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JESSALYN C.

SARINO

ISANG DOSENANG KLASE NG


HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

GEEKS

SPICE GIRLS

DA GWAPINGS
CELEBRITIES

GUINNESS

LEATHER GOODS

WEIRDOS
MGA ANAK NI RIZAL

BOB ONGS
The Parts of the Sentence
The parts of the sentence are a set of terms for describing how people construct sentences from
smaller pieces. There is not a direct correspondence between the parts of the sentence and the
parts of speech -- the subject of a sentence, for example, could be a noun, a pronoun, or even an
entire phrase or clause. Like the parts of speech, however, the parts of the sentence form part of
the basic vocabulary of grammar, and it is important that you take some time to learn and
understand them.

Written by Frances Peck

Subject and Predicate

Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is what (or
whom) the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something about the subject. In the
following sentences, the predicate is enclosed in braces ({}), while the subject is highlighted.

Judy {runs}.
Judy and her dog {run on the beach every morning}.

To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing
"who?" or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject.

The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn.

The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what littered? The audience did. "The
audience" is the subject of the sentence. The predicate (which always includes the verb) goes on
to relate something about the subject: what about the audience? It "littered the theatre floor with
torn wrappings and spilled popcorn."

Unusual Sentences

Imperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an order) differ from conventional
sentences in that their subject, which is always "you," is understood rather than expressed.

Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.")

Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of the verb "to be." In such
sentences, "there" is not the subject; it merely signals that the true subject will soon follow.

There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch steps this morning.

If you ask who? or what? before the verb ("were cowering"), the answer is "three stray kittens,"
the correct subject.

Simple Subject and Simple Predicate

noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known as the
simple subject. Consider the following example:

A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger.

The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other words of the subject -- "a" and "of
pepperoni pizza" -- modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject.

Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate, which is always the verb or verbs that
link up with the subject. In the example we just considered, the simple predicate is "would
satisfy" -- in other words, the verb of the sentence.

A sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple subject consisting of more than one noun
or pronoun -- as in these examples:

Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs covered the boy's bedroom walls.
Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful
sculptures exhibited there.

The second sentence above features a compound predicate, a predicate that includes more than
one verb pertaining to the same subject (in this case, "walked" and "admired").

Written by Frances Peck

Close
Objects and Complements
Objects

A verb may be followed by an object that completes the verb's meaning. Two kinds of objects
follow verbs: direct objects and indirect objects. To determine if a verb has a direct object,
isolate the verb and make it into a question by placing "whom?" or "what?" after it. The answer,
if there is one, is the direct object:

Direct Object
The advertising executive drove a flashy red Porsche.
Direct Object
Her secret admirer gave her a bouquet of flowers.

The second sentence above also contains an indirect object. An indirect object (which, like a
direct object, is always a noun or pronoun) is, in a sense, the recipient of the direct object. To
determine if a verb has an indirect object, isolate the verb and ask to whom?, to what?, for
whom?, or for what? after it. The answer is the indirect object.

Not all verbs are followed by objects. Consider the verbs in the following sentences:

The guest speaker rose from her chair to protest.


After work, Randy usually jogs around the canal.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Verbs that take objects are known as transitive verbs. Verbs not followed by objects are called
intransitive verbs.

Some verbs can be either transitive verbs or intransitive verbs, depending on the context:

Direct Object
I hope the Senators win the next game.
No Direct Object
Did we win?
Subject Complements

In addition to the transitive verb and the intransitive verb, there is a third kind of verb called a
linking verb. The word (or phrase) which follows a linking verb is called not an object, but a
subject complement.

The most common linking verb is "be." Other linking verbs are "become," "seem," "appear,"
"feel," "grow," "look," "smell," "taste," and "sound," among others. Note that some of these are
sometimes linking verbs, sometimes transitive verbs, or sometimes intransitive verbs, depending
on how you use them:

Linking verb with subject complement


He was a radiologist before he became a full-time yoga instructor.
Linking verb with subject complement
Your homemade chili smells delicious.
Transitive verb with direct object
I can't smell anything with this terrible cold.
Intransitive verb with no object
The interior of the beautiful new Buick smells strongly of fish.
Note that a subject complement can be either a noun ("radiologist", "instructor") or an adjective
("delicious").

Object Complements

(by David Megginson)

An object complement is similar to a subject complement, except that (obviously) it modifies an


object rather than a subject. Consider this example of a subject complement:

The driver seems tired.

In this case, as explained above, the adjective "tired" modifies the noun "driver," which is the
subject of the sentence.

Sometimes, however, the noun will be the object, as in the following example:

I consider the driver tired.

In this case, the noun "driver" is the direct object of the verb "consider," but the adjective "tired"
is still acting as its complement.

In general, verbs which have to do with perceiving, judging, or changing something can cause
their direct objects to take an object complement:

Paint it black.
The judge ruled her out of order.
I saw the Prime Minister sleeping.

In every case, you could reconstruct the last part of the sentence into a sentence of its own using
a subject complement: "it is black," "she is out of order," "the Prime Minister is sleeping."

Basic Rule. A singular subject (she, Bill, car) takes a singular verb (is, goes, shines), whereas a
plural subject takes a plural verb.

Example: The list of items is/are on the desk.


If you know that list is the subject, then you will choose is for the verb.

Rule 1. A subject will come before a phrase beginning with of. This is a key rule for
understanding subjects. The word of is the culprit in many, perhaps most, subject-verb mistakes.

Hasty writers, speakers, readers, and listeners might miss the all-too-common mistake in the
following sentence:

Incorrect: A bouquet of yellow roses lend color and fragrance to the room.

Correct: A bouquet of yellow roses lends . . . (bouquet lends, not roses lend)

Rule 2. Two singular subjects connected by or, either/or, or neither/nor require a singular verb.

Examples:
My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today.
Neither Juan nor Carmen is available.
Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations.

Rule 3. The verb in an or, either/or, or neither/nor sentence agrees with the noun or pronoun
closest to it.
Examples:
Neither the plates nor the serving bowl goes on that shelf.
Neither the serving bowl nor the plates go on that shelf.

This rule can lead to bumps in the road. For example, if I is one of two (or more) subjects, it
could lead to this odd sentence:

Awkward: Neither she, my friends, nor I am going to the festival.

If possible, it's best to reword such grammatically correct but awkward sentences.

Better:
Neither she, I, nor my friends are going to the festival.
OR
She, my friends, and I are not going to the festival.

Rule 4. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected
by and.

Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation.

But note these exceptions:

Exceptions:
Breaking and entering is against the law.
The bed and breakfast was charming.

In those sentences, breaking and entering and bed and breakfast are compound nouns.

Rule 5a. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by such words as along with, as well
as, besides, not, etc. These words and phrases are not part of the subject. Ignore them and use a
singular verb when the subject is singular.

Examples:
The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly.
Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking.

Rule 5b. Parentheses are not part of the subject.

Example: Joe (and his trusty mutt) was always welcome.

If this seems awkward, try rewriting the sentence.

Rule 6. In sentences beginning with here or there, the true subject follows the verb.

Examples:
There are four hurdles to jump.
There is a high hurdle to jump.
Here are the keys.

Rule 4. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected
by and.

Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation.

But note these exceptions:

Exceptions:
Breaking and entering is against the law.
The bed and breakfast was charming.

In those sentences, breaking and entering and bed and breakfast are compound nouns.
Rule 5a. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by such words as along with, as well
as, besides, not, etc. These words and phrases are not part of the subject. Ignore them and use a
singular verb when the subject is singular.

Examples:
The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly.
Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking.

Rule 5b. Parentheses are not part of the subject.

Example: Joe (and his trusty mutt) was always welcome.

If this seems awkward, try rewriting the sentence.

Rule 6. In sentences beginning with here or there, the true subject follows the verb.

Examples:
There are four hurdles to jump.
There is a high hurdle to jump.
Here are the keys.

Rule 9. With collective nouns such as group, jury, family, audience, population, the verb might
be singular or plural, depending on the writer's intent.

Examples:
All of my family has arrived OR have arrived.
Most of the jury is here OR are here.
A third of the population was not in favor OR were not in favor of the bill.

Rule 10. The word were replaces was in sentences that express a wish or are contrary to fact:

Example: If Joe were here, you'd be sorry.

Shouldn't Joe be followed by was, not were, given that Joe is singular? But Joe isn't actually
here, so we say were, not was. The sentence demonstrates the subjunctive mood, which is used
to express things that are hypothetical, wishful, imaginary, or factually contradictory. The
subjunctive mood pairs singular subjects with what we usually think of as plural verbs.

Examples:
I wish it were Friday.
She requested that he raise his hand.

In the first example, a wishful statement, not a fact, is being expressed; therefore, were, which
we usually think of as a plural verb, is used with the singular subject I.

Normally, he raise would sound terrible to us. However, in the second example, where a request
is being expressed, the subjunctive mood is correct