Bharti Airtel Services Limited 234, Phase-III Okhla Industrial Estate, New Delhi-20


Transmission –System in the C-NOC (Central-Network Operations Centre - Service Assurance)

Submitted to: - Mr.Sameer Kumar
(System Engg.)


Transmission –System in the C-NOC (Central-Network Operations Centre - Service Assurance)

Submitted to: - Mr.Rajesh Phadnis
(Head of C-NOC)



As it is rightly said “The successful realization of the project is an outgrowth of a consolidated effort of the people from disparate fronts. It is only with their support and guidance that the developer could meet the end.” So I would like to thank all the members of TRANSMISSION SYSTEM C- NOC team for their full cooperation and help during my Training. I wish to extend my sincere gratitude towards Mr. Sameer Kumar (Assistant manager), Mr.Praveen Kumar, Mr. Arun Khillan (Head of system engg.) and Mr. Rajesh Phadnis (PTO of C - NOC) for giving me this opportunity to undergo training in System engg. department. I am also grateful towards Mr. Gaurav kumar, Mr. Shailendra kumar, Mr. Hardev Singh (Sr. Engineers) & Mr. Vikas Anchal, Mr. Deepak Rana, Mr. Amit Mudgal (Engineers) & all other members of the System engg department for making me understand various aspects of System engg.. Last but not the least I am thankful to all those persons with whom I have interacted and who directly or indirectly contributed significantly to the successful completion of my training.




1. To get exposed to the industrial environment. 2. To provide a basic understanding of the culture, work ethics and trade related work practices at the Organization, i.e. Bharti Telnet Ltd., with which the trainee was associated for a period of Six weeks. 3. To provide an opportunity to observe the processes, procedures and standards that the industry uses to ensure quality, productivity and economy of the products or services that it undertakes. 4. To relate his current level of knowledge with the industrial experience: 5. In the form of generating reports on the basis of his observation. 6.Generate a model of its operations or processes or work flow. 7. Propose alternative models, strategies or methodologies that can be more efficient, economical or better suited in terms of any specific parameter. 8. Give analysis or justification for the new model, strategy or methodology.


Haryana. Punjab. Beetel . Bharti provides a range of telecom services and solutions from customer premise equipment to customized data solutions. Gujarat. Its services sector businesses include mobile operations in Andhra Pradesh.000 fixed line customers.India's first international submarine cable. Himachal Pradesh.the first ISP with its own gateways. ranging from being the first mobile service in Delhi.75 million mobile and 423. Maharashtra. As of June 30. Bharti has recently launched International long distance services by offering data transmission services and voice transmission. Madhya Pradesh. it also has fixed-line operations in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh. Delhi. Bharti Broadband end-to-end telecom solutions. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and nationwide broadband and long distance networks. Karnataka. Network i2i .India's number one push button telephone brand. first private basic telephone service provider in the country. In addition. Bharti had approximately 7 million total customers nearly 3. Airtel . first Indian company to provide comprehensive telecom services outside India in Seychelles and first private sector service provider to launch National Long Distance Services in India. Bharti comes with an entire range spanning the entire spectrum of telephony. it is also the first telecom company to export its products to the USA. Bharti has been a pioneering force in the telecom sector with many firsts and innovations to its credit.the largest network of private fixed line telephone service and solutions in India. Bharti Enterprises has set industry standards in all the areas of its operation. Mantra . Chennai. And all this is made possible with: Touchtel . 6 . 2006. Kerala.India's first private long distance operator. Apart from being the largest manufacturer of telephone instruments. Delhi.Bharti Enterprises has been at the forefront of technology and has revolutionized telecommunications with its and has revolutionized telecommunications with its worldclass products and services world-class products and services Established in 1985. Haryana. The Company is also implemented a submarine cable project connecting Chennai-Singapore for providing international bandwidth Bharti Enterprises also manufactures and exports telephone terminals and cordless phones. Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh (West).India's leading cellular service. Kolkata. IndiaOne.

The businesses at Bharti Tele-Ventures have been 7 . a growth of 48 per cent from the corresponding quarter of last year. an increase of 53 per cent. a part of Bharti Enterprises. ACCOMPLISHMENTS Connecting India.856 crore. the company registered consolidated total revenues for the quarter at Rs 3.Growing Presence 1999 Number of Mobile Circles Number of Fixed-Line Circles Population covered in our licensed area (%) Area covered in our licensed areas (%) Wireless Coverage Area (% of Mobile Customers covered) 2 1 2% 2% 16% Pre-4th Licensed 6 1 16% 16% 38% Post-4th License 15 6 58% 56% 93% BHARTI AIRTEL LIMITED :Bharti Airtel Limited.Bharti Airtel has reported its net profit for the quarter ended 30 June 2006 (Q1FY07) at Rs755 crore. As per the un-audited results announced recently. is India's leading provider of telecommunications services.

697 broadband & telephone customers. INTRODUCTION: NETWORKS:What is a Network? A network is simply a group of two or more Personal Computers linked together. Bharti Tele-Ventures is one of India's leading private sector providers of telecommunications services based on an aggregate of 16. All these services are provided under the Airtel brand.the MOBILITY Leaders business group and the INFOTEL Leaders business group. in the company. in the same building). a state of the art high speed communication network capable of handling voice.699 customers as of November 30. The company’s mobile network partners include Ericsson.561. ISDN services. data and video. including: Local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is. Bharti is the first private operator to have established satellite based Gateway for internet access and has established its fibre gateway on Network-I2I-first private submarine cable.structured into two main strategic business groups . Unified messaging solutions.002 GSM mobile and 1. Wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. owned by Bharti and Singtel. Partners: The Company has a strategic alliance with SingTel. There are many types of computer networks. The investment made by SingTel is one of the largest investments made in the world outside Singapore.416. The Mobility business group provides GSM mobile services across India in twenty three telecom circles. while the Infotel business group provides broadband & telephone services. 8 . Nokia.145. Siemens and IT partners include IBM. Leased lines. consisting of 15. 2007. long distance services and enterprise services. Bharti provides complete telephone services and solutions ranging from DSL broadband Internet access.

Architecture: Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture. Home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices. Metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city. Protocol: The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. such as a campus or military base. In addition to these types. Common topologies include a bus.Campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network . and ring. See the Network topology diagrams in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks: Topology: The geometric arrangement of a computer system. INTERNET 9 . star.

the Internet is decentralized by design. Unlike online services. Access A means to connect to users. Dial up 4. Access equipment would mean how easily and reliably the customer gets a connection.A global network connecting millions of computers. Mobile Services REVIEW OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: Support Systems Generally all Telecommunication system can be modeled with a few basic blocks: 1. 2. Switch 10 . which are centrally controlled. Remarkably. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) 2. is independent. this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. Leased Lines 3. Each Internet computer. news and opinions. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data. Wireless Services 5. called a host. INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES: The various Internet technologies used are: 1. convert their talk into electronic signals and vice versa.

can we give new connections as & when required –no waiting time –no limit More users.Can we have voice & data & video on the same line. 2.SMS – Call diverting-Call forwarding –voice mail-sms. Because as technology evolves. at the same time. Switch would mean how many subscribers can be connected. More & more bandwidth :. Services: like Caller ID . More Quality & Reliability :- 11 . Operation support system that’s what network operators need to operate their networks efficiently and effectively.Can we provide 100 or 500 number in a sequence (corporate connections) 3.availability of unlimited talk time without system getting hunged – more frequent use . more frequent use. 3. call debar. etc. so more bandwidth. Why is that so evident today. In modern telecommunication. Auto answering .Train has left at this particular time –if any problem /path failure-conveying to HQ. And finally OSS decides how efficiently you run the network. . In case of link failure. .R world – On line flight / railway ticket booking – getting a flight boarding pass -. there is increasing demand for: 1.Can we get more download speed with increasing uploading speed. Signaling: Analog to railway transport .what bandwidth he gets. More flexibility:. . Transport A means to carry traffic & signals between several switches & also between switch & access equipment.A means to connect A to B while there are a thousands other connections between A to Z possible.more information & data to be carried. there is an increasing realisation that Transport is as important as building block . Transport has traveled it’s distance from being merely the physical connectivity to being an performance any other like Switch or Services. wake-up call. 5. raise correct bills. which alternate path to be followed. It also means . repair faults. (how fast does he download) 4.

can we provide the service as & when required. and any other information that is digitally encoded and intelligible to various network devices (i.e. statistics.i. giving a means to control the orderly communication of information between stations on a data link. microcomputers. etc.-Availability of Protection path . In today’s digital networks. at Hospital or Hotel – should not say Come tomorrow . Our MTTR should be measured in minutes & not in hrs. Put simply. generally defined as a group of facts or statistics. the rules used to govern communication between two points in a network.e operator should not say –You are in the Queue for STD or Local calls .i. computers.).Can we reduce waiting time to zero – i..Reliability of service – Uninterrupted continuous service for 24 hrs & 365 days / year.Protocol The rules for communicating between like processes. What is Data communications? Data communications (often called datacomm) implies the exchange of data.-Mere transmission is not good enough.Datacomm The movement of encoded information by means of electric transmissionsystems via one or more data links according to a protocol. 12 .e.e. datacomm actually refers to facts. word processors. the process of communicating information in binary form between two points in a network. quality of voice or video is also important. Put simply. terminals. .

Allows application programs to interface with the OSI environment and provides distributed information services (file transfer. Layer Description of Function :1. Network Layer -Responsible for establishing. Determines and regulates full duplex / half duplex / simplex operation. distributed database operations). terminal emulation.Sends data in frames across the physical link. Responsible for maintaining the quality of service: throughput.The Physical Layer:Cooperative communication across a data network requires device compatibility onvarious levels. 5. synchronization. and ratio of lost data units to data units transmitted. maintaining and terminating connections.Establishes.Concerned with the transmission of the bitstream.Data Link Layer. e-mail. 3. Its purpose is to describe data communications architectures. Concerned with error control. 7. manages and terminates sessions (connections)between communicating applications. Provides the control structure for these connections. Each layer in the OSI model is responsible for a particular function and depends on information from the layers directly above and below it in order to perform that function. 4. Transport Layer Provides reliable. These levels are outlined in the International Standards Organization(ISO) seven-layer reference model. The table below describes the functions of each of the seven layers of the OSI model.Provides information about the syntax and data format used by an application to the session layer so that the communicating applications can make any necessary syntax conversions. Application Layer. and flow control. Controls routing and flow/congestion control. However. Deals with the mechanical and electrical characteristics of accessing the physical medium. Presentation Layer. Data Network Types :- 13 . transparent transfer of data between end points. Session Layer. transit delay. OSI is not a protocol nor does it specify the use of any particular protocol. Physical Layer. 2. it does define a consistent language and boundaries for establishing protocols so that systems that follow these rules are “open” to one another and able to communicate. The reference model is called the ISO Open SystemsInterconnection (OSI). Isolates the upper layers from the task of interfacing with transmission and switching equipment. 6.

3300 Hz.It is referred to as the public switched telephone network(PSTN) in the United Kingdom. value added networkoperator. = 8 bit lData capacity reqd. this network is operated by the government or a private agency for the purpose of providingdata transmission services to the public.. --.000 bits/seconds = 64 kbps . operated.25. FRAME .to be sampled at least at double that rate for recreation So 8000 samples / second for each voice signal.000 bits/sec. This type of network is shared amongmany users.. and maintained by a privateagency for users within that organization. This type of networktransmits packets (data messages). Public Data Network Commonly called a PDN.048 Mbps = E1 01110010100011101110 We need to take atleast 8000 samples to faithfully recreate human voice.In USA it is 2Mbps 125 micro sec.000 bits/sec) Band width = 2.e.048.Each sample time duration of 125 microseconds is called FRAME (e.known as Data Speed i. A single channel of Voice needs 64 kbps to be transmitted per second.meaning one sample takes 125 µs . or a digital network such as DDS. = 64 kbps = Data Speed Total data transferred per second = 32 channels x (64.. three types of networks are used to transfer data: Public Network A network run by a telephone company. Private Network A network installed.. train) As we take a 8 bit / sample .-can be compared with .Categorically. specifically to serve the needsof the general public. This helps defer the cost of maintenance. –Data speed of Individual For Video conference we need 60 transmit. per individua = 8bits/sec.TRAIN 14 ..we get 64..000 bits / second = 2.g. in a second–Talking capacity -Data transfer capacity of each individual is 64kbps. any one of which can establish communications with any other user by use of a dial or push-button telephone. ANALOG . government agency. Packets from different sources are interleaved and sent to their destination over virtualcircuits.-Maximum 4000 HzNyquist Principle.In Japan each gets 100Mbps..DIGITAL CONVERSION:Human Voice ranges from 300 . Occasionally largerorganizations will provide bandwidth to users outside thecompany.This 64 kbps is called a DS0 (Digital Signal Zero).. =1 sample / every 125 micro sec. x 8000 samples = 64. PDNs may be either a packet-switched network suchas X.

. Each frame E1 carries 32 E0 / channels ... Aluminium • Wireless RF....e.. Media• Wireline Copper .. Technology • Voice Communication PDH • Modern Transport SDH.048 Mbps = E1 \ Facets of Transport: 1.-Passengers . i...000 bits / second = 2.– 32 channels .each channels of 8 bits ..048..-BOGGIE – 8 bits = are comparable to .. When we bunch 32 DS0 &transmit them at the gap of 125 Microsecond......125 micro seconds is divided into 32 slots / channels & is called TDM i...9 micro seconds only.for LAN •Ring 3..-.. 32 person can talk – one by one .e...Topology – (Pattern of connecting network element) •Mesh .1 microsecond) we can send 31 more signals each of 8 bits...... During rest of the time (121. µW ( Electromagnetic) • Optical OFC 2.......-.....) Band width =2.TDM During 125 micro seconds-Each person’s talk will be sampled for 3.e...Local – links •Star •Bus .. Each channel is called as Eo. Time Division Multiplexing .within 125 microseconds i....... Total data transferred per second = 32 x (8bits x 8000 samples/sec. DWDM 15 .

.Electromagnetic – Frequency generated & broadcasted by BTS (870MHz ) is greater than Frequency generated & broadcasted by Mobile unit (825MHz). C) Network management – All Mux & CT ( control terminal) in the network ( large scale ) can be controlled by SERVER at NNOC.Network on smaller scale – Commercial complex-e. Network Management – A ) Local Craft Terminal – Local panel through which nearby Mux are controlled .1550 ë 6) Losses : Absorbtion Ü 1/ ë . 5) Useful Wavelength lie in Infra Red region i. Token Ring – Ring in which only one circulating Token .Token holder can speak . FWT.EMW 3) TIR = angle > Critical Angle & n1 > n2 4) OFC – Costruction – specification = core dia.5 Gb at 1550 11) G-653 . / cladding dia. At 1310 – used at Access route . above 1550 – NLD / Inter circle – DWDM – 80 ë x 10Gb at 1550 16 .e.g.Network Management Main Pillars of Transport MEDIA .DWDM – 32 ë x 2. Receiver = digital – Elect.4 . 2) Transmitter-EMW-Elect-Digital . 850 ë.comparisson with hair.g in Lab. At 1550 12) G-655 – 0 disp.g. e. Scattering Ü 1/ ë4 & bending Ü ë 7) Loss = dB = -10log10 (P2/P1) POWER = dBm = -10log10 (P /1mw ) 8) Types of Cables – (a) Material based (b) Mode based (c) refractive index based 9) Dispersion – multimode – Chromatic At R COM – dia. Reduced (SM) & step index reduces Chromatic disp.0 disp. 10) G 652 . he has to pass it to next fellow in the ring. Ethernet – LAN . MEDIA :1) Light travels in OFC-multiple Reflections just like rebouncing of a ball.0 disp. others are listners only –If token holder do not want to use.Dumb terminal – softwear through which response from the Mux can be received.DAKC IMT – Integrated mobile terminal e. we are controlling 4 transport equipment through Laptop / Desk it gets synchronized with that of mobile – resulting in Wireless transmissionTechnology..1310 ë . B) Hyper Terminal .

Used more with TV / VIDEO / LAN • Simple and easy to use. Copper wires are also susceptible to corrosive atmosphere.g. Interference.Unshielded Twisted Pair (Data Grade) •Coaxial .(OFC):• Not so easy to use. … • Connecting is a high skill job • Maintenance problems Electrical signal are susceptible to EMI from any strong electrical source like a HT like. …) •STP . costlier than copper cable • Very high Bandwidth. 50km • Multiple links can carry signal over 500 Km.Features of Microwave transmission :•Information can be sent over a difficult terrain •Information carrying capacity (band width) of typ. • Susceptible to delay in transmission •Quick Deployment possible ( If license and satellite BW is available) Guided Media:Copper cables (UTP. Attenuation. 17 . Chennai to Andaman Nicobar islands • Information carrying capacity (band width) of typ. 400Kbps Depends on available Satellite capacity Links can carry signal over 3000 Km. grounding. etc. Co-ax. least in cost • Bandwidth-distance limitation. • Maintenance problems Optical Fiber Cable . • Susceptible to Noise and Fading •Quick Deployment possible ( If license for spectrum is available) Features of Satellite transmission :• Information can be sent over a difficult terrain. They are bulky and rigid. very low Attenuation. type of cable. a transformer/ contactor/ SMPS or even a µP based circuit. Extreme care is required to design and implement the layout of electrical signal.Shielded Twisted Pair (Data Grade) •UTP . STP. 155 Mbps (STM-1) • Each Link can carry signal over typ. shielding. No Interference. even across oceans e.

By using fiber for communications the world’s copper reserves are saved for other purposes. transport and process costs are reduced.Manufactured from the most abundant material in the earths crust. it/sec can provide the equivalent of 30. It lasts a long time –we only use a small amount of its theoretical capacity —as a result it is probably fair to say that fiber provides our most future proof transmission medium. The fiber will not. Comparatively small amounts of raw material are required therefore energy.Maybe yes –maybe no. Future Proof:. Immunity to Noise:.EMI Electromagnetic Interference . A 10Km stand of telecom grade fiber on a shipping spool weighs less than 2kg whereas a 500m reel of co-ax copper cable weighs 30kg.000 individual telephone signals of 64kbit/sec and G-655 has capacity 10Gbps/fiber/wavelength (1000Gb/sec is now very close to being achieved).G-652 has capacity 2.Fiber does not corrode like metal conductors.Optical fiber systems do not radiate any signal. This effective immunity to interference makes it possible to use fibers alongside or even on power lines.The information carrying capacity of optical fiber can be enormous. It can be done but is very difficult unless access to splices or connectors is possible.Optical fiber is remarkably light in weight. Environmentally Friendly:.Optic Fiber Cable (OFC) :Advantages of Optical Fiber – Distance:. Capacity/Bandwidth:. therefore suffer from inductive interference such as RFI Radio Interference . and hence have almost total immunity to ‘wire tapping’.The extremely low losses of modern telecom grade fiber enable distances of 50-100Km between repeaters to be routinely achieved. Long Life:.5Gbps/fiber/wave length. Journey through the “Optical Tunnel” :- 18 . however the signs are encouraging.EMP Electromagnetic Pulse. Light Weight:.The glass optical fiber is a dielectric rather than a metal and thus does not act as an antenna in the way metal conducting elements do. Security:. It is impossible to know.

If we get a optical tunnel where once a light pulse enters at one end can only come out at the other end. Visible Light: Electromagnetic radiation visible to the human eye. OFC has it’s own set of losses – dispersion. Propagation Of Light In Fiber :Total internal reflection:. absorption. OFC are far thinner in diameter. 4. hence enormous large bandwidth available. Disadvantages are :1. 4. 5. OFC is fragile.Total internal reflection is the phenomenon by which an optical fiber guides light. OFC are difficult to join. Advantages of OFC over other media like Cu wire are:1.7 µm) and the shortest microwaves (about 0. No Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). No Bandwidth-distance relation. etc Optical Spectrum :The Optical Spectrum can be divided into three regions. wavelengths of 400700 nm.e.-10Gbps whereas Capacity of Cu wire is limited i. Well an OFC is just that. If light incident at any angle more than the Critical Angle at the interface between the core and cladding (Refractive index of Core > Refractive index of Cladding ) such that it will be entirely reflected back in the Core (none is transmitted into 19 . 34 Mbps. would serve our purpose. extending from approximately 4 nm to 400 nm. 3. 2. OFC is costlier than Cu-wire. 3.1 µm). extreme of the visible spectrum (about 0. Ultra Violet: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which thelongest wavelength is just below the visible spectrum.-smaller in size-light in weight. Greater safety as difficult to join-High security. It reflects several time on the “wall” before reaching the end of the tunnel. Train travels on railway track transfers the Passengers similarly Wavelength travels on OFC transfer the Data / voice / video. Very low attenuation-Loss depends on length only –free from amount of data Transmitted. 2. Infrared (IR): The region of the electromagnetic spectrum bounded by the long wavelength. Transmission through a OFC is like light ball traveling down a tunnel.

( Losses ) :Loss is the measure of the reduction in signal magnitude. Coating is made up of PVC material-available in different colours as per ITU code Attenuation . Cladding: The cladding of an optical fiber surrounds the core and has a Refractive Index lower than that of core. This difference in refractive index allows total internal reflection to occur within the fiber core. When the loss is described per km. This phenomenon is known as total internal reflection. joints i. all light will be reflected back to the incident medium (Core).the cladding where it is lost). dB/km) at a specified wavelength. Attenuation / Losses are due to Impure. dB/km) at a specified wavelength.e. Splicing Attenuation in fiber optic cabling is usually expressed in decibels per unit length of cable (i. Attenuation depends on length of a fiber & also on Link components like splice Joints . like charges or particles or light pulses. It can be summarized that the important concept of fiber optic communication technology is: When light travels from a medium with higher refractive index ( Core) to a medium with lower refractive index (Cladding )and if it strikes the boundary at an angle more than a critical angle. along a length of fiber.e.m-2) Research & Developement 1980 – 100dB / km 1990 – 6dB / km 20 . & avoids the entry into the Cladding . Attenuation in fiber optic cabling is usually expressed in decibels per unit per length of cable (i.connectors etc.Total internal reflection is the phenomenon by which light propagates in optical fiber. The critical angle depends on the material of core and the cladding. or loss of power of a optic pulse. Fiber Geometry:Core: The core of an optical fiber – is a glass rod . out = outgoing intensity (intensity is measured in Watt/. Attenuation describes how energy is lost or dissipated.denotes the central part of the fiber where the majority of the light propagates. it is known as Attenuation.m-2 )I in = ingoing intensity (Watt/.e.non uniform material . Attenuation = 10log10(Iout / Iin) Where. Loss is the cost of moving something.

it maybe allowing more than one mode at lower wavelengths.1 dB loss 1550 nm = 2 dB loss 1625 nm = 6 dB loss Classification Of Fibers :• Refractive Index Classification • Mode Classification Mode of the Fiber:•The Core is limited between 7-9 µm for Single Mode Fiber •This would allow only 1 mode to pass (for 1310nm/ 1550 nm) • A part of the light energy would even spill over into the cladding! •The Core is limited between 50-62. .18 dB / km Sources of Attenuation in Fibers :Absorption – Caused by impurities in the glass. While a core with 50 µm dia is sure to be Multimode.1400nmë proportional to 1 / ë Scattering – Scattering is caused by small variations in the density of glass . The number of modes however depends on the wavelength.2005 – 0.1310 nm = < 0. so while 7-9 µm is Single mode for 1310 nm or higher wavelengths.proportional to 1 / ë4 Geometric Effects – Bending losses increases with increase in Wavelength. And therefore act as scattering objects.5 µm for Multi Mode Fiber 125 µm The most effective means of limiting the number of modes is to reduce the core diameter. The peak absorption occurs at approx. Loss of optical energy due to imperfections / in homogeneities (localized density variations). Effects of 2 cm radius bend at three wavelengths . Path:21 . a core of 7-9 µm would allow only 1 mode. and any atomic defects in the glass increases dramatically above 1700 nm. Multimode fiber (MM) :Light travels in diff.

like Corning(Germany) – Sterlite-RPG – Finolex – Tamilnadu Telecom Ltd (TTL) – BEOL (Birla Erricson Optical Ltd. For example: 50/125µm fibers describe a fiber with a 50µm Single mode fiber:A single mode fiber has a small core. Conventional sizes of single mode fiberare 8/125µm.35 dB /km to 0.652 -Minimum dispersion at 1310 nm -Attenuation – Between 0. the size of a fiber is denoted by writing its core diameter &then writing the cladding diameter (Both in µm) with a slash between them.5 µ-meter.Core diameter varies .e. / cladding dia).653 . The three principle types and their ITU-T specifications are: • Non-dispersion-shifted fiber (NDSF). 8. applications.50 to 62.g. G. Only one ray of light is expected to pass through.SM – for city network . – G 655 – SM – for NLD – of various make – like Corning (Germany)Tyco ( USA) – OCC ( Farukowa-Japan) – OFS (USA) Optical Fiber Standards:Designs of single-mode fiber have evolved over several decades. This highly parallel beam is incident alongthe axis of the fiber.3/125µm or 9/125µm.) Conventionally.. Single mode fiber allows a single mode of light topropagate along its core efficiently. G-652. G. •Equipments & Cables required are costly B . Single mode fiber (SM):• Only one mode (ray) propagates Light travells in Only one Path / mode.Wave length Core diameter .(core dia. Dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF). • Core diameter is about 7-9 micro-Meter. Modes do not depend on Length of Fiber:Primarily used for intra-office application Equipments & cables are less expensive than single mode . • Primarily used for long dist.Minimum dispersion at 1550 nm -Non-linear amplification for various wavelengths .g. Mode Depends on .5/125µm or 50/125µm.Mode Classification:Multimode fiber:Multimode fiber allows multiple modes of light to ropagate along its length at various angles and orientations to the central xis.4 dB/km .of various make . Conventional sizes of multimode fiber are 62. Single mode fiber allows very high-speed transmission.Refractive Index n1 & n2. .without DWDM 22 .

Also. was exploited for single-mode transmission. but not zero.a third 8-34. it is necessary to demultiplex the signal all the way down to the 2 Mbit/s level before the location of the 64 kbit/s channel can be identified.544 Mbit/s systems (U. This is due to the bit-stuffing used at each level. However. or C band.S. non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber. which counters nonlinear effects such as four-wave mixing (see the “Other Nonlinear Effects” section on page 2-11) that can hinder the performance of DWDM systems. 8-2 . pulse. This was overcome to a certain extent by using narrower linewidthand higher power lasers. The third window. G. This strategy effectively introduces a controlled amount of dispersion. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) :Traditionally. and Japan) and those using the 2. near 1550 nm.18 dB/km to 0. is designed specifically to meet the needs of DWDM applications. The aim of this design is to make the dispersion low in the 1550-nm region. for example.Optimum dispersion at 1550 nm – 18 Pico second / (nm.• Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF). and its operatingfrequency was the same as that of the new Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs.A. But because the third window had lower attenuation than the 1310-nm window.048 Mbit/s system. To recover a 64 kbit/s channel from a 140 Mbit/s PDH signal.25dB.-Direct amplification).Linear amplification for various wavelengths – DWDM As optical fiber use became more common and the needs for greater bandwidth and distance increased. various parts of the world use different hierarchies which lead to problems of international interworking. PDH requires "steps" (140-34.Amplifies the pulse in optical state only –doesn’t need to convert in elect. Because of this limitation.21 dB/km.Attenuation – Between 0. it turned out that there are destructive nonlinearities in optical fiber near the zero-dispersion point for which there is no effective compensation. which moved the zero-dispersion point to the 1550-nm region. between those countries using 1. .655 . digital transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on multiplexing signals which are plesiochronous (running at almost the same speed). 28. its dispersioncharacteristics were severely limiting. 23 .manufacturers came up with the dispersionshifted fiber design. 34-140 multiplex) to drop out or add an individual speech or data channel. The third type. these fibers are not suitable for DWDM applications. Although this solution now meant that the lowest optical attenuation and the zerodispersion pointscoincided in the 1550-nm window. 34-8. 18 dB /km to 0.offered two advantages: it had much lower attenuation (0.).

140 Mb/s 140-34 DEMUX 34 Mb/s 34-8 DEMUX 8 Mb/s 8-2 DEMUX 2 Mb/s 34-140 MUX 34 Mb/s 8-34 MUX 8 Mb/s 2-8 MUX 140 Mb/s Drop & Add Figure 1 PDH multiplexing by steps. is based on the latest information available from the ITU-T standardisation organization. showing add/drop function Limitations of PDH Network:The main limitations of PDH are: •Inability to identify individual channels in a higher-order bit stream. a comprehensive List of Terms appears at the end of this document. paying particular attention to the latest revision. if more detailed information is required. Information in this SDH prime. Consult the actual material from ITU-T. •Most PDH network management is proprietary. •There is no standardised definition of PDH bit rates greater than 140 Mbit/s. Standards in the telecommunications field are always evolving. For help in understanding the language of SDH telecommunications. and. Use this primer as an introduction to the technology of SDH. Specialized interface equipment is required to interwork the two hierarchies What is SDH? This document is intended as an introductory guide to the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) multiplexing standard. •There are different hierarchies in use around the world. •Insufficient capacity for network management. Introduction :- 24 .

with a variety of transmission rates. SDH was first introduced into the telecommunications network in 1992 and has been deployed at rapid rates since then.The provision of overhead and payload bytes . the CCITT became involved so that a single international standard might be developed for fibre interconnect between telephone networks of different countries. The availability of a set of generic standards. SDH is also defined for use on radio relay links. equipment. to establish a standard for connecting one fibre system to another. it is important to be clear about the meaning of Synchronous. The definition of a flexible architecture capable of accommodating future applications. 34 Mbit/s. and maintenance procedures. which enable products from different vendors to be connected and inter-operated. multiplexing formats. 25 . 140 Mbit/s) which greatly simplifies the interface to digital switches. Background :Before SDH. including the access network. The task of creating such a standard was taken up in 1984 by the Exchange Carriers Standards Association (ECSA) in the U.In brief. These advantages include: A reduction in equipment requirements and an increase in network reliability. It is deployed at all levels of the network infrastructure. The comprehensive SDH standard is expected to provide the transport infrastructure for worldwide telecommunications for at least the next two or three decades. the first generations of fibre-optic systems in the public telephone network used proprietary architectures. In the late stages of the development. The users of this equipment wanted standards so they could mix and match equipment from different suppliers. line codes. The definition of a synchronous multiplexing format for carrying lower-level digital signals (such as 2 Mbit/s. Plesiochronous. The increased configuration flexibility and bandwidth availability of SDH provides significant advantages over the older telecommunications system. The resulting international standard is known as Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). digital cross-connects. satellite links. and the long-distance trunk network. and at electrical interfaces between equipment. It is based on overlaying a synchronous multiplexed signal onto a light stream transmitted over fibre-optic cable. and add-drop multiplexers.SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard for telecommunications transport formulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).S. and Asynchronous.the overhead bytes permitting management of the payload bytes on an individual basis and facilitating centralised fault sectionalisation. Synchronisation of Digital Signals :To understand correctly the concepts and details of SDH. SDH defines synchronous transport modules (STMs) for the fibre-optic based transmission hierarchy. previously called the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT).

their clocks may be derived from two different PRCs. For example. that is. Currently. it allows single-stage multiplexing and demultiplexing. there is a small frequency difference between one clock and the other. the digital transitions in the signals occur at exactly the same rate. Basic SDH Signal:- 26 . SDH makes individual channels “visible” and they can easily be added and dropped. if two networks need to interwork. Although these clocks are extremely accurate. There may however be a phase difference between the transitions of the two signals. and to replace several network elements. a process known as bit-stuffing is used. or wander introduced in the transmission network. then their transitions occur at "almost" the same rate. to allow equipment from different vendors to communicate with each other. This means that the timing may vary from equipment to equipment because they are synchronised from different network clocks. thereby eliminating the need for back-to-back multiplexing. and this would lie within specified limits. only those channels that are required at a particular point are demultiplexed. In other words. which may have previously existed solely for interface purposes. This ability is referred to as multi-vendor interworking and allows one SDH-compatible network element to communicate with another. In a synchronous network. These limits are set down in ITU-T recommendation G. Bit-stuffing adds extra bits to bring all input signals up to some common bit-rate. thereby requiring multi-stage multiplexing and demultiplexing. with any variation being constrained within tight limits. an entire signal had to be demultiplexed in order to access a particular channel. all the clocks are traceable to one Primary Reference Clock (PRC). most fibre and multiplex systems are plesiochronous.In a set of Synchronous signals. In plesiochronous networks. This is known as a plesiochronous difference. The second major advantage of SDH is the fact that it is synchronous. These phase differences may be due to propagation time delays. The accuracy of the PRC is better than ± 1 in 1011 and is derived from a cesium atomic standard. SDH Advantages:The primary reason for the creation of SDH was to provide a long-term solution for an optical mid-span meet between vendors. Because SDH is synchronous. means that the difference between two clocks is much greater than a plesiochronous difference. If two digital signals are Plesiochronous. For example. In SDH format. thus decreasing the cost of equipment while improving signal quality. if two clocks are derived from free-running quartz oscillators.811. Asynchronous. In order to multiplex this type of signal. In the case of Asynchronous signals. in this case. the transitions of the signals do not necessarily occur at the same nominal rate. then the non-accessed channels had to be re-multiplexed back together in order to be sent further along the network to their proper destination. they could be described as asynchronous. This single-stage multiplexing eliminates hardware complexity.

280 Mbit/s 10 Gbit/s STM-64 STM = Synchronous Transport Module SDH Capacity 21 E1 63 E1 or 1 E4 252 E1 or 4 E4 1008 E1 or 16 E4 4032 E1 or 64 E4 Why Synchronise? :Synchronous versus Asynchronous Traditionally.520 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s STM-1 622.368 Mbit/s 16 E1 E4 139. with each terminal in the network running on its own recovered clock timing. packet-switched services. Table 1.264 64 E1 Mbit/s Table 2. In digital transmission. the ITU-T undertook to define a standard that would address interworking between the 2048 kbit/s and 1554 kbit/s transmission hierarchies. That effort culminated in 1989 with ITU-T’s publication of the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) standards.048 Mbit/s 32 E0 E2 8.The basic format of an SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its Virtual Container (VC) because it is bandwidth-flexible. contribution video and distribution video.320 Mbit/s 2.448 Mbit/s 128 E0 E3 34. This capability will allow for such things as the transmission of high-speed. Non-Synchronous Hierarchy Signal Digital Bit Channels Rate 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s One 64 kbit/s E1 2.840 Mbit/s 51 Mbit/s STM-0 155. The tables below compare the Non-synchronous and Synchronous transmission hierarchies. SDH 51. transmission systems have been asynchronous. In addition. Transmission Hierarchies :Following ANSI’s development of the SONET standard. 27 . However. "timing" is one of the most fundamental operations.080 Mbit/s 622 Mbit/s STM-4 2488.4 Gbit/s STM-16 9953.5 Mbit/s hierarchy. 34 Mbit/s and 140 Mbit/s levels. accommodating the existing digital hierarchy signals. ATM. SDH Hierarchy Bit Rate Abbr. SDH supports the transport of signals based on the 1. SDH still permits transport and networking at the 2 Mbit/s.

For example. extra bits are added (bit-stuffing) to account for the variations of each individual stream and are combined with other bits (framing bits) to form an E2 (8 Mbit/s) stream. N Low-speed synchronous virtual container (VC) signals are also simple to interleave and transport at higher rates. they cannot be accessed without demultiplexing. Thus. 2. providing timing on its outgoing STM− signal.and many issues to resolve: Synchronisation networks are changing with the introduction of SDH. At low speeds. The E1s are neither visible nor accessible within an E3 frame.52 Mbit/s.048 Mbit/s E1 signals are transported within synchronous VC-12 signals which run at a constant rate of 2. The network is organized with a master-slave relationship with clocks of the higher level nodes feeding timing signals to clocks of the lower level nodes. All nodes can be traced up to a Primary Reference Clock (PRC). Thus. Single-step multiplexing up to STM-1 requires no bit-stuffing and VCs are easily accessed. Bit-interleaving and bit-stuffing is used again to multiplex up to E3 (34 Mbit/s). E3s are multiplexed up to higher rates in the same manner.New equipment. Synchronisation Hierarchy Digital switches and digital cross-connect systems are commonly employed in the digital network synchronisation hierarchy. This is discussed in more detail later in this primer . At the higher asynchronous rate. Asynchronous multiplexing uses multiple stages. large variations can occur in the clock rate and thus the signal bit rate. allowing many synchronous STM-1 signals to be multiplexed without any bit-stuffing. In a synchronous system.304 Mbit/s. Signals such as asynchronous E1s (2 Mbit/s) are multiplexed (bit-interleaving). this terminal can serve as a master for other SDH nodes. Thus. This is a time of great change for Timing and Synchronisation in the network and there are many challenges for operators and suppliers . A mechanism known as "pointers" accommodates differences in the reference source frequencies and phase wander. the STM-1s are easily accessed at a higher STM− rate. a E3 signal specified at 34 Mbit/s ± 20 ppm (parts per million) can produce a timing difference of up to 1789 bit/s between one incoming E3 signal and another. the STM-1 rate remains at a nominal 155. and so prevents data loss during synchronisation failures. such as SDH. the historical PDH-based sync network will be replaced by an SDH-based architecture. Other SDH nodes will operate in a slave mode with their N internal clocks timed by the incoming STM− signal. Present standards specify that an N SDH network must ultimately be able to derive its timing from a Primary Reference Clock (PRC). 28 .Since these clocks are not synchronised. Every slave clock can be traced back to a highly stable reference clock. the average frequency of all clocks in the system will be the same. Synchronising SDH The internal clock of an SDH terminal may derive its timing signal from a Synchronisation Supply Unit (SSU) used by switching systems and other equipment.

This meant that fiber optic transmission equipment from one manufacturer could not interface with equipment from any of the other manufacturers. By 1988. all formed by the interleaving of a basic rate signal. the ANSI committee had successfully integrated the changes requested by the ITU-T and were well on their way toward the issuance of the new standard. and technical recommendations are found in Bellcore TR-NWT-000253 Synchronous Optical Network(SONET) Transport Systems: Common Generic Criteria . the SONET standard is contained in the ANSI specification T1. Transport networks are evolving and hybrid SDH/PDH has specific problems due to the quantisation of network phase variation as pointer justifications. leading to dramatically new instrument capabilities. Today.New services like video and ATM depend on excellent timing and network sync to deliver good Quality of Service. This was based on a hierarchy of digital rates. Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) and manufacturers alike and quickly gained momentum.105 Digital Hierarchy – Optical Interface Rates & Formats Specifications (SONET). the lack of standards led to widespread deployment of proprietary optical interfaces.Jitter/Wander measurement technology is changing from analogue to digital. When fiber optical cables were initially deployed as a medium for highspeed digital transport. Service providers were required to select a single vendor for deployment throughout the network.New test equipment standards are being developed (Tektronix is taking a leading role at ITU).network timing. SONET Technical Recommendations :Bellcore TR-253 Generic Requirements TR-303 Loop Carriers TR-499 TR-496 ADM 29 . The idea of a Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) attracted the interest of carriers. and sync standards have been developed (Tektronix is contributing expertise at ITU and ETSI). and then were locked into the network control and monitoring capabilities of that manufacturer. Bellcore proposed the idea of an optical carrier-to-carrier interface that would allow the interconnection of different manufacturers’ optical equipment. Interest in SONET by CCITT (now the International Telecommunication Union – ITU-T) expanded its scope from a domestic to an international standard. Although this technology satisfied the bandwidth needs of the network for several years. Overview of SONET:In 1985. it became evident that this arrangement could not support the future needs of the industry because of the limited interconnection capabilities.

. the traditional transmission of IP data over Sonet frames via PPP. • Network Management: Bandwidth can be managed to the DS0 level to provide maximum control of bandwidth regardless of the carrier system. and FDDI (Fiber Data Distributed Interface). SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service).xx Rates. BISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks). Formats. is gradually replaced by EoS in many cases. Timing may be extracted from an external source.106 Optical Interfaces T1. • Transport of Higher Order Services: SONET provides the flexibility to map and transport many types of services.84 Mb/s to the theoretical upper limit of 13. T1. Some of the benefits of SONET are: • Currently uses fiber optics as the primary transmission medium.ANSI T1.105. • Synchronous Networking: Plesiochronous capability allows integration with existing synchronized networks. etc. However.2 Gb/s. Packet over SONET/SDH (PoS). Ethernet and SONET/SDH are the two primary link technologies used in the network communications while Ethernet in the LAN and SONET/SDH in the Telco/PTT WAN. • Speed: SONET allows for transmission rates from 51.204 OAM&P SONET Advantages :The SONET specifications define optional carrier (OC) interfaces and their electrical equivalents to allow transmission of lower-rate signals at a common rate. or from the received optical line signal. Ethernet over SONET/SDH :EoS represents a group of industry standard specifications for optimal transport of Ethernet through SONET/SDH. aligning. bandwidth management. sequencing and delay compensation of the individual channels. • Allows for dynamic drop and insert capabilities on the payload. including ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Ethernet rates do not match SONET/SDH rates and Ethernet traffic can not be effectively carried over the SONET/SDH network directly. The core technologies in 30 . without the delay or additional hardware associated with demultiplexing and remultiplexing the higher rate signal. Ethernet over SONET/SDH (EoS) technologies address this problem and turn the Sonet/SDH MAN/WAN infrastructure backbone into a transparent Ethernet segment for attached servers and clients.. EoS specifications account for the mapping.

the EoS architectures are the encapsulation schemes to match Ethernet and SONET/SDH rates effectively and manage bandwidth usage. Managed services and C-Noc overview :Customers are looking for outsourcing complete network. NETWORK OPERATION CENTRE :What is a NOC? A network operations center (NOC). These PVCs are created for all the customers no matter which DSLAM they are using be it Siemens. the generic framing procedure (GFP) and link access procedure for SDH (LAPS) technique. it must have an IP address. processes. and sometimes resolves events that arise in the network . network links. IP ADDRESSING:The Internet has grown larger than anyone ever imagined it could be. That is more than the entire population of the United States! In fact. including management to service provider so that that customer can focus more on their core business. internal and external •Creates. the current estimate is that there are about 100 million hosts and more than 350 million users actively on the Internet. So what does the size of the Internet have to do with NAT? Everything! For a computer to communicate with other computers and Web servers on the Internet. network requirement forecasting etc… contract between customer and service provider to be driven by SLA signed for services rather that individual components of network as bandwidth. Although the exact size is unknown. hardware. software etc… customer signed end to end management would like to have continuous track of CE to CESLA parameters. the rate of growth has been such that the Internet is effectively doubling in size each year. there are a few encapsulation techniques used: virtual concatenation (VC) and the link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS) techniques. The task of provisioning the customers is done by NOC. By provisioning we mean the creation of PVC(Permanent Virtual Circuit) which is a must for the users to connect to the network. Ericsson. An IP address (IP stands for Internet Protocol) is a unique 32-bit number that 31 . Currently. is an organizational unit that: •Handles day-to-day monitoring of the network •Serves as a point of contact for customers. UT. Service providers is asked to take care of network devices. their performance.

Username does not exist Check for username if it exists in the database. 32 . If it already exists in LDAP then delete it from the database through user deletion and zip net and create it again manually. COMMON ERRORS IN NOC FOR WHICH THE CUSTOMERS CALL ON A REGULAR BASIS :ERROR 691 1. testing or other special uses. 3. Basically. Check for touchtelindia. 5. but will take several years to implement because it requires modification of the entire infrastructure of the Internet. If not then give the correct password. Check for password Password mismatch: Enter the username in the LDAP and verify if the user is entering the correct username and password. 2. Interface mismatch Ask for his ip address. With the explosion of the Internet and the increase in home networks and business The spelling of the email address or the field in it may be wrong. Check out if any person is logged in by typing the following command: Subscriber’s username <username> If yes then log out the other subscribers by typing the command mentioned below: Log out subscribers username<username> If the problem still persists then check customer login status and delete radius sessions as session hangs out sometimes. Other reasons a) Local address pool may be missing in LDAP. The obvious solution is to redesign the address format to allow for more possible addresses. If not then search for it in DSL (north) and encrypt it and push to a way to find out exactly where you are and deliver information to you. Find out the correct interface through the command mentioned below on the ERX router: Sh ip route <ip address> Copy the interface and insert it inside the text box of the dynamic user updation. If not then check whether the PVC has been made and whether its tag is confirmed. the number of available IP addresses is simply not enough. 4. This is being developed (called IPv6).Give it inside the text box of the option update local pool along with user id.identifies the location of your computer on a network. If yes then verify if it is being authenticated from the server side by giving the commands mentioned below on the telnet session. JWE WILL multicasting. it works like your street address -. Test aaa ppp <email id> <password> If he is being authenticated then this means that the user is typing the wrong password.

3. 33 .Encrypt and push to LDAP.b) Package plan may be missing then policies won’t be implemented. If not then make it. Password (Account id in CAF) f). 5.Check if the PVC has been made or 6. Put the username in the textbox of option update rate plan.3/3. 2.Check if not its entry is there in LDAP.Find that particular interface in erx2 notepad in case of interfaces (2/3.Ask for the RSU and the tag. Manual Creation of the user id This is done incase JavaScript error comes up or if the entry is missing in LDAP and after pushing to LDAP still the same error comes up.Forward it to the required deptt.A form appears. fill up the following entries in the CAF: a) Username b) VPI c) VCI d) Interface And encrypt and push to LDAP.Click the register button. In case of username being created for the first time.Find the RSU in the main DSLAM sheet and copy corresponding interface. 2. of digits are 8. Package plan g). Siemens Making of PVC 1.Click on continue. The following has to be done to resolve this issue: 1.Go to zip net.Enter the required entries by seeing the record in DSL (north) CAF.Now change the last 3 digits of the interface by asking the tag and ensure that the total no. 5. 7. Username e). ERROR 678 1.3/2. 4. 2. Middle name c).5/0.Forward it in the OPS or installation as required. 4. The following entries are to be filled: a). First name b). 2. Mail id username@touchtelindia.5/1) and rest of them in erx1 notepad. In case of Ericsson and UT 1. 3. 3. Last name d).If the problem still persists then confirm the tag by locking and unlocking the cards. So the authentication failure exists.Copy the command from erx notepad and paste it on erx router.Give username and the region.Just fill the username.

3.Now lock the port by clicking on ADSL local.So 128 is subtracted from 169 and we get 41. 3. 12. Then again subtract the host entry of the previous card from the result. 7.Click on SNMP port.On comparing the 2 lists there will be one port missing which is the correct port of the user.Click on the card for siemens.LOCK AND UNLOCK (Tag confirmation) Siemens 1.The following is the required port: For eg:Given tag is S10200 Now the following calculations give the correct port no.Therefore. 10. NOTE: If on locking the users tag the modem does not go off then ask him to get his tag confirmed from MDF.200-31=169 2. 4. CARD AND PORT CALCULATION (For siemens) 1. 3. 2. 9. 1. Take the last 3 digits of the tag. In siemens. 2.Click on EMHIX5300 serva del.Make the user write all the active ports.169 lie in the third card.Ask the user if his modem is off or not. Subtract 31 from it as the first 31 cards are used for controlling purposes.Now unlock the port determined through the calculations.Again make the user write all the active ports again. Slot (card) Card range 1 1-64 2 65-128 3 129-192 4 193-256 5 257-320 6 321-384 7 385-448 8 449-512 9 513-576 10 577-640 11 641-704 12 705-768 13 769-832 14 833-896 15 897-960 34 .If not then click on update status. 6. 4.Goto remote desktop. the 41st port of the third card will be locked and confirmed. there are 15 cards in total with 64 ports in each of the cards.Find for required region obtained from RSU in the main DSLAM sheet and the ip address given in the main DSLAM sheet corresponding to the RSU 5. If yes then the user’s tag is the one that he told. 11. 8.

This E1 then passes to DDF (SDH) w/c in turn goes to a DDF n then finally terminates onto the STM cards of the ATM switch. E1 LINE : E1 is the European format for digital transmission. E1 carries signals at 2 Mbps (32 channels at 64Kbps. This Ethernet drop is given by the SDH at the RSU (DDF) from where it is brought to the DDF at the MSU and finally to the ATM switch. ERICSSON In case of Ericsson. This SDH DDF is connected to a fiber mgt system (FMS) w/c passes the optical signal to the MUX whose o/p is an electrical signal E1. Thus the E1s are through and the users for that particular RSU are in the network. One EOE card can support 8E1s. Once we have the E1s coming to the ATM switch. E1s for that particular siemens dslam at that particular site is up n the users connected to that dslam are now in the n/w. EOE cards at the central terminal or to the FE to E1 converters as the case may be.4E1s are dedicated for 1 site. The ATM switch is further connected to the BRAS (ERX) w/c through the routers goes to the customer’s end. E1s from the SDH DDF goes to the FE toE1 converter. with 2 channels reserved for signaling and controlling EOE CARDS : 35 . In case of SIEMENS at the RSU end siemens dslam is connected to SDH DDF on w/c an Ethernet drop has been given by SDH.COMMISSIONING AND PROVISIONING OF NEW SITES : SIEMENS For commissioning and expansion of new sites. On the central terminal we have the EOE cards. ETHERNET DROP It is a 2mb link given by the SDH on both the MSU and the RSU end. UT In case of UT the E1 passes from the DDF (SDH) to the central terminal (CT). SDH technology is used. SDH gives an Ethernet drop both at the MSU n the RSU end. but at our end 2E1s are used for 1 site and the other 2E1s are reserved in case there is some traffic.

it is followed by the payload container. H2. The first 9 columns of each frame make up the Section Overhead. The frame lasts for 125 microseconds. Ethernet to E1.4E1s are dedicated for 1 site.UT 3. and this alignment is indicated by the Pointer in row four.High density: These support cards have 15 slots of 64 ports each. there are 8000 frames per second. Within the Section Overhead. H3 bytes) is called the AU (Administrative Unit). Frame Format Structure :The STM-1 frame is the basic transmission format for SDH.The cards on which the E1s for UT are terminated are known as the EOE cards i. 3. The first column is for Path Overhead. Virtual Containers can have any phase alignment within the Administrative Unit. TYPES OF DSLAMS /CARDS BHARTI uses cards from 3 different vendors: 1. and the last 5 rows are used for the Multiplex Section Overhead 36 .SIEMENS 2. and the last 261 columns make up the Virtual Container (VC) capacity. Carried within the VC capacity. which can itself carry other containers.Low density: These support cards that have 2 slots of 32 ports each. therefore. the first three rows are used for the Regenerator Section Overhead. Siemens have stopped making these cards. is the Path Overhead and the Container. But only 2E1s are used for 1 site.ERICSSON SIEMENS There are 3 types of cards: 1. The STM-1 frame consists of overhead plus a virtual container capacity. as will be described later in the Pointers section.There is fiber connectivity between the EOE cards at the MSU end and the EOE cards at the RSU end. The other 2E1s are reserved in case there is some traffic. The VC plus the pointers (H1. One EOE card supports 8E1s.Medium high density: These support cards have 4 slots of 64 ports each. 2.e. which has its own frame structure of 9 rows and 261 columns.

VCs can be carried in the SDH payload as independent data packages.336 Mbit/s 9 rows. 4 columns VC-2 6. The figure below illustrates the location of a VC-4 within the STM-1 frame. row-by-row. Through the use of pointers and offset values. SDH Digital Bit Rate Size of VC VC-11 1. Virtual containers can also be concatenated to provide more capacity in a flexible fashion.The STM frame is transmitted in a byte-serial fashion. Virtual Containers (VC). The following table lists the names and some of the parameters of the virtual containers. The start location of the J1 byte is indicated by the pointer byte values. and is scrambled immediately prior to transmission to ensure adequate clock timing content for downstream regenerators.912 Mbit/s 9 rows.728 Mbit/s 9 rows. Table 3. VCs are used to transport lower-speed tributary signals. 261 columns 37 . Note that it can start (indicated by the J1 path overhead byte) at any point within the STM-1 frame.304 Mbit/s 9 rows.960 Mbit/s 9 rows. 85 columns VC-4 150. 12 columns VC-3 48. 3 columns VC-12 2. Frame = 125µ s 1 byte = One 64 kbit/s channel STM-1 = 270 Columns (2430 bytes) 1 2 3 Frame = 125µ s Frame = 125µ s Regenerator Section Overhead Administrative Unit Capacity of the Virtual Container + Pointers 9 Rows Pointers 4 5 6 7 8 9 H1H1H1 H2 H2 H2H3 H3H3 H1 H2 H3 Multiplex Section Overhead Overhead width = 9 columns Figure 2 STM-1 Frame Structure Virtual Container :SDH supports a concept called virtual containers (VC).

• Multiplex Section. 38 . The overhead and transport functions are divided into layers. with each layer building on the services provided by all the lower layers. They are the: • Regenerator Section. • Path.Frame = 125 µ s Frame = 125 µ s STM-1 = 270 Columns Frame = 125 µ s Regenerator Section 2 Overhead 3 Pointers 4 5 1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0/ Z0 B1 E1 F1 D1 D2 D3 9 Rows H1 B2 B2 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 B2 K1 D5 K2 D6 J1 B3 C2 Unidad Administrativa Bounded by 270 columns Wrap-around within SDH frame Multiplex Section 7 Overhead 8 9 6 D4 D7 D10 D8 D11 D9 D12 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 S1 M1 E2 Figure 3 Virtual Container SDH Overhead :The SDH standard was developed using a client/server layer approach. The layers have a hierarchical relationship.

. STM-1 J0/Z0 B2 B2 Figure 5 STM-1 Section Regenerator Overhead 39 .) Mapping Demapping Legend PTE= Path Terminating Element REG= Regenerator ADM= Add/Drop Multiplexer Service Mapping Demapping Figure 4 Regenerator Section. or two pieces of line terminating equipment. and. Regenerator Section Overhead :The Regenerator Section Overhead contains only the information required for the elements located at both ends of a section. Path Overhead.Path Multiplex Section Regenerator Section Multiplex Section Regenerator Section PTE Path Termination REG ADM REG PTE Section Multiplex Section Section Path Termination Termination Termination Termination Service (2Mbit/s. Multiplex Section. This might be two regenerators.. specifically: Regenerator Section Overhead. Path The next pages detail the different SDH overhead information. a piece of line terminating equipment and a regenerator. Multiplex Overhead.140Mbit/s .

this byte is defined only for STM-1 number 1 of an STM-N signal.This byte is allocated to be used as a local orderwire channel for voice communication between regenerators. externally generated.7N] of an STM-N signal (N > 1).1 frame. The coding of the J0 byte is the same as for J1 and J2 bytes.This is a parity code (even parity). Byte by byte. used to check for transmission errors over a regenerator section. J0 Z0 B1 E1 F1 D1.Together.6N+2] to S[1. RS data communications channel (DCC) bytes . Administration and Maintenance (OAM) between pieces of section terminating equipment. that is. D2. It is used to transmit a Section Access Point Identifier so that a section receiver can verify its continued connection to the intended transmitter. these three bytes form a 192 kbit/s message channel providing a message-based channel for Operations. control. it terminates at all section terminating equipment within a line. Regenerator Section (RS) Trace message (ex-C1). D3 Multiplex Section Overhead:- 40 . RS user channel byte . This byte is defined only for STM-1 number 1 of an STM-N signal. The frame alignment word of an STM-N frame is composed of (3 x N) A1 bytes followed by (3 x N) A2 bytes. A2 bytes are unscrambled. the Regenerator Section Overhead consists of: Byte A1 and A2 Description Framing bytes . These bytes. It is available for internally generated. RS orderwire byte . administration and other communication needs. Its value is calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N frame after scrambling. RS bit interleaved parity code (BIP-8) byte . or manufacturer-specific messages. it can be read and/or written to at each section terminating equipment in that line. crossconnects. are reserved for future international standardisation. Therefore. monitoring. and remote terminal locations. The A1. The channel can be used from a central location for alarms.The Regenerator Section Overhead is found in the first three rows of Columns 1 . A1 has the binary value 11110110.9 of the STM-1 frame. then placed in the B1 byte of STM-1 before scrambling. and A2 has the binary value 00101000. which are located at positions S[1.This byte is set aside for the users’ purposes.These two bytes indicate the beginning of the STM.

the Multiplex Section Overhead consists of: Byte B2 Description Multiplex Section (MS) bit interleaved parity code (MS BIP-24) byte . S1 S1 byte is used for synchronisation 1000 G. A protocol analyzer is required to access the MS-DCC information. This message channel is available for internally generated. Byte by byte.These two bytes are used for MSP (Multiplex Section Protection) signaling between multiplex level entities for bi-directional automatic protection switching and for communicating Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) conditions.812 local information.The Multiplex Section Overhead contains the information required between the multiplex section termination equipment at each end of the Multiplex section (that is. Bits 1 to 4 of this S1 byte 1001 Reserved are used to carry the synchronisation 1010 Reserved messages. It is even parity. D4 to D12 MS data communications channel (DCC) bytes . control.This bit interleaved parity 24 code is used to determine if a transmission error has occurred over a multiplex section. and manufacturer specific messages.These 9 bytes form a 576 kbit/s message channel from a central location for OAM information (alarms. between consecutive network elements excluding the regenerators). and is calculated over all bits of the MS Overhead and the STM-N frame of the previous STM-N frame before scrambling.9 of the STM1 frame. remote provisioning. The value is placed in the B2 bytes of the MS Overhead before scrambling. monitoring. These bytes are provided for all STM-1 signals in an STMN signal. STM-1 J0/Z0 B2 B2 Multiplex Section Figure 6 STM-1 Multiplex Section Overhead The Multiplex Section Overhead is found in Rows 5 to 9 of Columns 1 . The following is the 1011 Synchronous Equipment Timing 41 . externally generated. administration and other communication needs). maintenance. K1 and K2 Automatic Protection Switching (APS channel) bytes .

812 transit emulated by a Multiplex Section 0101 Reserved AIS signal. and transported with the Virtual Container from the time it is created by path terminating equipment until the payload is demultiplexed at the termination point in a piece of path terminating equipment. This value is truncated at 255 for STM-N >4. It is a voice channel for use by crafts persons and will be ignored as it passes through the regenerators. 1101 Reserved 1110 Reserved network) 1111 Do not use for synchronisation.This orderwire byte provides a 64 kbit/s channel between multiplex entities for an express orderwire. MS orderwire byte .M1 E2 assignment of bit patterns to the four synchronisation levels agreed to Source (SETS) within ITU-T. 42 . 0110 Reserved 0111 Reserved The M1 byte of an STM-1 or the first STM-1 of an STM-N is used for a MS layer remote error indication (MS-REI).811 by 0011 Reserved equipment failures and will be 0100 G. Bits 2 to 8 of the M1 byte are used to carry the error count of the interleaved bit blocks that the MS BIP-8 has detected to be in error at the far end of the section. Higher-Order Path Overhead (VC-4/ VC-3) :The Path Overhead is assigned to. 1100 Reserved 0000 Quality unknown (existing sync. 0001 Reserved This message may be emulated 0010 G.

Therefore the bi-directional path in its entirety can be monitored.This byte 0001 0010 .This is a parity code (even).MAN (DQDB) mapping 0000 0000 .Locked TU-n 1111 1111 . Path bit interleaved parity code (Path BIP-8) byte . from either end of the path.FDDI mapping 0000 0001.VC-AIS 0000 0100 . Path signal label byte .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 J1 VC-n Path Trace B3 Path BIP-8 C2 Path Signal Label G1 Path Status F2 Path User Channel H4 TU Multiframe Indicator F3 Path User Channel (ex-Z3) K3 Automatic Protection Switching (ex-Z4) N1 Network Operator (ex-Z5) Path Overhead Figure 7 Higher-Order Path Overhead (VC-4/VC-3) The Path Overhead is found in Rows 1 to 9 of the first column of the VC-4 or VC-3. the Path Overhead consists of: J1 Higher-Order VC-n path trace byte . This allows the receiving terminal in a path to verify its continued connection to the intended transmitting terminal. A 64-byte free-format string is also permitted.181 specific 0000 0010 .TUG structure mapping 0000 0011 .equipped.Test signal.164 format string.This byte is used to convey the path terminating status and performance back to the originating path terminating equipment.This user-programmable byte repetitively transmits a 15-byte. O. Byte by byte.140 Mbit/s/s into C-4 async specifies the mapping type in the VC-n. Its value is calculated over all the bits of the previous virtual container before scrambling.ATM mapping Standard binary values for C2 are: 0001 0100 . 0001 0011 . plus 1-byte CRC-7 E. non-specific 1111 1110 .34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s into C-3 async Path status byte . B3 C2 G1 43 .unequipped 0001 0101 . used to determine if a transmission error has occurred over a path.

A failure is a defect that persists beyond the maximum time allocated to the transmission system protection mechanisms. This bit is set to one if a failure is declared. A Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) scheme is specified. signal label. At present.This byte is used for user communication between path elements. it is used only for tributary unit structured payloads. The receiver is required to ignore their content. K3 (b5-b8) bits are allocated for future use. This byte is allocated for communication purposes between path elements and is payload dependent. otherwise it is set to zero. APS signalling is provided in K3 (b1-b4) bits. The bit assignments for the V5 byte are illustrated in the figure below. Bits 4 is a VC-2/VC-1 path Remote Failure Indication (LP-RFI). Network operator byte . These bits have no defined value.F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 Path user channel byte .This byte is allocated to provide a Higher-Order Tandem Connection Monitoring (HO-TCM) function. J2. The V5 byte provides the functions of error checking.This byte provides a generalized multiframe indicator for payload containers. BIP-2 REI RFI Signal Label RDI 1 2 3 BIP REI RFI RDI 4 5 6 7 8 Bit Interleaved Parity Remote Error Indication Remote Failure Indication Remote Defect Indication Figure 8 Lower-Order Path Overhead − V5 Byte Bits 1 and 2 of the V5 byte are allocated for error performance monitoring. Bits 5 through 7 provide a VC-2/VC-1 signal label. allocated for protection at the VC4/3 path levels. Lower-Order Path Overhead (VC-2/VC-1) :The bytes V5. Tributary Unit (TU) multiframe indicator byte . and is otherwise set to zero. A 4-value incrementing count (0-3) is used to indicate the frame number within a 2 Mbit/s multiframe structure. N2 and K4 are allocated to the VC-2/VC-1 POH. and path status of the VC2/VC-1 paths. 44 . Bit 3 is a VC-2/VC-1 path Remote Error Indication (LP-REI) that is set to one and sent back towards a VC-2/VC-1 path originator if one or more errors were detected by the BIP-2. The V5 byte is the first byte of the multiframe and its position is indicated by the TU-2/TU-1 pointer.

O.Bits 1 through 4 are allocated for APS signalling for protection at the LowerOrder path level. and. and Failure Indications.Virtual Container path REI coding: 0 = 0 errors 1 = 1 or more errors The Virtual Container path Signal Label coding follows: b5 b6 b7 Description 0 0 0 Unequipped or supervisoryunequipped 0 0 1 Equipped . Path Trace. Section Trace. Remote Defect. This 16byte frame is identical to the 16-byte frame of the byte J1. Byte N2 is allocated to provide a Lower-Order Tandem Connection Monitoring (LOTCM) function. Error performance monitoring using BIP-n. New Data Flag indications. Pointer adjustment information.non-specific 0 1 0 Asynchronous 0 1 1 Bit synchronous 1 0 0 Byte synchronous 1 0 1 Reserved for future use 1 1 0 Test signal. otherwise it is set to zero. Bits 5 through 7 are reserved for optional use. Error. Byte K4 . 45 . The overhead information provides for a variety of management and other functions such as: Alarm Indication Signals (AIS). Orderwire. Failures and Alarms :The SDH frame structure has been designed to contain a large amount of overhead information. SDH Anomalies. A 16-byte frame is defined for the transmission of Path Access Point Identifiers. Signal labels. Defects. Synchronisation Status Message. Byte J2 is used to transmit repetitively a Lower-Order Access Path Identifier so that a path receiving terminal can verify its continued connection to the intended transmitter. Automatic Protection Switching (APS) control.181 specific mapping 1 1 1 VC-AIS Bit 8 is set to 1 to indicate a VC-2/VC-1 path Remote Defect Indication (LP-RDI). Path status. Data Communications Channels (DCC).

46 . and. Table 4 and Figure 9. REI.Much of this overhead information is involved with alarm and in-service monitoring of the particular SDH sections. Pattern Bit. RDI. Examples of SDH Defects are: Out-of-Frame. list the criteria for errors and the performance monitoring for errors.The density of anomalies has reached a level where the ability to perform a required function has been interrupted. B2 BIP. LOP. Alarm . LOP.The inability of a function to perform a required action persisted beyond a maximum time allocated. the control of consequent actions. AIS. Definitions Anomaly . Failure . The occurrence of a single anomaly does not constitute an interruption in the ability to perform a required function. Defect .The smallest discrepancy which can be observed between the actual and desired characteristics of an item. and LOM.The maintenance signal used in the digital network to alert downstream equipment that a defect or equipment failure has been detected. Path B3 BIP. Examples of SDH Anomalies are: B1 BIP. and the determination of fault cause. that follow the definitions. Defects are used as input for performance monitoring.

LOP Loss of Pointer LOP state occurs when N consecutive invalid pointers are received or "N" consecutive New Data Flags (NDF) are received (other than in a concatenation indicator). The LOS state will clear when two consecutive framing patterns are received and no new LOS condition is detected. where N = 8. OOF Out of Frame OOF state occurs when several consecutive SDH frames are alignment received with invalid (errored) framing patterns (A1 and A2 bytes). LOP state is cleared when three equal valid pointers or three consecutive AIS indications are received. LOP can be identified as: AU-LOP (Administrative Unit Loss of Pointer) TU-LOP (Tributary Unit Loss of Pointer) AIS is an all-ONES characteristic or adapted information signal. Anomalies. The LOF state clears when an in frame condition exists continuously for a specified time in microseconds. OOF state clears within 250 microseconds when two consecutive SDH frames are received with valid framing patterns. The maximum time to detect OOF is 625 microseconds. Failures. LOF Loss of Frame LOF state occurs when the OOF state exists for a specified alignment time in microseconds.Table 4. This indication was previously known as FEBE (Far AIS Alarm Indication Signal REI Remote Error Indication 47 . Alarms Abbr. It is generated to replace the normal traffic signal when it contains a defect condition in order to prevent consequential downstream failures being declared or alarms being raised. AIS can be identified as: MS-AIS (Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal) AU-AIS (Administrative Unit Alarm Indication Signal) TU-AIS (Tributary Unit Alarm Indication Signal) An indication returned to a transmitting node (source) that an errored block has been detected at the receiving node (sink). It could be due to a cut cable. Defects. excessive attenuation of the signal or equipment fault. The time for detection and clearance is normally 3 milliseconds. Description Criteria LOS Loss of Signal LOS is raised when the synchronous signal (STM-N) level drops below the threshold at which a BER of 1 in 103 is predicted.9 or 10.

In order to achieve compatible measurement results. If any of the two parity checks fail.150 Recommendations dealing with error performance measurements using pseudo-random sequences.End Block Error). When this situation occurs. the corresponding block is assumed to be in error BIP-2 error Parity errors contained in bits 1 and 2 (BIP-2) of byte V5 of an VC-m (m=11. The following requirement is applicable to all ITU-T O. If any of the eight parity checks fail.12. If any of the N x 24 parity checks fail. Loss of Frame. it is necessary that the sequence synchronisation characteristics are specified. RDI was previously known as FERF (Far End Receiver Failure). REI can be identified as: MS-REI (Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication) HP-REI (Higher-order Path Remote Error Indication) LP-REI (Lower-order Path Remote Error Indication) A signal returned to the transmitting Terminating Equipment upon detecting a Loss of Signal.4) shall be monitored. an RFI is sent to the far end and will initiate a path protection switch if this function has been provisioned. the corresponding block is assumed to be in error B3 error Parity errors evaluated by byte B3 (BIP-8) of a VC-n (n=3. RDI can be identified as: MS-RDI (Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication) HP-RDI (Higher-order Path Remote Defect Indication) LP-RDI (Lower-order Path Remote Defect Indication) A failure is a defect that persists beyond the maximum time allocated to the transmission system protection mechanisms. 48 . or AIS defect.2) shall be monitored. the corresponding block is assumed to be in error. RDI Remote Defect Indication RFI Remote Failure Indication B1 error B2 error B3 error BIP-2 error LSS RFI can be identified as: LP-RFI (Lower-order Path Remote Failure Indication) B1 error Parity errors evaluated by byte B1 (BIP-8) of an STM-N shall be monitored. Loss of Sequence Synchronisation Bit error measurements using pseudo-random sequences can only be performed if the reference sequence produced on the receiving side of the test set-up is correctly synchronised to the sequence coming from the object under test. If any of the eight parity checks fail. the corresponding block is assumed to be in error B2 error Parity errors evaluated by byte B2 (BIP-24 x N) of an STMN shall be monitored.

according to the different SDH levels.H2) RDI (K2) HO PTE LOP TU-AIS (V1. If the error pattern has the same structure as the pseudo-random test sequence. NOTE – One method to recognize the out-of-phase condition is the evaluation of the error pattern resulting from the bit-by-bit comparison.Sequence synchronisation shall be considered to be lost and resynchronisation shall be started if: the bit error ratio is ≥ 0. In addition. The REI signals are sent back to the equipment at the originating end of a path. 49 . SDH Error Performance Monitoring :Error performance monitoring in the SDH is based on Bit-Interleaved-Parity (BIP) checks calculated on a frame-by-frame basis. Multiplex Section Overhead and Path Overheads. These BIP checks are inserted in the Regenerator Section Overhead. Lower Order Path Higher Order Path Multiplex Section (MSOH) Regenerator Section (RSOH) LO PTE HO PTE MSTE RSTE LOS LOF RSTE LOS LOF MS AIS RSTE LOS LOF MS AIS MSTE LOP AU-AIS (H1. the out-of-phase condition is reached. Higher-Order Path Terminating Equipment (HO PTE) and Lower-Order Path Terminating Equipment (LO PTE) produce Remote Error Indications (REI) based on errors detected in the HO Path and LO Path BIP respectively. or it can be unambiguously identified that the test sequence and the reference sequence are out of phase.20 during an integration interval of 1 second.V2) LO PTE Tributary AIS RDI (K2) RDI (G1) RDI (V5) RDI (G1) RDI (V5) Alarm Transmission Alarm Detection Figure 9 Interaction between defects and errors in forward and backward directions.

AU-3 AU-4 H1 H1 H1 Y H1 Y H2 H2 H2 1 H2 1 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 H3 1= All 1s Y= 1001SS11 (S bits unspecified) Figure 10 Pointer 9-byte structure H1 and H2 Pointer bytes . The bytes H1 and H2 (two 8-bit bytes) of the Overhead can be viewed as one value. this pointer is located in columns 1 and 4 of the fourth row of the Section Overhead. H3 One of SDH’s main advantages is that it is synchronous. (2430-81)/3 = 783 valid pointer positions That is. On a frame by frame basis. then the VC-4 begins in the byte adjacent to the H3 byte of the 50 . The pointer value indicates the offset in bytes from the pointer to the first byte of the VC. and to indicate STM-1 concatenation.SDH Pointer:SDH provides payload pointers to permit differences in the phase and frequency of the Virtual Containers (VC-n) with respect to the STM-N frame. Depending on the pointer value. the VC is allowed to “float” within the STM-N frame capacity. the byte is used to adjust the fill input buffers. if the VC-4 Payload Pointer has a value of 0. specify the location of the VC frame. For a VC-4 payload. the VC payload pointer. The byte only carries valid information in the event of negative justification. For example. within each STM-1 frame.These two bytes. that indicates where the actual payload container starts. It is used to align the VC and STM-1 Section Overheads in an STM-N signal. which is the J0 byte. the value of the pointer has a range of 0 to 782. To make this possible. Pointer action byte . the possible range is: Total STM-1 bytes . for example. to perform frequency justification. known as the VC Payload Pointer. otherwise it is not defined. Lower-order pointers are also provided to permit phase differences between VC-1/VC-2 and the higher-order VC3/VC-4.Section Overhead bytes = Pointer value range. the payload pointer indicates the offset between the VC container and the STM-1 frame by identifying the location of the first byte of the VC in the container.This byte is used for frequency justification. Because the Section Overhead bytes are not counted. there is a pointer. and starting points are at 3-byte increments for a VC-4 payload. In other words.

uncombined multiplexer port. however there are cases when this is not possible or desirable.Overhead. Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD). various concepts will be defined over the next several pages. Virtual concatenation is valid for STS-1 rates as well as for Virtual Tributary (VT) rates. The VC pointer value that accompanies the New Data Flag will indicate the new offset. Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS):- 51 . the N-bits. The first concept is Data Terminating Equipment (DTE) and Data Communications Equipment (DCE). or reconverts the received data signals into user information. is carried in bits 7 through 16 of the pointer word. The first four bits of the VC-n payload pointer make provision for indicating a change in the VC. In this manner. Typically. A DCE could be a modem. Virtual Concatenation allows SONET channels to be multiplexed together in arbitrary arrangements. controller. All the equipment currently in the center of the network need not be aware of the virtual concatenation. It is a piece of equipment that. All the intelligence to handle virtual concatenation is located at the endpoints of the connections. This source would be provided from the DTE or another modem. and terminate a connection. ADCE also performs signal conversion required for communications between the DTE and the communication line. are known as the New Data Flag. Virtual Concatenation (VC):VC allows for non-standard SONET/SDH multiplexing in order to address the bandwidth mismatch problem between Ethernet and SONET/SDH. terminates the data for a higher level of processing. This would require the DCE to phase-lock to an external clock source. frontend processor (FEP). maintain. etc. as the name implies. Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU). which permits custom-sized SONET pipes to be created that are any multiple of the basic rates. then the VC-4 begins in the byte adjacent to the K2 byte of the Overhead in the next row. etc. DTE/DCE Concepts :To fully understand the importance of the physical layer. the DCE supplies the clock. printer. Certain data arrangements require that clocking for the transmitted data be supplied by the DTE. DTE This device converts information into data signals for transmission. so each SONET channel may be routed independently through the network without it requiring any knowledge of the virtual concatenation. terminal. the SONET/SDH transport pipes may be “right-sized” for Ethernet transport. if the Payload Pointer has a value of 87. virtually concatenated channels may be deployed on the existing SONET/SDH network with a simple endpoint upgrade. which is a binary number. and thus an arbitrary change in the value of the pointer. DCE This device is required to establish. The pointer value. These four bits. A DTE could be a host computer. Using virtual concatenation. .

IPv4. and the resulting bandwidth change may be applied without loss of data in the absence of network errors. Link Access Procedure for SDH (LAPS):Type of high-level data link controller (HDLC). signaling messages are exchanged within the SONET overhead in order to change the number of tributaries being used by a VCG. Within GFP. PPP. Some of these equipment are: XDM-2000 XDM-1000 XDM-100 BG-40 BG-20 Ulan From these equipment some equipment details are given below: BG-40 Equipment Overview:- 52 . GFP has adapted the cell delineation protocol used by ATM to encapsulate variable length packets. The number of tributaries may be either reduced or increased. and other higher-layer protocols. Using Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS). LAPS includes data link service and protocol specification used in transporting IP packets over SDH networks. the fixed amount of overhead per packet allows deterministic matching of bandwidth between the Ethernet stream and the virtually concatenated SONET stream. In contrast to HDLC whose overhead is data dependent. LCAS is also useful for fault tolerance and protection since the protocol has the ability to remove failed links from the Virtually Concatenated Group (VCG). GFP maps Ethernet packet data into an octet-synchronous transport such as SONET. A fixed amount of overhead is required by the GFP encapsulation that is independent of the contents of the packets. there are two different mapping modes defined: frame based mapping and transparent mapping. Each mode is optimized for providing different services.A supporting technology to the Virtual Concatenation. Generic Framing Procedure (GFP):Another key encapsulation scheme in EoS and more robust technology than LAPS. EQUIPMENT DETAILS:There are many types of MULTIPLEXER (equipment) are used in the C.NOC to provide the different service to the Customers. LAPS provides a point-to-point unacknowledged connectionless service over SONET/SDH. LCAS dynamically changes the amount a bandwidth used for a virtual concatenated channel and provides “tuning” of the allocated bandwidth depends on customer needs. LAPS enables the encapsulation of IPv6.

The dimensions of the BG40 are 88 mm × 432 mm × 300 mm(height × width × depth). upon which a flexible service connection system can be constructed with the cross-connect matrix as the center. or two 622 Mbps optical interfaces and two 155 Mbps optical or electrical interfaces simultaneously. line interface. In addition.BG-40 is a compact STM-1/STM-4-compatible multiservice transmission system offering powerful expansion capabilities. The BG-40 supports two power supply modes: -48 VDC and 220 VAC. broadcast. and loopback. synchronous timing processing unit. Function Structure:BG-40 equipment is designed with a multi-ADM framework. it can be deployed widely in various carrier MAN access layers and private communication networks. line-tributary. and inter-tributary VC-4/VC-3/VC-12-level services. nonblocking VC-4/VC-3/VC-12-level cross connections. unidirectional. 4/3/1 Cross-connect Mechanical Description :BG-40 equipment is of high integrity. tributary interface. It provides cross-connect dispatch of interline. it can be flexibly configured as TM. CHARTERSTICS :- 53 . or 10 E3/DS-3 services. and multi-ADM. service cross-connect matrix. and more. ADM. it supports such cross-connect modes as bidirectional. The function structural diagram is shown in the following figure. power processor. Within its 2 U (88 mm) height. System Functions and Characteristics :BG-40 equipment provides the following functionality: 1. In addition. small size. 2. and low cost. Cross-connect capability with a cross-connect capacity of 12 VC-4 × 12 VC-4. In combination with its multiservice access capability. It also supports six 155 Mbps optical or electrical interfaces. it supports a variety of complete and flexible network-level protection. According to actual networking needs. auxiliary interface unit. so that it takes a smaller space in the equipment room. or 36 10BaseT/100BaseT Ethernet services. The height of the integrated equipment is 2 U (88 mm). The cross-connect matrix of the BG-40 supports full-capacity. it can provide a maximum of 88 E1 services. overhead cross-connect matrix. The overall structure consists of the control/communication unit.

Function Structure :BG-20 equipment is designed with a multi-ADM framework. auxiliary interface unit. upon which a flexible service connection system can be constructed with the cross-connect matrix as the center. tributary interface. multiple distance specifications are provided.24 transparent interfaces •2/4/6 V. overhead cross-connect matrix.35 interfaces •Two 10BaseT Ethernet interfaces (with a bandwidth of 2.24 synchronous interfaces with programmable control signals •2/4/6 V. service cross-connect matrix. and mesh network topologies. BG-20 is a multipurpose SDH network element that supports ring. as well as interoperability with the BG-40 and XDM systems.•System access capabilities: •One to six 155 Mbps optical interfaces •One to six 155 Mbps electrical interfaces •One to three 622 Mbps optical interfaces •8/16/32/40/63/72/80/88 channels of E1 services •3/6/8/10 channels of E3/DS-3 services •4/12/16/20/24/28/32/36 channels of 10BaseT/100BaseT Ethernet services •2/4 channels of GbE Ethernet services •8/16/24 FXO/RD interfaces •8/16/24 FXS/FXD interfaces •6/12/18 2W/4W interfaces •6/12/18 4W E&M interfaces •8/16/24 V.048 Mbps) For the 155 Mbps or 622 Mbps optical interface.24 asynchronous interfaces with programmable control signals •1/2/4 V. and more. 54 . line interface. synchronous timing processing unit. The overall structure consists of the control/communication unit. chain. power processor. BG-20 Equipment Overview :The BG-20 is a compact STM-1/STM-4-compatible multiservice transmission system offering powerful expansion capabilities. The height of the integrated equipment is 1 U (44 mm). Mechanical Description :BG-20B equipment is of high integrity. so that it takes a smaller space in the equipment room.

HUB/aggregation configurable.The dimensions of the BG-20B are 44 mm (1 U) x 430 mm x 240 mm (height × width × depth). •2 Mbps and 2 MHz T3/T4. and clear channels). System Functions and Characteristics :BG-20 equipment provides the following features and functionality. 1 x E1 (for OW). •Supports chain. •Compact size: 1 U height for BG-20B.11. •Input voltage:•-48 VDC to -60 VDC dual feeding with over-/under-voltage alarm and shut down. TM1/4. 19/20 x E1 with 2/1 clear channels). •Power consumption: 60 W for BG-20B and 150 W for BG-20E. OW. four alarm inputs. V. •16 x 16 E1 at DS-0 (for overhead. REFERENCE:- 55 . and three alarm outputs. •3 x E3/DS-3. The dimensions of the BG-20E are 88 mm (2 U) x 430 mm x 240 mm (height × width × depth). •ADM1/4. RS232. •Interoperability with the BG-40 and the XDM. •98 VAC to 240 VAC single feeding. •L1 and L2 Ethernet service. •Physical external interfaces:•2 x STM-1/4 SFP-based interfaces. ring. •21/42/63 x E1 (balanced or unbalanced. DCC. and mesh topologies. MNG. •Cross connection: •16 x 16 VC-4 at VC-4/VC-3/VC-12. •6 x FE. regardless of the release version: •Miniature MSPP element.

xdm-1000. BG-40. TCP/IP Protocol Suite(Foruozan) 4.K.1. Salivahan) 3. Modern digital and analog communication system (Sanjay Sharma) 2.) 56 . User Manual (xdm-100. BG-20 etc. Digital communication system (R. Electronic Device and circuit (boylsted) 5.