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MATHEMATICS FRAMEWORK FOR PHILIPPINE BASIC EDUCATION

Department of Science and Technology
SCIENCE EDUCATION INSTITUTE

Philippine Council of Mathematics Teacher Education (MATHTED), Inc.

Mathematics Framework for Philippine Basic Education

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©2011 by the Science Education Institute, Department of Science and Technology (SEI-DOST)
and the Philippine Council of Mathematics Teacher Education (MATHTED), Inc.,
Manila, Philippines

Citation:
SEI-DOST & MATHTED, (2011). Mathematics framework for philippine basic education.
Manila: SEI-DOST & MATHTED.

ISBN 978-971-8600-48-1

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Mathematics Department, Ateneo de Manila University, Katipunan Avenue
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Foreword

This framework is the product of months of careful planning and discussions, with ideas

coming from the best minds in the field of mathematics, prior to the actual drafting of the

manuscript. Although there may have been opposing views during the development of this

framework, which is not unusual when experts meet, the final output is proof that individuals

with diverse backgrounds and beliefs could be united by a common vision and goal.

The “Mathematics Framework for Philippine Basic Education” contains resources that will help

curriculum developers, teachers, school administrators and policy makers to design and

implement mathematics curricula that empower students to “learn to learn” and cause them to

better understand and use mathematics in their everyday life. The strategies consider only

Grades 1-10, however, because of the progressive nature of the concepts, curriculum

development could easily be extended to cover K-12.

It is hoped that this framework will be widely used and applied by the various stakeholders,

and that together we will work towards achieving the vision of scientifically, technologically,

environmentally literate and productive individuals through quality mathematics education.

Dr. Filma G. Brawner

Director, Science Education Institute

.

The writers and supporters of this project will be the first to claim that this is not a perfect document but hopefully a near perfect one. Catherine P. Vistro-Yu. at least for the moment. We hope that this document will be used widely. consultative meetings and fora. consulting. PREFACE T his framework took longer to finish than anticipated. a framework such as this continues to evolve – it will never be finished. the writers and contributors tried their best to weave the most essential parts of a mathematics curriculum framework into a comprehensive guide for all Filipino school mathematics teachers. several organized small group discussions with graduate students of mathematics education. and the Science Education Institute of the Department of Science and Technology present the Mathematics Framework for Philippine Basic Education. Project Director and Lead Researcher Mathematics Framework Project (2005 – 2008) . Discussions of how this could be achieved are endless but this framework stands by what most of us believe to be the core ideas for the teaching and learning of mathematics in our schools. arguing and collaborating. wisely and purposefully. two rounds of writeshops and two rounds of review. The timetable of activities in the last two years included four public presentations. The goal of mathematics education in the Philippines is mathematical empowerment. This is a product of intense discussions with the best minds in mathematics education. The Philippine Council of Mathematics Teachers Educators (MATHTED). During these two years of listening. Nevertheless. as a colleague had said. negotiating.D. Inc. resulting from the very first forum since the Working Draft was launched in 2006 to the last few meetings held recently. This document hopes to provide a sampling of how we could concretely provide quality mathematics education to all Filipino students. But. we assure you that the goal was never forgotten. Ed. mathematics educators. parents and school leaders.

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The Framework 5 Chapter 4. Declarations 3 Chapter 3. Assessment Targets 75 Bibliography 137 Acknowledgements 139 . Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction 55 Chapter 8. Lower Elementary Mathematics (K-3) 11 Chapter 5. Upper Elementary Mathematics (4-6) 25 Chapter 6. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Introduction 1 Chapter 2. High School Mathematics (7-10/11) 41 Chapter 7.

Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Measurement at the end 79 of Grade 3 Table 23. Cognitive Demands for the study of Patterns. Cognitive Demands for the study of Geometry at 4–6 28 Table 9. Functions and Algebra 64 Table 20. Analysis and Probability 74 Table 21. Analysis and Probability at 7-10/11 46 Table 16. Cognitive Demands for the study of Data. Analysis and Probability at 4–6 30 Table 11. Cognitive Demands for the study of Patterns. Functions and Algebra at 7-10/11 45 Table 15. Cognitive Demands for the study of Measurement at K–3 13 Table 3. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Geometry 60 Table 19. Cognitive Demands for the study of Data. Cognitive Demands for the study of Numbers and Number Sense at 7-10/11 42 Table 12. Cognitive Demands for the study of Geometry at K–3 14 Table 4. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Patterns. Cognitive Demands for the study of Numbers and Number Sense at K–3 12 Table 2. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Measurement 59 Table 18. Cognitive Demands for the study of Data. Analysis and Prob. Analysis and Probability at K–3 16 Table 6. LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Data. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Patterns. 90 ability at the end of Grade 3 . Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Data. Functions and Algebra at 4–6 29 Table 10. Functions and Algebra at K–3 15 Table 5. Cognitive Demands for the study of Measurement at 7-10/11 43 Table 13. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Geometry at the end of 82 Grade 3 Table 24. Cognitive Demands for the study of Geometry at 7-10/11 44 Table 14. Cognitive Demands for the study of Patterns. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Numbers and Number 76 Sense at the end of Grade 3 Table 22. Cognitive Demands for the study of Measurement at 4–6 27 Table 8. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Numbers and Number Sense 56 Table 17. Cognitive Demands for the study of Numbers and Number Sense at 4–6 26 Table 7. Functions and 87 Algebra at the end of Grade 3 Table 25.

Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Data. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Measurement at the end 98 of Grade 6 Table 28. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Numbers and Number 93 Sense at the end of Grade 6 Table 27. Analysis and Prob. Analysis and Prob. Functions and 124 Algebra at the end of Grade 10/11 Table 35. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Numbers and Number 115 Sense at the end of Grade 10/11 Table 32. Functions and 106 Algebra at the end of Grade 6 Table 30. 131 ability at the end of Grade 10/11 . Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Patterns. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Geometry at the end of 100 Grade 6 Table 29. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Data. LIST OF TABLES Table 26. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Measurement at the end 117 of Grade 10/11 Table 33. 110 ability at the end of Grade 10/11 Table 31. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Patterns. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Geometry at the end of 119 Grade 10/11 Table 34.

Ateneo de Manila University Support Staff Amelita Tangilon Lilibeth Villena Advisory Group Evangeline Golla. Ateneo de Manila University Technical Staff Maria Theresa Tulao. Mathematics Framework Project (Basic Education) Project Director and Lead Researcher Catherine P. Ateneo de Manila University Debbie Marie Bautista. University of the Philippines (U. Ateneo de Manila University Eric Siy.P. Vistro-Yu. Philippine Normal University Milagros Ibe.P. National Institute of Mathematics and Science Education Development . Science Education Institute Cooperating Institutions and Groups DOST-Science Education Institute Ateneo de Manila University Miriam College U.) and Miriam College Ester Ogena.

Mathematics provides students with the essential Mathematics for facilitating participation in skills in reasoning. providing a way of verifying its accuracy is surely something that making sense of the world. religion or it promotes self-reflection and develops one’s ability educational background. now Department of Education) decided to adopt the Refined Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC) in 2002. decision-making and problem productive life activities solving to help them make sense of many aspects of Everyone needs mathematics. making wise purchases. 1979). serving as a means of students can apply even in non-mathematical communication and operating as a gateway to settings. being able to make connections among in Philippine Education: facilitating participation the given information to generate a solution and in productive life activities. the thought process that goes into understanding the problem. another. all people have. One cannot deny the practical uses of mathematics in. national progress. Despite the many changes to the curriculum. the Department of Education. finding locations. Further. estimating expenses and Mathematics provides us with a powerful means of anticipating future problems to find solutions early communication – an objective language that allows enough. (Pascua. After curricular reviews that began in 1995. socio-economic status. us to express quantifiable relationships concisely ! ! . sex. has the following roles what is not. which was launched in 1988. the New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) was implemented. 1998). The Philippine mathematics basic education curriculum has undergone several revisions over the years. education and the world of work so that they make In school. in addition. measuring Mathematics as a means of communication distances. one way or to face life’s problems (Manuel. provide opportunities for individuals to develop thinking and understanding (Bernardo. skills and attitudes needed for effective participation Doing mathematics requires logical thought and in everyday living and prepare them for further trains students to think both critically and creatively. Introduction | 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION W hat is it about Mathematics that compels us to put so much emphasis and focus on its learning? Mathematics is one of the subjects most studied. needed to apply some form of mathematical mathematics is a means of empowerment and knowledge in dealing with their day-to-day activities. In short. taken up at the Pre-K level all the way to college. to name a few (Ogena and Tan. culture. Regardless of our rapidly changing world (FAPE. 2006). education level remain more or less the same: “to mathematics provides us with “ways of knowing”. 1988). 1993). followed by the New Secondary Education Curriculum (better known as the Secondary Education Development Program or SEDP Curriculum). Culture and Sports (DECS. Mathematics as a way of making sense of the world the goals of mathematics education at the basic More than just a set of isolated facts and concepts. students usually encounter specific worthwhile contributions to the society at large” problems that apply to the topic at hand. for example. understanding that everyone is entitled to. In 1983. as we see it. differentiating what is essential from Mathematics.

The College Board. values and collective intellectual of mathematics needed in the workplace continues resources of the Philippines. most Philippine schools cover at education. Mathematics is 19. in turn. 1990). As the level to the skills. In a country where only about both physical and social phenomena. 1988). students are not barred from attending a good university directly on account of the lack of specific It is our hope that through this framework. least a standard set of mathematical courses required ! ! . mathematics is indeed (Gates and Vistro-Yu. its study is indispensable in order to funds of knowledge. As we and Ogena and Tan. we can courses in their high school transcript. 2006). facilitating the connection of knowledge of mathematics courses offered at ideas in an increasingly information and knowledge. they. help educators enrich their students’ lives as they our students do not choose their own mathematics give them the gift of a high quality mathematics electives. worthy of the focus and attention it receives in our 2000. 2001). we of all graduates necessary to prepare them for life can formulate representations to model and interpret after basic education. “gatekeeper” for employability and a successful and productive citizenship. increasing our nation’s to increase. this demands a valuable tool for social development and global a strong foundation in mathematics (Pascua. Mathematics is seen develop the mathematical proficiency and literacy of as “an essential tool for intelligent participation in individual Filipino students. 2006). 1986). mathematics courses are seen to and more often than not. Through mathematics.1% of the population receives any education the unifying and integral thread that runs through the beyond that in the high school level (NSO. instead. 2003. Mathematics as a gateway for national progress Since a country’s economic progress relies heavily on On a national level.Filipino curriculum. sciences (NRC. For the significant role it success and acceptance into colleges and universities plays in our lives as Filipinos. 1993 competitiveness in our changing world. 2006). are intertwined and be “gatekeeper” courses that determine one’s future complement one another. In general. 2 | Introduction (Ogena and Tan. 2003). develop a “scientifically and technologically literate citizenry” (UP NISMED. contribute a technological society” (FAPE. Such is not the case locally . knowledge of mathematics is its progress in science and engineering. the basic education level can be thought of as a driven society (Ogena and Tan. Roles of Mathematics Intertwined These roles are not disjoint from one another In many countries.

students must bear the responsibility of move around and interact. With mathematics. a mathematical environment contribute to one’s 1998). To whom would students to see patterns in diverse phenomena and connect communicate ideas if not to their classmates or mathematics to other learning by understanding teacher? However. if the classroom. is hostile. Students have difficulty learning mathematics procedures. clean and allows plenty of movement and analytical thinking and depth of understanding. Mathematics is not a spectator sport. develop critical and safe. as managed the interrelationships of mathematical ideas and the by the teacher. Being mathematically competent aspect of a mathematical learning environment means more than having the ability to compute important but the social climate in the classroom as and perform algorithms and mathematical well. In an effort to establish balanced views about mathematics curriculum at the basic education levels. create appreciation Students need a learning environment that is and enjoyment of mathematics. a student is capable of expressing ideas in very organized ways. exploration. Mathematical ideas should be explored in success in learning mathematics. The student is. cold and worse does not uses of math in other areas. Declarations | 3 CHAPTER 2 DECLARATIONS A ny important document must be grounded in fundamental ideas that are deemed acceptable by the people concerned. ways that stimulate curiosity. The A mathematically competent student does not only social aspect of an environment contributes to a know how to compute and perform algorithms but deeper learning of mathematics. these principles offer a way of establishing a basic understanding of the standards espoused by this document. Not only is the physical being actively engaged in order to maximize their ! ! . and comprehensible. Mathematics is best learned when to organize information in structures that are useful students are actively engaged. then students would have difficulty engaging in collaborative mathematics and A mathematically competent student is able to communicating mathematical ideas – means that read mathematics and communicate it with clarity enable students to deepen their understanding of and coherence both orally and in writing. The physical and social dimensions of teacher for them to learn mathematics (Bernardo. practice democratic ideals. An ideal mathematical environment Therefore. Principle 1. students cannot expect to learn by simply is one that is well equipped with tools for learning watching their teacher solve problems on the board. The student is able of communication. The following non-negotiable principles represent these fundamental ideas put together by the developers of the framework. is also able to pose and solve mathematical problems and apply mathematical skills and reasoning in other It has been stated that mathematics is a means subjects and everyday experiences. Students must be engaged in the learning activities planned by the Principle 2. mathematics. mathematics and spacious enough for students to In fact. likewise. able Principle 3. in an unfriendly and undemocratic classroom.

knowledge development and acquisition. These tools include manipulative maintain wholesome attitudes and positive beliefs and hands-on materials that can be effective for about mathematics. students learn or fail to learn mathematics.. particularly in day-to-day activities such thoroughly researched and tested. It is through the community that arithmetic operations independent of calculator use. schools rely on local communities for fieldwork and Principle 5. Assessment is an essential component of mathematics learning. While exams and quizzes have a place the skills and processes used. Cajilig et calculators and computers with appropriate software. students have to understanding. must do the problem themselves to understand the different dimensions of students’ because doing so helps them learn and remember learning. A deep understanding of mathematics could be more effectively measured by other means. Students should develop the developing. Community support for mathematics learning is elementary students should be able to perform basic also as valuable. Communities could provide be effectively used to aid students in learning useful resources and other means for students mathematics. requires a variety of tools for learning. in measuring skills. likewise. Assessment in mathematics must site visits. Likewise. students could see how mathematics is alive and Well-crafted indigenous and alternative materials. utilized. and technique that would impede later mastery of TIMSS studies have shown that parental and home mathematics. mathematical tools Principle 6. These materials should be carefully and that perseverance. To enhance students’ modern and sophisticated tools all the time. al. of it. For and beliefs towards mathematics and the learning of example. calculators should be used with caution. could. formal or informal. many aspects of mathematical learning Principle 4. process. 2007. mathematics and deepen their mathematical Like with any type of learning. tools such as support contributes to students’ success in learning measuring instruments. These activities expose students to the be valued for the sake of knowing what and how realities of everyday mathematics at work. Students’ attitudes and beliefs about allow students to be actively engaged in learning mathematics affect their learning. When properly used. Working with the needs of the students as learners of mathematics other students exposes students to multiple ways of and should be used when it aids the learning solving and working with mathematics. It should not be regarded as a substitute for students’ understanding of quantitative concepts Principle 7. clarifying and applying mathematical attitude that engagement in mathematics is essential concepts. Students can learn from each other. as making purchases. even while their have learned and how much more they need to mathematics teacher works out sample problems in know. scientific and graphing mathematics (De Guzman et al. Following from Principle 3. ask questions. it. The use of technology should be driven by teamwork and common purpose. They ought to join in discussions. 2007). Technology offers a variety of tools that must be used cooperative work develops a spirit of camaraderie. Caution is needed to ensure that support of both parents and other community there is no loss of proficiency in basic computation groups. self- integrated into the instructional process.. assessment and self-confidence are frequently keys to success. Assessment tools must be varied in order class. judiciously. understanding of applications of mathematics. persistence. reflection. Families should project positive attitudes can contribute to a rich learning environment. results are useful to both teachers and students. Mathematics learning needs the and relationships. see the many different aspects of mathematics that students know how much mathematics they that they are studying. students. argue and reason out so that they It is through assessment. Students and teachers do not need to enhance their learning. Whether the assessment is carried out by teachers or external groups and during or all throughout the learning period or at the end ! ! . too. 4 | Declarations learning potential.

skills and values to pursue higher education. mental the focus goal through the teaching of a solid arithmetic. if these have been proven effective in developing students’ mathematical understanding. and analytical thinking encompass the following representing ideas and concepts and in connecting skills as well: Problem Solving. including paper and pencil. They thinking skills among all Filipino students. problem solving. Functions and Algebra. estimation. mathematical content. the goal of Mathematical Empowerment concepts. The vision is to achieve compute. to compete and be part of the Mathematical Empowerment: Critical and Analytical Thinking as the Goal of Philippine Mathematics Education technologically oriented workforce and to be The goal of mathematics education is to develop a informed citizens. The Framework | 5 CHAPTER 3 THE FRAMEWORK S tudents today require stronger mathematical knowledge. Students must Mathematically. They must gain an understanding mathematically empowered citizenry. Reasoning and Making learn to use a variety of methods and tools to Mathematical Connections. a substitute for all pedagogies particularly. cognitive values to all Filipino students no matter However. calculators and computers. geometry. measurement. the development of strong The use of technology and other hands-on tools cognitive skills and the promotion of desirable must be an integral part of learning mathematics. technology alone shall not be regarded as their background or circumstance. Communicating mathematics to other areas in life. For Filipino of the fundamental ideas of numbers and number students. proficiency in solving and computing. probability. data focuses on developing critical and analytical analysis. Critical must be proficient in computing. ! ! . Patterns.

generalize from numerical patterns able to extend his/her thinking in order to connect and verify results. They are Making Mathematical Connections also expected to understand properties of numbers A person who thinks critically and analytically is and operations. Functions and Algebra and This strand focuses on using numbers and measures Data. fractions. problem. teach the most fundamental and useful contents of • Choose and use different strategies to compute. estimation mathematical ideas and synthesize concepts and and their applications to real-world situations. percent and procedures and analyze arguments to determine integers. use and relationships determine that the problem is solved. The Philippine mathematics education program • Understand. 5) • Understand the meaning. algebraic. of life. A person who thinks critically and analytically should be able to communicate mathematical ideas This strand focuses on students’ understanding using the precise language of mathematics. understanding of numerical relationships expressed in ratios. 2003 TIMSS studies. ! ! . justify steps in mathematical decimals. This of numbers (counting numbers. demonstrate and inductive reasoning skills in order to make understanding of concepts and perform skills on meaningful statements. strands: Numbers and Number Sense. ideas through the use of mathematical structures The learning activities must address students’ and relationships. ratio and proportion. operations. This organization of to describe. real numbers and and symbols of mathematics. whole numbers. Students are expected to perform mathematical ideas to other areas of study or aspects basic algorithms and use technology appropriately. This includes the ability to use a variety of representations – graphical. Patterns. Measurement. properties. understand and compare mathematical the contents was influenced by the 1995. 3) propose ways to solve the systems. represent and describe complex numbers). equivalent forms of numbers and the use of numbers to represent Reasoning attributes of real world objects and quantities. understanding of relative size. mathematics and organizes these into the following estimate and predict effects on measures. Desirable students to: problem solving skills include the ability to: • Read. apply measurement concepts and explain measurement-related ideas. 2) identify or and relationship among numbers and number define the problem. use and interpret readings from at the elementary and secondary levels aims to different instruments and measuring devices. Analysis and Probability. select apt units and tools. Students learn to spot traits. numerical. fractions. proportions and percentages. Measurement verbal and physical – of mathematical ideas and The Measurement strand in Basic Education should apply concepts and procedures of mathematics to enable students to: other disciplines or areas of study and aspects of life. between operations on numbers. 1999 and and concrete objects. • Choose and use different strategies to compute Communicating Mathematically and estimate. write and understand the meaning order 1) recognize that a problem exists. Students are expected to have mastery of the This includes the ability to use both deductive operations of whole numbers. • Know and understand basic attributes of objects and the different systems used to measure these Mathematical Content attributes. 6 | The Framework Problem Solving Numbers and Number Sense A person who thinks critically and analytically The general objectives of this strand include enabling is often successful in problem solving. A person who thinks critically and analytically is able to make reasonable and logical statements. includes the ability to use the special vocabulary integers. Students are expected to demonstrate an whether conclusions are valid or not. 4) act on the proposed solutions and. Geometry. decimals.

Algebra should enable students to: • Recognize and describe patterns. should enable students to: • Use coordinate geometry to specify locations • and describe spatial relationships. mass/weight. Knowing. They should be able to solve equations and inequalities through various methods. and be able to explain their reasoning. equations. Solving. time. The to use data analysis to broaden their number sense. students to: • Explore the characteristics and properties of two Data. Functions and Applying and Proving. extension of proportional thinking to similar figures They are expected to be familiar with various graphs. and apply reasoning skills to make and validate This framework starts from the premise that equal conjectures about transformations and combinations opportunities must be given to all students regardless of shapes. Dealing with uncertainty and making geometric modeling to solve routine and non. reasoning and complex data. relationships using mathematical models. Visualizing changes among shapes and quantities This means using one’s creativity and imagination to • Use algebraic symbols to represent and analyze create images. the demands in learning quality mathematics and assimilate the values intrinsic to the discipline. area. Functions and Algebra cognitive demands under the proposed framework This strand extends from simple patterns to basic are classified under the six general categories: algebra concepts at the elementary level to functions Visualization. solving and decision-making situations. to include analyzing and interpreting increasingly • Use spatial visualization. money and temperature. The Patterns. predictions and outcomes require understanding of routine problems. Students are expected sufficient to accomplish the goals of Philippine to understand properties of geometric figures school mathematics education for all students. They Geometry should be able to use basic concepts of functions to Geometry in Basic Education should enable describe relationships. The Framework | 7 Students are expected to use the measurement • Represent and understand quantitative attributes of length. not only the meaning of basic probability concepts • Use geometric proofs to develop higher-order but also the application of those concepts in problem thinking skills (HOTS). Students should be able and real-world problems. Analysis and Probability and three dimensional geometric shapes and Data. capacity. Students should demonstrate their ability to extend basic concepts in Students are expected to use algebraic notation and applications involving perimeter. ! ! . relationships. thinking in relevant contexts to solve mathematical volume and angle measure. • Use transformations and symmetry to analyze Statistics and statistical concepts extend basic skills mathematical situations. Students are required to use measuring instruments and use technology to translate mathematical representations and use for calculations with imprecise measurements. pictures and other means to represent mathematical situations and understand mathematical concepts. Students are expected to apply their understanding of number This content strand addresses the goal of developing and quantity in solving problems involving data and reasoning skills in formal and informal settings. Computing. Analysis and Probability in Basic Education formulate significant geometric relationships. Patterns. They are also expected to demonstrate of learning styles and levels of ability in order to meet various geometric and algebraic connections. and indirect measurement is an important aspect of They should be able to make predictions from data this strand. surface area. but not figures given its description. at the secondary level. Students are expected to model properties of shapes Cognitive Demands and use mathematical communication skills to draw Higher expectations are necessary.

The cognitive values that must be taught mathematics is recognizing mathematics as a among others are: sensible and worthwhile endeavor (NRC. how it has grown and continues to evolve. to develop self-discipline and. rules and patterns to follow. many ways of applying and combining these rules while doing mathematics. its rich history and procedures judiciously. in turn.mathematics can be adhere to the structure of mathematics. use ways. Mathematics follows a logical sequence of concepts and prerequisite skills. 8 | The Framework Flexibility and Creativity Knowing Although mathematics has structure. to make a plan on how to solve the problem. there are and recalling facts and procedures. hypothesize and generalize. Reasoning and proving go “think about one’s thinking” which includes the together – proving enhances one’s reasoning skills ability to justify and verify the accuracy of one’s and conversely. this value allows learners to see topics from a particular branch of mathematics as being Solving connected to other branches of mathematics and To solve means to understand the problem to be non-mathematical fields as well. This includes making Introspection conjectures and finding ways to support or prove Self-reflection or metacognition is being able to these conjectures. Flexibility and creativity Computing includes being able to solve problems in various This is the ability to estimate. calculate. solutions and reasoning verbally and in writing. compute. are able to evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of School Grade Clusters others fairly. in the quest to find the most efficient solution. can contribute to This is the ability to verify statements. correct algorithms and determine the final results. cognitive learning theories advocate a curriculum design that takes into consideration pupils’ developmental ! ! . explain one’s mathematical thinking. usefulness of mathematics in making sense of the world and appreciating its many real-life applications. As learners recognize and in mathematics do pay off . Further. Applying This refers to the ability to recognize situations Cultural-rootedness that call for the use of mathematics concepts and This is appreciating the cultural value of mathematics procedures and the ability to use these concepts and and its origins in many cultures. Further. as learners of mathematics. steps taken. produce proofs of important theories. interesting. Cognitive Values Critical and analytical thinking cannot be fully Productive disposition developed without promoting desirable cognitive Having positive attitudes and beliefs towards values. This includes the ability of students to recognize that Proving they. they are able learned and students are capable of learning it. to act on the plan and to evaluate the results of the Utility solution. Consequently. having a productive disposition as well as being able to relate mathematics to one’s towards math allows one to believe that one’s efforts personal aspirations. 2001). memorizing of norms. This includes the ability to look beyond the challenge Objectivity that mathematics poses and view it as being fun and This stands for developing precision and accuracy. a fixed set This means understanding concepts. This includes creating new procedures and This involves recognizing the practicality and multiple strategies to be able to solve problems. justify our nation’s funds of knowledge. reasoning skills are needed to prove work. An introspective learner is one who is able to a result. solved.

The Framework | 9 growth and maturity. While there is always the possibility of the Philippines adding more years to its educational system. Taking into consideration the unique grade level system of the Philippines. Upper Elementary (4-6) and High School (7-10/11). this framework assumes the current system in place. this framework puts together a comprehensive curricular guide in mathematics for each of 3 clusters: Lower Elementary (K-3). ! ! .

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CHAPTER 4 LOWER ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS (K-3): KINDERGARTEN TO GRADE THREE .

fractions. levels -. use and • Use and give the relationship among the four basic whole numbers relationships between operations of whole numbers. operations. whole numbers. they develop an understanding There is no doubt that the content emphasis at of relative size.when to use them and how to use them. how Consequently. numbers. write and • Use real objects and models to understand place value of Whole understand the the Base Ten system. Cognitive Demands for the Study of Numbers and Number Sense at K-3 ! ! . write and say whole numbers. write and say numbers R5 Focused informal discussions from experience by counting. the study of patterns and data are a sense of how much and how many in increasingly important for students at these levels to develop varied and complex situations. measuring and putting R5 Sensible repetition. 12 | Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) T R5 he mathematics taught in K-3 must be marked by the following characteristics: Experiential and hands-on Numbers and Number Sense This strand focuses on students’ understanding of numbers (counting numbers. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: Read. R5 Informal fractions and decimals) properties. • Apply the properties of addition and multiplication. Operations on meaning. estimation and pencil and solving paper computations to solve real world problems and to verify answers or solutions. group and re-group and decimals numbers and number sets of objects. Through personal experience. and estimation different strategies to • Use relevant methods and tools for computing from in problem compute and estimate among mental computation. • Use thinking strategies for whole number computations. this framework recommends the people use them and how systems of numbers following to be staple features of mathematics operate. Students learn the deeper understanding of the nature of numbers and meaning of the four basic operations at these grade number relations. Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The K-3 Numbers Sub-Strand and Number Sense In K-3. systems • Represent commonly used fractions and decimals. order and • Read. Likewise. R5 Reasonable amount of memorization its usefulness and practical applications. order. equivalent forms of numbers and the these grade levels is Numbers and Number Sense use of numbers to represent attributes of real world but Geometry and Measurement are key areas as objects and quantities. • Explain the different meanings of the four basic Understand the operations of whole numbers. drill and practice objects in a collection. They appreciate mathematics. relationship among • Use whole numbers to count. They develop number sense -- well. Table 1. • Master basic number combinations for the four basic Computation Choose and use operations. instruction at these grades: R5 Purposeful play and manipulative activities Students learn how to read. operations • Use the operation(s) appropriate to a given situation. R5 Rich in basic and foundational concepts and skills estimation and their applications to real-world R5 Integrated and mathematical situations. This centers on the fundamental concepts of what numbers are. meaning.

They learn to think with kilowatt hours. longer/ The Measurement strand focuses on finding actual shorter. Table 2. solving involving predict changes on • Use appropriate methods and tools for computing measurements measures from among mental computation. • Estimate length. faster/slower. money and time. net worth density. temperature in degree and how they are related to each other (order. strategies). Cognitive Demands for the Study of Measurement at K-3 ! ! . length in meters. warmer/colder. capacity. mass. measurements of objects and their attributes. of attributes basic attributes of • Compare non-standard and standard measures. children’s work in measurement begins with comparing. systems of systems used to measure • Compare values of bills and coins and sets of them. They learn to use and mentally. such as area. arm span. Measurements needed in the modern world include footsteps. capacity. Understand. factor. They in money. Celsius. they use their body parts: hand span. They exhibit flexibility and critical thinking in solving problems. all students are expected to: enable students to: • Use real objects and models to order and compare Basic concepts Know and understand length. electricity consumed in learn numerical patterns. multiples. and estimation different strategies to • Calculate perimeters and areas of planar figures and in problem compute. measurement these attributes • Read prices of items sold.). Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) | 13 They learn properties of numbers and operations time in hours and minutes. and communicate using their language and connect They learn to join units to represent other attributes to the language of mathematics through pictures. capacity in liters. different instruments devices time and temperature. calendar. with technology appreciate measurements across jobs. meter stick. or common objects: paper clips. and measuring devices • Choose and use appropriate devices and units for measuring attributes of objects. more/less. measuring cups. interests and and approximate computations with estimation disciplines (See Table 2). for example. • Use instruments and measuring devices (e. mass. graduated cylinder. size. estimation and pencil and paper computations to solve real world problems and to verify answers or solutions. of objects and objects and the different • Compare the English and the metric system. They look at objects and sets of Measurement objects and compare which is bigger/smaller. estimate and volumes of prisms. inequality.g. lighter/heavier. speed and acceleration. with paper and pencil. use and Use of instruments thermometer. They use non-standard units to compare Students use real tools to measure objects and events. scale.. They estimate numerals and other symbols. clock. weight in grams. They learn to apply physical properties of objects and learn to choose various ways of computing (exact computations appropriate devices and units. Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content Sub-Strand The K-3 Measurement Curriculum should In K-3. In K-3. interpret readings from and measuring • Read and write measures of length. etc. ratios). Computation Choose and use • Give correct change for money in a given transaction. ruler. mass. capacity and time spent in an activity or between two given events. speed in km per hour and others.

Coordinate Use coordinate • Describe. • Give physical properties and characteristics of two. patterns and investigate relationships with models or real life objects which allow them to naturally Students also learn to choose appropriate units and acquire knowledge of the properties of shapes tools to measure physical attributes. etc. illustrate and identify types of angles. milliliter (mL) and liter (L). geometric to solve routine • Investigate and predict results of combining. scale. gram (g) and kilogram (kg). illustrate and identify basic geometric significant geometric concepts such as point. 14 | Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) books.and three- visualization. and formulate relationships • Name. transformations analyze mathematical • Describe. flips and turns. descriptions of locations reasoning and geometric modeling to solve real world problems. illustrate and explain mathematical situations situations where transformations and symmetry are applied. geometric shapes geometric • Compare and contrast among the geometric shapes. all students are expected to: enable students to: • Observe. number of bushels. and spatial locations and describe • Find and name locations using simple terms such as relationships spatial relationships above. model. ideas even before they enter school. behind. kilometer (km). characteristics and Two. Use transformations • Recognize shapes that have symmetry. Spatial visualization. They measure attributes using mathematics. describe. meter (m) and electronic scales. shoes.and properties of two. line and plane. Geometric ideas are gradually to physically estimate and allow for some degree developed and strengthened when children sort of error. Cognitive Demands for the Study of Geometry at K-3 ! ! . define. digital clocks. measure. relationships • Name. near.or three- Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content Sub-Strand The K-3 Geometry Curriculum should In K-3. draw and describe images of objects. thermometer. copy and draw shapes of familiar Explore the objects. describe. They learn to appreciate applications of things. classify models of two.and three. etc. Symmetry and and symmetry to • Create mathematical designs using slides. reasoning and dimensional geometric figures. subdividing modeling and non-routine and changing shapes and use these results to solve related problems problems. They learn to measure using the units within attributes of objects (sundial. meter stick. They learn and structures. between. • Use characteristics and properties of two. name and interpret relative positions and apply geometry geometry to specify ideas about directions. They acquire many mathematical different tools: ruler. • Make. the metric system: centimeter (cm). Later on. Table 3.and dimensional three-dimensional geometric figures and classify these three-dimensional shapes and figures accordingly. they learn about standard measurement in daily life. Use spatial patterns and paths through tessellations. under. They explore clock and calendar.). to the left of. They learn how people units of measure: the English system and the metric of different eras and different cultures measure system. Students also learn to combine Geometry units to measure other attributes or properties such Children have the natural desire to learn as area and volume.

Cognitive Demands for the Study of Patterns. tables. Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The K-3 Patterns. develop spatial sense. relationships functions and and changes that could arise. Geometry is necessary in solving problems in level and develop in succeeding levels. students mathematical and real world problems. Patterns. Functions and Algebra In K-3. measures. pictures and and effects of quantitative other graphical representations. It keen sense of identifying patterns and relations is the language of patterns and relationships used of numbers. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: • Arrange numbers and quantities according to patterns. Functions and Algebra at K-3 ! ! . Mathematical quantitative relationships multiplication and division of whole numbers and modeling using mathematical fractions using pictures. Represent and understand • Represent situations involving addition. associativity. • Illustrate the properties of operations. pictures distribution and identity of whole numbers and Language. Sub-Strand Functions and Algebra In K-3. Table 4). • Describe the numerical as well as physical attributes quantities. analytical thinking and the ability to make sense of the real The foundation of algebra must start in the preschool world. the more adept they understanding of shapes. patterns in numbers and Patterns. By using algebraic thinking and notation in meaningful context. and symbols to represent rational numbers. relationships and changes that could arise. Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) | 15 dimensional figures and start talking about the students are equipped with powerful tools to solve reasons for doing so. This strand other areas of mathematics and modeling real world extends from simple patterns to basic algebra situations (See Table 3). objects and symbols. pictorial and verbal representations representations situations to develop an understanding of whole and rational numbers. Through Geometry. properties. • Identify the properties of commutativity. • Arrange geometric objects according to patterns in Recognize and describe their physical properties. the focus is on developing students’ to informal algebraic processes. concepts at the elementary level to functions at the secondary level. subtraction. move from specific to general. Table 4. models • Make models to represent number sentences. the focus is on developing students’ Algebra is a tool to communicate mathematics. The earlier the exposure of a student For K-3 students. • Use equations to represent number sentences. symbols and and analyze mathematical • Use concrete. of properties of shapes relations • Represent patterns using words. It provides procedures and facilitating the development of the correct language techniques to manipulate symbols and variables to and representations of these patterns and relations. shapes and figures and to model real situations. Use language. changes that might occur • Make generalizations about patterns. relations and become at using formal algebra in higher levels (See structures of objects in the environment. logical reasoning.

charts and graphs. They learn to uncertainty: will. organizing data • Formulate and solve problems that require collecting and sorting data and relate them to real life situations. They realize that organize data in a variety of ways (tables. Cognitive Demands for the Study of Data. inferences and conclusions from the given data display and finally make decisions based on their Students are also made aware of actions and events interpretations. for students and others to handle and comprehend. • Describe and interpret data from charts. of making predictions • Make simple predictions of events. • Collect and record data. These ways make information easy They learn to record and represent data in tables. Analysis and Probability strand focuses In K-3. Students will also learn how to interpret data. line graph). Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The K-3 Data. • Classify/sort objects according to varied categories. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: Understand and interpret • Read data from various charts. might. children’s work in Data. (See Table 5). Interpretation of data presented in charts. They compare events and sequence probabilities and apply them in real life situations them from most likely to least likely. Students will also learn the basic that involve unpredictability and become conscious concepts of probability to make predictions of the of their use of language that signifies certainty and likelihood of events and outcomes. Analysis and Probability The Data. and graphs). • Describe actions and events that involve chance. Develop appropriate Collection and • Construct pictures. tables. bar graph. Data analysis analyzing data and use • Use data to learn and solve real life problems and these appropriately situations across other math strands and disciplines. sure/ conduct experiments and simulations to estimate maybe/unsure. Develop strategies for • Analyze data from pictures. charts and graphs (pictograph. Table 5. tables. sure. charts and graphs to skills for collecting and organization of data represent data. 16 | Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) Data. tables and data representations tables and graphs graphs. charts data can represent information about the real world. Analysis Sub-Strand and Probability In K-3. Analysis and Probability at K-3 ! ! . certain) Concepts of chance the concept of chance and in describing actions and events. make They learn to read and interpret from a given display. tables and graphs. will. Develop understanding of • Use the language of chance (might. possible/impossible. Analysis and on developing statistical and probability concepts Probability begins with collecting and classifying and skills that will help students collect and information in a variety of ways.

4. accompanying activity and exercise sheets. The teacher goes around the class to supervise the pairs’ progress. Supply the missing addends in number sentences of the forms x = y + z and w + x = y + z. Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) | 17 SAMPLE LESSON FOR LOWER ELEMENTARY (K-3) NUMBERS AND NUMBER SENSE Grade/Level: 1 Concept: Comparing (equality) Type of Instruction: Informal Prerequisite knowledge and skills: One-to-one correspondence. Equations in this exercise use the form x = y + z in x = y + z should be addressed by combination with y + z = x. counting. the students must be able to: 1. comparing. Lesson Proper & Practice: The teacher divides the class into pairs and provides each pair with Activity sheet 1 uses the form Activity Sheet 1 and popsicle sticks of two different colors. The teacher be displayed in other parts of the asks each pair to explain their work. Demonstrate the meaning of the equal sign in a number sentence. Materials Needed: Colored popsicle sticks. x . The teacher checks the accuracy of the pairs’ work and summarizes the activity to highlight the form x = y + z. ! ! . adding. Masking tape is used to attach their sticks to the cartolina. The students’ Each pair’s Activity Sheet 1 should works are hung on the board to be used for discussion. pencils. 3. the equal sign. The teacher then holds up three sticks made up given using a different number of of two sticks of identical color and another stick of a different color sticks. Concretely represent a number as a sum of two addends. The teacher then discusses how a classroom for the next activity. markers. and asks the class how many sticks there are and how this example is different from the previous one. y and z are whole numbers. This process is repeated and the teacher leads the class to conclude that the number three can be expressed in several ways as a combination of three sticks. Translate the concrete representation into a number sentence. TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Introduction: The teacher shows the class three sticks of the same color and asks how If needed. discussing answers to the exercise. Afterwards. another example may be many sticks there are. 2. The teacher x = y + z to provide a cognitive assigns a number to each pair with instructions to represent the number conflict to the usual form y + z = x on their sheets in as many different ways possible by using similarly which leads to a procedural view of colored popsicle sticks or a combination of sticks of different colors. Assessment: Exercise Sheet 1 that asks students to provide the missing addend Possible confusion on the form will be given. the teacher provides each pair with a marker and instructs them to write number sentences under each set of popsicle sticks. using objects as numbers. where w. number can be expressed as a sum of two numbers in several ways and provides an example. constructing number sentences Objectives: At the end of the lesson. masking tape.

The pairs are asked to get their sheets and do the quantities on both sides. The new sheets are than representing a command again posted on the board for discussion. number sentence in the form of w + x = y + z. The teacher asks the studentsto carry out the operation. The teacher chooses oneA structural view means that sheet from the previous day’s activity and cuts out a section of the sheet the equal sign is regarded as that contains one set of sticks and its corresponding number expressionrepresenting equality for the (See section sample). about their conclusions and lets them explain how they arrived at the This activity will lead to a conclusions. The students are then asked to write the correct lead to a the equal sign rather comparative symbol in the box between them. Activity Sheet 1 Sample Sheet Sample Output 3 3 3 = 3 = 3 = 3+0 3 = 3 = 3 = 2+1 3 = 3 = 3 = 1+2 3 = 3 = 3 = 0+3 ! ! . same to all similar sections of their sheets and attach them by pairs Results of Activity Sheet 2 will on Activity Sheet 2. Assessment: Answers to Exercise Sheet 2 Exercise Sheet 2 that asks students to provide the missing addend will may be used to expand the be given equations in this exercise that use the form w + x = y + z to lesson by using equations which check students’ concepts of the equal sign. 18 | Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Lesson Proper & Practice (continued): The teacher reviews the previous days’ lessons. leading them to a structural view of the equal sign. have more than two addends on one side of the equal sign.

2 + ___ = 5 + 1 3. 4 + 5 = ___ + 3 2. 2 + ___ = 6 5. ___ + 3 = 6 + 2 4. ___ = 6 + 3 3. ! ! . 4 = 2 + ___ stick? Give 6 different answers. 7 + 4 = 6 + ___ 5. Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) | 19 Section Sample (to be cut out from Activity Sheet 1 and taped to Activity Sheet 2) 2+1 Activity Sheet 2 Sample Sheet Sample Output 3 3 = = 3+0 1+2 = = 2+1 0+3 Exercise Sheet 1 Exercise Sheet 2 Instructions: Supply the missing parts of the Instructions: Supply the missing parts of the addition sentences below. 1. 9 = 7 + ___ 2. 8 = ___ + 4 1. Give 3 different ways of expressing the number 10 as a sum of two numbers. If the length of two sticks is equal to 14 6. 3 + 5 = ____ 4. what could be the length of each 7. addition sentences below. 5 = ___ + 3 paper clips. 8.

More examples of their faces with the objects in the background. ruler. Assessment: Exercise Sheet 1 that determines lines of symmetry and the number Activity should be done in the of lines of symmetry is given. 3. lines of symmetry they have. objects with several lines of symmetry should be given. Lesson Proper & Practice: After everyone has determined the line of symmetry of their partner’s The teacher should guide the body. The teacher then summarizes the lesson for the students. The teacher then instructs the students to hold up the drinking straw to try to divide any part of their partner’s body into two identical halves. Materials Needed: drinking straws. pencils and drinking straws and list down at least The teacher should classify the three objects with lines of symmetry. notebooks. The teacher then instructs the pairs to go out to the lawn or playground with their notebooks. students are expected to: 1. colored pencils. the teacher instructs the students to use the same drinking straw students so that they will realize to determine the lines of symmetry of their chairs and rectangular tables that a table has a few lines of by stepping back from the objects and holding the straw up in front of symmetry. 20 | Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) SAMPLE LESSON FOR LOWER ELEMENTARY (K-3) GEOMETRY Grade/Level: 2 Concept: Symmetry with respect to a line Type of Instruction: Informal Prerequisite knowledge and skills: Observing. Answers are shown on the board and evaluated by the students under the guidance of the teacher. The teacher asks the students to examples given by students share their answers with the class and solicits comments from the other according to the number of students. pencils. Identify objects that are symmetric with respect to a line. ! ! . illustrations given only a half of the object and the line of symmetry is given afterwards. illustrating. Determine the lines of symmetry. The teacher divides the class into pairs and provides each student with a drinking straw. 2. classifying and differentiating shapes Objectives: At the end of the lesson. The teacher guides the students in determining the line of symmetry. Exercise Sheet 2 that completes objects’ classroom. Exercise Sheets 1 and 2 TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Introduction: Activity may be done outdoors. Complete a figure given only half the figure and its line of symmetry.


 
 
 
 
 ! ! . Use a different color for each line. Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) | 21 Exercise Sheet 1 Instructions: Draw a line to divide each shape into two identical parts? Can you find more lines? Use your ruler and coloring pencils. Exercise Sheet 2 Instructions: Complete the figure by drawing the missing half of each shape.

the triangle. not the obvious ones. counting. 1. FUNCTIONS AND ALGEBRA Grade/Level: Kindergarten Concept: Patterns Type of Instruction: Informal Prerequisite knowledge and skills: One-to-one correspondence. . differentiating. 9).g. have more than one answer.. ! ! .. circle. 5. circle. The teacher then asks the students to describe the pattern made. colors or sizes. The teacher uses the cubes and prepares a sequence wherein the number In the activity where students of cubes is the basis for the pattern (e. students are expected to: 1.. comparing. the class may be divided cubes.. Lesson Proper & Practice: The teacher then provides more examples of repeating patterns using the large cubes and asks different students complete the patterns.). arrang- ing. then draws out the students’ may be easier for students to see description of the given pattern and uses these answers to explain about the other group’s arrangement growing patterns. triangle. Extend a growing and repeating pattern involving shapes. The teacher checks on how the students came up to explain their answers. The students are asked to arrange themselves in a line such that there should be an alternating boy-girl pattern with the teacher providing the guidance when needed.g. The teacher goes around and checks if the students were able to into two or more groups since it perceive and extend the growing pattern. then solicits their reasons for answers. with their answers and provides the necessary guidance for the students especially answers which are to see the pattern. The teacher then asks the students what might come teacher should ask the students after the last shape. knowledge on colors and shapes Objectives: At the end of the lesson. Describe a given pattern. _____. than their own. Replicate a given pattern. circle. The teacher will also provide examples using large color cubes in which color is the basis for the pattern. 3. 22 | Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) SAMPLE LESSON FOR LOWER ELEMENTARY (K-3) PATTERNS. Materials Needed: Large and small cubes (cubes with different shapes on their faces). large and small cubes (cubes with faces of different colors). colored pencils. The teacher roams around and guides the students’ outputs. The students are arranged from shortest to are requested to replicate this sequence on their desks using their small tallest. Exercise Sheet 1 TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Introduction: The teacher presents a repeating pattern involving shapes using large Since pattern questions usually cubes with colorful shapes on its sides (e. leading them to see the pattern in the given sequence of cubes. 3. observing.. 2. The students are asked to replicate and extend this pattern using their small color cubes on their desks.

Exercise Sheet 1 Instructions: What is the pattern? Draw the next shapes. Lower Elementary Grades (K-3) | 23 TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Lesson Proper & Practice (continuation): The teacher then asks the students to arrange themselves from tallest to shortest. again only providing guidance when needed. Answers will be discussed after the exercise. The teacher should consider all possible answers and explanations. Assessment: Exercise Sheet 1 is given to students. 
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CHAPTER 5 UPPER ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS (4-6): GRADES FOUR TO SIX .

calculator notation. They • Well-defined algorithms and procedures are more adept with manipulations and are ready to • Transition from informal to formal language do more than explore. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: • Use real objects and models to understand place value of the base ten or decimal number system. fractions and order and relationship • Represent the different meanings and uses of fractions decimals among numbers and sets through the use of different models and situations. Understand the meaning • Illustrate the different situations that model and applications of multiplication and division of whole numbers through Operations on operations as well as the concrete representations and real life situations. Table 6. to decimals. Choose and use different and estimation fractions. Cognitive Demands for the Study of Numbers and Number Sense at 4-6 ! ! . 26 | Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) S tudents at the upper elementary grades of 4 to 6 enter their adolescent years – years that are marked by a lot of psychological and physical Mathematics at these grade levels is of a different nature. • Demonstrate fluency and proper use of algorithms in Computation the four basic operations involving whole numbers. • Use the place value structure of the base ten or decimal number system to read. multiples of numbers • Solve problems that make use of theories related to factors. decimals and integers. The following characteristics mark the kind of mathematics learned: changes in their bodies. multiples. • Problem solving Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The 4-6 Numbers Sub-Strand and Number Sense In Grades 4-6. whole numbers relationships between • Explain the four operations and their inverse operations on whole relationships. strategies to compute in problem • Use estimation strategies and exact computational and estimate solving strategies from among paper and pencil methods. of numbers • Express numbers in equivalent forms from fractions. to percent and vice versa. scientific and Whole numbers. write and count whole numbers and decimal numbers. numbers • Identify factors and multiples of numbers. Cognitively. understand the meaning. write and • Express large numbers in exponential. • Use ratio and proportion to show quantitative relationships. Read. prime and composite numbers. Understand the meaning • Identify the greatest common factor and least common Basic number of and relationships multiple of numbers. they are ready • Exploration and experimentation for a more experimental approach to learning. theory between factors and • Determine whether a number is prime or composite. mental computation and use of technology. • Give the different uses and interpretations of integers.

volumes of regular and devices with an different instruments and irregularly shaped objects in everyday life. percent and integers.g. measurements used in different areas such as work. and devices in measuring such as the ruler or meter Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content Sub-Strand The 4-6 Measurement Curriculum should In Grades 4-6. • Use estimation strategies and exact computational Computations Choose and use different strategies from among paper and pencil. the performing arts. diameter of circles and discover the formulas used ratio and proportion. dm = 1 L = 1 kg of water). students can make calculations and • Informal proofs measure amounts involving decimals and convert from one unit of measure to another. and algorithms • Grasp of useful notations. They in finding perimeter. (See Table 7). They explore the approximate • Experimentation and investigation nature of measurement and use different strategies • Focused problem solving with emphasis on in estimating reasonable measures. understanding of measuring devices • Use a protractor to measure angles. sports and leisure. Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) | 27 Consequently. Cognitive Demands for the Study of Measurement at 4-6 ! ! . what a unit is • Construct and interpret scales of measurements. Students at these grades demonstrate an They explore the relationship between perimeter understanding of concepts and show mastery of the and area of plane figures. • Use of more efficient and practical procedures 1 cu. decimals.. students continue their work in measurement in dealing with real life problems and measurement with physical measurements of environmental issues such as pollution and climate properties of objects. areas. They continue to use tools change. protractor these levels is characterized by the following: and calculator. graduated cylinder. use and objects. solving involving effects on measures • Calculate perimeters. weighing scale. Table 7. They begin to multiple solutions and approaches understand the equivalence of some measures (e. English and metric systems. all students are expected to: enable students to: • Discuss advantages of using standard and non-standard Know and understand measures. mental and estimations strategies to compute. mathematics instruction given at stick. symbols and theories At this level. fractions. used to measure these • Convert measures within the same system or from one attributes system to another. volumes of different planes measurements and solids and state the precision of the final measure. strategies and use of technology to solve problems in problem estimate and predict involving measures. Use of • Design and use models to measure attributes of instruments Understand. Measurement students learn to appreciate the usefulness of In grades 4-6. Further. area and volume. Students Numbers and Number Sense learn to read maps and charts with scaled measures. the circumference and operations of whole numbers. They solve are able to apply these concepts and operations to a real life problems involving measure and investigate variety of real life problems (See Table 6). areas. basic attributes of objects Systems of • Distinguish between the English and the metric and the different systems measurement systems. and measuring interpret readings from • Find perimeters.

Spatial Use spatial visualization. Formal better understanding of shapes and figures because definitions may be introduced but only with the they are able to study and analyze their properties. Use transformations and • Explore and state the attributes of transformations.and three. all students are expected to: enable students to: • Define. Two. illustrate. Cognitive Demands for the Study of Geometry at 4-6 ! ! . observe. reasoning and geometric numerical and algebraic relationships. • Apply geometric relations to solve real life problems. are deemed ready (See Table 8).. geometric relationships • Understand relationships among angles. try things. • Use rectangular grids to locate geometric objects. congruence and similarity). Coordinate Use coordinate geometry discover and analyze properties of lines and simple geometry to specify locations geometric shapes. Symmetry and symmetry to analyze • Illustrate and describe transformations and symmetry transformations mathematical situations mathematically. • Use the rectangular coordinate plane to investigate.and three-dimensional geometric figures from different perspectives. • Create and interpret two. lengths. • Use geometric models to represent and explain visualization. vary the given. construct and illustrate parallel and dimensional properties of two and perpendicular lines. modeling problems • Construct informal proofs of geometric ideas and relationships. shapes and three dimensional • Make and test conjectures on the properties of geometric geometric shapes and quadrilaterals and other polygons. areas and volumes of geometric objects • Understand geometric relationships (e. interpret and justify results of investigations on combining and subdividing two and Explore the three dimensional figures. • Investigate. as they try to consolidate what they have learned Pupils at the upper elementary grades develop informally in the lower elementary grades. perimeters.g. intention of raising the level of understanding of The geometry that is taught must allow them to geometric concepts at this stage and only when they observe. Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content Sub-Strand The 4-6 Geometry Curriculum should In Grades 4-6. characteristics and • Define. reasoning and modeling to solve • Recognize and apply geometric ideas and geometric routine and non-routine relationships in areas outside mathematics classroom. 28 | Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) Geometry etc. and spatial and describe spatial • Solve problems involving lines and simple geometric relationships relationships shapes with the use of the rectangular coordinate plane. Table 8. record. identify and classify different types of triangles. relationships formulate significant • Define circles and related terms.

Mathematical understand quantitative • Represent change and rates of change using tables. as well as using modeling techniques to investigate Students realize that many events are unpredictable. modeling relationships using equations and graphs. relationships and phenomena describe data displays. Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) | 29 Patterns. Sub-Strand Functions and Algebra In Grades 4-6. Algebraic Use algebraic symbols • Apply introductory concepts of variables. Functions and Algebra at 4-6 ! ! . tables and graphs. They start to define sample spaces for In grades 4-6. representations mathematical situations • Investigate how variables change and relate such Represent and change to other variables. Cognitive Demands for the Study of Patterns. • Represent and analyze patterns and relations with functions and changes among shapes words. They At these grade levels. the size of the population from where generalizations and using a variety of representations they will get their data and the role of samples. the mathematics learned begin to consider the importance of data collection in this content strand leans heavily on making instruments. collecting and organizing data in more the probability of events happening (See Table 10). relations and quantities • Investigate situations that depict change and different possibilities for rates of change. discuss patterns and trends such as rates of change. generalizing procedures and results. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: • Extend and make generalizations about geometric and Recognize and describe number patterns. They to illustrate patterns. symbols and to represent and analyze • Use equations to represent mathematical relationships. They start to conduct simple experiments and simulations to determine the probability of an event Data. investigations and simulations Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The 4-6 Patterns. mathematical models • Draw conclusions from problem situations involving quantitative relations. Analysis and Probability occurring. students continue their work in identified events and make predictions regarding classifying. Patterns. systematic ways using a variety of data displays. patterns. There is an increased found in data. They make inferences and conclusions emphasis on establishing relations between sets consistent with data they gather. They start to plan surveys. quantitative changes (See Table 9). and numbers. Functions and Algebra to answer questions and problems objectively. Table 9. relationships.

data • Analyze and interpret the data in relation to the purposes of an investigation. 30 | Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The 4-6 Data. • Use the language of chance in carrying out simple experiments or simulations (e. graphs. Develop skills in cards. Statistics • Collect appropriate data for an investigation and organizing and analyzing organize these as needed. red and blue marbles from a bowl). Data data found in charts.. Understand and interpret • Evaluate data displayed on charts. Analysis and Probability at 4-6 ! ! . Table 10. Cognitive Demands for the study of Data. tables. a die. toss a coin. Analysis Sub-Strand and Probability In Grades 4-6. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: • Read and construct data displays. • Make predictions based on experiments and using basic theories of probability. • Describe distinctive features of a data display. making predictions of • Determine probabilities based on the sample space. skills for collecting. events. estimating probabilities • Construct a sample space and identify probabilities of Probability and use probabilities for events.g. interpretation tables and graphs of • Draw conclusions and generalizations based on data different kinds gathered from investigations. • Plan and conduct an investigation requiring collecting and organizing data related to a relevant problem or Develop appropriate issue.

! ! . textbook TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Motivation: What do farmers do to protect their land and property? They put a Allot 5 minutes fence around their lot. square g. How does one find the perimeter of a plane figure? All around you see different kinds of geometric figures. is closed. rectangle d. Materials Needed: Paper and pencil. the students must be able to: 1. it is called a polygon. If a figure made up of segments on the board. pentagon f. tape. octagon c. cut-out polygons. hexagon Polygons are closed figures made up of line segments that meet at the endpoints (corners) called vertices. State the rule for finding the perimeter of polygons. Ask the pupils to name each figure. Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) | 31 SAMPLE LESSON FOR UPPER ELEMENTARY (4-6) MEASUREMENT Grade/Level: 4 Concept: Perimeter Type of Instruction: Reinforcement Prerequisite knowledge and skills: Addition. Paste cut out figures on the board. length. Finding how much barbed wire they need to put a fence around their whole property requires finding the perimeter. parallelogram h. piece of wire. triangle e. Find the perimeter of polygons. multiplication. a. polygon Objectives: At the end of the lesson. Ask “What are polygons?” Write each name below each figure. 2. These figures You may draw these polygons we see are made up of line segments. triangle b.

what shall we do? Group the pupils by five. form a triangle and tape it on the Allot 40 minutes. floor of the room is made of wood. Tie the string around the push pins to serve as sides of the polygon. and meter means measure. an illustration board or a piece of plywood may be used. Use the centimeter • (Step 5) Add the lengths of units. we will be getting the Straighten the wire to show triangle’s perimeter. The distance that is covered by the string is called the perimeter. The perimeter 7. 4. Measure the string. • (Step 6) The number Perimeter is the distance around a figure. • (Step 7) Yes. but should have a perimeter 3. How did you find the sentence is the sum of the perimeter of your polygon? lengths of all the sides of 6. Ask a pupil to describe the triangle. styrofoam. find the perimeter of sides. Give each group the activity sheet and This is an indoor activity. may vary according to the 2. Let the pupils do the activity. What if you have other polygons and you cannot straighten the sides like this triangle. Form any polygon by marking the corners with the push pins on polygon made by the pupils the styrofoam. Measure the sides of the polygon with a ruler. that its length is the perimeter. ! ! . For the polygon you have made. Emphasize that the sides formed by the wire makes up the triangle. Do you think this way of finding the perimeter of your polygon can of every polygon is the also be applied to other polygons? Explain. Using your ruler (use the centimeter units). How long is its side? What is the perimeter of the polygon? the sides of the polygon. close to 100 cm*. write a number sentence relating the polygon. 5. The length of this wire is the perimeter of the triangle. If the distribute the materials for the activity. marker Discuss with the class the ideas from this activity. Procedure • (Step 4) The length of sides 1. ruler. the lengths of its sides and perimeter. If we are to measure the length of this wire. push pins. board. sum of the lengths of all its 8. 32 | Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Lesson Proper: Show a piece of wire. Activity Sheet Perimeter Materials: string 100 cm long. *Discrepancy is expected from tying the string around the pins. Measure the length of the wire. From this wire. Peri means around the polygon below.

Therefore the length of each side is 20 cm. s2 . 1. side 2. The shape of the pizza is a 2. its perimeter? Perimeter = length of side 1 + length of side 2 + length of side 3 + length of side 4 or P = s1 + s2 + s3 + s4 where s1 . How do you find the perimeter of a hexagon? A hexagon has six sides. s3 . 
 Assessment: Allot 15 minutes. However. the different answers of the pupils from each group confirm it. so 4s = 80. s1 = s3 and s2 = s4 so P = 2 x s1 + 2 x s2. Since the perimeter is 80. true? Yes. There should be 6 Find the perimeter of each polygon. side 3 and side 4. A square pizza has a perimeter of 80 centimeters. addends. The rectangle has length of 16 meters and width of 8 meters. width by two” if they formed a Draw a rectangle on the board. ! ! . The answer is 20 cm. If the sides of this rectangle are labelled rectangle. For a square “measure side 1. You can use the formula for finding the 
 perimeter of a square. and s4 are the lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Divide the perimeter triangles. add the lengths of all its sides. If the square. The lengths of its sides rectangle is cut along one of its diagonals to form two congruent are equal. Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) | 33 TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Consider the different answers to questions posed in step 6. that is P = 4s. because it is a rectangle. What is the Expected Answers length of its side? 1. how does the perimeter of one of the triangles relate to by four because the square has the perimeter of the rectangle? Why? four equal sides. sentences on the board. what number sentence would represent its side and multiply it by four”. 
 2. Answer: Add the lengths of Practice Exercises: its sides. Pupils might answer “multiply How then do we find the perimeter of a polygon? the sum of the length and To find the perimeter of a polygon. The two triangles share the diagonal thus the length of the diagonal is part of the perimeter of each of the two triangles. Is the Write the different number answer “The perimeter of a polygon is the sum of the lengths of all its sides”.

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 ! ! . Show by counting the number of spaces and the Negative amounts are called equivalent amount of money. Write this problem on Manila paper or cartolina and tape it on the board. Relate that zero What about the +2500? indicates no money. how much money his father spent in a week. 34 | Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) SAMPLE LESSON FOR UPPER ELEMENTARY (4-6) NUMBERS AND NUMBER SENSE Grade/Level: 6 Concept: Integers Type of Instruction: Formal Introduction Prerequisite knowledge and skills: Whole numbers. A problem about direction Tony saw his father’s ledger. 2. However. Lesson Proper: Allot 40 minutes. that does not add and subtract positive and make sense because his father had P2 500 at the beginning of the week. What should Tony do? Draw a number line and mark the points on the number line. He wonders and west may be used. Represent quantities using integers. Thus. negative whole numbers or What mistake did Tony make? what we call integers. number line is. Explain the scale used on the number line. his father spent the numbers to the right of zero P3 000. Define an integer. greater than zero are positive numbers whereas amounts less How much money did Tony’s father spend in a week? than zero are negative numbers. What can you say? It is natural that Tony would write the number sentence 2 500 – 500 = He has yet to learn how to 1 500 or Tony’s father spent a total of P1 500. He saw that on using north and south or east Monday the entry was P2 500 but at the end of the week. Materials: Paper and pencil. Amounts Count 5 units to the right of zero. Why does one arrow point to the left and the other point to the right? This topic is leading to addition The arrow that points to the left shows the direction below zero and the or subtraction of integers. Starting from 2 500 until –500 is 6 spaces debts. are positive and the numbers to the left of zero are negative. arrow that points to the right shows the direction above zero. measurement of temperature Objectives: At the end of the lesson. on a number line. the entry was –P500. a record of money that his father has at hand. Therefore. But each space is P500. The answer is P3 000. 1 unit = P500 -1000 -500 0 +500 +1000 +1500 +2000 +2500 Ask: How did the teacher locate -500? Describe or define what a Count 1 unit to the left of zero. ruler. on the number line. the students must be able to: 1. textbook TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Motivation: Allot 5 minutes.

+3 corresponds to Point C. On the number line below. Using set notation. This can be clearly shown by a number line. ! ! .” The pairs +5 and -5 are called additive inverses. Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) | 35 TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Lesson Proper (continuation): The number line above shows some of the numerals for the numbers called integers. -2. +5 and -5 have the same distance (or equal spaces) from zero.2 and goes 5 spaces to the right. a positive number is written with a plus sign and a negative number with a minus sign. -1.. C and D? A B C D -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 The arrows above the number line shown below are used to show the direction of counting and the number of spaces counted.} -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 For clarity. 3.” How are the positive numbers indicated? Using a plus sign before the whole number. –3 is read as “negative three. zero is neither a positive nor a negative number. going to +4 i. 2. 1.e. A B C –2 corresponds to Point B. only a few integers are indicated. It is because of this that integers are also called signed whole numbers. Draw on the same line to show 6 spaces to the left of zero. How are the negative integers indicated? By using a minus sign before the whole number. Draw a number line and indicate by an arrow the count of spaces that begins at . 0. Arrow B begins at -1 going The set of whole numbers together with their opposites make up the to +2 and Arrow C begins at +6 sets of integers. -3. Integers are sometimes referred to as directed numbers because they are used to indicate direction with respect to a reference point. However. The numbers to the left of zero are called negative numbers. What integers corresponds to the points A. Expected Answer: Arrow A begins at -3 going to Summary -7. + 5 is read as “positive five. The numbers to the right of zero are called positive numbers. Where did the Expected Answers: count indicated by each arrow begin? –7 corresponds to Point A. B. …. a set of integers can be written as I = { …. -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +6 corresponds to Point D.

30 – 20 = 10) c. -5 2. –b 5. Normal body temperature of 37 degrees 8. 6:30 A. 36 | Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Practice Exercises Expected Answers: A.M. An increase of 4 points in your test score 2. A salary increase of 2000 pesos 9. 8 1. the point is at +11 of the number just identified.M. –(–5) 3. If the temperature of the water falls 5˚C a. 10 – 20 = –10 ) ! ! . 5 3. 40 – 10 = 30) a. 7 units to the right of zero and then another 4 units to the right a. Use any 1. b Assessment: Answers: 1. 10 units to the right of -7 and then 5 units to the left of the b. Represent each of the following quantities using integers. +4 3. –1. a 4. Point D is 2 units to the left of -4 5. –10˚C (it falls 20˚C after two hours. +37 9. c. A debt of 500 pesos 4. –100 7. The seventh floor from the ground level 7. b. Give the opposites of each number 1. +7 8. 8:30 A. –8 2. 100 meters below sea level 6. Draw your own number line and locate each point described. b. 7:30 A.000. A temperature of 20 degrees above zero 1. Point B is 9 units to the right of zero D A C E B 3. hour. 20 kilometers up the mountain from sea level 10. 1. Point E is 1 unit to the right of 4 C. A loss of 1 million pesos in a business 5. 6 o’clock in the morning. 30˚C (it falls 10˚C after 30 after every 15 minutes.000 6. +20 2. Point A is 4 units to the left of zero 2. A loss in weight of 5 kilograms 3. 1. Point C is 5 units to the left of +5 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9 +10 4.M. the point is at –2 number just identified. –5 4. a. –a 5. Use the number line to indicate each integer described. 10˚C (it falls 20˚C after 1 b. +2000 10. +2000 B. what is the temperature at minutes. letter to label the integer on the number line. The water with a temperature of 40˚C is placed in a refrigerator at 2. –500 5. 2. (–5) or –5 4.

The teacher calls out. Use set notations. Armando said there were 8 more elements in one set. Place 16 math books and 24 science books on the table. What did he mean by “elements”? 4. “The boat is sinking. is to discuss informal notions of sets and comparisons of Beatrice: We have 16 new math books. Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) | 37 SAMPLE LESSON FOR UPPER ELEMENTARY (4-6) PATTERNS. Give students time to think 1. 3. Did Beatrice and Armando mean the same thing when they said “members” and “elements”? 5. Perform operations on sets. Beatrice. on the table. textbook TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Motivation: Allot 10 minutes. We have 24 new science books. Mario: I think both of you are correct. Ask the following questions. Engage three The object of the conversation pupils in a conversation about the books. Beatrice said one set had fewer members. Materials Needed: Paper and pencil. Armando and Mario were talking about the set of books about the questions posed. multiplication Objectives: At the end of the lesson. the students must be able to: 1. 2. numbers of elements in a set.” All students form the groups or “sets. What does she mean by “members”? 3. Play the game “The boat is sinking…” Go to a wide area to play this game. Why did Mario say that Beatrice and Armando both correct? ! ! . Armando: There are 8 more books in the set of science books. Group yourselves into (mentions a number). FUNCTIONS AND ALGEBRA Grade/Level: 5 Concept: Set Notation and Operations Type of Instruction: Informal Prerequisite knowledge and skills: Addition. What do we mean by a “set”? 2. even if you’re saying it differently. Understand terms related to sets. There are 8 fewer books in the set of math books. This game continues until there is two or three students left.” Those that cannot form a group sit on the side.

8. e. 4. 3. it is called an E = {1. 7. F = {2. i. o. D = { 1. 0. E is the set of counting numbers. G = {. Capital letters are used to name or denote a given set. infinite set. How do they differ? Examples: A set may be described by Listing: a. 1. We need not list all the elements of the set. 1. 6. belong to either A or B. 6 and 8 are Nicolas: The first sentence could be read. Consider sets A and B above. 9 } 5 elements What elements are in set A or set B? How many are there? 2. 6. 20}.. 6.” However 3 is not in the set. M = { a. 5. 3. 4. –2. 9 9 elements What elements are in set A and set B? How many are there? None 0 elements How should each set be described? The number 2. stamps or numbers. 5. u } precise descriptions. we say “3 is not an element of set Consider the ways Nicolas and Freddie described set A. that belong to both A and B. 6. and less than ten. D is the set of counting numbers from 1 to 9 b. 2.. “A is the set of even numbers greater than zero We say “2 is an element of A”. Their set consisting of elements that union is the set {1. it is read. 4. What do you call the set where elements that belong to A or to B? It The union of set A and B is a is called the union of the two sets. 3.” set A. 7.. G is the set of all integers. 8. 38 | Upper Elementary Grades (4-6) TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Lesson Proper: A set is a collection of objects or elements such as books. F is the set of even numbers greater than 0 but less than 20. ! ! . 8} 4 elements B = { 1. 4. 9}. … }. Description a. How do you describe the elements that belong to set A and set B? It is The intersection of set A and B called the intersection of A and B. A”. 8. When an object is a member of a set. 2. 10. the intersection of A is a set consisting of elements and B is an empty set since there are no elements in common.. 4. In the example. we say that the object is an element of a set. 4. three dots to An finite set if a set in which all represent elements that are not listed but are members of the set. 2. An empty set is a set without elements. 7. We mat use. Otherwise. “Set A has 2. 4. 5. …. 4. 6. 9 } listing the elements or by using b. 7. M is the set of vowels in the English alphabet.. 3. 5. Let us consider the sets of numbers: A = { 2. 2. 18. Freddie: No. 8. 3. –1. its elements can be completely Examples: listed. 6 and 8 for called members or elements of its elements.}. It is also called null set..

5. 5. 1. O. List the elements of the following sets: A. R. 1. The members of set D are the weekdays after Saturday and before 3. I. R. Use the following sets to answer exercises 6 to 11. I. {A. Assessment: Allot 10 Minutes 1. U } C. 7 elements 5. 11} from zero to ten}. Describe the sets: N = { 0. Why is the number of elements in the union of Y and Z not the 5. {A. 9. 4. 16 elements 6. D. Wednesday. P. 10}. S. S.306 and set B 1. N. C = { Sunday. If set A contains the different numerals used in 70. X } Z = { A. T. P = { 1. 8. D = { } Sunday. 14 elements same as the sum of the elements of each set? 6. . L. V. 7}. L. How many elements are in set Y? U. C. V. B. T. List the members of the union of set Y and Set Z. 3. The members of set C are the days of the week Thursday. P = { set of odd numbers from one to C. Friday. M = { I. P. L.035. what is the union of A and 2. U. The members of set M are the Roman numerals used to write numbers 2. 4. E. U } 2. List in a set the distinct letters in the word MISSISSIPPI. {M. F = { 5. 6. Expected Answers 2. 3}. 2. B. 2. 3. R. Monday. 2. V. Saturday} 3. TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Practice Exercises: Expected Answers A. one through one thousand. The members of set F are the odd numbers between 3 and 9. Tuesday. O. T. S. The union is {0. What members of set Y are also members of set Z? 1. X. R. Because common elements are only counted once. X} 4. How many are in the union of set Y and set Z? 4. E.7 } 4. B. 7. 6. P} contains the different numerals in 5. N. M} 1. eleven} Y = { A. How many elements are in Z? 3. I. 3. N= { set of even numbers B. The B? What is the intersection of A and B? intersection is {0.

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CHAPTER 6 HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS (7-10/11) .

fractions and decimals. use and relationships • Compare the properties of numbers and number sets.)/. Computation Choose and use different • Demonstrate fluency in operations with real numbers and estimation in strategies to compute using mental computations."'. They would benefit most students begin to learn more about the set of real from a formal mathematics instruction if they have numbers.)&'5-)&0#(! as provides them with the comprehensive set of R5-)(#(!5(5*. units to find measures of other attributes: area./. In high school.)) mathematical concepts and skills that they need R5.. division. This means that the kind of instruction that is If they have not. High school mathematics prepares students for university and college as well It does benefit students in high school if mathematics instruction focuses on: R5. Table 11. fractions. parity of numbers • Solve problems involving factors.-5(5&!). including circular measure and apply it to different situations. 42 | High School Mathematics (7-10/11) I t is in high school that much of mathematics is formally introduced. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: Operations on Understand the meaning. volume. In this content strand. These phases provide the most important In Grade 7-10/11. prime and composite numbers and parity of numbers. the mathematics taught is formal. of operations on whole • Show the effect of multiplication./. They explore angle measure. highly symbolic Numbers and Number Sense and high level. Cognitive Demands for the study of Numbers and Number Sense at 7-10/11 ! ! .5) 5'. speed. students have almost mastered the concepts of whole numbers.#. surface area. density and pressure. of factors and multiples • Demonstrate fluency in identifying the greatest Basic number of numbers. They apply trigonometric functions to measure Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The 7-10/11 Numbers Sub-Strand and Number Sense In Grades 7-10/11. prime and common factor and least common multiple of a set of theory composite numbers and numbers. students continue to combine foundational ideas that hopefully get consolidated. multiples. decimals and numbers that include exponentiation and extraction of roots on the rational exponentiation and magnitude of numbers. strengthened and deepened in high school. they need to do so soon because most effective depends on how much foundational much of the topics from the other content strands and preparatory knowledge students gain from are introduced at year 7/8.#- should they decide to find employment right after R50&)*#(!5ł/(35#(5*. gone through the exploratory and experimental phases of learning mathematics in their elementary Measurement grades. numbers extraction of roots • Demonstrate fluency in identifying factors and Deepen understanding multiples of a set of numbers. paper and pencil and problem solving and estimate technology. acceleration. highly structural. the elementary grades. whole numbers. specifically the rational numbers."'-85 year 10 or 11. At these grade levels.

] Table 12. them to demonstrate understanding of geometric concepts and relationships. students are expected to be able to suited to develop critical thinking among students. in problem solve real-world problems. volume. and measuring interpret readings from temperature and angles. Functions and Algebra Geometry seems to be the mathematics best In high school. generating functions to describe their mathematical reasoning. mass. radian understanding of measuring devices measure) to find and interpret measures. Given enough freedom to work and interact This includes translating information into algebraic with the objects within their culture. by way of assimilating. Choose and use different and estimations • Use concepts of rate. the construction of They use measurement in other disciplines such as mathematical proofs opens an opportunity for statistics. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: Know and understand basic attributes of objects • Establish relationships among units within the same Systems of and the different systems system. use and estimate and measure length. velocity and density to strategies to compute. non-routine problems analytically. Cognitive Demands for the study of Measurement at 7-10/11 ! ! . area. devices with an different instruments and • Design a model using trigonometry (e. perform representational activities involving algebra. High School Mathematics (7-10/11) | 43 attributes that are not easily accessible (e. or interdependently. make meaningful patterns or sequences and drawing out rules behind mathematical connections and solve routine and numerical relationships.g. measurement used to measure these • Establish relationships from one system to another. learners do expressions (in which one or more of the quantities communicate mathematically. time. among the different shapes and figures and the The justifications they exhibit in the mathematical use of mathematical arguments and reasoning to proofs is a manifestation of their ability to think formulate significant geometric relationships.. Geometry recognizing and taking advantage of the interplay of The focus of geometry in high school is the analysis the different strands in solving problems and using of the properties and relationships that exist the results of investigations in meaningful ways.. and concepts. attributes Use of • Select and make use of appropriate units and tools to instruments Understand. distance of an object from another). Simpson’s rule and integration). height In pursuit of making learners learn independently of a building. Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The 7-10/11 Sub-Strand Measurement In Grades 7-10/11. estimate and predict solving involving • [Optional – explore varied ways of calculating areas effects on measures measurements and volumes (e.g.g.. trapezoid rule. natural sciences and social sciences. exercise and improve may be unknown). what a unit is • Use a variety of methods to calculate areas and volumes Computations of planes and solids. rules analytically and critically. Patterns. speed.

among classes of two and three dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. geometric routine and non-routine modeling problems Learn to construct Geometric geometric proofs and use • Establish the validity of geometric conjectures using proofs these to develop higher different types of proof and arguments.and similarity.characteristics and • Explore relationships including congruence and dimensional properties of two. They should also be able to They continue to build their knowledge through use various methods in solving equations and collecting. transformations symmetry to analyze • Use transformations and symmetry to analyze mathematical situations mathematical problems and situations. a simpler statement. students continue their work on algebra. Analysis and Probability perform transformational activities involving In Grades 7-10/11.and three.. experiment). Two.g. students are expected to be able to Data.g. and describe spatial relationships polar). analyzing and interpreting inequalities and explore ways of finding efficient data from the real world or from simulated situations. Spatial Use spatial visualization. equation or inequality to an equivalent the two have become in today’s technological statement in order to find the unknown or to create world where access to data has been made easy. Understand • Represent transformations in the plane using graphs. relationships formulate significant • Use trigonometric relationships to determine lengths geometric relationships and angular measurements.and three-dimensional objects.. formulate and test conjectures and solve geometric geometric shapes and problems about them. Symmetry and transformations and vectors and functions. order thinking skills Table 13. strategies in determining the most efficient strategy They carry out simple but well-planned simple to find a solution. all students are expected to: enable students to: • Determine and analyze properties and characteristics Explore the of two and three dimensional objects. visualization. Cognitive Demands for the study of Geometry at 7-10/11 ! ! . Use coordinate geometry geometry • Analyze geometric situations using the Cartesian to specify locations and spatial coordinate system and other coordinate systems (e. • Represent and examine properties of geometric shapes Coordinate using coordinate geometry. This includes changing the form of an statistics and probability and realize how pervasive expression. research activities (e. 44 | High School Mathematics (7-10/11) In addition. reasoning and geometric • Use geometric models to solve problems. survey. reasoning and modeling to solve • Apply geometric models in other areas of mathematics. relationships • Investigate conjectures and solve problems involving two. They analyze data by using measures of central tendency Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content Sub-Strand The 7-10/11 Geometry Curriculum should In Grades 7-10/11. organizing.

• Classify equivalent forms of algebraic expressions. Table 14. Algebraic Use algebraic symbols • Investigate relationships between algebraic functions symbols and to represent and analyze and graphs of lines and curves. Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The 7-10/11 Patterns. median. variance. rational. raffle draws and lotteries. functions and and possible changes in • Generalize patterns using functions. forecasting. graphical and tabular representations. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: • Identify functions as linear and nonlinear. Represent and • Determine functions that will model relationships Mathematical understand quantitative in a given situation by identifying the quantitative modeling relationships using relationship present. In their research activities. standard deviation) and measures of relationship (correlation). inequalities and relations. etc. trigonometric. equations. polynomial. Sub-Strand Functions and Algebra In Grades 7-10/11. representations mathematical situations. Functions and Algebra at 7-10/11 ! ! . • Use variables to represent unknown quantities. • Identify and recognize equivalent forms for algebraic expressions. They use probability in varied and interesting situations: games. genetics. distinguish their properties using tables. • Perform operations and transformations on functions and equations. relations shapes and quantities. • Represent and analyze patterns using tables. They realize that it is important for them to avoid faulty representations of data. • Compare properties of various classes of functions – exponential. Cognitive Demands for the study of Patterns. Recognize and describe • Relate and compare different forms of representation Patterns. mathematical models • Make conclusions about a situation represented by a mathematical model. mode). words and symbolic rules. measures of dispersion (range. • Interpret representations of functions of two variables. • Use algebraic symbols to represent and explain mathematical relationships. • Write and solve equivalent forms of equations. • Use algebraic symbols to represent situations and solve problems. inequalities and systems of equations. students apply basic concepts of probability. relationships for a relationship. High School Mathematics (7-10/11) | 45 (mean. patterns. graphs. • Model and solve problems using equations. graphs or equations.

graphs of different kinds • Use probabilities of events to solve problems involving chance. estimating probabilities Probability • Apply concepts of probability to explain events in and use probabilities for genetics. tables and association to describe and interpret data. Table 15. standard deviation. variability and statistics in charts. all students are expected to: Curriculum should enable students to: • Plan and implement surveys/investigations on current issues or problems (e. mode. Develop appropriate sports. Develop skills in • Use simulations to estimate probabilities. environment. 46 | High School Mathematics (7-10/11) Cognitive Demands General Objectives Specific Objectives Content The 7-10/11 Data. music). social events. judgments from data displays. sports and other games of chance. use and • Draw inferences. data • Discuss sampling and recognize its role in drawing inferences and conclusions. Understand. Descriptive skills for collecting. Inferential interpret data presented • Use measures of central tendency. range.g. making predictions • Use probability concepts in forecasting election results. Sub-Strand Analysis and Probability In Grades 7-10/11. statistics organizing and analyzing median. Analysis and Probability at 7-10/11 ! ! . • Determine summary measures on data such as mean. Cognitive Demands for the study of Data.. weather and other natural phenomena.

thrice. The is the number of times the base resulting number 8 is called the power. High School Mathematics (7-10/11) | 47 SAMPLE LESSON FOR HIGH SCHOOL (7-10/11) NUMBERS AND NUMBER SENSE Grade/Level: First Year Concept: Exponents Type of Instruction: Formal Introduction Prerequisite knowledge and skills: Multiplication of real numbers Objectives: At the end of the lesson. the students must be able to: 1. 3. ! ! . 2. twice. 2 is called the base and 3 is called is used as a factor and the power the exponent. four times and so on. Number of Folds Number of Parts 0 1 (the whole) 1 2 2 4 3 8 4 16 5 32 Lesson Proper: Allot 40 minutes. Simplify an exponential expression. Let the students count the number of parts created after folding the paper once. a base and a power. It is read as “the third power of two is eight. the exponent Let us take the form 23 = 8. 2=2 2 (2) = 4 2 (2) (2) = 8 2 (2) (2) (2) = 16 2 (2) (2) (2) (2) = 32 The above pattern can be rewritten as 21 =2=2 22 = 2 (2) = 4 23 = 2 (2) (2) = 8 24 = 2 (2) (2) (2) = 16 25 = 2 (2) (2) (2) (2) = 32 The base is the number that is taken as a factor.” is the product. Materials: Legal size onion skin paper TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Motivation: Allot 5 minutes. Identify an exponent. Is there any pattern? The intention is to consolidate If the number of folds represents the number of times that 2 is used as the concepts learned from the a factor and the number of parts as the product then activity. This is the exponential form of 8. Read an exponential expression correctly.

an= (a)(a). the paper has two parts after folding once. four-tenths is eleven and fifty- (-2)2 = (-2) (-2) = 4.e. -22 implies – (2) 2 = – (2)(2) = – 4. eight-twenty-sevenths. 21 = 2 Definition: a0 = 1 where a ≠ 0 i. If a is any real number and n is a positive integer. read as the second power of negative 2 is four.4) (3. So.. read as the negative of the second The second power of three and power of 2 is negative four..4)2 = (3. How do you read the following? 3 ( ) = ( )( )( ) = 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 8 27 (3. Expected Answers: 243 35 Assessment: Expected Answers: ! ! .(a)(a) where there are n factors of a. Practice: Expected Answers: Notice the following illustrative examples: The third power of two-thirds is 22 = (2) (2) = 4.4) = 11. 48 | High School Mathematics (7-10/11) TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Lesson Proper (continuation): This is the definition of whole Let us extend to any real number. So.56 Synthesis: Recall the previous activity on paper-folding. any number raised to the zero power is equal to one. number exponents. six-hundreths. read as the second power of 2 is four. The paper remains a whole if there are no more folds.. 20 = 1 However.

a weighing scale used in the market and the one used in a clinic. Identify an object around you which has a mass that can be expressed in the following units: • milligram • gram • kilogram Lesson Proper: Allot 35 to 40 minutes. When the arrow is at the market is calibrated into 20 equal parts from 0 to 1 kilogram.g. Imagine how small 1 gram is (as what is usually said by vendors in the market) ! ! . the scale shows calibration on the board an arrow at the second mark. each second mark the weight is 100g. Did the vendor state the correct measurement? Correct answer: A kilogram is equivalent to 1000 grams. Mother requested you to buy a few onions at the market. Thus. platform balance. The weighing scale in the No. Then the vendor says that it is 1 gram. After picking Draw the weighing scale 4 small unions and placing them on the weighing scale. fractions and exponents Objectives: At the end of the lesson. mark corresponds to 50 grams. Let each group weigh the following items using any of the following devices for weighing (e.. Interpret readings from different measuring devices for mass and weight. Select and make use of appropriate units and tools to estimate and measure mass and weight 2. spring balance TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Motivation: Allot 5 minutes Group the students into groups of 5 members. High School Mathematics (7-10/11) | 49 SAMPLE LESSON FOR HIGH SCHOOL (7-10/11) MEASUREMENT Grade/Level: First Year Concept: SI Base Units of Measure (with measuring tools). the students must be able to: 1. spring balance): • a math textbook • a wooden pencil • a cellular phone • a shoe • a bag Guide Question: Call groups at random to share What unit of mass is most appropriate for each item above? their results. Attributes and properties – Mass Type of Instruction: Mastery Prerequisite knowledge and skills: Whole numbers. platform balance. Allot 5 minutes . Materials: Weighing scales (used in markets).

1 kilogram 103 grams or 1000 grams 1 hectogram 102 grams or 100 grams 1 dekagram 101 grams or 10 grams and 1 decigram 10-1 gram or 0. that is 1 gram = 10 decigrams Emphasize why the quantity 1 centigram 10-2 gram or 0. How many kilograms is a metric ton? Give some objects whose weight can be measure appropriately using Possible Answers the following units: a) medicine pill a) milligram b) carrot b) gram c) truck c) metric ton *or any other similar objects Let the students convert units Recall your metric converter for units of mass used in grade school using the metric converter.001 g.01 g. 50 | High School Mathematics (7-10/11) TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Lesson Proper (continuation): Road signs before some bridges indicate the weight limit that they can Answer: a metric ton support. What unit is used? A highway bridge should be built strong enough to carry 10 metric tons Answer: 1 000 kg or more. ⎡ 1 cg ⎤ ⎡ 1 dg ⎤ 5 mg ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = 0. For example: Convert 3.1 g. The metric converter is used to simplify the conversion of units. that is 1 gram = 100 centigrams inside the parentheses should 1 milligram 10-3 gram or 0.5 kg ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = 350 dag ⎢⎣ 1 kg ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 hg ⎥⎦ Convert 5 milligrams to decigrams. that is 1 gram = 1000 milligrams be equivalent.5 kilograms to dekagrams ⎡10 hg ⎤ ⎡10 dag ⎤ 3. kg – hg – dag – g – dg – cg – mg As the converter shows.05 dg ⎢⎣10 mg ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣10 cg ⎥⎦ ! ! . each unit is one-tenth the unit to its immediate left. It can also be said that each unit is ten times the unit to its immediate right.

A baby weighs 3. Expected Answers a) 8 kg to mg a) 8 000 000 mg b) 2. A.2 kg = 4. Solve the following problems. what is his weight = 4 590 g in grams in two months time? ! ! .5 g d) 75 hg to cg d) 750 000 cg e) 2.002 5 kg c) 8 500 mg to g c) 8. Support your answer. A bridge can support a mass of 3.005 kilograms. Choose the most appropriate unit of mass for each of the following: Expected Answers 1) a ballpen 1) centigram 2) a baby 2) kilogram 3) a half a cup of flour 3) dekagram 4) a firetruck 4) tonne 5) a mango 5) hectogram B. 2) Yes. What is its 1) 5 g equivalent in grams? 2. 1. Can a ten.5 g to kg b) 0.39kg + 1.8 metric tons to kg e) 2 800 kg Assessment Allot 15 minutes.2 kilograms after two months. If the baby’s weight 3) 3. High School Mathematics (7-10/11) | 51 TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Drill Convert the following measures of mass.59 kg increases by 1. 3.39 kilograms at birth.2 metric tons is only wheeler truck weighing 25 000 kilograms use the bridge? 3 200 kg. Show your solutions. The mass of one sachet of coffee is 0.2 metric tons. 3.

Md = 13. 13. ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY Grade/Level: Fourth Year Concept: Statistical Measures – Measures of Dispersion Type of Instruction: Reinforcement Prerequisite Knowledge: Mean. 4 c. Interpret the obtained value statistically. 15 Expected Answers b. 13. 11. 13. 11. 13. mode. the students must be able to: 1. Expected Answers: a. 11. range of each set of data. Materials: Scientific calculators or computers TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES Motivation: Allot 5 minutes. 14. 13. how to obtain the mean for median and mode for ungrouped and for grouped data using the ungrouped data using the scientific calculator. Mn = 13. Obtain the Allot 40 minutes. range Objectives: At the end of the lesson. standard deviation and variance of a given set of data. 12. 15 a. 3. Which set is less varied? Which set is more varied? Lesson Proper: You have studied how to obtain the range of a set of data. 4 c. 13. 12. 15. Let the students recall how to analyze a set of data using the measures Let the students illustrate of central tendencies. Find the mean. Md = 13. Obtain/compute the range. no Mo b. 13. 13. Range = maximum value – minimum value. Mn = 13. 15 b. standard deviation and variance. 52 | High School Mathematics (7-10/11) SAMPLE LESSON FOR HIGH SCHOOL (7-10/11) DATA. Now. Differentiate range. scientific calculator’s built-in Present the following situation to show that the measures of central functions. median and mode for each set of data. 0 ! ! . let’s look at another aspect of the set of data. 13 and 15 c. 11. 13. a. Ask them to illustrate how to obtain the mean. 2. 11. 13. Med = 13. 15. 13. 13. 15 a. tendency alone are insufficient to describe a set of data. median. Mo = 11 c. 11. 13 b. Mn = 13. Mo = 13 What do you notice? We have three different sets of data but their mean and median are the same. 14.

High School Mathematics (7-10/11) | 53

TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES
Lesson Proper (continuation)
Notice that the range is a poor measure of how dispersed the set of data Expected Answer Xσn
is. Set (a) is more varied than Set (b) but they have the same range. a) 1.58
Let us take a closer look at another measure of variability. The variance b) 2.00
measures dispersion with respect to the means. The standard deviation c) 0
is the square root of the variance.
A scientific calculator can quickly compute the standard deviation. Answer: Xσn -1
Go to Statistics mode. a) (1.58)2 = 2.50
1. Clear the data memory. b) (2.00)2 = 4.00
2. Enter each data using the [M+] key c) (0)2 =0
3. Check if all the items are entered using the key [n].
4. Then press Xσn for population standard deviation and Xσn -1 for
sample standard deviation
What is the standard deviation of each set of data above? Provide worksheets to the
How do you interpret the numerical values obtained? students as their guide.

Note: A smaller value of variability indicates that the data is less varied,
is homogeneous or uniformly distributed and/or consistent.

The variance accounts for the mean deviations. It is obtained by squaring
the standard deviation in your scientific calculator.

Using a computer unit, open MS-EXCEL Program
• Encode your data in an array.
• After entering all the data, press fx button for activating the function
dialogue box (or you may go to the INSERT Menu, browse down
and select function)
• Then click inside the Select Category Box. Then Browse down and
select STATISTICAL
• Scroll down to select the statistical measures you want to obtain (i.e.,
AVERAGE for mean, STDEV for standard deviation, MEDIAN
for median. MODE for mode, VAR for variance)
Drill Instruct the student to use a
1. Faculty salaries (in thousands of pesos) for a random sample of scientific calculator.
teachers in public schools of a certain town were coded and the
coded observations are as follows: 18, 15, 21, 19, 13, 15, 14, 23, 18, Expected Answers
16. Find the mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation and 1. Mean = 17.2, Med = 17,
variance. Mod = 15 and 18, range =
2. Consider the following set of data 9, SD = 3.19, Var = 10.18
Ann’s Scores 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 15 2. Ben has more consistent
Ben’s Scores 3 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 15 scores. The standard
Who has more consistent scores? deviation of Ann’s scores is
3.94 while Ben’s is 3.12.
Analyzing Data
Consider the following measurements, in liters, for two samples of Company A, based on the
orange juice bottled by companies A and B: standard deviation of the sample
Company A 0.97 1.00 0.94 1.03 1.11 data from both companies:
Company B 1.06 1.01 0.88 0.91 1.14 0.07 of Company A vs. 0.11 of
Which company has a more uniform content of the bottled juice? Company B.
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54 | High School Mathematics (7-10/11)

TEACHER / STUDENT ACTIVITY TEACHING NOTES
Assessment Expected Answers
1. A shoe manufacturer claims that the average size of shoes sold is “7” 1. Mode. It is the most
for ladies and “11” for men. Which average could he be referring meaningful measure for
to – mean, median, mode? Why? him because he has to
2. Two top car salesmen are vying for a supervisory position. To help know which size is most
resolve who performed better, the sales manager made a table and frequently sold.
compared their sales in the last 7 months. 2. a) Salesman No. 1
b) Salesman No. 1:
Month Salesman 1 Salesman 2 Mean = 12; Median = 8;
1 8 10 Mode = 6
2 12 12 Salesmen No. 2:
3 6 12 Mean = 11; Median = 12;
4 8 11 Mode = 12
5 6 8 c) Standard deviations are
6 38 12 11.66 of Salesman 1 and
7 6 12 1.53 of Salesman 2.
Total 84 77 d) Even with Salesman 1’s
higher total sales, Salesman
a) By looking at the table, which salesman seems to have a better 2 was more consistent in all
sales record? Why? seven months.
b) Obtain the mean, median and mode.
c) Obtain the standard deviation for both salesmen.
d) How will you determine who should be promoted to the
supervisory position?

3. A teacher is comparing the performance of three sections in terms of
mean and standard deviation of students’ scores in an achievement
test. 3. a) Section C
Section A Section B Section C b) Section A
Mean 42.5 41.65 44.9
Standard Deviation 3.7 3.15 2.9

a. Which section performed best during the year?
b. In which section are the scores more varied?

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Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 55

CHAPTER 7

SUGGESTED
CONTENT EMPHASES AND
NATURE OF INSTRUCTION
I n this chapter, tables that contain specific content topics for each of the five content strands are presented.
Each table indicates the nature of instruction that the framework suggests mathematics teachers follow
in their classes. The chart indicates which content topics are to be emphasized at each grade cluster and
the nature of instruction at the grade levels. Some content details and other details involving instructional
implementation (e.g., use of technology) are not covered in this document to give teachers and school
department heads more flexibility to implement the curriculum.

The Icons Explained
The icon w indicates that informal instruction of One would assume that mastery of mathematical
the topic is recommended. Informal instruction concepts must be achieved at the end of High
would entail engaging pupils in learning activities School, that is, year 10 or 11. However, for many of
that help introduce the concepts or allow them to these topics, mastery can only be achieved beyond
use the concepts in familiar situations. The language high school but reinforcement of concepts and
used connects to the home language of the pupils skills learned should be a permanent objective until
and eventually to the language used in schools for the last year of high school. The icon p indicates
mathematics. mastery of concepts and skills that must be achieved
at the indicated years. Mastery means that students
The icon u suggests the formal introduction or know and understand solidly the concepts and are
teaching of the topic using formal language and able to execute the processes involved because they
mathematical symbols and notation. This does not understand and know exactly what to do. Errors and
mean, however, that teachers use “telling” or “chalk- misconceptions should have been identified and
and-talk” either as the main method or as the only corrected by the end of this stage.
method of teaching the concept. On the contrary,
teachers must always strive to find interesting ways The icon Q indicates that a review of the concept
of introducing concepts formally, clearly and in an or skill is recommended. This means that teachers
organized manner. should aim to deliberately spend time reviewing
the concept or skill so that the learning of newer
After a formal introduction of a concept or skill, levels of the concept or skill becomes easier. It could
pupils need plenty of time to practice and reinforce also mean that a review is needed because a related
the concepts and skills that they have learned. concept or skill is to be introduced. While a review
The icon r indicates this stage of instruction. To is a staple ingredient of instruction, this framework
reinforce means to use teaching approaches that will leaves the decision to the teacher to determine
help students strengthen their learning and deepen the right time for it according to pupils’ unique
their understanding of the concepts and skills. This circumstances or situations.
could mean re-introducing the concept, allowing
for more practice, drill or giving activities to help
students rectify errors and misconceptions.

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56 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction

Table 16. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Numbers and Number Sense

Domain Grade Level

Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11

1. Counting Numbers / Whole Numbers

1.1 Conceptual understanding
(including reading, writing and w u r r p
ordering)
1.2 The four basic operations
(meaning, properties, algorithms)
1.2.1 Addition w u r r p Q Q
1.2.2 Subtraction meaning and
w u r r p Q Q
properties
1.2.3 Multiplication meaning
w u r r p Q
and properties
1.2.4 Division meaning and
w u r r p Q
properties
1.2.5 Exponents and square
u r p
roots
1.2.6 Order of operations u r p
1.3 Number Theory (factors,
multiples, prime, composite w w w u r p Q
and parity)
1.4 Problem solving/application to
w w w u r r p
real world situations
1.5 Estimation and rounding off u r r r p
1.6 Roman Numerals u r r
2. Fractions
2.1 Conceptual understanding
(includes reading, writing, w w u r r p
ordering)
2.2 Four operations (meaning,
properties, algorithms)
2.2.1 Addition w u r r r p
2.2.2 Subtraction w u r r r p
2.2.3 Multiplication u r r p
2.2.4 Division u r r p
2.3 Problem solving/application to
u r r r r p
real world situations

w u r p Q
Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review
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writing.2.1 Conceptual understanding (includes renaming.2 Unit rates u r p 5.1 Conceptual understanding (includes reading and writing.2 Subtraction u r p Q 3. Decimals 3. w u r p writing.5 Simplification w u r p Q Q 2. w u r r r p ordering. w u r r p direct. comparing) 4.3 Problem solving/application to u r r p real world situations 3. Integers 6. w w u r p meanings and representations) 5.2 The four operations 3.4 Estimation u r r p 3.4 Estimation w u r r p 2. Ratio and Proportion 5. indirect) 5.1 Conceptual understanding (includes reading.3 Types of proportion (partitive.2. ordering.1 Addition u r p Q 3. w u r p Q Q ordering) w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! . Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 57 Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 2. writing.6 Evaluation of fraction u r p sentence 3.2.1 Conceptual understanding (includes reading.5 Scientific Notation u r r p 4.4 Division u r p Q 3.2 Problem solving/application to real world situations (includes u r p % formula) 5. renaming) 3.3 Multiplication u r p Q 3.2. Percent 4.4 Problem solving / application w u r r p to real world situations 6. reading.

writing. Real Numbers 9.2.2.1 Conceptual understanding (includes reading. representations.3 Multiplication u p Q 6. u r r r p renaming) 7. 58 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 6.4 Estimation u r p 6.1 Real Number System u r r r p 9.1 Conceptual understanding (meaning. its u r r p meaning and properties) 9.3 Problem solving / application u r r r p to real world situations 7.3 Problem solving/application to u r p real world situations 6. algorithms) 6.5 Simplification (negative sign) u r p 6.5 Simplification u r r p 8.2 Operations (meaning.2.2 The four operations u r r r p 7.1 Addition u p Q 6.4 Estimation u r r p 7.6 Evaluation of number u r p sentences 7.2.4 Division u p Q 6. Irrational Numbers 8.2 Properties u r r r p 9. Complex Numbers (concept and u r expression) w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .2 Subtraction u p Q 6. Rational Numbers 7. properties.3 Number Line w w u r r p 10.

2. Scales 5.3 Surface area w w u r r p Q Q 3.2.1 Linear 3.4 Time and Money w w u r r r p 3.2 Maps w w u r r p 6.2 Others (e.2 Computation w u r r r p w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .7 Angle w w w w u r r r p 4.1 Water meter reading u r r p 4. Speed. Systems of Measure 2.2.2 Perimeter w u r r p Q Q 3.1. Velocity and Density 6.1. Physical attributes to be measured 3.2. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Measurement Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 1.2.2 Process of measuring w w w u r p Q Q 1.3 Estimation w w u r r r p 2.1 Non-standard w w u r r p Q Q 2.g. Measurement 1. Rate.6 Temperature w w u r r p 3.1 Concept and meaning w u r r r p 6. English) w w w u r r p 2.2 Area of a circle w w u r r p Q Q 3. Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 59 Table 17.1 Area of polygons w u r r r p Q Q 3.3 Volume and Capacity w w u r r r p Q Q 3.3 Conversion of units u r r p 3.3 Circumference w w u r r p Q Q 3.1 Drawing and interpreting scales w w u r r p 5..2 Area 3.2.1 Length/Distance w w u r r r r p 3.1.2 Electric meter reading u r r p 5.2 Standard w w u r r r p Q Q 2.1 Metric w u r r r r p 2.5 Mass/Weight w w u r r p 3. Utilities 4.1 Concept and meaning (including units) w w u u r p Q Q 1.

2.4 Line segments 1. w w w w u r p horizontal.2 Perpendicular lines w w w w w u r p Q Q 1. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Geometry Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 1. diagonal/slant lines) 1.g.g. Basic Concepts in Geometry 1.2.g.2.3.2.5 Ray w w w u r p 1.1 Basic concepts (e.. w w w w u r p kinds of angles) 1. distance between two points.3..2.3.2..2.2 Properties of angles (e.3.3 Angles 1.2 Kinds of rines (e.3.g.2 Properties of line segments (e.1 Postulates w w u r r r p 1.3 Relationships among lines 1. curve.2. segment addition postulate) 1. congruence. definition and notation.2 Lines 1. comparison.3 Construction w w w u r r p w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .4 Skew lines w u r r p 1.1 Definition and w w w u r r p Notation 1. midpoint and other w w w u r r p segment bisectors. vertical.2.3.3. w w w u r p addition and bisection) 1. broken.4.5 Concurrent lines w w w u r r p 1.4.2.1 Points (postulates and w w u r r p relationships) 1.2. congruence..2.3. 60 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction Table 18.1 Intersecting lines w w w w w u r p Q Q 1.3 Parallel lines w w w w w u r p Q Q 1.

.3.5.7.6. Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 61 Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 1.1.4 Similarity w w w w w w u r r p 2. number of diagonals. angle sum w w w w u r r p Q Q theorem.2 Properties of polygons (e. supplementary.5.6 Triangle inequality w w u r r p 2.3 Congruence w w w w w w u r r p 2..5.5.1.1. complementary.5.1.1 Polygons 2.1. w w w w u r p Q Q terms.2 Angles in a triangle (e.5 Triangles 2.1.5.1.1 Classification (according to sides and w w u r p Q Q angles) 2.3 Congruence w w w w w w u r r p 2. w w w w u r r p Q angle sums) 2. w u r p adjacent. linear pair.5 Parallel lines.1 Pythagorean w w w u r p theorem 2.1.4 Angle relationships (e.g.1. exterior angle theorem) 2.1 Classification w w w w u r p Q Q w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .5 Median.1.1. classifications) 2. transversals and angles formed by w u r p them 2.3.1.1. Shapes 2.1 Basic concepts (e.5.g.5.6 Quadrilaterals 2. vertical) 1.4 Similarity w w w w w w u r r p 2.1.g.5. altitude and w w w u r r p angle bisector 2.2 Special right u r p triangles 2.1.5.1..g..1.8 Area w u r r p Q Q 2.7.7 Right triangles 2.

3 Surface area w w u r r p 3.5 Circumference w w u u r p Q Q 2. inference.2 Properties (e.1 Basic concepts (e.4. chord. indirect proof ) w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .. right angles for rectangle) 2. parallel sides for w w w u r p Q Q parallelogram. Logic and Proofs 3. diameter. w w w w u r r r r r p center.2..4.6. radius..4 Solids 2. secant.1 Identification and w w w w w u r p classification 2. analogy.3 Construction (includes paper w w w w w w w u r r r folding and drawing) 2.g.1 Making and justifying w w w u r r r r assertions 3..2 Properties (e.6.g.2. π) 2.2 Circles 2. inductive and w u r r r r r r deductive reasoning.2.3 Simple proofs (e.g.4.1.2 Reading and interpreting mathematical arguments u r r r (including determining the validity of an argument) 3.2.1.3 Area w u r r r p Q Q 2. tangent.2 Volume w w u r r r p 2.4 Area w w u u r p Q Q 2. arc.3 Equation u r p 2. 62 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 2. angles.g. definition and identification of circle. Thales’ u r r p theorem) 2.2.

3 Rotations w w u r r 5. using u r postulates.1. coordinate axes.2.2 with respect to a point u r r r 5.1 Tessellations w w w w u r r r 5.4 Symmetry 5.1 One-dimensional 4.Transformations (optional) and Symmetry 5.2 Undirected distance w w u r p 4. east-west- w u r p north-south.g.3 Figures and shapes in a w u r r p Cartesian plane 4.1 with respect to a line w w w u r r r r r r r 5.1 Relative position (e.1 Basic concepts (e. proving theorems and corollaries) 4.2..4.1. up-down.g.2. Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 63 Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 3.2 Two-dimensional / Cartesian coordinate system 4. above- below) 4.2 Translations (slides/glides) w w w w u r r 5.2 Directed distance u p 4. Spatial Relationships 4.4. logic. points on w w u r p a plane) 4..2.4 Formal proof (including conditional and biconditional statements.5 Combinations of u r r transformations w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .1 Reflections (flips) w w w w w u r r 5.4 Drawing points and figures corresponding w u r r p to given properties on a Cartesian plane 5.

64 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction

Table 19. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Patterns, Functions and Algebra

Domain Grade Level

Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11
1.The Language of Algebra
1.1 Historical background and
w u r
development
1.2 Mathematical symbols (e.g.,
symbols of relations and w w u r r r r r r r
operations)
1.3 Algebraic concepts (variables,
w w w w w w u r r r p
constants and coefficients)
2. Sets
2.1 Basic concepts (e.g., set
notations, element, types, w w w w w w u r p
naming of sets)
2.2 Set relations (e.g., disjoint sets,
subsets, equal and equivalent w w w w w w u r p
sets)
2.3 Set operations (e.g., union,
intersection, complement of a w w w w w w u r r r p
set)
2.4 Problem solving w w w w w w u r r r p
3. Algebraic Expressions
3.1 Evaluating algebraic
w w w w u r p
expressions (formal, informal)
3.2 Simplifying expressions
(identifying and combining w w w w w u r p
like terms)
3.3 Other representations (formal,
informal)
3.3.1 Translating word phrases
to algebraic expressions w w w w w u r p
and vice versa
3.3.2 Translating pictorial
representations (e.g., area)
w w w w w u r p
to algebraic expressions
and vice versa
3.3.3 Patterns
3.3.3.1 Using mathematical
symbols to represent w w w u r r p
patterns
w u r p Q
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Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 65

Domain Grade Level

Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11
3.3.3.2 Finding the next term
w w w w w u r r p
in a sequence
3.3.3.3 Building a sequence
(numerical and w w w w w u r r r r r
geometric)
3.3.4 Translating data from
tables and graphs to
w w w u r r p
algebraic expressions and
vice versa
4. Exponents
4.1 Basic concepts (e.g.,
w w u r r p
definitions and notations)
4.2 Laws of exponents w u r p
4.3 Forms of exponents (e.g., zero
exponent, negative exponent, w u r p
fractional exponent)
4.4 Solving exponential equations u r p
4.5 Problem solving and
u r r p
applications
5. Polynomials
5.1 Basic concepts (e.g., definition,
identifying and differentiating
u r p
polynomials from other
algebraic expressions)
5.2 Classification of polynomials
(e.g., according to number of u r p
terms and degree)
5.3 Operations
5.3.1 Addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division
u r r p
and synthetic division
(algorithmic)
5.3.2 Alternative
representations and
strategies for performing u r p
operations (e.g., algebra
tiles, lattice method)
5.4 Special products u r p
5.5 Factoring u r r p

w u r p Q
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66 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction

Domain Grade Level

Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11
6. Roots and Radicals
6.1 Basic concepts (e.g., definition
and parts of a radical and w u r r p
radical expressions)
6.2 Simplifying roots and radical
expressions
6.2.1 Mental w u r
6.2.2 Paper and pencil u r r p
6.3 Radicals as expressions
u r r p
involving rational exponents
6.4 Operations
6.4.1 Addition and subtraction u r r p
6.4.2 Multiplication u r r p
6.4.3 Division (rationalizing
monomial and binomial u r r p
denominators)
6.5 Solving equations involving
u r r p
radicals
6.6 Problem solving and
applications (including
u r r p
solutions involving the
Pythagorean theorem)
7. Rational Expressions
7.1 Basic concepts (identifying
and differentiating from other u r r p
algebraic expressions)
7.2 Equivalent rational
expressions (e.g., reducing
to lowest terms and writing u r r p
rational expressions to higher
terms)
7.3 Operations (addition,
subtraction, multiplication, u r r p
division)
7.4 Complex fractions u r r p

w u r p Q
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graph.1.1.g.3.1 Basic concepts 8. distance/motion.1.4 Problem solving and other real life applications (patterns.3 Translating data from tables and graphs to w u r p algebraic equations and vice versa 8. etc) 9.. set) w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .4 Algebraic proof u r r p 8. work. Linear Inequalities in One Variable 9. coin. w u r r p mixture.3 Axioms of equality u r p 8. symbols and notations: inequality.5 Solving rational equations u r r p 8.1. Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 67 Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 7.1 Basic concepts (e.2. w u r r p interval. informal) 8.1..g. number.1 Translating word sentences to algebraic w u r p equations and vice versa 8.2 Solving w u r r r 8.3 Absolute value equations 8.2.1 Differentiating algebraic expressions from algebraic w u r equations 8. geometry.2 Translating patterns and pictorial representations (e.1.1.2 Other representations (formal.2.1 Concept of |x| w u r p 8.2 Solving linear equations in u r p one variable 8. Equations in 1 Variable 8. investment.3. w u r p area) to algebraic equations and vice versa 8.

Midpoint of a line segment u r r p 11..5 Quadratic inequality u r r 9.3. word w u r r p sentences. coordinates quadrants.2 Other representations – translating to and from mathematical inequality. 68 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 9.3. pictorial representations.3. patterns.4 Problem solving and real life u r r p applications 10.6 Parallel and perpendicular u r p Lines 11.3 Vertical and horizontal lines u r p 11.4 Graphing a line given its equation or satisfying given u r p characteristics 11.1 Basic concepts (e.3 Solution of an inequality 9.3 Compound linear u r r p inequality 9.1 Slope of a line u r p 11.1 Axioms and properties u r r p 9. axes. point w u r r p plotting) 10.g.5 Finding the equation of a line given its graph or u r p satisfying given characteristics 11.7 Problem solving and real life u r p applications w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .3.3.4 Absolute value inequality u r r 9. Cartesian Coordinate System 10.2 Intercepts and solutions u r p 11.2 Simple linear inequality u r p 9. Linear Equations in two variables 11.3. tables and graphs) 9.2 Distance between 2 points (having the same different x u r r p and y coordinates) 10.

shifts) given the equation w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .7 Parabola 13.g. completing the u r r p square.g. width. using the quadratic formula) 13. standard form) 13.2 Translating from word expressions to quadratic u r r p equations and vice versa 13.4 Nature of roots and the u r r p discriminant 13.1 Finding the vertex/ maximum/minimum and u r r r the line of symmetry 13.3 Solving quadratic equations (factoring.7..2 Problem solving and u r p applications 13.5 Forming a quadratic equation given its roots or properties u r r p about its roots 13.1 Graphing linear inequalities u r p in two variables 12..8 Expressing the quadratic function as an equation in standard form. Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 69 Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 12.6 Problem solving and real life u r r p applications 13. Quadratic Equations and Functions 13. Linear Inequalities in Two Variables 12.1 Basic concepts (e. critical point u r r p form.2 Problem solving and u r r p real life applications 13.9 Determining characteristics of the graph (e. a table of values or a graph 13. u r r p definition. direction of u r r p opening.7.

function rule 14.1 Basic concepts u r p 15. u r p to-one correspondence) 14.2. Functions and Relations 14. Polynomial Equations and Functions 15. fundamental u r theorem of algebra w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! . terms. the vertical line test. Basic Concepts (e. radical. etc. identity. subtraction.2 Finding the equation u r given the roots 15. greatest integer. u r p absolute value.2 Differentiating functions and relations using ordered pairs.) 14.1 Finding roots (synthetic division.7 Inverse of a function (finding the inverse.3 Domain and range of a function (function rule.8 Other important characteristics used in graphing u r p (intercepts.. u r p multiplication.1. u r p mapping diagram. factoring. notations and representations such as set of ordered pairs. u r p graph. remainder. symmetry and asymptotes) 15.g. table of values. division) 14. role of one.5 Basic operations on functions (addition.2 Roots of polynomial functions 15.6 Composition of functions u r p 14. equations.2. word u r p sentence.3 Important theorems – factor. set of data and graph) 14. graph. u r rational root test) 15. graphs) 14. 70 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 14. rational.4 Special Functions and their graphs (Constant.

Variation 17.1.2 Translating statements into from a table of values. graph or algebraic equation 17.2 Solving systems graphically and u r r p algebraically w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! . definition and types) 17.1 Types of systems u r r p 18.6 Other types of sequences u r 17.1 Systems of two linear equations in two unknowns 18. Sequences and Series 16.2 Sigma notation u r 16.1.5 (optional) Additional topics: Pascal's Triangle and Binomial u r r Theorem 15.4 Geometric sequence and u r p series 16.1. word u r r p expression.3 Problem solving and real life u r r p applications 18. Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 71 Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 15.1.5 Problem solving and real life u r r applications 16.2 Direct square u r 17.4 Graphs of polynomial u r functions 15. u r p definitions and notations) 16. Systems of Equations and Inequalities 18.3 Joint u r 17..3 Arithmetic sequence and u r p series 16.6 Problem solving and real life u r r r applications 16.1 Basic concepts (e.1 Basic concepts (e.1 Direct and inverse u r r p 17..1.g.g.

secant. Quadratic Relations 19.5 (Optional) Using matrices to solve systems of linear u r r equations 19. Circles 20.1 Basic concepts (e.2 Systems of three linear equations in three unknowns 18.4.5 Problem solving and real life u r p applications 21.2 (Optional) Using u r trigonometric tables 21.1.3 Conceptual understanding of u r r circular functions 21.1 Special values u r 21.4 Non-linear systems u r r 18. hyperbola.1 The unit circle u r p 21.2 Angle measures u r r 21.g. ellipse.2 Finding the equation of a u r r p circle 20.1 Other conic sections (circle.2 Problem solving and u r r real life applications 18.. w w w u r r p tangent) 20.4.2. Circular Functions and Trigonometry 21.3 Problem solving and u r r p real life applications 18. 72 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 18. radius. degenerate u r conics) 20.3 Using technology u r w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .4.2.1 Solving systems graphically and u r r algebraically 18. diameter.3 Graphing a circle u r r p 20. center.4 Evaluation of circular u r r functions 21.3 Systems of linear inequalities u r r 18.

5 Graphs and behavior of u r circular functions 21. Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction | 73 Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 21.2 Other trigonometric u identities 21.7 Problem solving and real life applications (e.10 Solving oblique triangles u 22.4 As inverse functions u r 22.1 Differentiating from other functions and identifying u r given a table of values or graph 22. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 22.8 Solving trigonometric u equations 21.1 Fundamental identities u 21.6.6 Trigonometric identities 21. exponential growth and decay) w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! .9 Solving right triangles u r p 21.6 Solving exponential and u logarithmic equations 22.g.5 Graphing u r 22.7 Inverse trigonometric u functions 21.2 Properties and laws of u r logarithms 22. compound u interest.6..3 Domain and range u r 22.

frequency w w u r r r r r r r p table) 2. Analysis and Probability Domain Grade Level Knowledge/Skills K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10/11 1. Probability 5.2 Median w u r r r p 4. Data Interpretation 3.4 Circle graphs w w u r p 3. interview.2.2.1 Pictographs w w u r p 2.5 Histograms w u r p 4.3 Combinations w w w u w u r p Q Informal Formal Introduction Reinforcement Mastery Review ! ! . investigation.1 Mean w u r p 4.3 Mode w u r r r p 4.2.1.1.2 Variance w u r r 4. 74 | Suggested Content Emphases and Nature of Instruction Table 20.2 Permutations w w w u 5.2.2.1 Tables (simple table. w w w w u r r r r r p questionnaire) 2.2 Measures of dispersion 4.2 Graphs 2.1 Pictographs w w u r p 3.1 Concept and definition w w w w w u r r r r 5.2.1 Measures of central tendency 4. Statistical Measures 4.2.1.1 Range w w w u r r r 4. Content Strands and Sub-strands for Data.5 Histograms w u r p 3.3 Line graphs w w u r p 2. Data Organization and Presentation 2. Data Collection (observation.2 Bar graphs w w u r p 3.2.3 Line graphs w w u r p 3.3 Standard deviation u r 5.2 Bar graphs w w u r p 2.4 Circle graphs w w w u r p 2.

6 and 10/11. Assessment Targets | 75 CHAPTER 8 ASSESSMENT TARGETS T o support the vision for school mathematics in the Philippine Basic Education curriculum. 2001). Further. This is done by examples which require students to go beyond answering problems with closed and clear-cut answers. of student achievement through varied methods. about each student’s ability to apply mathematical the cognitive demand(s) associated with each of concepts and reasoning to real-life situations. it is also important to provide assessment strategies and guidelines. ! ! . Whereas the prevailing belief was that successful The Assessment Tasks mathematics learning is evidenced by computational proficiency (National Research Council. make conjectures and connections. show reasoning and communicate ideas. and generalize patterns in diverse situations. see these assessment targets are also indicated. The questions are particularly chosen to encourage students to investigate concepts. The assessment targets in this chapter illustrate the high expectations each student should strive for and reach. read and communicate mathematics. In this light. Assessment tasks are given for each specific objective this document emphasizes clarity in what a expected for each student. These examples must be mathematically competent student is expected to do taken as a guide in helping educators gain evidence at the terminal year of each cluster. the assessment tools given not only provide evidence Students are expected to be able to perform these about a student’s computational facility but also tasks by the end of Grades 3.

47. 1302 ten/decimal number system.75 and 0. some of which are bundled into hundreds and some into tens: 432. 0. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Numbers and Number Sense at the end of Grade 3 General and Specific Objectives Assessment Targets It is expected that students will: 1. answer as a mixed number and as an improper fraction. c) Use whole numbers to count. • Represent the following numbers using counting sticks. d) Represent commonly used fractions • What fraction does the gray region represent? Express the and decimals. write and say whole numbers. a) Use real objects and models to • Represent the following numbers using place-value blocks understand place value of the base or counting sticks: 5951.5. • How many objects are in the following figure? group and re-group sets of objects. 15 tens and ___ ones. 432827. Knowing. 207 • Use counting sticks to give another name for the following: 12 tens. 12 hundreds. • The number 1058 may be represented by __ 9 hundreds + Visualizing. 76 | Assessment Targets Table 21. • Read the number 18043 out loud and write it in words. how many may you eat? • How much is four 1-peso coins and seven 25-centavo coins? • Use a 10 x 10 grid sheet to represent 0. • Represent three hundred twelve thousand seventy-six us- Knowing ing digits. 437281 • 387 is the same as 2 hundreds. write and understand the meaning. Solving __ tens + __ ones. Read. 0.4. order and relationship among numbers and number systems. Visualizing ! ! . 512. Solving • Use a chip abacus to solve 527 – 463 by regrouping. b) Read. • Arrange the following numbers in ascending order: 437812. order. • Mother said you may eat ¼ of the pastilles she bought.8. If she bought 20 pieces of pastillas. • Use the given number line to estimate the location of the following decimals: 0.

Assessment Targets | 77 General and Specific Objectives Assessment Targets It is expected that students will: 2. How many of the people who regularly ride jeepneys are Computing. whole numbers. Knowing. how many glasses can she make? How much powdered Applying. Proving orange juice will be left over? c) Use the operation(s) appropriate to • My brother used 20 cacao tableas to bake two dozen a given situation. (a) 7 x 6 = (7 x 5) + _____ (b) ____ = (3 x 4) + (4 x 4) • Using the three digits 2. 4986 are students and 753 are senior citizens. Solving. 12573 people regularly ride the jeepney. how much more money do I need? • Robert wants to give two candies apiece to himself. the seats were arranged in the four basic operations of whole 12 rows and there were 15 seats in each row. • Mother just bought a 500-gram pack of powdered orange juice. cupcakes. Applying neither students nor senior citizens? ! ! . 4 and 8 and only one addition sign. use a similar property to fill in among the four basic operations of the blanks. Proving b) Use and give the relationship • If 3 x 4 = (3 x 6) – (3 x 2). • Tell a story from the figure below. Knowing. Write the whole story and a corresponding number equation. Julius and Sandy. Understand the meaning. If she uses 15 grams to make a single glass of juice. Of these. a) Explain the different meanings of • Jo noticed that in an auditorium. What arrangement would give the small- est product using one multiplication sign? • I want to buy a 95-peso book. Maria. use and relationships between operations. How many kilograms of leaves are used for 1 meter of piña cloth? R5 Which store gives the better deal: one which sells shirts at 3 for 100 pesos or one which sells the same kind of shirts at 4 for 125 pesos? R5 In a given survey. How many candies should he buy from the store? Solve this problem (a) using addition and (b) using multiplication. If I have saved 63 pesos. which arrangement would give the largest sum? (ex: 24 + 8 vs 28 + 4). How many tableas does he need to make half a dozen cupcakes? R5 It takes around 1945 kilograms of pineapple leaves to make 126 meters of piña cloth. Computing. there are 12 x 15 seats in the auditorium. Explain why numbers.

fill in the blanks with >. a. < or= to make the statement true. Applying c. 532 x 200 d. Explain your number computations. for the four basic operations. Computing c) Use appropriate methods and tools • 688 – 429 is closest to: for computing from among mental (a) 200 (b) 300 (c) 400 (d) 250 computations. • What number equals 12 when subtracted by 8? What number subtracted from 13 gives 7? • Fill in the boxes with the correct number. 54 – 19 Computing. Check your answer by multiplication. Applying. strategy. 48 + 35 b. 53 + 49 c. 3900 ÷ 300 b) Master basic number combinations • Compute 375 ÷ 6. Solving. State your reasons for using this strategy. Proving needed to complete the requirement? ! ! . (7 x 300) + 200 ____ 7 x (300 + 200) b. Choose and use different strategies to compute and estimate. Proving c. estimation and pencil • If 60 + 70 is 130. a) Use thinking strategies for whole • Add the following numbers as fast as you can. (46 – 38) x 2500 _____ (46 + 38) x 2500 3. 39 + 71 • Compute using thinking strategies. 21 x 400 ______ 21 x (2 x 200) Computing. 36 + 208 +14 • Compute 526 x 18 on your calculator without using the 8 key. • Without performing actual computations. 37 + 56 b. a. 78 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Objectives Assessment Targets It is expected that students will: d) Apply the properties of addition • Add mentally by changing the order of the addends: 152 + and multiplication. a. 58 + 77 d. what is 65 + 77? Explain your method. answers or solutions If she wants to buy two packs of juice at 37 pesos each and a bar of soap for 21 pesos. will she have enough money to buy all three items? • A young boy needs 2755 calories per day. If he has already eaten 1246 calories worth of food. and paper computations to solve real world problems and to verify • Gemma went to the grocery with 100 pesos in her wallet. how much more is Computing.

scale. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Measurement at the end of Grade 3 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. size.) Knowing. What do you notice? c) Compare the English and R5 Use a ruler to measure the length of a sheet of paper. Who spent more money? Who could have Knowing. d) Compare values of bills and R5 If there are exactly two different coins and two different bills in a coins and collections of bills wallet. Understand. answer in two ways: using centimeters and using inches. non-standard measures. tain? What about the largest amount? R5 If Mark has eight 25-centavo coins.. Give your the metric system. Use paper clips to estimate the length of a crayon. Computing pare with the weight of one cracker? b) Compare standard and R5 Assume that the width of one paper clip is approximately 1 cm. (b) the perimeter of your math book and length. Assessment Targets | 79 Table 22. R5 What is the time indicated on each clock? ruler. graduated cylinder. money. (c) the width of one bond paper. Which measurement do you think is closer to the crayon’s actual length? Why? R5 One dangkal is the length from the tip of the thumb to the pinky in an outstretched hand. Solving bills and four 100-peso bills. a) Use instruments and R5 Use a graduated cylinder to measure one liter of water. a) Use real objects and models R5 Use a broken ruler like the one below to measure the following: (a) to order and compare the length of your pencil. three 20-peso Computing. meter stick. Measure the same length with a ruler. Applying ! ! . Find the length of your desk using dan- gkal as the unit. while his mother bought 10 eggs at 5 pesos each. etc. time. Next. capacity.g. six 1-peso coins. thermometer. Knowing R5 Estimate how many teaspoons can be acquired from 1 cm3 of water. Know and understand basic attributes of objects and the different systems used to measure these attributes. Applying used two 20-peso bills to pay? 2. how much money does Mark have? e) Read prices of items sold R5 Carlos bought 35 marbles at 1-peso each. measuring cups. calendar. clock. Compare Knowing your findings with those of your classmates. what is the least amount of money that the wallet can con- and coins. use and interpret readings from different instruments and measuring devices. R5 What is the weight of one pan de sal? How does its weight com- Visualizing. measuring devices (e. mass. use a ruler to measure the crayon’s length.

Applying five times a day. R5 Estimate the number of liters needed to flush a toilet. how much change should he have Computing. mass. capacity. cm orm. length. The bill totaled 630. b) the mass of a comb c) your body temperature Knowing. a) the amount of water in a bottle temperature. If Daf gave a 1000-peso bill transaction. mass. R5 Which unit of measure would you use for the following–mL or L? a) the amount of water in a glass b) the amount of juice in a jug Knowing. estimate and predict changes on measures. Applying c) the amount of shampoo in a bottle 3. given events. R5 Find the area and perimeter of the figure. time. Computing. R5 Find the volume of the given figure in cubic units. a) Estimate length. your shoulders: mm. estimate the number of liters you would need. Include units in your answer. R5 What would be a good estimate for the height of a building: 1 m. a toothpick or an arm’s length? measuring attributes of R5 Choose the most appropriate unit of measure for distance between objects. which would you use: a paper devices and units for clip.00 pesos. Applying taken home? c) Calculate perimeters. Choose and use different strategies to compute. capacity. and added a 30. volumes of different planar figures and cubes. Solving ! ! . areas.00 peso tip. 80 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b) Read and write measures of R5 Measure the following. If you flush Computing. time spent in an 100 m or1 km? activity or between two R5 Estimate how long it takes you to brush your teeth. Solving. b) Give correct change R5 A family of six ate at a fancy restaurant to celebrate Annie’s gradu- for money in a given ation. Applying d) the length of a pencil c) Choose and use appropriate R5 To measure the length of a bench.

Applying ! ! .5 m. and tools for computing a) 1 dm = _____ mm from among mental b) 42 mm = _____ cm computations. R5 After a typhoon. answers or solutions. Assessment Targets | 81 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: d) Use appropriate methods R5 Fill in the blanks. world problems and to verify Is this a reasonable value? Explain why or why not.1 m = _____ hm and pencil and paper d) 2500 m = _____ km computations to solve real R5 You have read that your school gymnasium has a height of 1. Computing. the water level in a two-hectare rice field rose up to 1m. estimation c) 4. How much water would that be? R5 Estimate then find the area of the capiz windows shown below.

Knowing b) Describe the physical R5 How many sides and corners do the following shapes have? properties and a) square characteristics of two and b) rectangle three dimensional geometric c) triangle figures and classify these d) pentagon figures accordingly. Knowing R5 How are they different? d) Name. Knowing R5 Give examples of solids that roll. illustrate R5 Draw the following. Explore the characteristics and properties of two and three dimensional geometric shapes and formulate significant geometric relationships. Knowing R5 Which is longer: a line segment or a line? Explain. c) Compare and contrast R5 Color the two shapes that match. and identify basic geometric a) ray AB concepts such as point. describe. among the geometric shapes. c) line RS Visualizing. 82 | Assessment Targets Table 23. a) Observe. Visualizing. R5 Find and draw objects found in your school that has the following shapes. line b) line segment PQ and plane. R5 How are squares and rectangles similar? Visualizing. model R5 What shape best describes the following objects? and draw shapes of objects in the environment. ! ! . Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Geometry at the end of Grade 3 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. describe. e) hexagon Visualizing.

illustrate and R5 Which of the following angles are acute? Obtuse? Right? identify types of angles. Assessment Targets | 83 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: e) Name. Find it on the map and mark it with a “C”. The barangay hall is made up of two adjacent buildings on Santol St. Mark Lisa’s house with an “L”. 2. a b c d R5 Find out if it is possible to draw a triangle with (a) exactly one acute angle (b) three acute angles (c) two right angles (d) two acute angles and one right angle Visualizing. 3. a) Describe. Applying wants to pass by the barangay hall along the way. 4. 5. A basketball court is the largest structure along Atis St. Proving (e) two obtuse angles. 1. Knowing. The map shows several streets in Ana’s barangay. 2. define. name and interpret relative positions and apply ideas about directions. ! ! . Describe how Ana could walk from her house to Lisa’s house if she Knowing. Write an “A” where she lives. Use coordinate geometry to specify locations and describe spatial relationships. Ana’s house is at the intersection of Avocado and Kaimito Streets. Mark it on the map with an “H”. Ana’s friend Lisa lives at the corner of Chico and Bayabas Streets.

etc. Give a country north of the Philippines. to the right of. R5 Draw the lines of symmetry in the following regular n-gons. Use transformations and symmetry to analyze mathematical situations. R5 Do all triangles have the same number of lines of symmetry? Give examples to confirm your answer. to or east of Myanmar? Which country is to the south of Malaysia? the left of. 84 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b) Find and name locations R5 Give clear directions on how to go to school from your home. under. Give a country west of the Philippines. using simple terms such as R5 Refer to the given map. near. Applying 3. lines of symmetry for each of the symmetrical figures. Where is China located in relation to Vietnam? Describe the posi- tion of Cambodia in relation to (a) Laos (b) Vietnam (c) Thailand. Knowing ! ! . Vizualising. behind. Is Thailand to the north between. a) Recognize shapes that R5 Which of the following letters are symmetrical? Draw the line or observe symmetry. For each n-gon: how many lines of symmetry are there and through what points does the line of symmetry pass through? Visualizing. above.

Identify the basic pattern. Proving are used to create the repeating pattern. Use this piece to cover a large surface. flip orturn the piece to create the following patterns. patterns and paths through How do you know that this tessellation unit could indeed cover a tessellations. Use spatial visualization. reasoning and geometric modeling to solve routine and non-routine problems. Slide. symmetry are applied. which of the following will you see? Visualizing. Applying c) Describe. Assessment Targets | 85 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b) Create mathematical R5 Draw a figure that looks exactly the same even if you (a) flip it. model. and turns. draw and R5 Design a tessellation unit by cutting one edge of a square and slid- describe images of objects. illustrate R5 Find objects in your classroom that have a line of symmetry. Knowing. 4. flips turn it. R5 Cut out the following shape from a piece of cardboard. a) Make. Identify the basic design. R5 A different letter is written on each side of the following cube: R5 If the cube were tipped over to the left. and explain situations R5 Find an object such as a table cloth which has a repeating pat- where mathematical tern. Explain how the whole pattern was transformations and obtained using flips. surface without overlapping and without any gaps? Visualizing ! ! . (b) designs applying slides. ing it to the opposite edge. R5 Look for ethnic cloth/banig designs where reflections and rotations Visualizing. slides orturns. Trace around the piece.

How dimensional geometric many cubes have exactly 3 blue sides? 2 sides? What if Ricky paint- figures. Use 5 tangram pieces to form subdividing and changing a) a trapezoid and b) a rectangle that is not a square. tangram pieces? Show your results. a) What route takes her to the grocery in the shortest amount of time? b) If Risa wants to go back home using another route. iar with the neighborhood. the cube into smaller cubes measuring 1 cm on each side. Use as few cuts as possible. (e) 6 (f ) 7 results of combining. Proving ! ! . (c) 4. she has estimates on how fast she could walk each block. (d) 5. shapes and use these results R5 Fold a square any number of times and use a pair of scissors to cre- to solve pertinent problems ate the following designs. 86 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b)Use characteristics and R5 A cube has edges 5 cm long. descriptions of sites ed only 5 sides of the cube? What is the affect on your answers? to solve problems found in R5 Risa needs to buy some items from the grocery. (b) 3. Since she is famil- the environment. Ricky paints the cube blue and slices properties of two-and three. Visualizing. how long would her walk take? c) What routes toward the grocery would allow her to avoid all traffic lights and stop signs? How long would these routes take? Visualizing c) Investigate and predict R5 Can a square be formed using (a) 2.

and other graphical representations a) Make a table for the data in the bar graph. Knowing. 10. 10. b) By how much does the water increase every 30 minutes? c) If the water keeps dripping at this rate. Solving be collected in 5 hours? ! ! . 25. 5. Visualizing c) Describe the numerical as R5 Determine the next figure in the following pattern and explain well as physical attributes your work. 6. how much water will Visualizing. Enumerate the units digits for each and find a pattern. Knowing B = {0. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Patterns. ___ b) 2. Knowing b) Arrange geometric objects R5 Arrange the five objects so that objects that are beside each other according to patterns in share a common property (size.7. tables pictures that is dripping at a constant rate. 8. …} d)Represent patterns using R5 The bar graph shows the amount of water collected from a faucet words. …} Visualizing. and changes that could arise R5 Describe the elements in the following sets. 122 R5 What is the next figure in this sequence?. 10. patterns a) 2. 20. a) Arrange numbers and R5 What is the next number in this sequence? Explain how you found quantities according to the number. Assessment Targets | 87 Table 24. 37. 4. ___. 2. their physical properties. How many pebbles are needed for the fourth design? Visualizing. Recognize and describe patterns in numbers and quantities. 17. 26. A = {0. relationships of properties of shapes and effects of quantitative changes that might occur. shape orcolor). 12. 15. Functions and Algebra at the end of Grade 3 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1.

property so that it can be computed more easily? R5 Illustrate 5 x 7 using (a) sets of blocks. tables Fill up the following table pictures and other graphical representations Number of glasses sold Profit (in pesos) (continuation) 1 2 3 5 10 15 20 e) Make generalizations about R5 Examine the pattern below patterns. she earns P2 profit. relationships and changes that could arise Count the number of circles and triangles in each picture and complete the following table. Knowing. distributivity and identity with whole numbers and rational numbers. Visualizing. pictures and symbols to represent and analyze mathematical situations. associativity. a) illustrate the properties of R5 How can the product 48 x 22 be rewritten using the distributive operations. Solving (b) a rectangular array. y and z for which the statement (x – y) – z = x – (y – z) is true. 2. b)identify the properties of R5 Use fraction circles to show that commutativity. use langage. Pattern Number of circles Number of triangles 1 2 3 Find the fourth and fifth figure in the sequence and continue the Solving. R5 Which property of addition is shown here? Knowing ! ! . R5 Determine whole numbers x. Proving table for two additional rows. using words. 88 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: d)Represent patterns For each glass of gulaman that Susan sells.

! ! . pictorial and R5 Is the sum of two odd numbers always an even number? Explain verbal representations to your answer. a) Twelve times a number is thirty more than that number times seven. b) Thirty divided by the sum of 8 and a number is one-fourth the Solving number of months in a year. How many great-great grandparents does the boy have? Use a diagram to find the answer and explain the method. two parents and so on. Knowing d)use equations to represent R5 Find an equation that represnts the following: number sentences. Assessment Targets | 89 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) use concrete. 60 legs. how many of each animal are in the farm? subtraction. a) represent situations R5 In a farm. Solving solution using a diagram. objects and b) How many reds (R) make one pink (P)? symbols. ing figures? Visualizing. Solving. R5 A rectangular room has square tiles on the floor. with each parent having another set of number sentences. multiplication R5 Use fraction circles to answer the following questions and provide a and division of whole fraction sentence which represents the situation. Applying b)make models to represent R5 A boy has two parents. 3. one yellow (Y) and how many grays (G) make up one whole circle? Visualizing. develop an understanding of R5 What multiplication problems are suggested by each of the follow- whole and rational numbers. If there are 20 heads and involving addition. numbers and fractions a) Four pieces of what color make one yellow (Y) piece? using pictures. There are 14 tiles along one wall and 17 tiles along an adjacent wall. there are cows and chickens. represent and understand quantitative relationships using mathematical models. How many tiles cover the floor of the room? Find the answer and explain your Visualizing. c) One blue (B).

Easy Average Difficult Jason 15 24 5 Kevin 17 24 10 Mila 13 27 0 Who scored the highest in each round? Who answered the most Solving. Solving number of times? ! ! . Their scores in the from charts. a) Read data from various R5 Jerry added his expenses for a month and represented the daily charts. sports competition. graphs. tables. tables and graphs averages in the following graph. a triangle and a circle R5 Gather data on the number of students celebrating their birthdays on the same month as you. Applying in the difficult round? Who won over-all? 2. Applying allowance? b)Describe and interpret data R5 Jason. 18 silver and 15 bronze medals in a cording to different catego. tables and graphs of different kinds. The Blue team won 12 gold. average and difficult round are given below. R5 How much does Jerry spend on food? How much does he save in a week? How much more did he spend on school supplies as compared to his entertainment expenses? How much is Jerry’s Solving. Understand and interpret data presented in charts. b) Classify/Sort objects ac. bronze medals and the Green team won 23 gold. c) Identify what type of medal did each team win the most Knowing. 21 silver and 10 ries. R5 The Red team won 14 gold. Analysis and Probability at the end of Grade 3 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Data. Develop appropriate skills for collecting and organizing data a) Collect and record data R5 Draw all possible 3-shape patterns that may be formed by lining up a square. 90 | Assessment Targets Table 25. easy. a) List the teams from the most number of gold medals to the least. b) List the teams from the most number of medals to the least. 12 silver and 5 bronze medals. Kevin and Mila joined a math contest.

R5 Find the month of birth of each of your classmates. Number bor- collecting and organizing rowed rowed data and relate these to real life situations. Assessment Targets | 91 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Construct pictures. What trend do you see? b) What is the most common disease for children in the baran- gay? If a child from the barangay is sick. sent data. Use a table to record your data for 24 days. Formulate three questions about the data and answer them. the results using a graph. charts and graphs every three days. R5 Use a bar graph to show how many books you have read for each Applying month of the schoolyear. Applying there a time where the mongo seed grew fastest? slowest? b) Use data to learn about and R5 The following chart lists the top four common diseases for children solve real-life problems and in Barangay San Agustin. problems that require Items bor. a) On which month do the most number of your classmates cel- ebrate their birthdays? b) On which month do the least number of your classmates cel- ebrate their birthdays? c) What is the difference between the number of birthday cel- ebrants in March and in September? d) How many of your classmates celebrate their birthdays during Solving. R5 Ask your classmates what his or her favorite pet is and represent charts and graphs to repre. d) Formulate and solve R5 The data below shows items borrowed from the school library. tables. which among the four Computing. Answer the following questions. Applying the summer vacation months of April and May? 3. R5 Plant some mongo seeds in a pot and record the height of the plant tables. Show your results using a bar graph. Textbooks 85 Storybooks 62 Magazines 14 References 57 Give an appropriate title for this table. Develop strategies for analyzing data and use these appropriately a) Analyze data from pictures. Is Knowing. Applying diseases is he least likely to have? ! ! . situations across different Disease 1990 1995 2000 2005 math strands and across disciplines Pneumonia 26 37 43 60 Diarrhea 413 476 421 502 Measles 215 253 253 298 Dengue 79 72 65 60 a) Arrange the years according to the number of children who have had pneumonia.

a) Describe actions and/or R5 Which of the following involve chance? events that involve chance. describing actions or events. there is at least one boy. It will rain today. 92 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 4. certain) in events. Applying in a cup of rice b) Use the language of chance R5 Give examples of certain events. d) a person playing hide-and-seek and counting how many times he was caught. e) If I hand the jeepney driver three coins. Explain factors which would make you more certain Knowing. Knowing. R5 Determine whether the following events are certain. not all three would face the same way. d) In choosing five random cards from a standard deck. ! ! . Develop understanding of the concept of chance and of making predictions. c) two people playing chess and counting how many times each has won. Explain events how you can use knowledge of their performance in ten previous games to predict who would be a better three-point shooter in their next game. a) playing basketball and counting the number of times a team scores from a three-point shot b) tossing three coins and checking how many times all three coins turn up the same way. improbable orimpossible. a) The clouds are very dark. c) Make simple predictions of R5 Jimmy and Paul are playing for opposite basketball teams. probably true. will. sure. I will win. c) If I buy a lottery ticket. f ) a person eating rice and counting how many spoonfuls there are Knowing. there is at least one number and one letter. f ) In a family of four children. Applying with your prediction. e) two people playing rock-scissors-paper and counting the number of wins and draws. Give examples of impossible (might. I’d get all aces. Applying g) In a group of 500 people. b) If I read a license plate. at least two people share a birthday.

decimal number system to read. Now form the largest and smallest number using four digits. b) Use the place value R5 Choose the greater number and write it in words: 2. He refuses to put fishballs on a stick. write and count whole numbers and decimal numbers.384 structure of the base ten/ R5 Using all the cards given below. c) draw four blanks with a decimal point after the first blank. how many times exponential. Knowing Again using scientific notation. Read. a) form the largest and smallest 4-digit number using all four digits.5 million kilometers. order and relationship among numbers and sets of numbers. a) Use real objects and models R5 Let each monggo seed represent one unit. Knowing c) Express large numbers in R5 If 2. Repre- of the base ten/decimal sent the following numbers: number system a) 123 b) 509 c) 320 R5 How would you represent 2345? R5 Mang Ernie sells fishballs in sticks of 10 balls each. Draw how Mang Ernie would serve a) 37 fish balls.04 x 1014. b) Form the third largest number and the third smallest number using all four digits. Knowing draw how Mang Ernie would serve 126 fish balls. b) 53 fish balls R5 If for every 10 sticks bought. ! ! . a pack of 10 seeds repre- to understand place value sent one ten and a bag of 10 packs represent one hundred.04 x 104 was incorrectly written as 2. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Numbers and Number Sense at the end of Grade 6 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. scientific and smaller would the second number be? calculator notation. write and understand the meaning. Mang Ernie puts them into a bag.843. Assessment Targets | 93 Table 26. give the distance in meters. Write this number in scientific notation. unless you buy 10 of them and chooses to serve the balls on a small plate instead. 2. R5 The average distance from the Earth to the sun is approximately 1.

Pag-Asa has 4 doctors while Bgy. R5 Arrange the following in descending order: 21%. Then. Record the amounts of ingredients as a Knowing ratio. R5 Using 3 gallons of water. Who used more ribbon? of different models and Use the pencil-and-paper method to compute the answer. Were there more than three cakes left over after the party? Manually compute the an- swer. ! ! . 0.81 b) 1. Rey was able to water ¾ of his garden. How many families are from Bgy. to decimals. Use situations. Visualizing. Bgy. R5 Carla use a third of her savings to buy a book and 3/4 of the re- mainder to buy her mother a present. Tagumpay. use paper circles to explain your answer. Tala has 1260 families. equivalent forms from a) 0. R5 Three barangays have the same ratio of doctors to families. Pag-Asa? How many doctors are there in Bgy. how much was her original savings? Use the following diagram to explain your answer. 400g of oatmeal and 1kg of flour. There were 2 and 2/3 ube cakes and a half chocolate cake left over. Give another equivalent ratio. Applying e) Express numbers in R5 Express each fraction or decimal as a percent. 94 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: d) Represent the different R5 Two ribbons of the same length were bought—one red and one meanings and uses of blue.022. Tala? R5 The ingredients called for in a recipe are 200g of sugar. In Bgy. If she still has 100 pesos left. 2 out Knowing of 13 f ) Use ratio and proportion R5 A number triples every step in a growth pattern. What is the ratio to represent quantitative between the first and fourth numbers? relationships.73 fractions. Solving. 1/11. Mel used ¾ of the red ribbon while Gina cut the blue ribbon fractions through the use into 3 equal pieces and used 2 of these. there are 6 doctors and 840 families. How many more gallons does he need to finish watering the gar- den? Use Cuisenaire rods to explain your method. fraction strips to explain your method. to c) 9/2 d) 7/150 percent and vice versa. R5 Joey ordered several cakes for a party.

Assessment Targets | 95 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: g)Give the different uses and R5 Jun said that –10 is larger than –8 since 10 is larger than 8. R5 An elite runner is able to run 180 steps per minute. gives 5? relationship. R5 Some situations involving integers are given below. Understand the meaning and applications of operations and relationships between operations on whole numbers. Proving divide by zero. increases her average stride by 5 cm. How much does she still owe? b)A man on the ground floor took the elevator 3 floors down. How long would it take her Applying.45 to get 4? and their inverse R5 Which number. a) Illustrate the different R5 Give an equation involving multiplication that best represents the situations that model situations below. Write a number sentence for each. Knowing. when divided by one-half. Con- interpretations of integers. Create an equivalent equation for division. a) Helen owed 150 pesos but is already able to pay 40 pesos. What would be an equivalent multiplica- tion statement? Are there any possible values for n in the multi- plication statement? Use this exercise to explain why you cannot Knowing. vince Jun that he is wrong. multiplication and division of whole numbers through concrete representations and real life situations. R5 Suppose that n = 5 ÷ 0. Proving to run 10 km? b)Explain the four operations R5 What number should be added to 2. If this run- ner was able to finish 10 km in 32 minutes. On what Knowing floor is he now? 2. how many steps would that be? How long is her average stride? Suppose the same runner Visualizing. ! ! . de- livered a package and rode the elevator 22 floors up.

Applying equal number of rambutan? b) Identify the greatest R5 (refer to the problem above). after how many days will they all play together? c) Determine whether R5 Below is a list of groups in your batch and the number of people in a number is prime or each group. Are there any groups that cannot be subdi- Knowing. Understand the meaning of and relationships between factors and multiples of numbers a)Identify factors and R5 Philip has a certain number of candies to share with his friends. How many friends can he share the rambutan with so that each friend will receive an Computing. If she visits them on June 2. R5 Maia goes to the province to visit her grandparents every 12 days. what is the greatest number of friends that least common multiple of Therese and Joseph can share their fruits with so that each friend numbers will receive an equal number of rambutan and an equal number of lanzones? R5 If Bea plays with Juan every 3 days and plays with Karen every 4 Computing. Applying days. Proving vided equally? Why? ! ! . If Therese also has 27 lanzones to common factor and the share with her friends. Group Number of People A 11 B 12 C 24 D 35 E 51 For each group. how many times can she visit them within a year? R5 Joseph has 36 rambutan to give to his friends. list the number of people that the group can be subdivided into to so that each new group will have an equal number of members. do you think that 3 of his friends can share the candies equally? Give all possible numbers of friends who can share the candies equally. multiples of numbers If you know that 12 friends can share the candies equally. how many more times within the month of June can she visit her grandparents? Assuming that it is not a leap year. composite. 96 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 3. Computing.

using any of the 4 basic operations? R5 Express the following numbers in terms of its prime factors: 18.82 proper use of algorithms in R5 Compute 3 ½ ÷ 7. decimals and b) 1/4 of 1/16 integers. Applying. R5 255 is 340% of what number? Knowing. Assessment Targets | 97 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: d)Solve problems that make R5 If two numbers are divisible by 3. multiples. Proving 27 74 78 86 92 21 94 99 2 42 4. 42 R5 Cross out all multiples of 9. will composite numbers. the four basic operations R5 Determine the following involving whole numbers. all factors of 528 and all multiples of 2 to reveal a secret code 4 16 3 44 20 36 54 14 18 72 20 24 12 8 66 11 45 26 81 30 32 25 22 34 36 38 40 48 26 44 46 48 18 15 50 33 54 63 16 70 Computing. each of which is divisible by 5. a) 24% of 140 fractions. Computing. prime and R5 If three numbers. R5 Use thinking strategies to compute the sum 183 + (–64) – 46. technology. 27. 36. are added. 96. Choose and use different strategies to compute and estimate. Computing R5 What percent of 25 is 16? b)Use estimation strategies R5 The sum of 662 and 345 is closest to what number? and exact computational a) 10 b)10 x 10 strategies from among paper c) 10 x 10 x 10 d) 100 x 100 and pencil methods.147 x 3. a) Demonstrate fluency and R5 Find the product: 0. mental R5 Estimate the unit price to determine which is the better buy: 12 oz computation and use of for 81 pesos or 2 lb for 190 pesos. can we say that their sum is also use of theories related to divisible by 3? factors. Solving. their sum also be divisible by 5? Why/ why not? R5 How can you express a number in terms of its quotient and its remainder. Applying ! ! .

Applying R5 How much water can a softdrink bottle hold. c) Units which measure different quantities such as length. given the measure- everyday life. systems. use and interpret readings from different instruments and measuring devices. Understand. a) The fundamental unit can be accurately reproduced without a need for a sample. Solving. the same system or from one a) 357 cg = _____ m b) 49 mL = _____ dL system to another. c) 4. R5 Use appropriate tools to measure the following. area Knowing.1 in = _____ m d) 1 km = _____ mi Computing e) 55 kg = _____ lb f ) 1 qt = _____ cL 2. b) It is simple to convert from one unit to another. Proving and capacity are defined in terms of each other. English and and useless? metric systems. R5 Explain the following advantages of using the metric system. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Measurement at the end of Grade 6 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. give reasons why. areas. if filled to the brim? ! ! . objects. inch decimeter liter kilometer furlong acre hectare square meter pound quart kilogram grain gram barrel gigaliter nanometer Knowing mile ounce c) Convert measures within R5 Fill in the blanks. R5 Find the perimeter of your classroom.5 liters of water b) 12 inches of string Visualizing. Is your answer equal to the theo- to measure attributes of retical value? If not. Computing. 98 | Assessment Targets Table 27. a) Design and use models R5 Find the mass of 1 liter of water. a) Discuss advantages of using R5 Give advantages of using standard measures instead of nonstandard standard and non-standard measures. volumes of regular and R5 A track oval is in the shape of a rectangle with semicircles at its irregularly shaped objects in ends. Find the area enclosed by the track oval. Knowing c) 25 grams of rice grains b)Find perimeters. Do these mean that nonstandard measures are obsolete measures. ments below. b)Distinguish between the R5 In the given list. Know and understand basic attributes of objects and the different systems used to measure these attributes. Knowing. determine whether the unit belongs to the Eng- English and the metric lish or to the metric system. a) 1.

R5 A scale model of a building is displayed where a scale of 5 cm = 4 m is being used. estimate and predict effects on measures a) Use estimation strategies R5 Estimate the perimeter and area of the rectangle. ure of each. If it took 32. Applying ing of the room? b)Calculate perimeters. Compute the and exact computational actual value and compare with your estimate. R5 There is an empty lot on a rectangular block which is 74 m long and 45 m wide. what is the area of Knowing. Choose and use different strategies to compute. R5 With truthful precision. Randy cuts across the lot diagonally. Assessment Targets | 99 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Use a protractor to measure R5 Name all angles in the figure and use a protractor to find the meas- angles. By how much distance (to the nearest tenths of a meter) is his walk short- ened? If he walks at a rate of 80 m/min.4 cm and height 16. strategies from among paper and pencil. find the surface area of the juice can hav- areas. Applying the exposed surfaces of the building in square meters? 3. Knowing d)Construct and interpret R5 Make a scale drawing of a playground. mental strategies and use of technology to solve problems involving measures. precision.000 square centimeters of cardboard to construct the exposed surfaces of the model. Use an appropriate scale to scales of measurements show measurements and relative positions of the different objects to be found in the playground. how many liters of paint will it take to paint the four sides and the ceil- Computing. Give your answer in the correct measured measure. Knowing. leaving a hole. how much time does he save? R5 Suppose a liter of paint covers 20 square meters. Solving ! ! .7 cm. volumes of different ing radius 6. objects and solids and state R5 Find the volume of the solid where a rectangular block was re- the precision of the final moved. Solving. Copmuting. Solving. If a room meas- ures 5 meters by 6 meters and the ceiling is 3 meters high.

a) Define. • The edges of a cube each have length 2 cm. Five of these cubes are placed side by side in a row. Use the fact that the sum of the interior angles investigations on combining in a triangle is 180 to determine the sum of the measures of the and subdividing two and quadrilateral’s interior angles. ob- of triangles. What is the resulting surface area of Visualizing. illustrate. (b) perpendicular lines. • Fold a rectangular sheet of paper twice such that the creases form (a) parallel lines. Solving. a) The measure of two angles are 40 and 50. Knowing d) The measure of one angle is 100. Knowing are not parallel. ! ! . 100 | Assessment Targets Table 28. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Geometry at the end of Grade 6 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. construct and • Which of the following letters have segments contained in parallel illustrate parallel and lines? perpendicular lines? intersecting lines which are not parallel? perpendicular lines. Proving this row of cubes? c) Define. (c) intersecting lines which Visualizing. interpret • Draw different quadrilaterals. Explore the characteristics and properties of two and three dimensional geometric shapes and formulate significant geometric relationships. Visualizing. c) The measure of two angles are 70 and 20. three dimensional figures. Partition each quadrilateral into and justify results of two triangles. b)Investigate. identify R5 Is an equilateral triangle also equiangular? Investigate and explain. and classify different types R5 Determine whether each triangle described below is an acute. b) The measure of two angles are 15 and 20. tuse ora right triangle.

d) How many radii are drawn? Name them. Check the properties that are true for each on the properties of quadrilateral. sides are ruent parallel ruent cong-ruent Square Rectangle Rhombus Trapezoid Parallelogram Kite • Do the following polygons exist? If they do. draw a figure as an example. a) What is the center of the circle? b) Name 4 points on the circle. a) a right isosceles triangle b) an obtuse isosceles triangle c) a trapezoid which is not isosceles d) a rhombus which is not a square e) a rectangle which is not a parallelogram f ) a rectangle which is also a rhombus g)a quadrilateral which is neither a trapezoid nor a parallelogram Visualizing. Knowing. Assessment Targets | 101 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: d)Make and test conjectures • Investigate. Proving h) a kite that is not a rhombus e) Define circles and related • Refer to the circle below. c) How many diameters are drawn? Name them. are cong. terms. Knowing ! ! . quadrilaterals and other Quadrilateral All sides Opposite All angles All angles Opposite polygons. sides are are right are cong.

cardboard? Pythagorean) • Sketch on graph paper a figure similar but not congruent to the polygon below. B(–2. dimensions are 24 cm x 30 cm x 18 cm? • A 4-m pole casts a 6-m shadow at the same time that a nearby building casts a 30-m shadow. Solving. B(6. • Get a softdrink can and measure its radius and height. similarity.g. a) Use rectangular grids to R5 A triangle has vertices A(1. Computing. 102 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: f ) Understand relationships • Suppose you will design a veranda that would have a perimeter of among angles. The client wants the veranda to have square tiles with perimeters. Knowing. What would the dimensions of the can be? Experiment with Knowing. Solving h)Apply geometric relations to • What is the longest stick that can be placed within a box whose solve real-life problems. dimensions as shown in the figure. 2). What is the area of the congruence. lengths. areas and sides that are 10 cm long. ! ! . 7). 4). R5 Three vertices of a parallelogram are A(–4. g)Understand geometric • A rectangular cardboard is fit diagonally into the box with given relationships (e. Knowing point(s) the fourth vertex could be.. Compute the surface area and volume. 3). Use a rectangular grid and a ruler to determine at which Visualizing. 3) and C(0. How would you arrange the tiles to get volumes of geometric a veranda with (a) the smallest area? (b) the largest area? Describe objects. 100 meters. Find the co- locate geometric objects. Computing. Suppose you were asked to construct a can containing the same volume as your softdrink can and at the same time minimizing the aluminum used in its construction. how the veranda looks like if the area is minimized and if the area is maximized. –1) and C(0. Solving different values. Applying 2. How tall is the building? Computing. E and F if triangle DEF is formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of triangle ABC. ordinates for D. Use coordinate geometry to specify locations and describe spatial relationships.

What can you say about the quadrilateral formed by investigate. Perform actual compu- tations to verify your answer. b) Repeat the procedure for a square C. Find the area of each of these rectangles. c) Fill up the following table to determine how much each area and the perimeter increases as the length of a square increases. construct a kite. site to one another? R5 Make the following triangles on a geoboard. Proving ! ! . Visualizing. discover and joining the midpoints? analyze properties of lines R5 On a rectangular grid. La- rectangular coordinate plane bel this square B. Enclose each trian- gle in a rectangle that share one common side with the triangle and occupying twice as much area. A B C Length of Side Perimeter Area R5 Estimate the area of the following polygon. whose sides are thrice square A’s. Find the perimeter and area of square B. Visualizing. Knowing. Proving c) Solve problems involving R5 Use a graphing paper to outline a square and label it square A. Assessment Targets | 103 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b)Use the rectangular R5 On a rectangular grid. How would you de- and simple geometric scribe the lines a) that form adjacent sides? b) sides that are oppo- shapes. lines and simple geometric Find its perimeter and its area. Use the area of the rectangles to find the area of the triangles. Solving. construct a rectangle. shapes with the use of the a) Draw a second square whose sides are twice as long as A’s. Label the midpoints of coordinate plane to each side.

Perform the similar set of transfor- mations on a figure of your own design. R5 In the figure. R5 If a triangle is rotated by 90° about one of its vertices. Knowing 4. how many blocks are needed to construct the figure below? Give the front. R5 Identify the transformations that moves the figure on the left towards its image on the right. Visualizing. Use transformations and symmetry to analyze mathematical situations. back and side view images of the stack of cubes. a) Create and interpret two. (x. Knowing b)Illustrate and describe R5 What is the coordinate rule transforming triangle ∆ABC to transformations and ∆A’B’C’ : symmetry mathematically. a) Explore and state R5 Sketch the next two figures in the following pattern. the attributes of transformations. ?). reasoning and geometric modeling to solve routine and non-routine problems. R5 What shape is seen if the object below is viewed (a) from above? and three-dimensional (b) from its side? geometric figures from different perspectives. how many different images are created? Visualizing. Visualizing ! ! . Use spatial visualization. Determine which of the following would fold into a box. 104 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 3. R5 A box in the shape of a cube is to be made using six squares of the same size which are connected at the edges. y) -> (?. Justify.

. Applying d)Construct informal proofs R5 For each pair of triangles given. what relationships in areas outside should its width be? the mathematics classroom. hexagonal base. Proving ! ! . Construct a second triangle whose side lengths are some multiple of the original triangle. If the geometric ideas and drawing is to be enlarged so that the longer side is 200 cm. Visualizing. determine whether they are con- of geometric ideas and gruent and give reasons.” R5 Draw a triangle. Compare the cor- responding angles of the two triangles. Repeat the process for a triangle whose side lengths are some other multiple of the original. Solving. Assessment Targets | 105 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b)Use geometric models R5 Use algebra tiles to show that 2(n + 1) = 2n + 2. If the triangles cannot be shown to be relationships congruent. to represent and explain R5 How does the following figure show that numerical and algebraic relationships. write “Not enough information. Proving c) Recognize and apply R5 An artist creates a drawing 25 cm long and 10 cm wide. what is the area of the sides of this object? Visualizing. If the measurements are as shown in the figure. Form a conjecture about triangles whose 3 sides are proportional to 3 sides of another triangle. R5 A tissue paper holder is in the shape of a right prism with a regular e.g. Visualizing. everyday situations. Knowing. Solving.

relationships.) Could 500 be in the output column? What about 501? Ex- Solving. Functions and Algebra at the end of Grade 6 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1.) What would be the 100th entry in the table? c. ! ! . 1 5 2 8 3 11 4 14 5 17 a. geometric and number Input Output patterns. a) Extend and make R5 Describe several patterns that can be seen from the following table generalizations about and answer the questions that follow. Recognize and describe patterns.) Fill up the remaining two rows in the table. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Patterns. Proving plain. b. changes among shapes and quantities. 106 | Assessment Targets Table 29.

R5 In a game show. Assessment Targets | 107 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b)Represent and analyze R5 Consider the pattern shown below. a) Count the number of circles and triangles in each picture and complete the following table. he starts with P0. Option 1 Option 2 Day Amount Day Amount 1 P100 1 P0.00 4 P400 4 P2.50 3 P300 3 P1. he starts with P100 and an additional P100 pesos is added each day for the duration of the contest.25 2 P200 2 P0. In the first option. tables and graphs. In the second option. Describe how fast Visualizing.00 b) If the contest runs for one week.25 for the first day and the money is doubled each day. which option would you choose? What if the contest runs for one month? c) Graph the two options on the same grid. c) How many circles and how many triangles are there in the nth step? d) Describe how fast the number of circles increases as the number of triangles increase. Solving the amount grows in each option. ! ! . b) Continue the table until n = 5. a contestant is asked to choose between two prizes. patterns and relations with words.00 5 P500 5 P4. a) The above situation is represented through the following tables. Continue the amounts for each option through 20 days.00 6 P600 6 P8.

Use algebraic symbols to represent and analyze mathematical situations. How is this reflected on the graph? Applying 2. there are four more blue crayons than red crayons and to- gether there are 30 red and blue crayons. y = x + 10 c. answer. If the car initially has 40L of gasoline. y = 7x + 10 R5 Suppose a car uses 1 liter of gasoline to travel 9 km. double the of variables. y = 7x + 10 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 y 1 2 5 10 17 26 a. Solving (x/9) describes this situation. How many blue crayons Knowing are there? b)Use equations to represent R5 Choose the equation that describes each set of data. Let y be the number of liters of gasoline left in the tank after traveling x kilom- eters. y = 7x c. 108 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Investigate situations that R5 The graph shows the speed of a car (in kph) at time t minutes. y = x + 7 b. y = x + 7 b. then add 10. subtract one. a) How much would it cost to produce 1 shirt? 2 shirts? n shirts? b) Plot the results in (a) on a graph. Multiply n to itself. y = 7x c. mathematical relationships. possibilities for rates of change R5 Suppose the cost of producing a T-shirt is P65. x 0 1 2 3 y 10 17 24 31 a. y = x + 10 c. ! ! . What is the resulting expression? R5 Write an equation(s) to solve the following problem: In a box of crayons. c) Describe the effect on the total cost if the cost of each shirt T-shirt becomes P60 if more than 10 shirts are ordered. depict change and different Describe the journey. a) Apply introductory concepts R5 Let n be a number. explain why y = 40 – Knowing.

R5 The area A of a rectangle is given by A = lw. Assessment Targets | 109 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 3. If she earns P350 per hour. a) Investigate how variables R5 The weekly salary S an employee earns depends on the number of change and relate such hours h she works. However. What fraction of the job can he finish in 1 hour? 2 hours? x hours? R5 c) If they work together for x hours. Applying they be able to finish? ! ! . describe how the width changes if the length becomes very large. Solving perimeter? b)Represent change and rates R5 Two cars travel in the same direction along a long straight road of change using tables. of h and describe how S varies in response to h. Applying not? What situation does this represent? c) Draw conclusions from R5 a) Alice can complete a job in 4 hours. What can you say about its Proving. one car starts at Point equations and graphs A while the other car starts 15 km in front of A. express S in terms changes to other variables. Represent and understand quantitative relationships using mathematical models. where l is the length and w the width of the rectangle. c) Is there a point where the two graphs intersect? Why or why Visualizing. a) Construct a table that shows the distance each car is from A at 15-minute intervals. Describe the rectangle formed in this situation. b) Graph the distance of each car from A on the same grid. what fraction of the job would Visualizing. For a fixed area. while the other car travels at the rate of 60 kph. The car in front travels at the rate of 50 kph. and start at the same time (t = 0). What fraction of the job problem situations involving can Alice complete in 1 hour? 2 hours? x hours? quantitative relations R5 b) Rey can finish the same job in 3 hours.

! ! . Applying a week. No.4 a) What type of graph is appropriate for displaying the data? Explain. The scatterplot along with the line of best fit are shown below. data. R5 In a study of 12 men. Analysis and Probability at the end of Grade 6 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. Applying the data. the resting heart rate was compared to the hours of aerobic exercise per week. a) Read and construct data R5 Describe situations where a circle graph is the best way to represent displays. b)Evaluate data displayed on charts. of Hours per Group of People per Week Week Reading Watching TV Newspaper Not High School graduate 16 1. tables and graphs. 110 | Assessment Targets Table 30.2 College Level 18 3. b) Use the graph you chose in (a) to make a graph that displays Knowing. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Data.5 High School Graduate 13 3. R5 The following are final grades for one class in math. R5 In a survey to determine the relationship between educational attainment. 63 45 79 83 84 87 82 93 65 76 72 80 83 81 96 92 84 a) Create a table to record grouped data and their frequency b) Construct a bar graph to represent your results.9 College Graduate 23 5. the following data are gathered. of Hours No. hours spent watching TV and time spent reading the paper. tables and graphs of different kinds. a) What does the trend indicate? b) Predict the resting heart rate for a man who exercises 12 hours Knowing. Understand and interpret data found in charts.

a) Which category had the greatest change in the number of pa- tients from 2005 to 2006? b) How many patients in 2005 were diagnosed with cancer? tu- berculosis? c) What is the increase in the number of patients with heart dis- ease from 2005 to 2006? Knowing. how has the percentage of the population living in NCR changed since then? R5 The following bar graph is a report on patients of a government hospital. how many people live in the National Capital Region (NCR)? b) If the population of the Philippines in 1995 was around 69 million and 9 million lived in NCR. Applying ! ! . a) If the total population is about 76 million in 2000. ous parts of the Philippines according to the 2000 Census. Assessment Targets | 111 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Describe distinctive features R5 The circle graph represents the percent of people living in the vari- of a data display.

(157. 96). (134. (128. 112 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: d)Draw conclusions and R5 A teacher claims that a students’ midterm score is related to his fi- generalizations based nal exam score. b) Identify any outliers in the scatterplot. 150). (92. (142. 44). (147. (136. 120). 195). 117). (58. 54). (154. 124).134). Male Female 162 158 170 160 165 165 161 168 168 159 153 153 159 154 178 169 173 167 159 156 167 165 165 164 a) Make a scatterplot for the data. (149. (189. he surveys a dozen couples and listed their heights in a table. 136). To investigate if this is true. (108. (83. R5 A person suggests that people who are attracted to each other tend to have the same height. (88. 198). schoolyear. (168. 134). (169. ! ! . 166). (151. 167) Determine if the teacher’s claim is true by using an appropriate graph to represent the data. To verify his claim. Applying. (123. 164). 92). (178. (127. 68). (40. 29). (71. 76). The heights below are given in cm. 88). (127. 170). (181. (175. 194). 187). 160). 161). 100). Proving c) Determine if the person’s claim is supported by the given data. 177). (172. (Midterm Exam. Each exam is worth 100 points. Final Exam): (87. 133). (114. 197). she listed the midterm on data gathered from and final exam grades of each of her students from the previous investigations. (49.

! ! . cards. a) Use the language of chance R5 Design an experiment which simulates the probability of having in carrying out simple 2 boys in a family of 2 children. organize these as needed Solving. e) getting a multiple of 3 when two regular dice are rolled. How would you modify the simulation so and blue marbles from a that it gives the experimental probability of having 2 boys or 2 girls bowl). a) Plan and conduct an R5 Plan and conduct an investigation that would answer any of the investigation requiring following questions. Is global warming already being felt in the Philippines? problem or issue. Are there more children whose parents work abroad? data related to a relevant b. 3 black and 2 blue marbles. f ) getting two red marbles from a bag with 4 red. Conduct the experiment and determine the ex- (toss a coin. a) getting heads when a coin is flipped. Develop skills in estimating probabilities and use probabilities for making predictions of events. 5 blue and 3 white marbles. Do honor students spend more time studying? Solving. collecting and organizing a. a die. Applying c) Analyze and interpret R5 For each of the four investigations above. c) getting three tails when three coins are flipped. b) getting two different outcomes when a coin is flipped twice. c. organize the data you have for an investigation and found into a table or chart. g)getting 3 marbles of different colors from a bag with 4 red. Do Filipinos buy local products? b) Collect appropriate data R5 For each of the investigations above. d) getting a sum of 11 when two regular dice are rolled. Develop appropriate skills for collecting. Solving. red perimental probability. 1 Knowing. Applying green. Applying d. organizing and analyzing data. in a family of 2 children? R5 Describe and conduct experiments to study the following prob- abilities. found. Assessment Targets | 113 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 2. report on your findings the data in relation to the by answering each question posed according to the data you have purposes of an investigation. Applying 3. Use a standard deck of cards for experiments or simulations your experiment.

Solving. events How many sauce combinations can he make? List all of them. Jojo were to stack all the blocks to based on the sample space make a tower. Proving Which option would give you the better chance of winning? Why? ! ! . pork sinigang and giniling. blue (B). How many possible 2-person teams can they form? R5 How many possible answer combinations are there in a 5-item multiple choice test where each item has 4 choices. Applying. How many possible food combinations are available to the customer? R5 Local license plates consist of 3 letters and 3 digits. you are given 2 op- tions: 1) winning if the sum is 7 or2) winning if the sum is 11. If no repetition of letters and numbers is allowed. sweet sauce orchili sauce. Customers may pick any main dish. if no item is left blank? R5 A restaurant serves the following main dishes: chicken adobo. green (G) and orange (O). in the previous problem. R5 In a game where you will roll 2 ordinary dice. Applying followed by a red block? c) Determine probabilities R5 If. b) How many of these combinations will have a yellow block as its base? c) How many of these combinations will have a blue block as its base. 114 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b)Construct a sample space R5 Ernie has just bought a stick of fishballs and plans to eat it with at and identify probability least one of the following sauces: vinegar. what is the probability that the tower will have a green block as its base? R5 If 2 dice are rolled and the number on the top face is observed. yellow (Y). what are the possible combinations that will yield a sum of 6? What is the probability that the sum will be a 6? d)Make predictions based on R5 A fair coin is tossed 5 times and each outcome yielded a head. along with plain or fried rice and a choice between soft drinks or iced tea. If each tower has to be 4 blocks high. experiments and using basic Would you conclude that the next toss would more likely result in theories of probability a head? Explain. how many plates are possible? R5 Jojo is trying to make as many towers as he can out of blocks in the following colors: red (R). how many differ- ent towers can he make? a) List all possible combinations. R5 Four children are playing the game of “chinese garter”.

negative integers. prime and composite numbers. integers. extraction of roots on the magnitude of numbers. Explain what the pattern is and use it to find the following: (a) i50. R5 How many times larger is a4 compared to 1/a4? to a ? Knowing.6. Understand the meaning.10 and 11 identifying factors and R5 Express the following numbers in terms of its prime factors: a) 126 multiples of a set of numbers b) 220 c) 240 d) 504 Computing b) Demonstrate fluency in R5 In the set {18. 36. construct the largest exponentiation and number using any operation. Computing 2. Computing ! ! . R5 Using the digits 7.8. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Numbers and Number Sense at the end of Grade 10/11 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1.9. posi- tive integers. division. 96.3733733373333… is irrational. (b) –i35.4. rational numbers and nonnegative rationals. i3 and i4 form a pattern. numbers and number sets R5 Is the set of irrational numbers closed under addition? under sub- traction? Why or why not? R5 The numbers i. 8 and 9 exactly once. b)Show the effect of R5 Find a value of n so that 23 = (1/2)n.3. multiplication.5. i2. parity of numbers. a) Demonstrate fluency in R5 Give the divisibility tests for 2. 27. b) find the pair of numbers with the smallest LCM common factor and least common multiple of a set of numbers. (c) (-i)35 R5 Consider the following five sets: whole numbers. Deepen understanding of factors and multiples of numbers. List all sets satisfying the following properties. 42}. use and relationships of operations on whole numbers that include exponentiation and extraction of roots. Assessment Targets | 115 Table 31. a) closure under addition b) existence of an additive identity c) existence of a multiplicative identity d) additive inverses for each element Knowing e) multiplicative inverses for each nonzero element. a) Compare the properties of R5 Explain why 3. a) find the pair of numbers with the identifying the greatest greatest GCF.

5 ÷ 1. a) Demonstrate fluency R5 Find the perimeter and area of a rectangle whose length is 5 x m in operations with real and whose width is 3 x m. 4’s. 116 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Solve problems involving R5 Fill in the blanks with always. numbers using mental R5 The square root of 70 is between which two integers? Between computation. she always had one pastillas left over. Explain your reasoning. What is the least possible length of the string? R5 Debbie made a batch of pastillas and is packing them in bags to give away to friends. b) The sum of two even numbers is ___ even c) The sum of an odd number and an even number is ___ odd d) The product of two odd numbers is ___ even e) The product of two even numbers is ___ odd f ) The product of an odd number and an even number is ___ even R5 A piece of string was measured using a certain number of 5 cm rods. What is the smallest number of pastillas that she could have made? What if she had 2 left over? 3? 3. then explain factors. parity a) The sum of two odd numbers is ___ odd of numbers. She noticed that if she packed them in 3’s.5 x 1. paper and which of these two integers is this closer to? pencil and technology. determine whether the answer for each of the following is between 1 and 2 or not. a) 2.875 d) 2. Computing c) 2. multiples.5 b) 2. 5’s or 6’s. R5 Without doing actual computations.5 Knowing. sometimes ornever. prime and why: composite numbers. Its exact measure could also have been found using 7cm rods and 3 cm rods. Choose and use different strategies to compute and estimate.875 ! ! .5 x 3.5 ÷ 3.

Applying b)Design a model using R5 Use measuring tools to gather the necessary information to find trigonometry (e. a) Select and make use of R5 Release a pendulum from a horizontal position. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Measurement at the end of Grade 10/11 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. Determine the appropriate units and tools time it takes for the pendulum to complete one period. Assessment Targets | 117 Table 32. temperature and R5 The ruler below has marks placed at selected units. Know and understand basic attributes of objects and the different systems used to measure these attributes. use and interpret readings from different instruments and measuring devices.. the lengths from 1 through 8 can be measured using this ruler. Use a home- made clinometer to measure the angle of elevation of a building Solving.282 miles per second while sound travels at among units within the approximately 1000 kilometers per hour. to estimate and measure R5 Use appropriate tools to estimate the volume of a bar of soap. area.g. Computing and degrees Celsius? 2. length. volume. R5 Position yourself several meters away from a building. a) Establish relationships R5 Light travels at 186. radian the area of the circular sector and give the area according to truth- measure) to find and ful precision. mass. How many times faster is same system the speed of light than the speed of sound? Knowing b) Establish relationships form R5 Change 75 lb/ft3 to: one system to another a) ton/yd3 b) g/cm3 R5 Which temperature is numerically the same in degrees Fahrenheit Knowing. Would your estimate be an overestimate or an underestimate? time. Understand. Show how all angles. ! ! . interpret measures. Applying and find the building’s height.

118 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 3. calculate areas and volumes of planes and solids R5 Using the fact that the volume of any pyramid is equal to one-third the product of the area of the base and altitude. Choose and use different strategies to compute. How long were the first and second parts of the trip as Computing. speed. trapezoid rule. If the width of each of the rings formed is the same as the radius of the innermost circle. a) Use a variety of methods to R5 Find the area of the quadrilateral.. Verify if the answer is possible.g. But then. R5 The figure shows five concentric circles. strong winds in the direction of the plane allowed the plane to speed up and the second part of the trip was flown at an average of 120 mph. R5 What volume (in cm3) would be occupied by 39. Applying b)Use concepts of rate. During the first part of the trip. devise a method to determine the volume of a regular octahedron with edge length m. Simpson’s rule and integration) Computing. R5 A 600-mile. Solving.5 hour plane trip was flown at two speeds. the average speed was 102 mph. com- pare the areas of the two shaded regions. Computing. Applying indicated above? c) (optional) Explore varied R5 Give an estimate of the area of the irregularly-shaped figure by us- ways of calculating areas ing the trapezoid rule. Check that your answer is sensible. and volumes (e. Applying ! ! . Solving. estimate and predict effects on measures. 5.18 grams of a velocity and density to solve material with a density of 2015000 mg/L? real-world problems.

Knowing. ∆ADC.and three-dimensional 3. Assessment Targets | 119 Table 33. All equilateral triangles are congruent. Explore the characteristics and properties of two and three dimensional geometric shapes and formulate significant geometric relationships. objects. c. b. Determine whether the two triangles are congruent if: a. All rectangles are similar. Explain. denoted by AB and AD. Construct a second one with double the height of the original and a third one whose radius is double the original. 4 cm and 6 cm. Solving. one angle of both triangles are also congruent. determine how much the volume increased in the second and third cylinders as compared to the original. similarity. R5 A post is to be supported using cables. give a reason to show that ∆ABC . Determine whether each of the following shapes exhibit this com- mon property. two. R5 TRUE OR FALSE. If C is halfway between B and D. By filling the cylinders with sand. R5 Make one cylinder using cardboard.and three-dimensional objects. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Geometry at the end of Grade 10/11 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. All squares are rectangles. Knowing b)Explore relationships. Proving ! ! . Visualizing. All regular pentagons are similar. how many trian- problems about them. the hypotenuse of both triangles are also congruent. each having one leg congruent to the other. a) Determine and R5 All of the following shapes have a common property: analyze properties and characteristics of two. the other leg of both triangles are also congruent. formulate and 4. including congruence and 1. gles can be formed by connecting the straws’ ends together? Give a conjecture and comment on the rigidity of triangles. Formulate a conjecture. among classes of 2. R5 Given two right triangles. test conjectures and solve R5 Given straws with lengths 3 cm. Prove your results algebraically.

Solving b) Analyze geometric R5 Which points on the segment from (1. P Visualizing. 6) divide the seg- situations using the ment into three congruent parts? Cartesian coordinate system R5 Show that the points (4. 4) and C(–4. Represent the length of each diagonal and show that if rectangular coordinate these are equal. Each tick mark is one unit.g. respectively.3) are vertices of an isos- and other coordinate celes triangle and find its area. a) Represent and examine R5 Find the perimeter of the figure. Use coordinate geometry to specify locations and describe spatial relationships. What can you solve problems involving observe about the midsegments? Prove using coordinate geometry. system. R5 Triangle ABC has vertices A(2. –1). 1). List the angles in order from the least to the greater measure. –8). two. Solving. systems (e. B(–2. c) Investigate conjectures and R5 Draw several trapezoids and their midsegments. using as few variables as possible. Solving of the building. 120 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c)Use trigonometric R5 Find the measure of angle β. properties of geometric shapes using coordinate geometry. The distance between points A and B is 30 meters. 1). R5The angle of elevation to the top of a building from two points A and B on level ground are 35 degrees and 48 degrees. Visualizing. Solving unit from the point with Cartesian coordinates (2.6) and (1. R5 Find the polar equation of the set of all points at a distance of 1 Visualizing. 2. R5 Each figure shows a specific position for a polygon. –3) to (2. Find the height Computing.. polar). Proving ! ! . R5 Find the distance between the point P and the origin. then the parallelogram is a rectangle.and three-dimensional R5 Represent a parallelogram at a convenient location on a Cartesian objects represented in the plane. (5. relationships to determine lengths and angular measurements. Provide coor- dinates for each vertex.

(b) f (x – 1). R5 An ironing board is shown. Assessment Targets | 121 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 3. R5 Draw a triangle with exactly one line of symmetry. metries and ______ rotational symmetries” No. reasoning and geometric modeling to solve routine and non-routine problems. Solving b)Use transformations and R5 Complete the following table about regular polygons to complete symmetry to analyze the following hypothesis: mathematical problems and “A regular polygon with n sides has ____ reflectional sym- situations. Applying ! ! . of sides 3 4 5 6 7 n No. of reflectional symmetries No. Sketch the following: (a) –f (x). If its side measures 6 cm. does the board remain parallel to a horizontal floor at whichever height the ironing board is raised? The legs need not be of the same length. (c) f (x) + 2. Knowing. a) Represent transformations R5 What transformations would transform A into B? in the plane using graphs. (d) 1 – f (x) Visualizing. vectors and functions R5 The graph of y = f (x) appears below. Find another such word with at least 5 letters. Solving. answer problems. a) Use geometric models to R5 A part of a cone has radii 2 cm and 4 cm. of rotational symmetries (≤360°) R5 The word NOON remains the same when it is reflected over its line of symmetry. If the pivot P is located at the mid- point of each leg. Understand transformations and symmetry to analyze mathematical situations. Prove. Use spatial visualization. find the volume of the whole cone. Is it possible to Visualizing draw a triangle with exactly two lines of symmetry? Three? 4.

if two chords are not congruent. ! ! . ces of an isosceles triangle. Computing. R5 Under what condition does the median from A bisect ∠A? Make a hypothesis and prove. –2) and C(–3. Applying 5. people win a prize for hitting a shaded target. B(4. Learn to construct geometric proofs and use these to develop higher-order thinking skills. y) are verti- other areas of mathematics. with AB = BC and medians AQ and CP. R5 In a carnival. arguments. R5 Given an isosceles ∆ABC. a) Establish the validity of R5 Prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Solving. Find the probability of winning a prize if the person throws a dart ran- domly. 7). R5 Show that in the same circle. The radii of the three circles are in the ratio 1:2:3. 122 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: b)Apply geometric models in R5 Find the value of y so that A(2. prove that AQ = CP. geometric conjectures using R5 Draw a circle and construct several angles intercepting a semicircle. different types of proof and What do you notice about the sizes of the angles? Prove it. Assume that the dart would surely land within the bound- ary of the outer circle. then the longer chord is nearer the center of the circle than the shorter chord. R5 Prove that each side of a triangle is less than half the perimeter of the triangle.

A parallelogram ______ has a right angle. i. R5 In circle O. Chords AD and BC are drawn such that AD is parallel to BC . (continuation) parallelogram. e. Assessment Targets | 123 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: a)Establish the validity of R5 Fill in the blanks with always. The diagonals of a parallelogram ______ bisect each other. A parallelogram is ______ a trapezoid. sometimes ornever. f. Two consecutive angles of a parallelogram are ______ congru- ent. g. Quadrilaterals with two pairs of parallel sides is ______ a arguments. The diagonals of a parallelogram are _____ congruent. R5 Prove that a trapezoid inscribed in a circle is isosceles. Proving ! ! . geometric conjectures using a. Quadrilaterals whose opposite angles are congruent are _____parallelograms. diameter AC is constructed. Two consecutive angles of a parallelogram are ______ supple- mentary. different types of proof and b. A parallelogram is ______ a rhombus. c. Prove that AD b BC . h. d.

a) 2x + 3y – 5 = 0 b) y = 3x2 + 2x + 1 3y c) 1 -7 2x = 8 d) y = 3x x+ 1 Knowing b)Represent and analyze R5 The rates in a parking lot are as follows: 30 pesos for the first 2 patterns using tables. π]. b) Set up a piecewise equation which represents the amount of parking fees for this time interval. graphs. a) Identify functions as linear R5 Which of these tables show a linear relationship? and nonlinear. R5 a) Use a table to compare the values of sin x and cos x for several x values in the interval [–2π. 124 | Assessment Targets Table 34. ! ! . a) Graph the parking fees for time t = 0 to t = 8. Algebra at the end of Grade 10/11 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. Solving that sin A = cos B is true. Functions. distinguish their properties using tables. relationships and possible changes in shapes and quantities. graphs or equations. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Patterns. R5 Determine whether each equation is linear or nonlinear. Recognize and describe patterns. b) Use the table to determine a relationship between A and B so Visualizing. thereof. hours or less and 10 pesos for each additional hour orfraction words and symbolic rules.

Proving present as a function of time t.Subtract 4. . then walks at 6 kilometers per hour for 30 more minutes. b) Determine a rule that gives the total distance traveled d as a Knowing. 3. 1.) Construct a table that shows the number obtained for each of the following original numbers: –2. ! ! . c) Give an equation that represents the number y of bacteria Applying.Add twice the original number. He then runs for 1. . He rests for 10 minutes. relationship. θ cos θ sin θ (cos θ)2 + (sin θ)2 sin(2θ) 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° R5 Suppose that the number of bacteria doubles every 4 hours. 16 and 20 hours. 12. a) Use a table that expresses the total distance the man has traveled at the end of each 10-minute interval of his work-out.Add 5 to your number. Is there a simpler way to obtain the output. . table. Assessment Targets | 125 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Relate and compare different R5 Here is a rule to perform on a number: forms of representation for a . d)Generalize patterns using R5 Fill in the following table. 4.Triple your number. Proving function of time t and graph on the td-plane. 2.Double this answer. c) Determine an equation that represents the graph. . –1. 8. find at least four patterns in the functions. explain how you could use this to determine the number of bacteria present after n + 4 hours.5 hours at the rate of 10 kilom- eters per hour. a) If there are initially 3 bacteria present. Next. a man walks for 45 minutes at a rate of 6 kilom- eters per hour. a. 0. make a table showing the number of bacteria at the end of 4. b) Graph this relationship. other than the rule given above? R5 During a workout. b) If you know how much bacteria are present after n hours.

(fg) and transformations on (x) and (f ° g)(x). Determine (f + g)(x). How would you interpret the relationship between distance and average speed? b) Now. ! ! . polynomial. where k is a constant. Knowing g (x) = bx. functions and equations.) Suppose t = k. Give the rule for a function g whose graph is obtained by shifting the graph of f 5 units to the left and 1 unit up. where r is the functions of two variables. How would you interpret the relationship between average speed and total time traveled? R5 Suppose that a company sells two products. g(x) = – f (x) +1 g)Interpret representations of R5 The total distance traveled is given by d(r. where k is a constant. R5 Let f (x) = tan(x + 2). g(x) = f (x – 1) + 3 Knowing c. g(x) = f (x) – 2 b. Graph the distance d as a function of r on the rd-plane. f (x) = bx. If the first product makes 5 pesos each and the second 7 pe- Knowing sos each. intercepts and exponential. Graph the average speed r as a function of t on the tr-plane. 126 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: e) Compare properties of R5 In what ways are the graphs of the following functions (a) the various classes of functions: same. R5 Use the graph of the function f below to sketch the graph of g. rational. (b) different? Take note of the domain. b > 1. a. average speed and t is the total travel time. range. trigonometric. Let x be the number of the first product sold and y the number of the second product sold. Give the domain of each function. determine the profit function P as a function of x and y. suppose that d = k. asymptotes. 0 < b < 1 f ) Perform operations R5 Let f (x) = 1/(1 – x2) and let g(x)= |x + 3|. t) = rt. a. etc.

9 b. Express the following quantities in terms of x and y.1 algebraic expressions. they can finish in 2 hours. The smaller number is 41 less than represent situations and the greater number.) 2x .1 + 2 d. Use algebraic symbols to represent and analyze mathematical situations. 3 9x + 21 3x + 7 18x . a) the distance traveled by the first car in t hours b) the distance between the two cars after t hours c) the time it takes the first car to travel d km d) the time it takes for the first car to be 50 km from the second car R5 A father can paint a room in 3 hours. How many grams of Solving. Applying the audience? b)Identify and recognize R5 Which expression is not equivalent to any of the others? equivalent forms for a. The rates of the first and sec- ond cars are x and y kph. Give an expression which represents the amount of time that the daughter needs to paint the room alone.990 pesos. R5 A 500-seat movie theater charges 250 pesos for adults and 220 pesos for children.) 6x2 + x – 2 Knowing b) x4 – 8x3+ 24x2 – 32x + 16 c) Use algebraic symbols to R5 The sum of two numbers is 25. If the theater is ¾ full and the total ticket sales is 90.) 2 .) 2x . straight road in the same direction. but if he paints the room with his daughter.17 c. a. a) Use variables to represent R5 Two cars start from place at the same time and travel along a unknown quantities.) 63 + 27x 3x 7 R5 Give the factored form for each of the following expressions. R5 A 10% alcohol solution and an 18% alcohol solution are mixed to obtain 400 grams of a 15% alcohol solution. solve problems. how many children and how many adults were in Solving. Assessment Targets | 127 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 2. Find the two numbers. respectively (x > y). Applying the 10% solution and the 18% solution are needed? ! ! .

equations. b) a is zero. lowing inequalities is always true? equations. determine the effect on the graph if a) a is a large positive number. inequalities and systems of R5 Solve the inequality |3x – 5| – 2 = 0.y b) x > y .y c) . Use algebraic symbols to represent this statement. Proving f ) b is zero. R5 Solve the equation 2x+2 – 2–x = 7. e) c is decreased. Computing ! ! . g)Write and solve equivalent R5 Find the solution set to the inequality: x2 – 2 < 4 – x forms of equations. y is negative and x is positive. R5 If y = ax2 + bx + c. Knowing f ) Use algebraic symbols R5 The sum of three consecutive even numbers is less than 55 and to represent and explain greater than 40. d) c is increased. R5 Suppose the amount of money invested in a bank doubles every 18 years. inequalities and x x x x a) x < y . c) a is negative. e) Classify equivalent forms R5 Suppose y > – x. Give an equation which represents the amount of money in Applying. x + 4y =-3 R5 Solve the system: ) 3x + y = 2 Knowing. 128 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: d)Investigate relationships R5 Match each type of relationship with its graph.y < 1 d) y + y > 1 relations.5. mathematical relationships. between algebraic equations and graphs of lines and curves. Proving the bank t years after it was invested. Which of the fol- of algebraic expressions. Give a range of possible values for the largest of the three numbers.

What type of Applying function is this? ! ! . From this table. B(–2.0 m from one end to the other identifying the quantitative b. Five years ago. 2) and D(1. graphical old. Assessment Targets | 129 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 3. a) Make a table that shows the number of blocks for n = 1. b)Determine the function that R5 Determine the function that models the following situations. R5 Plot the points A(0. Let x be the side length of each cut square. Solving. Visualizing. will model relationships a. Represent and understand quantitative relationships using mathematical models. the depth of a 50-m pool from the shallow end if the pool’s in a given situation by depth changes from 1. What should be the length of each piece if the total area enclosed by the two squares is 37/8 cm2? R5 Four identical squares are to be cut of from each corner of a rec- tangular piece of cardboard measuring 7 in. he was twice as using equations. C(6. estimate the value of x so that the volume of the box is maximized. the revenue earned from selling x units of a commodity with relationships present. Applying b) Determine this value of y algebraically. fixed price p c. The two pieces are to be bent into two squares. How old are they? and tabular representations. 3 and 4.5 m to 2. a) Construct a table that gives the volume of the box for several values of x. What is the domain of this function? Use a technological tool to graph this equation and find the value(s) of x that would maximize the volume of x. a) Model and solve problems R5 Alan is nine years older than Peter. the resale value of a parcel of land t years after being bought if the rate of appreciation is 3% per year R5 Consider the following pattern. x 10 in. The remaining piece is then folded up to create a box. –3). b) Express the volume V as a function of x. y). a) Estimate the value of y so that AC = BD. 2. 0). R5 A 12-cm long piece of wire is to be cut into two pieces. b) How many blocks would be used for n = 5? for n = 6? c) Specify a rule for the function which would represent the relationship between n and the number of blocks.

1 1995 19.3 1975 18. ! ! . 130 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Make conclusions about a R5 The table below shows the percent of persons in a province who situation represented by a live below the national poverty level.6 2000 16. b) Use this model to approximate the percent of people living below poverty level during the year 2003.9 1980 17.3 1990 20.9 2005 19. Applying 2005? Explain. c) Do you think this model would be accurate beyond the year Knowing.8 a) What type of function would best model this situation? Find an appropriate model. Let x = 0 correspond to the mathematical model. Year Percent be- low poverty level 1970 21. year 1970.6 1985 18.

a) Is height related to running speed? sports. mode. 12. 6. organizing and analyzing data. 9. 3. 12. 2. Assessment Targets | 131 Table 35. 13. 3. 29 R5 A basketball coach listed the points scored by each member of the school’s varsity teams. surveys/investigations on Justify your questions. Assessment Targets by General and Specific Objectives for Data. 12. b) Find the mean of the data. range a) 7. 9. b) Do rock bands get a large audience? c) How much household garbage is produced in our homes and Applying how much of this is recycled? b)Determine summary R5 Compute the mean. a) Plan and implement R5 Design a questionnaire to investigate any of the questions below. 3. 28. 25. Analysis and Probability at the end of Grade 10/11 General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: 1. 19 d) –11. The list is shown below. 9. 11. 9. 15 c) –1. 9. 17. 15. 9. 7. 11 and standard deviation. 14. 1. (environment. 23. What can you conclude from your results? mean. 3. b) 3. c) What’s the mode? d) Find the standard deviation and interpret this value. 6. music). 2 a) Find the median number of points scored. 0. variance and standard deviation for each data measures on data such as collection. 6. social events. 4. Explain to whom you will distribute the current issues or problems survey in order to come up with unbiased results. –1. 8. 14. 5. 0. median. 16. 11. e) What measure of central tendency would you use to give the Computing best impression of the players’ abilities? Explain? ! ! . 6. Develop appropriate skills for collecting. 10. 8. 19. 12.

The other goes to the basketball court and fitness center to conduct his poll. ! ! . Discuss a sampling Applying technique that provides minimum bias. inferences and conclusions. b) A teacher can choose any one of her classes to evaluate her performance. identify the population being studied and the recognize its role in drawing sample used actually questioned. One goes to several schools and interviews random people there. She chooses one class. Discuss the sampling technique. hands out the student evaluation forms and stays in the room as the students fill out the questionnaires. a) An advertisement for a new drug claims that 8 out of 10 doc- tors prefer the product. A poll is taken by two journalists. c) Two candidates for mayor have different priorities. validity and possible sources of bias. One is convinced that education is the road away from poverty while the other believes that a good sports development program is an efficient means to solve drug addiction. R5 You are tasked to conduct an investigation on how much time col- lege students spend playing computer games. 132 | Assessment Targets General and Specific Assessment Targets Objectives It is expected that students will: c) Discuss sampling and R5 In each example.

Assessment Targets | 133

General and Specific
Assessment Targets
Objectives
It is expected that students will:
2. Understand, use and interpret data presented in charts, tables and graphs of different kinds.
a) Draw inferences and R5 The Peso-US Dollar rate from January 2004 to August 2006 is
judgments from data shown below.
displays.
Month 2006 2005 2004
December 53.612 56.183
November 54.561 56.322
October 55.708 56.341
September 56.156 56.213
August 51.362 55.952 55.834
July 52.398 56.006 55.953
June 53.157 55.179 55.985
May 52.127 54.341 55.845
April 51.360 54.492 55.904
March 51.219 54.440 56.303
February 51.817 54.813 56.070
January 52.617 55.766 55.526
From the National Statistical Coordination Board
a) Graph the data and present the graph such that the value of
the peso appears unchanging.
b) Construct another graph where the change in the peso’s value
looks more dramatic.
c) These exercises show that how a graph is presented could
influence the viewer’s opinion. How would you assess the actual
trend in the peso-USD exchange rate?
R5 The following cumulative frequency polygons show the scores of 2
groups of students (A and B) on a 100-point exam.

a) If 19 students failed the exam, estimate the passing score.
b) How many students from each group have scores between 90
to 100?
c) Find the lowest score in each group?
Knowing, Applying d) Which class performed better?

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134 | Assessment Targets

General and Specific
Assessment Targets
Objectives
It is expected that students will:
b)Use measures of central R5 Research on the life expectancy for males and females of 25 differ-
tendency, variability and ent countries. Find the mean life expectancy and standard devia-
correlation to describe and tion for (a) males and for (b) females. Interpret the data.
interpret data. R5 Suppose that in a certain subdivision, ten families had the follow-
ing monthly income, in pesos: 55,000; 51,000; 280,000; 74,000;
78,000; 63,000; 78,000; 62,000; 48,000; 90,000
R5 Which measure(s) of central tendency do you think best represents
Applying the monthly income of the 10 residents? Explain your answer.
3. Develop skills in estimating probabilities and use probabilities for making predictions.
a) Use probabilities of events R5 A loaded die is thrown 100 times and the outcomes are shown
to solve problems involving below.
chance. Outcome 1 2 3 4 5 6
Frequency 12 25 13 8 20 12
R5 Find the experimental probability that when the die is thrown
twice,
a) both show an even number.
b) exactly one die is a 4.
c) the two throws give consecutive numbers.
R5 A random ball is chosen from a bag containing 2 red, 5 yellow, 1
blue and 2 green balls. Find the probability that the selected ball is
a) blue.
b) not green.
c) either red or green.
R5 Suppose two balls are picked one after the other, without replace-
ment. Find the probability that the second ball is red if the first
Solving, Applying was green.
b)Use simulations to estimate R5 Three cards are randomly selected from a standard deck. What
probabilities. is the probability that all three are of the same suit? Conduct an
experiment that explores this problem and solve the theoretical
probability.
R5 A company selling powdered milk has a promo where each box of
milk has a free action figure. There are 6 action figures available
and each box contains a randomly chosen action figure. Rod want
to know many boxes he should buy so that he will have a good
chance of getting all six. Using an ordinary die, design a method to
Applying simulate the scenario above. Come up with a reasonable result.

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Assessment Targets | 135

General and Specific
Assessment Targets
Objectives
It is expected that students will:
c) Apply concepts of R5 A particular genetic condition affects 30% of males and 10% of fe-
probability to explain events males. Assume that there is an equal number of males and females
in interesting situations such in a large population and a randomly selected individual is chosen.
as genetics, sports and other Find the probability that
games of chance. a) the person is a male with the genetic condition.
b) the person has the genetic condition.
d) Use probability concepts c) the person is female given that the selected person has the ge-
in forecasting election netic condition.
results, weather, volcanic
R5 In the lottery, a person can choose any six numbers from 1 to
eruptions and other natural
42. Everyone who can manage to guess the six winning numbers
phenomena
would win the jackpot. Generally, people do not want to bet on
the six numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 because this combination is very
unlikely to come up. What do you think of this reasoning?
R5 The Red and Green teams are playing for the tournament champi-
onships in a best-of-five series. The Red team has a 2/3 chance of
winning a game if it plays the Green team.
a) What is the probability that the Red team wins the series in
only three games?
b) What is the probability that the series ends in three games? in
four games?
c) What is the probability that the Green team wins the title?
d) What is the probability that the Green team wins the series if
Applying the Red team already won Games 1 and 2?

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& Yap. Second International Handbook of Mathematics Education. Washington. S. E. Center for Education. 1988. A (1998). Quezon City: DOST-SEI. The Learning Process: The Neglected Phenomenon in Science and Mathematics Education Reform in the Philippines. Cajilig.bc. C et al (Eds). B. Leung (Eds. & Nebres. M and Ogena. P and Vistro-Yu. M. p 79-107. Board on Mathematical Sciences. In I Coronel. Keitel. Kluwer. National Academy Press. C. Population II.minedu.A.. et al (Eds).aspx. UP NISMED.. San Jose. Mathematics Learning Committee. J. pp31-73.govt. In EB Ogena and FG Brawner. Closing Address. Ronda. National Research Council (1986).gov. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Philippine Report: Volume II Mathematics. Bishop. Manila. & Vistro-Yu. Mathematical Society of the Philippines. (2007). A.ph New Zealand Ministry of Education (1992). Retrieved October 2009 from http://www. J (1979). Mañalac.... Science Education in the Philippines: An Overview. T. N. Science Education in the Philip- pines: Challenges for Development. Retrieved Oc- tober 2009 from http://www. Second international handbook of mathematics education (pp.28. C. Mathematics in the Philippines 3: Proceed- ings of the First Southeast Asian Conference on Mathematical Education.. Ocampo. (2007). Population I. F.. P. UP NISMED.. Mathematics education in international and global contexts.gov.ca/irp/irp_math. Eds. Ibe. Callanta. Fund for Assistance to Private Education (1988).nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/Schools/Curricu- lumAndNCEA/NationalCurriculum/Mathematics.. Landrito. Is Mathematics for All? In Keitel. C. Quezon City: DOST-SEI. Mathematics in the New Zealand Curriculum. L. Mathematics: A Unifying and Dynamic Resource. DepEd. Technical Papers presented at the National Science Education Congress. Common Curriculum Framework for Mathematics.. C (2003). N. p 3-7 National Research Council (2001). Proceedings of the conference on the Participation of Private Schools in the Secondary Education Development Project Gates. Bibliography | 137 BIBLIOGRAPHY Atweh. R. pp7.census. De Guzman. In A. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Philippine Report: Volume II Mathematics. Kilpartrick & F. ! ! . Washington.. Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics. DC: National Academy Press.bced. DepEd. Vistro-Yu. J. Clarkson. Bernardo. Dordrecht. DC. 185-229). In EB Ogena and FG Brawner. Science Education in the Philippines: Challenges for Development. Kilpatrick. F.. Swaf- ford and B. Findell (Eds). British Columbia Ministry of Education (2008). B. E (1998). De Guzman. E.htm. Joaquin. National Statistics Office. Technical Pa- pers presented at the National Science Education Congress. A. Dordrecht: Kluwer. (2003). Clements. Manuel. J. 2003 National Demographic and Health Survey from www. Ulep. 1988. Eds.).

Candles in the dark. TIMSS National Research Coordination Office. (2005). Pundasyon. Manila: NAST.5 Mathematics and Science Education in the Philippines. Equity 2000: A Systemic Education Reform Movement The College Board (1990). M (2006) Formulation of National Learning Strategies in Science and Mathematics Educa- tion.). pp. 138 | Bibliography Ogena. The University of New England. E and Tan. QC. Bell. 107 – 147. et al (1998). 1). Asian Perspectives on Mathematics Education. Department of Education Pascua. Materials and methods in basic education and in-service teacher training in science and mathematics. Basic Education Reform Agenda. G (Ed). (2005). G. Saavedra. First Draft. 15 October. M. SEI & CIDS. M. B. UP National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development (2001) One Hundred Years of Science and Mathematics Education in the Philippines. L (1993). Diliman. Secondary Mathematics Education in the Philippines Today. Talisayon. The Manila Times. V. ! ! . Brawner (Eds. A (1998) Philippine Education for the 21st Century: 1998 Philippine Educational Sector Study. Changing the Odds: Factors Increasing College Access. Somerset. Ogena & F. Technical Paper No. Asian Development Bank. Science Education in the Philippines: Challenges for Development Technical Papers (Vol. Australia. In E. The College Board (2000).

Division of Camarines Sur Nympha Joaquin. Camp 7 National High School. Araullo High School Camarines Sur Maureen G. Tarlac Teresita S. Xavier School. Marikina High School. Department of Education for Literacy. Xavier School. Marikina Batangas Cristina Bacuyag-Rosales. Metro Manila Joy Aliñab. Metro Manila Final Draft Workshop Participants Josephine Bernadette Benjamin. Xavier School. Cebu Joe I. Balayan National High School. Albay Bicol Veronica Cruz. Evangeline Bautista. Cornelia Soto. Institutions and Groups Mathematics Teachers Association of the Philippines De La Salle University (MTAP) Department of Education Abelardo Medes National Academy of Science and Technology Panfila Mozar. Xavier School. University of the Philippines Maria Caridad Caparal. Tinurik National High School. Naga City National High School.. New Ormoc City National High Gladys Nivera. U. for serving as reviewers of the manuscript drafts and for participating in the various fora and workshops held from the years 2006 and 2007. Suarez. Roldann Tabayoyong. Jr. Xavier School. Metro Manila Seno Banzon. Los Baños National High School. Division of Nueva Ecija and Science Education Development Marie Rose Lugapo. U. Ateneo de Manila University Laguna Josefina Fonacier. Metro Manila Flordeliza Francisco. Violeta B. Capas High School. Bonga National High School. Batangas Julius Basilla Thiel Batoon. Xavier School. Sotero B. Parang High School. Xavier School. Quizon. Metro Manila Cagayan Joey Tejamo. Manila Nympha Joaquin. Metro Manila Alva Aberin. Cebu Mathematics Group. Metro Manila Rhett Anthony Latonio.. Ateneo de Manila University Adelfa Ebisa. Violentina Asuncion. Division of Caloocan Joey G. Marikina Cornelia Soto. Nicanor San Gabriel. Philippine Normal University School. Jr.P. Metro Manila Thomas Andrew Pinlac. Cebu Fritzi Ann S. Florencio Urot Memorial National High School. Jr. Cecilio..P. Leyte Cheryl Pavericio. National Institute of Mathematics and Science Education Development ! ! . Metro Manila Ferdinand Aguila. Ateneo de Manila University Sueño Luzada. National Institute of Mathematics Esperanze Laya. Acknowledgements | 139 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS MATHTED and SEI wish to thank the following individuals. Titular. Cabahug FORUM Elizabeth Catao. Ateneo de Manila University Batangas Rubelyn Mangilaya. De La Salle University School. Ateneo de Manila University Ligaya Lapitan. University of the Philippines Sherna M. institutions and groups for responding to our calls for feedback. Misamis Occidental National High School Tomas. Cleofe. San Isidro National High School. Arlante. San Joaquin-Kalawaan High Minie Rose Lapinid. Ranola Memorial School. Magnaye. Medina National Comprehensive High School Reviewers (Stage 2) Linda May Hernandez. Their invaluable contributions and insights were most important in the revision of the framework working draft. Leana Patungan Reviewers (Stage 1) Liza Permelona. Marcial O. Lal-lo National High School. Mathematics Trainers Guild Lilibeth Villena. University of Santo Jojie Aviles. Ateneo de Manila University Eduardo dela Cruz.