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Part iii

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number calculated from a person's weight and height. BMI
is a fairly reliable indicator of body fatness for most people. Scientific findings have shown that
even though BMI have no direct relation to total body fats, it does provide an alternative to
measure it. This is due to the fact that size and density of different body tissues gives off
different total mass. However, BMI is inexpensive and easy-to-perform method. It allow for the
screening for weight categories that may lead to health problems. BMI is used as a screening tool
to identify possible weight problems for adults and children.

BMI is not a diagnostic tool. It cannot be used for determining what health risk a person
may have. This is due to the fact that many different factors including physiological and genetics
that may influence a person body size and body mass. For example, a child with excess weight is
usually synonymized with obesity but he could also suffer from many different possible health
conditions such as liver and kidney failure. Therefore, to determine if excess weight is a health
risk to a person, a health care provider would need to perform further assessments. These
assessments might include skinfold thickness measurements, evaluations of diet, physical
activity, family history, and other appropriate health screenings.

The method to calculate BMI is simple and straightforward where one does not require
tremendous amount of data to do so. Calculating and interpreting BMI involves the following
steps:
1. Before calculating BMI, obtain accurate height and weight measurements.
2. Calculate the BMI and percentile using the formula:
Below are the classification of BMI based on international standard

Research have shown that excess weight is a serious health problem for many people,
increasing their risk of developing a number of serious illnesses, including heart disease, stroke,
diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. The good news is that getting and maintaining weight
within the desirable weight range through healthy eating and regular physical activity can help
prevent these illnesses. Being underweight however increases ones risk of health problems.
Being underweight is linked with heart problems, lowered resistance to infection, chronic
fatigue, anemia, depression and other illnesses. Aim for a gradual weight gain, which should be
about 1 to 2 kilogram per month. One should aim for a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2.

The limitation of BMI is that its intended as a measure of fatness but doesnt actually
take body fat percentage into account. Its therefore skewed in individuals who are highly
muscular or those who have muscle wasting. For example, a bodybuilder whose weight may be
higher than normal due to increased muscle mass may appear obese according to his BMI
number. In comparison, an elderly persons BMI number may appear in the healthy range (<27
kg m-2) even though theyve had significant muscle loss.

Another limitation of BMI is the fact that it does not differ between men and women even
though men tend to have larger frames in addition to a more muscular build. So even though a
man and a woman may have the same BMI, the woman would likely have a higher percentage of
body fat than the male. BMI also doesnt take fat distribution into account. For example, a
persons waist circumference can be used to determine their amount of visceral fat, which is
located around vital internal organs and is often associated with increased levels of inflammation
and chronic disease risk.

*****MASUKKAN JADUAL STUDENT********

Students with ideal weight for their height

Lower Form Height Weight BMI


Students
4 158 50 20
6 152 52 22.5
7 154 49 20.7
11 149 49 22.1
12 160 62 24.2
14 157 56 22.7
16 159 49 19.4
17 149 46 20.7
18 154 50 21.1
22 158 53 21.2
25 175 64 20.9
26 170 57 19.7
27 171 58 19.8
29 177 66 21.1
32 162 64 24.4
34 169 70 24.5
41 144 46 22.2
44 159 57 22.5
46 163 57 21.5
47 152 52 22.5
48 143 38 18.6
49 145 44 20.9

Upper Form Height Weight BMI


Students
1 176 62 20
2 164 59 21.9
5 162 53 20.2
6 161 48 18.5
7 156 55 22.6
8 158 51 20.4
9 159 61 24.1
10 155 49 20.4
12 155 53 22.1
13 165 56 20.6
14 152 48 20.8
15 152 57 24.7
20 153 47 20.1
22 176 70 22.6
23 163 62 23.3
24 160 58 22.6
25 170 65 22.5
26 169 58 20.3
30 161 59 22.7
31 165 52 19.1
32 151 51 22.4
35 153 55 23.5
38 160 55 21.5
39 149 41 18.5
41 160 61 23.8
42 149 45 20.3
43 155 58 24.1
44 160 54 21.1
45 157 46 18.7
48 153 53 22.6
50 166 61 22.1

Range 41kg 70 kg

Mean =

2892
= 54

= 53.56 kg

Variance =
2

160350
= 2868.67
54

= 100.77 kg2

Standard deviation = 10.04 kg


BMI CLASSIFICATION UPPER SECONDARY LOWER SECONDARY
Underweight 15 4
Ideal 23 31
Overweight 8 10
Obese 4 5

15
19 UPPER S
19
Underweight 4
100
19
LOWER S 23
54
27 UPPER S
50
Ideal 31
4
LOWER S 54

9 9 UPPER S
50
Overweight 5 LOWER S
9
9
100 4
UPPER S 9
Obese
LOWER S 5
9

a) Probability of upper secondary who are b) Probability of lower secondary who are

i) Underweight = 0.15 i) Underweight = 0.04

ii) Ideal = 0.23 ii) Ideal = 0.31

iii) Overweight = 0.08 iii) Overweight = 0.1

iv) Obese = 0.04 iv) Obese = 0.05


PART 4

Bernoullis trial requires success and failure to be determined within a sample set. This enables
the determination of various probabilities to be calculated. For this work success (p) is students
who have ideal weight whereas failure (q) are students who does not have ideal weight.

i) p = 0.54

ii) q = 0.46

To calculate the probability distribution of students in the school calculation based on


Bernoullis formula is carried out using

When 3 students are chosen at random the probability where

i) None of the students have ideal weight = 0.097336

ii) One of the students have ideal weight = 0.342792

iii) Two of the students have ideal weight = 0.402408

iv) All of the students have ideal weight = 0.157464

0.5 Distribution chart


0.4 0.5
Probability

0.3 0.4
0.2 0.3

0.1 0.2

0 0.1
1 2 3 4
0
Number of students
0 1 2 3 4
The discrete random variable (X ) of the population can be determined through the computation
using mean and standard deviation

Mean = np Variance = npq

= 100 (0.54) = 24.84

=54 Standard deviation = 4.984

******** masukkan analisis dari part ii********

The ideal mean weight of the school population is 53.56 kg with a deviation of 10 kg.
This means that majority of the students fall within the range of the ideal weight category.
However due to height not taken into the factor many of the overweight or underweight students
based on the BMI result fall within this range as well.

The analysis also shows that the total number of students who have ideal weight is about
half of the school population. The distribution chart shows that if picked randomly two out of
three students will come out as having ideal weight. Standard deviation shows that the statistics
gives off 95% confidence level.

In conclusion half of the school population have achieved ideal weight. Their weight are
suitable and they need to continue practicing healthy and balanced lifestyle to ensure that they
can maintain the ideal BMI. The other half of the population however need to change their
lifestyle or improve their eating and daily habits. Practicing a more balanced meal as well as a
more active workout routine is needed to pull or increase their weight so they will fall within the
ideal BMI