore treat
him.

Article #4

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Kassardjian, A., Leaf, J. B., Ravid, D., Leaf, J. This study compared the effectiveness of the
A., Alcalay, A., Dale, S., Tsuji, K., teaching interaction procedure to social stories
Taubmann, M…, Oppenheim-Leaf, M. L. when teaching social skills to children diagnosed
(2014). Comparing the Teaching with autism spectrum disorder.
Interaction Procedure to Social Stories: A
replication study. Journal of Autism and
Developmental Disorders, 44, /s2329 –
2340. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2103-0

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

Three 5 year old children with ASD were
selected to take part in the study. The study
would target three social skills. Each social
skill was assigned to an intervention procedure;
teaching interaction, social stories, or no
intervention.
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The study took place in three phases. The
baseline phase was used to observe each child’s
initial performance with each social skill. The
maintenance phase was for checking for
retention of each skill. The teaching phase was
where the social skill was taught using one of
the methods listed above.

Image retrieved from:
https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product
/Social-Story-Bundle-Pack-for-Your-Special-
Learners-1380542

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) The social stories procedure was used in
- 0/3 children demonstrated knowledge of isolation in the study. Are social stories
the targeted skill at the baseline phase meant to be conducted as a stand alone
- 3/3 children demonstrated increased intervention?
performance and some retention of the 2.) The children in this study were 5 years
targeted skill taught using teacher old. Would social stories be more
interaction method effective for older children?
- 0/3 demonstrated knowledge or
retention of skill when taught using
social stories method
- 3/3 showed greater knowledge of social
skill that was not taught than the skill
taught using social stories

Implications for change project

This study indicates that using social stories in isolation does not benefit students in the acquisition
of social skills. The study showed the teacher interaction procedure, which involves teacher
modelling and member role-play, to be more effective in acquiring and maintaining appropriate
social skills. A teacher needs many “tools” in his/her toolbox and social stories may still be useful
when used as a visual aid in conjunction with other intervention procedures. It is encouraging to see
the success that the three students in this study showed using the teacher interaction method. It is
my plan to use social stories as a visual aid in helping my student identify the steps needed in
completing certain social behaviors. These behaviors will be modelled by other staff members,
Brian’s peers, and myself and practiced by Brian.
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Article #5

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Liber, D.B., Frea, W.D. & Symon, J.B.G. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using
(2008). Using time-delay to improve the time-delay procedure to teach social play
social play skills with peers for children skills to children with autism.
with autism. Journal of Autism and
Developmental Disorders, 38(2), 312-
323. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0395-z

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

Three children aged 5-9 with a diagnosis of
Austism were chosen for this study. The study
took place in their non-public school classroom
with peers who also had special needs.

The focus children were given two high-interest
play activities to choose from in their classroom
setting. These activities were broken down into
steps, which were taught to the children using
visual sequences and picture prompts. The
participants were able to choose any peer in the
classroom to be their partner. Participants
received prompts and encouragement to
continue after each step was completed. These Retrieved from:
prompts/encouragements were delivered at 0- https://d30y9cdsu7xlg0.cloudfront.net/png/
seconds, and then gradually increased by 2 38729-200.png
second intervals when the children had
demonstrated mastery of responses in 3
consecutive sessions.

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) The children in this study were allowed to
After implanting the time delay procedure choose their peer play partner. How
- All 3 students showed improvement in important was this choice to the
both play skills and requesting skills effectiveness of this procedure?
- All 3 students were able to complete 2.) What was more effective in the study, the
most play steps independently use of time-delay or the purposeful
- Students showed an increase in instruction of social skills delivered by the
spontaneous peer interactions prompts?
- Students demonstrated a transfer of
social play skills to another setting
- In one classroom, the peers of the
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student initiated play with him more
often

Implications for change project

This study showed success in using the time-delay procedure to improve social play skills in
children with autism. The study was done in a classroom environment and included the peers in
those classroom settings, demonstrating the feasibility of using this procedure in the classroom. The
study also supports the use of peer-mediated strategies to help increase social skills and suggests
that the peers need not only be typical peers, but classmates who also demonstrate special needs can
take part. Brian is fully included in our classroom environment. Any interventions I use will be
done in the classroom setting or on the school playground and will involve Brian’s classmates.

Article #6

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

McDaniel, S., Bruhn, A., & Troughton, L. This study examined the effectiveness of the
(2016). A brief social skills intervention social skills program Stop and Think to decrease
to reduce challenging classroom behavior. negative social behavior.
Journal of Behavioral Education 26(1),
53-74. doi: 10.1007/s10864-016-9259-y

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

This was a multiple-baseline study conducted in
an alternative school for children with
challenging behavior. Five participants in
grades 2 and 3 were chosen to participate in the
study. The intervention included teaching of the
skill, modelling, role play, and feedback.
Participants were taught to follow a 5-step
process for the target skills. Skills targeted
were listening, using nice talk, following
directions, and accepting consequences. A total
of 12 sessions were conducted, plus a follow-up
Retrieved from:
phase post-intervention.
https://holdyourhorse.wordpress.com/
2015/09/30/stop/

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) In this study, the intervention was
All 5 students involved in the study showed a delivered to the whole class. Is this the
decrease in negative social behavior in the most effective way to use the Stop and
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following domains Think intervention? Would it work as
- Inattention well or better if used only on focus child?
- Peer problems 2.) This study focuses on only 5 children, yet
- Prosocial skills all students in the two classrooms
- Emotional symptoms received the same instruction. Did the
- Conduct problems other students also show improvements in
social behavior?
Participants scores improved from the abnormal
range to the borderline or normal range in some
or all of the domains.

Implications for change project

This study supports the use of direct teaching, modelling, and role-play to improve students’ social
behavior. As with other studies, this combination in delivering social skills instruction seems to be
successful. Although this particular study delivered the intervention as a whole class, I believe I can
use this approach to instruct my one student, as he responds well to one-on-one instruction.

Article #7

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

O’Connor, E., (2016). The use of ‘Circle of This study examines the use of the ‘Circle of
Friends’ strategy to improve social Friends’ intervention strategy to challenge
interactions and social acceptance: A case students’ attitudes towards a child with Asperger
study of a child with Asperger's Syndrome, as well as to improve the social skills
Syndrome and other associated needs. of the child with Asperger Syndrome.
Support for Learning, 31(2), 138-147.
doi: 10.1111/1467-9604.12122

Summarize the method in your own words Draw a figurative representation.

Before implementing the ‘Circle of Friends’
intervention, the focus child filled out
questions on the ‘Belonging Scale’, and the
peers involved completed the ‘Social Inclusion
Survey’. These surveys were completed again
after the three-month intervention period.

After explaining to the focus child what a
‘Circle of Friends’ was and what was expected
of him/her, the child helped select peers for the Image retrieved from:
group. The group met regularly over a period http://www.wisegeek.org/what-are-the-different-
of three months. Expectations and target types-of-board-games-for-small-
behaviours were laid out at the beginning of
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each meeting and feedback was given at the end children.htm#didyouknowout
of each meeting. An adult attended each
meeting to facilitate. Target behaviors were
making new friends, listening to others, using
appropriate language, and playing games fairly.

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) This study only focuses on one child. Can
- Greater peer acceptance shown for the we generalize the successfulness of these
focus child results to other children based on the one?
- Peers showed 70% increase in 2.) This study did not indicate how many
willingness to initiate social interactions peers were involved in the ‘circle of
with focus child friends’. Is there an optimum number?
- Peers showed 80% increase in
acceptance of behaviours shown by
children with special needs
- Focus child felt more accepted
- Focus child invited by peers to
participate in activities outside of school
- School attendance of focus child
increased

Implications for change project

This study showed that the ‘circle of friends’ intervention strategy was effective in gaining greater
inclusion for the focus child and can be an effective tool for increasing empathy and acceptance
towards a child with ASD in a peer group. While the study records improvement in the peer group’s
attitude towards the focus child, it is not clear whether the focus child’s social skills and social
understanding improved. The focus of ‘circle of friends’ seems to be increasing the belonging of a
student and other interventions are needed to help improve social skills. It is my hope that through
this style of intervention Brian will not only improve his social skills, but also increase his social
belonging.

Article #8

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Vandermeer, J., Beamish, W., Milford, & T., This study evaluates the effectiveness of the use of
Lang, W. (2015). iPad – presented iPad-presented social stories in improving on-task
social stories for young children with behavior of children diagnosed with autism.
autism. Developmental
Neurorehabilitation, 18(2), 75-81. doi:
10.3109/17518423.2013.809811
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Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

In this study, three children (aged 4) were
presented with social stories tailored to each
child using the Stories2Learn app on an
Apple iPad. These stories were presented
within the classroom morning routine and
were approximately 5 minutes in length. A
total of 18 sessions were administered within
4 weeks.

Retrieved from:
https://michaeljarmer.files.wordpress.com

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) Would the social story have been just as
- The combination of the iPad and effective if used in regular storybook text as
social stories was effective for one apposed to the iPad?
child 2.) What is the main purpose of the use of the
- Two participants showed an increase iPad to present social stories? Is it to make
in attending during the intervention the creating and delivering of the stories
with some maintenance after easier for the teacher, or to provide the
- Echolalia exhibited by one child student with visual aid in learning social
seemed to continue to interfere with skills?
on-task behavior during and after
reading the social story

Implications for change project

This study demonstrates variable success with Social Stories. It seems that the use of social stories
is effective for some children but not for others. As research has shown, everyone learns in different
ways. Social stories may be a helpful tool to use for students who are visual learners, which I
believe Brian to be. Using an iPad to deliver the stories may offer a new and therefore engaging
way to present these stories.
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Article #9

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Waugh, C., & Peskin, J. (2015). Improving the This study examined the effectiveness of the
social skills of children with HFASD: An social skills and Theory of Mind (S.S.ToM)
intervention study. Journal of Austism intervention for teaching social skills to children,
and Developmental Disorders, 45(9), which utilizes visual aids, as compared to
2961-2980. doi:10.1007/s10803-015- Children’s Friendship Training (CFT)
2459-9 intervention, which does not use visual aids.

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

In this study, 49 children ages 6 – 13 years in
age with a diagnosis within the autism
spectrum, along with their parents, were divided
into 3 groups. The students and parents were
pre-tested, post-tested, and then tested again 12
weeks after the intervention using behavior and
social responsiveness scales.

The interventions took place during a 10 week
period. One group received instruction using
S.S.ToM, which followed scripted curriculum.
The second group received instruction using
CFT, which also followed scripted lessons. The
third group did not receive any interventions
(control group).

Parents also received instruction regarding the
social skills their children were learning. Image retrieved from:
http://jess3.com/blackboard-active-learner-video/
There were two differences between the two
interventions. The S.S.ToM intervention
included ToM concepts (emotions, false belief,
persuasion, etc). S.S.ToM also uses visuals of
comic-strip style stories where as CFT uses a
primarily aural approach.

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) To what extent can the improvements shown
Areas of social responsiveness tested were in this study be attributed to parent
social awareness, social cognition, social involvement?
communication, social motivation and restricted 2.) If the visual aids were removed from the
interests and repetitive behaviours. S.S.ToM intervention, would it still be
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- S.S.ToM group showed improvement in effective? Was the success due to the
all areas compared to the control group content or delivery?
- No significant differences between the
SSToM and CFT groups
- SStoM groups improved in social
communication, social motivation, and
restricted interests and repetitive
behaviours
- S.S.ToM group maintained and
continued to show improvements in all
responses at follow-up
- CFT group showed improvement in
social communication and social
motivation and maintained these at
follow up
- The group that did not receive
interventions showed no improvements

Implications for change project

The study suggests that the visual supports as well as the Theory of Mind information included in
the one intervention were important to the success of the intervention. Research has shown that
receiving information in a variety of ways is advantageous to all learners. The use of visual
supports helps to maintain student interest and focus during lessons. It seems that parent
involvement was also important to the improvements made in this study. Parents are able to help
support and encourage their children during and beyond any intervention as needed. As I have
already noted, Brian is a visual learner. I will be using visual supports to help teach and
demonstrate appropriate social behaviors.

Article #10

Article reference: Purpose of the study:

Wilkes, S., Cordier, R., Bundy, A., Docking, This study examined the effectiveness of play-
K., & Munro, K. (2011). A play-based based intervention in improving the social play
intervention for children with ADHD: A skills of children with ADHD.
pilot study. Australian Occupational
Therapy Journal 58, 231-240. doi:
10.1111/j.1440-1630.2011.00928.x

Summarize the method in your own words. Draw a figurative representation.

This study included children aged 5-11 years of
age with a diagnosis of ADHD as well as their
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typically developing peers. Each child selected
a known peer to play with and took part in 7
weekly 40-minute sessions. A therapist
facilitated each session, which included self-
modelling (from video footage of the prior
week), discussion, and free play.

Parents of the children observed all sessions,
and were involved in reviewing material before
each session.
Retrieved from:
http://www.ellensenisi.com/2011/blog/media-
consumption-technology-vs-creative-free-play-
for-children/

List the outcomes in point form, underlining Write two questions you have about the research.
five key words.
1.) Is using self-modelling more effective
Children with ADHD showed improvements in than peer or adult modelling?
- Sharing ideas/objects 2.) The study indicates that the children
- Supporting the play of others played together in partners, how would
- Transitioning to other activities things change in a group (more than 2
- Responding to cues children) dynamic?
- Initiating play themes

Typically developing peers also showed
improvements in social play

Both typically developing and children with
ADHD showed a decrease in mischievous or
teasing behaviour

Implications for change project

This study supports the idea that peer-involved play activities would be beneficial in teaching
appropriate play behaviours to children with ADHD as well as typically developing children. The
study also displays the advantages of using modelling (self, peer and adult) as a way to present and
talk about the desired social behaviors. In our grade 1 and 2 classroom, which utilizes play-based
activities for learning, there are many opportunities for Brian to observe and practice appropriate
behaviours.