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Scripta Materialia 135 (2017) 9799

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Scripta Materialia

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Scripta Viewpoint Set: Materials science aspects related to

additive manufacturing

Additive manufacturing (AM), also referred as 3D Printing, is a tech- free for the design space of manufactured components. Within this
nology that allows for manufacturing of three-dimensional complex context, the authors provide an overview of the progress made in AM
parts directly from computer aided design le, using basic raw materials processes and topology optimization theories. With these advance-
like powder, pellets, wire, and tape and using various energy sources [1]. ments, it may be possible to realize complex components that provide
Due to this unique capability, many claims have been made that AM is mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical functionalities. For wide-
indeed a new paradigm for materials industries. For example, there spread adoption of such design strategy, technology gaps and research
have been attempts to arrive at hybrid materials [2,3], that cannot be needs have been identied with reference to additive processes, single
achieved by traditional manufacturing [4,5,6]. At the same time, many and multi-materials, and extension of integrated computational mate-
researchers have argued that the fundamental physics behind this tech- rials engineering (ICME) tools. In the next paper entitled Role of aniso-
nology is the same as traditional manufacturing sciences (e.g., injection tropic properties on topology optimization of additive manufactured
molding, powder metallurgy and welding), and the differences are re- load bearing structures, the effect of anisotropic properties on the to-
lated to complex boundary conditions [7,8]. Irrespective of the above ar- pology optimization calculations for load bearing structures is critically
guments, it is clear that there is a need for interdisciplinary scientic evaluated by Zhang et al. [18]. Interestingly, due to design and process
enterprise to solve outstanding issues (see Fig. 1) holding back the exibility, the anisotropic properties may manifest itself in macro
rapid adoption of additive manufacturing by the industrial practitioners. (mm) to micro (b m) length scales, that is brought about by nuances
Many researchers have suggested to address these bottlenecks by build- in process and materials, respectively. In their paper, the current status
ing on the existing knowledge related to energy interaction with mate- of handling intrinsic materials and process inuenced anisotropy is
rials in different length scales, non-equilibrium phase transitions, in-situ reviewed from the context of current challenges and future perspec-
and ex-situ characterization and high-performance modeling of pro- tives. The challenges pertain to our inability to describe the anisotropic
cess, as well as, topology optimization within the Integrated Computa- static and dynamic properties that include the deformation and failure
tional Materials Engineering (ICME). With these tools, viable pathway modes, as well as, lack of efcient algorithms that are capable of simul-
to accelerate the adoption of additive manufacturing could be realized. taneous optimization of the scan strategy and part geometry. The dis-
Additive manufacturing involves of all the steps that are relevant to cussions by Jared et al. [17] and Zhang et al. [18] also suggest that
traditional manufacturing, i.e., component design, process selection, there is another design freedom associated with AM processes,
parameter control, in-situ and ex-situ characterization, and qualica- i.e., introducing site specic properties. In contrast, the realization of
tion, as well as, certication. However, in contrast to traditional this site-specic tuning of microstructure and properties had always
manufacturing, for the Additive Manufacturing enterprise, the expertise remained as intractable in traditional manufacturing. Interesting design
and tools must be available within close proximity and be available concepts that take advantage of materials site specic properties (MSP)
within a compressed time for rapid optimization and sustainability. are discussed by Tammas-Williams and Todd [19]. In their paper enti-
Although, there exists books [1], numerous papers and reviews in tled Design for additive manufacturing with site-specic properties in
the published literature [9,10,11,12,13,14] and popular and social metals and alloys, critical challenges of adopting designs based on
media opinions [15,16] on the topic of additive manufacturing, the mo- MSP was outlined as following: (i) the denition of optimum property;
tivation behind this viewpoint set is to provide a collated vision of lead- (ii) predicting the component level properties, (iii) describing both mi-
ing researchers with reference to challenges, as well as, pathways to crostructure and chemical differences, (iv) dening tolerances, and
address these challenges through interdisciplinary research. In the (v) software limitations. The complexity is bound to increase with intro-
rst paper entitled Additive manufacturing: toward holistic design, duction of secondary lattice structures within a primary solid material.
Jared et al. [17] critically evaluate the notion of AM, i.e., complexity is Although, in principle the above design concepts can be conceived in
numerical methods, it is not trivial to arrive at these site-specic micro-
structures. The solidication and solid-state phase transformation
This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05- mechanisms change drastically from equilibrium to non-equilibrium
00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains modes as a function of global and local thermal cycles. In the paper by
and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United
States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to
Kirka et al. entitled Solidication and solid-state transformation sci-
publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for ences in metals additive manufacturing [20], some of these issues dur-
United States Government purposes. ing additive manufacturing of Ti- and Ni-base alloys are outlined.
1359-6462/ 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
98 Preface

Fig. 1. Three broad categories of fundamental research needed to mature and accelerate the deployment of additive manufacturing through interdisciplinary research.
(Courtesy: John Turner, Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

Interesting observations of site-specic control of crystallographic tex- good control of magnetic properties has remained as an unrealized po-
ture in Ni-alloys by of manipulating thermal gradient (G) and liquid- tential. In the paper by Li et al. entitled Additive manufacturing of near-
solid interface velocity (R) was presented. With reference to Ti-6Al-V al- net-shape bonded magnets: Prospects and challenges [25], two alter-
loys, non-equilibrium FCC L-phase formation at the / interfaces in nate strategies that is based on binder jetting and materials extrusions
Ti6Al4V alloys [21] during EBM processing was presented as evidence was proposed and evaluated. With material extrusion method, these
for non-equilibrium conditions brought about by spatial variations of authors have achieved acceptable magnet characteristics that include,
thermal cycles at each and every layer. Furthermore, opportunities to (i) BHmax, (ii) ultimate tensile strength, (iii) ultimate strain, (iv) reduced
address these phenomena through in-situ monitoring of temperature, critical material waste, and (v) reduced weight. The above example con-
multi-scale characterization (starting optical microscopy, hardness rms that the selection and adoption of a specic AM process for a given
mapping, electron backscattered diffraction imaging, transmission elec- application must consider the nal target properties and geometry,
tron microscopy and atom probe eld ion microscopy) and computa- rather than the process itself.
tional modeling were also stressed. Since most of the AM processes All the above discussions lead to a fundamental question: can the
involve melting and solidication under large thermal gradients, as existing AM processes arrive at nal properties without extensive trial
well as, thermal cycles similar to multi-pass welding, the AM parts do and error optimization? The answer is indeed no. These expensive
suffer from some of the welding related issues such as porosity forma- trial and error optimization sties the adoption of AM process by indus-
tion, residual stress and distortions within the nished components. In tries. In this regard, Building digital twins of 3D printing machines by
the paper by Colegrove et al. [22] entitled Application of bulk deforma- Debroy et al. [26] propose an innovative strategy by building a digital
tion methods for microstructural improvement and residual stress and twin for all AM machines that is based on integrated process modeling.
distortion control in additively manufactured components, the possi- The digital twin could be capable of mimicking all the physical and
bility of modifying the microstructural state of each and every layer chemical process that occur in these machines. The sub-models within
through thermo-mechanical processing, i.e., rolling, was explored. this digital twin may have varying degrees of sophistication. The au-
With this hybrid AM process, the authors show a drastic renement of thors argue that with digital twin, all the trial and error optimization
microstructure and phenomenal improvement in mechanical proper- can be performed in a computer before arriving at the optimum exper-
ties of Ti6Al4V alloys, surpassing the properties of wrought materials. imental processing conditions. Furthermore, suitability of various mate-
This hybrid process also lends itself to scale up for large scale metal ad- rials for enhancing mechanical properties can be explored without
ditive manufacturing. Interestingly, the adoption of this hybrid process limiting to materials that are available in open market, as well as, site-
also requires an integrated process modeling that will reduce the num- specic design of microstructure. At the same juncture, similar to tradi-
ber of trial and error experimentation of variables associated with both tional manufacturing, these predictions have to be taken with caution
fusion and deformation processes. due to the difculties in uncertainty quantication (UQ). In AM compo-
Interestingly, an AM process that only relies on the deformation pro- nents, due to sheer nature of the process ow, we create many inter-
cess, i.e. ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) provides a viable faces that may potentially initiate premature failure. The challenges
pathway to arrive at hybrid structures [6] envisioned by Ashby and and methods of UQ in predicted performance of AM components by
Brechet [2]. In the paper entitled High-strain-rate deformation in ultra- models are highlighted by the paper entitled Uncertainty quantica-
sonic additive manufacturing, Fujii et al. [23] described the bonding be- tion in prediction of materials properties during additive manufactur-
tween aluminum tapes processed by UAM using multi-scale ing by Hu and Mahadevan [27]. In this paper, they articulate the
characterization. Using this data, they rationalized the metallurgical propagation of uncertainty in the predictions at lower length scale
bonding based on high-strain rate deformation at the abetting inter- (e.g. powder bed melting and thereby steep changes in local thermal
faces. The authors also show the interplay between oxide lm removal, diffusivity) may propagate to the predictions of weld pool size, thermal
surface asperity collapse and the crystallographic texture evolution at gradient (G) and liquid-solid interface velocity (R) (e.g. computational
the interfaces. Recently, Sridharan et al. [24] measured the presence of uid ow models which assumes only mild changes as a function of
colossal supersaturation of oxygen at the Al-Fe tape interfaces and con- temperature). With successive progression of these uncertainties across
rmed the need for high-strain rate deformation at the abetting inter- length scale, the nal mechanical property predictions may indeed
faces. Although, existing processes either based on thermal or show a scatter. Hu and Mahadevan articulate the differences in uncer-
mechanical or combination thereof can lead to AM capabilities for tainty quantication based on aleatory (natural variations) and episte-
unique designs, incorporation of metallic magnetic materials with mic uncertainty (lack of knowledge of all boundary conditions). An
Preface 99

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Manufacturing Ofce, under Contract DE-AC05-000R22725 with UT- this issue).
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