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Full Scale Measurements – Sea trials

Experimental Methods in Marine Hydrodynamics
Lecture in week 45 Contents:
•Types of tests
•How to perform and correct speed trials
•Wave monitoring
•Measurement
•Observations
•Motion measurement
•Hull monitoring
•Propeller cavitation observations
•Performance monitoring
1 Covers Chapter 11 in the Lecture Notes

Dedicated sea trials are conducted under the
following circumstances:
• Delivery of newbuildings (Contractual Trials)
– Speed-power (compliance with contracted performance)
– Bollard Pull test (tugs and offshore vessels – compliance with
contracted performance)
– Maneuvering (compliance with IMO criteria)
– Sea keeping (only high speed craft)
• If a special problem has arisen, for instance:
– Propeller noise and/or erosion
– Steering problems
– Excessive fuel consumption
• For research purposes (quite rare due to high costs)

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Delivery Sea trials (Contractual trials)

• Ship building contracts contain specific requirements for
speed-power performance
– Failure to meet requirements means fees to be paid and ultimately
that the ship owner has the right to refuse to accept the ship
• For tugs and offshore vessels, there will be requirements
for bollard pull as well
• There might be requirements also for maneuvering trials :
– Emergency stop test
– Turning circles
– Zig-zag tests
• High speed craft – requirements also for seakeeping tests
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– IMO: 2000 HSC Code (IMO 185E)

Applicable standards

• ISO 19019:2005 Sea-going vessels and marine technology
-- Instructions for planning, carrying out and reporting sea
trials
• ISO 15016 Guidelines for the assessment of speed and
power performance by analysis of speed trial data
• Proposed standard: STAWAVE method by Marin
• ITTC Recommended procedure 7.5-04-01-01.1
Preparation and Conduct of Speed/Power Trials
• IMO: 2000 HSC Code (IMO 185E) – Requirements for
testing of high speed craft

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IMO HSC testing requirements • Stopping – Normal stop from max speed to zero – Emergency stop – Crash stop • Cruise performance in two sea states – Normal conditions – Worst intended conditions – Measurements of accelerations. crew and passengers are not at risk if for instance the steering fails 6 . speed. relative wave heading • Failure tests – Check that the ship.

Organization of Delivery Trials • The Shipbuilder is responsible • Trial Leader – From the shipbuilder – Responsible for the execution of all phases of the trial • Ship masters – There is one ship master hired by the shipbuilder who is in charge of handling the ship – There is usually one or more ship masters hired by the shipowner who is going to take over the ship • Measurements are performed by shipbuilder or by third party (like Marintek or Maskindynamikk) 7 .

Execution of speed trials • Always run back and forth at same engine setting • Run back and forth at the same track • Perform runs at different speeds (at least three) • If possible. current 8 . orient the track with and against the wind direction > 5 min and 1 mile •Steady Approach •Steady Approach > 5 min and 1 mile Wind.

Measured mile 9 .

0*Am2 and h>½V2 – Smaller depths require corrections for shallow water • Current – Current of more than a few knots is unacceptable 10 . Trial Conditions – max acceptable • Sea state – Preferably ≤ sea state 3 – Ultimately ≤ sea state 5 (or up to sea state 6 for ships with L>100 m) • Wind – ≤ Beufort 6 (20 knots) (for ships with L>100 m) – ≤ Beufort 5 (for ships with L ≤ 100 m) • Water depth h – h>6.

Use of double runs means that corrections are always included 11 .0*(Am)½ and h>½V2 • Current – No current – No practical limit for when corrections are made. Trial Conditions – Contractual • Sea state – No waves – In practice: Beufort 1 (Wave height 0. – In practice: h>6.1 m) • Wind – No wind – In practice: Beufort 2 (Wind speed ≤ 6 knots) • Water depth h – Deep.

Correction of trial results • When trial conditions are not fulfilled corrections must be made • Typical corrections: – Draught – interpolation in model test results on two draughts – Wind – calculation of wind resistance using empirical drag coef. or results from wind tunnel tests – Shallow water – empirical formulas – Waves – calculation of added wave resistance and speed loss • Standards for how corrections shall be performed: – ISO 15016 Guidelines for the assessment of speed and power … – ITTC Procedure for the Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data – STAWAVE by Marin • Comes with a free software package for performing the analysis 12 .

IMO Energy Efficiency Design Index - EEDI • Increases the need for standardized trial and correction procedures • The speed at 75% MCR in calm water must be accurately determined • Now longer just a matter for yard and ship owner – Shall be approved by classification society 13 .

Recent developments • The ISO 15016 is about to be discarded – Too complicated to use – Too much freedom to manipulate results – Outdated correction methods • IMO has tasked ITTC to develop a new standard • ITTC works with Marin. and the new guideline is based on the STAWAVE methods 14 .

Speed measurement • “Speed over ground” and “Speed through water” • Timing a measured mile – the old-fashioned way. always used – Gives speed over ground • Speed log – Device to measure speed through water – Always installed on ships – The accuracy is questionable! 15 . only applicable to dedicated speed trials – Gives speed over ground • GPS – The obvious choice.

slow speed engines) 16 . but most expensive alternative • Poor. so shaft dimensions and material properties must be known exactly – Tachometer to measure shaft speed • Commercial power meters – Made for permanent installation – The best. Measurement of shaft power • Strain gauges glued directly to the shaft – Calibration factor must be calculated. combined with supplier data for fuel quality) – measurement of cylinder pressure (used on large. but cheap alternatives are – fuel rack measurements (measurement of fuel consumption.

17 . Shaft measurements Torque measurement Thrust measurem.

Optical torque sensor 18 .

but possible. Optical thrust and torque measurement Required accuracy for thrust measurement is 25 naonometers! Challenging. according to supplier VAF Instruments 19 .

Bollard Pull Tests Good location Poor location 20 .

Bollard pull test 21 .

Bollard pull test •2x460 kW 22 .

Maneuvering trials • Trial types and execution same as in model scale • Measurements: – (D)GPS position measurement – Gyro compass course – Rate of turn (if possible) – Rudder angle – Propeller revs 23 .

Types of Ship Maneuvers • IMO standard maneuvers: – Zig-zag tests • 10º/ 10º to both sides • 20º/ 20º to both sides – Turning circle test • 35º rudder angle – Full astern stopping test • Additional maneuvers: – Spiral test – Reverse spiral test – Pull-out maneuver • normally added at the end of a turning test 24 .

Zig-zag test 25 .

Test 2011: 20-20 zig zag 26 .

Turning circle 27 .

and in specific combination) for a short time – Measure the acceleration of the ship in the horisontal plane – Compute the impulse required to create the acceleration – Compare the effective impulse with the impulse provided by the thruster(s) to arrive at a kind of efficiency 28 . Testing of position-keeping ability and thruster performance at zero speed • Important for vessels that have requirements to Dynamic Positioning performance • No standard tests or commonly recognised procedures – There is a need for development of standardized tests and analysis procedures for this purpose • A way to characterise thruster performance at zero speed: – Run the thrusters in different combinations (one by one.

calibrated instrument is preferable – Watch out for influence of superstructure on the measurement • Current – Nautical charts and tables – the difference in speed between double runs – a 360º turning test at low speed – The difference between log speed and GPS speed • often. Measurements – environmental conditions • Water depth – Echo sounder (ship instrument) or nautical charts • Water quality – Temperature: Cooling water intake temperature can be used – Density: From nautical charts or density measurements • Wind – Velocity and direction from anemometer – A separate. one doesn’t trust the speed log sufficiently for this purpose 29 .

and possibly a neutral third party are compared and averaged • Mobile wave buoy – Accurate (but only at a single point) – Recovery of the buoy is difficult (risk of loosing it) • Fixed weather station – Good solution if one is nearby • Wave radar (Wavex) • Bow-mounted altimeter • Wave information without measurement: Hindcast data 30 . Wave measurements • Visual observation and estimation – Estimates by yard representative. ship-owner representative.

including period. Wave buoys • Fugro Oceanor Wavescan – Directional wave spectrum – Wind – Current – Water temperature and salinity – Must be moored. heavy. spherical buoys – Drifting or moored – Measures acceleration to determine wave elevation. large. costly • Smaller. but not direction – Usually measures position – for a drifting buoy this can be used as an estimate of current 31 – Can be brought along for a full scale test .

Wavex by Miros AS 32 .

055 33 .094 • Measures relative wave motion • Ship motions must also be measured in order to calculate absolute wave height SM . Bow-mounted altimeter SM .

5 8 7 Gale Moderately high waves 33 40 6 7. Beufort wind scale with related sea conditions Sea Description term Wind sp.6 1 4 3 Moderate breeze Small waves 10 16 1 1.1 0.1 2 1 Light breeze Small wavelets 3 6 0.3 3 2 Gentle breeze Large wavelets 6 10 0.2 0.5 6 5 Strong breeze Large waves 21 27 3 4 7 6 Near gale Large waves 27 33 4 5.5 9 8 Strong gale High waves 40 47 7 10 10 9 Storm Very high waves 47 55 9 12.5 16 12 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 63 71 14 16 13 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 71 80 >14 >16 14 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 80 89 >14 >16 35 15 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 89 99 >14 >16 .5 5 4 Fresh breeze Moderate waves 16 21 2 2.5 11 9 Violent storm Exceptionally high waves 55 63 11. [knots] Wave height [m] Beufort state Wind Wave min max Probable Max 0 0 Calm Calm 0 1 0 0 1 0 Light air Ripples 1 3 0.

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wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaufort_scale 37 . •Illustrations of Beufort wind (and wave) scale •From: http://en.

observations … • Many different sources – Might be hard to find the right source for your test – National Oceanic and Athospheric Administration www. weather stations.gov is the main source • Many different applications are using their open data • From hindcast data you can get information about sea state and wind in your area – You can of course not get wave elevation time series! • Generally only available for open ocean areas 38 . Hindcast data • Information about wave and wind condition in the past • Data collected by meteorological institutes – From wave buoys. satellites.noaa.

accelerometers • Rate gyro to measure rate of change of angles • Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) – Consists of a number of accelerometers built into one compact unit – Gives out accelerations. velocities and motions at any point – Konsberg Seatex MRU is a good example of a commercial IMU • Kongsberg Seapath – Combination of DGPS and IMU – for accurate position measurement 40 . compass. Measurement of motions • Accelerations: Conventional accelerometers • Angles: Gyros.

Kongsberg Seatex MRU 5+ 41 .

Kongsberg Seapath 330 42 .

gauges work loose • Sensors based on fiber- optics . Measurement of forces: Hull Monitoring Hull Monitoring System: • Strain gauges most common sensor • Short and long gauges • Cabling exposed to damage.polarimetric and bragg-grating suggested as alternative Strain gauge in protective casing: 43 .

HEMOS 44 . Rolls-Royce Health and Monitoring System .

Example: Monitoring of loads on an azimuthing thruster of a seismic vessel • Measurement of ship motions and position with Seapath • Measurements on the port azimuthing thruster • Automatic triggering of data storage • Data acquisition system remotely monitored from land 45 .

in order to detect need for maintenance • Challenges: – Monitoring and correcting for environmental conditions • Waves. water temperature – Accurate measurement of shaft power and speed through water – Correcting for loading condition – Data processing – Setting-up and running automatic data transmission 46 . wind. Performance monitoring • Typical merchant ship application: To monitor the development of speed and fuel consumption over time.

Propeller Cavitation Observations Seen from below Seen from the side 47 .

Cavitation observation techniques 2.nl 1. generation borescope 48 Source: marin. generation borescope .

Sample picture from full scale propeller cavitation observation Summary: •Types of tests •How to perform and correct speed trials •Wave monitoring •Measurement •Observations •Motion measurement •Hull monitoring 49 •Propeller cavitation observations .