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ChE 344

Winter 2013
Mid Term Exam I + Solution
Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Closed Book, Web, and Notes

Name_______________________________

Honor Code___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________
(Sign at the end of exam period)

1) ____/ 5 pts
2) ____/ 5 pts
3) ____/ 5 pts
4) ____/ 5 pts
5) ____/ 5 pts
6) ____/ 5 pts
7) ____/ 10 pts
8) ____/ 15 pts
9) ____/ 20 pts
10) ____/ 25 pts
Total ____/100 pts

_____ I have a Laptop with Polymath on it that I can bring to the 2nd Midterm Exam.

_____ I will need to use the computer lab for the 2nd Midterm Exam.
ChE 344
Exam I
(5 pts) 1) Chapter 1 Mole Balances
The reaction
A + B 2C
takes place in an unsteady PFR. The feed is only A and B in equimolar proportions. Which of
the following set of equations gives the correct mole balances on A, B and C. Species A and
B are disappearing and SpeciesC is being formed.

Circle the correct answer where all the mole balances are correct
(a)
V dN A
FA0 F A rAdV =
dt
V dNC V
FB0 F B rAdV = Ans: Wrong sign for rA , should be + rAdV
dt
V dNC
FC + 2 rAdV =
dt

(b)
V dN A
FA0 F A + rAdV =
0 dt
V dN B
FB0 F B + rAdV = Ans: Wrong sign for FC , should be FC
dt
V dNC
FC + rC dV =
dt
(c)
V dN A
FA0 F A + rAdV =
dt
V dN B
FB0 F B + rAdV = Ans: All are correct.
dt
V dNC
FC 2 rAdV =
dt
(d)
V dN A
FA0 F A rAdV =
dt
V dN B V
FB0 F B rAdV = Ans: Wrong sign for rA , should be + rAdV
dt
V dNC
FC + rC dV =
dt

Solution
Answer is (c).

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(5 pts) 2) The reaction
A Product
takes place in the gas phase

80

70
60

50
FA0
(dm3) 40
rA
30

20
10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

You have up to $10,000 to use to purchase a reactor from those given below.

Reactor Type Number Volume (dm3) Cost


CSTR 1 2 $1,000
CSTR 1 4 $2,000
PFR 1 4 $2,000
CSTR 1 6 $4,000
CSTR 1 12 $8,000
PFR 1 12 $6,000

What reactors do you choose, how do you arrange them and what is the highest conversion
you can get for $10,000? Approximately what is the corresponding highest conversion
X = ______ with your arrangement of reactors?

Scheme and Volume

etc.

W13MidTermExamI.doc
Solution
X=0.8
80
70
60

50
FA0
(dm3) 40
rA
30

20
4m3 4m3 12m3
10
CSTR PFR
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

4 m3 CSTR 4 m3 PFR 12 m3 PFR

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(5 pts) 3) Chapter 3 Rate Laws
Write the rate law in terms of concentrations for each of the following
(a) The reaction
2C
4A + 2B
follows an elementary rate law. The feed is equal molar in A and B
rA = ____________
(b) The reaction
A B+ C
is pseudo first order at high concentrations of A and
pseudo second order at low
concentrations of A
rA = ____________

(c) The reaction
A+B C
is first order in A and overall zero order.
rA = ____________

(d) The reaction
A B+ C
is carried out in a constant volume batch reactor and
where the reciprocal of the
concentration of A varies linearly with time.
rA = ____________
(e) The reaction
A B+ C
is carried out in a constant volume batch reactor andwhere the concentration of A
decreases linearly with time.
rA = ____________

Solution
# CC2 &
(a) rA = k A %C 4A C 2B (
$ KC '

k 1C 2A
(b) rA =
1+ k 2 C A

k 1C A
(c) rA =
CB

(d) rA = kC 2A
(e) rA = k


W13MidTermExamI.doc

(5 pts) 4) What four things are wrong with this solution?
The gas phase elementary reaction
2A B + 2C
mol
C t0 = 0.4 mol
dm 3 C t 0 = 0.4
B dm 3
10mol
FA0 = 10mol
s FA0 =
s
is carried out in a membrane reactor in which there is pressure drop with
= 0.019 kg1. An equal molar feed of A and inerts, I, enter the reactor and only species B
can exit the membrane. Plot the conversion of A down the membrane reactor containing 50

kg of catalyst. The specific reaction rate is kA = 2.5 dm6/mol/kg/s, and the mass transfer
coefficient k C =1.5 dm 3 kg s ,

Solution

Identify 4 things that are incorrect or may not be included with this solution?
Reads Should Read
1. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________
2. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________
3. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________
4. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________

W13MidTermExamI.doc
Actual Solution
rB = kC A rA = kC 2A
1) should be
rB rA
rA = rB =
2) 2 should be 2
FT = FA + FB + FC FT = FA + FB + FC + FI
3) should be
dy FT
12 =
y = (1 w) dW 2y FT 0
4) should
be

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(5 pts) 5) Problem Statement. The elementary gas phase reaction
A + 2B " "C
is carried out in a packed bed reactor. Calculate the exit conversion from a PBR packed with
800 kg of catalyst. The feed is stoichiometric.

Additional Information

Solution

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

What four things are wrong or may not be included with this solution?
Reads Should Read
1. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________
2. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________
3. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________
4. Line # ___ _________________________ _________________________

Solution
1) The rate law is incorrect. It should be:

W13MidTermExamI.doc
2) The concentrations are incorrect, the feed is stoichiometric.

3) The volume change was not included.

4) The equation for y is incorrect. There is volume change and can only be
used when . Therefore, the form of the momentum balance that must be used is

Corrected Solution

W13MidTermExamI.doc
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(5 pts) 6) Chapter 7Analysis of Data
(2 pts) 6a) From the following plot, what is the reaction order with respect to A?

Circle the correct answer.

A) 0
B) 0.5
C) 0.78
D) 1
E) 2
Explain

Solution
D) 1
Slope = 1.01 1

(3 pts) 6b) The following reaction, batch experiments are conducted to evaluate the reaction kinetics.
The slope of a ln (rB) versus ln (CB) plot is measured to be 1.02 and the intercept is 0.42
when A is in great excess. What is the overall reaction order?

A + 2B Products
Circle the correct answer.

A) 0.42
B) 1.02
C) 1.44
D) Cant tell on the basis of this experiment
Explain

W13MidTermExamI.doc
Solution
D) Cant tell on the basis of this experiment
rB % r (
rA = = kCACB = ln' B * = ln k + ln C A + ln C B
2 & 2 )
Both C A and C B vary, need to find by varying C A

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(10 pts) 7) Chapter 4 Stoichiometry
The reversible reaction
B
2A
is carried out in a flow reactor where pure A is fed at a concentration of 4.0 mol/dm3. If the
equilibrium conversion is found to be 60%
(a) What is the equilibrium constant, KC if the reaction is a gas phase reaction?

Gas KC =

(b) What is the KC if the reaction is a liquid phase reaction?


Liquid KC =

Solution
(a) Gas
& 2 C #
rA = k $C A B !
% KC "
At equilibrium, rA = 0
C
K Ce = Be2
C Ae
1 1 1
= 1 = , y A0 = 1, =
2 2 2
' (1 X ) $
C A = C A0 % "
& (1 + X )#
' 1X $
C B = C A0 % 2 "
& (1 + X )#
' 1X $
C A0 % 2 e "
K Ce = & (1 + X e )# = X e (1 + X e )
2 2
2 ' (1 X e ) $
2C A0 (1 X e )
C A0 % "
& (1 + X e )#
X e (1 0.5 X e ) 0.6(0.7 )
= 2
= 2
2C A0 (1 X e ) 8(0.4 )
= 0.328 dm 3 / mol
(b) Liquid
& 2 C #
rA = k $C A B !
% KC "
At equilibrium, rA = 0
C
K Ce = Be2
C Ae

W13MidTermExamI.doc
C A = C A0 (1 X )
C B = C A0 12 X
C A0 [12 X e ] Xe
K Ce = 2 2
= 2
C A0 (1 X e ) 2C A0 (1 X e )
0.6
= 2
8(0.4 )
= 0.469 dm 3 / mol

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(15 pts) 8) Multiple Choice (15 points)
(3 pts) 8a) A reversible, liquid-phase reaction that is first order in both directions proceeds to 50%
conversion in a PFR operating isothermally, isobarically, and at steady state. What conversion
would be obtained in a CSTR with the same volume and feed stream and operating at exactly
the same temperature and pressure?

(A) X>50% (B) X<50% (C) 50% (D) insufficient information to


answer definitively
Reason:

Solution
8a) Answer: (B) X < 50%

FA0
rA

X 0.5

(3 pts) 8b) The gas reaction A + B C is carried out in a packed bed where there is pressure drop.
Currently 40% conversion is achieved. If the catalyst weight remains the same, but the particle
size is increased, then the conversion would

(A) increase (B) decrease (C) remain the same (D) insufficient information
answer definitively
Reason:

Solution
8b) Answer: (D) insufficient information to tell. You dont know which part of the curve
you are on.

DP

(3 pts) 8c) For in irreversible second order reaction 50% conversion is currently achieved in one PFR of
1,000 dm3. It is proposed to use two 500 dm3 PFRs placed in series. The exit conversion for the
two PFRs will be
(1) > 50% (2) 50% (3) 50% < (4) Cant tell without the rate law

W13MidTermExamI.doc
FA 0
rA

Solution
8c) Answer: (2) 50%
F A0
1 PFR rA 2 PFRs

(3 pts) 8d) The rate constant for an irreversible, heterogeneously catalyzed, gas-phase, second order
reaction, A Product(s), was determined to be 0.234 from experimental data in a packed-bed
reactor. The person analyzing the experimental failed to include the large pressure drop in the
reactor in his analysis. If the pressure drop were properly accounted for, the rate constant
would be
(1) >0.234 (2) < 0.234 (3) 0.234 (4) insufficient information to answer definitively

Solution
8d) Answer: (1) >0.234
2 2
rA = kC A0 (1 X ) y 2
rA ky 2
y2 < 1
k true y 2 = k = 0.234
0.234
k true = > 0.234
y2

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(3 pts) 8e) Consider the reaction
AB
If the diameter of a PBR is doubled while keeping the turbulent flow mass flow rate, m ,
constant, what can be said about that factor by which the rate of pressure drop (dy/dW) will
be lowered?
Circle the correct answer.
A) It will be lowered by a factor of 4
B) It will be lowered by a factor of 16
C) It will be lowered by a factor of 32
D) It will be lowered by a factor of 48 or more
Explain

Solution
8e) Answer: D
It will be lowered by more than a factor of 48.
m
G ~ 2 , AC ~ D2
D2

G 2 $ 1 '$ 1 ' 1
~ ~ & )& ) =
AC % D4 (% D2 ( D6

$ D '6 $ 1 '6
2 = & 1 ) = 1& ) = 1
% D2 ( %2( 64

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(20 pts) 9) Study Problem P5-20B, Modified California Problem
The elementary gas phase reaction
A+BC+D
takes place isobarically and isothermally in a PFR where 50% conversion is achieved. The
feed is equimolar in A and B. It is proposed to put a CSTR of equal volume upstream, i.e.,

of the PFR. What will be the intermediate and exit conversions X1 and X2 respectively? The
entering flow rates and all other variables remain the same as that for the single PFR.

X1 = ________

X2 = ________

Solution
Case 1
dX
Mole Balance = rA
dV
Rate Law rA = kC AC B
Stoichiometry

Gas = 0, B = 1

C A = C A0 (1 X)

C B = C A0 (1 X)
2
Combine rA = kC 2A0 (1 X)
2
dX kC 2A0 (1 X)
=
dV FA0

dX kC 2A0
= dV
(1 X) 2 FA0
V=0 , X=0

V = V, X = 0.5


W13MidTermExamI.doc
X dX X kC 2A0
0 = = V
(1 X) 2 1 X FA0

kC 2A0 0.5
V= =1
FA0 1 0.5
Case 2
FA0 X
(1) VCSTR =
rA
(2) & (3) Rate Law, Stoichiometry same as Case 1
FA0 X1
VCSTR = 2
kC 2A0 (1 X1 )

VkC 2A0 X1
=1=
FA0 1 2X1 + X12

1 2X1 + X12 = X1

X12 3X1 + 1 = 0

3 9 4 3 5 3 2.24
X1 = = = = 0.38
2 2 2
PFR X1 = 0.38
2 2
dX kC A0 (1 X) X2 dX kC 2A0V
= , X =
dV FA0 1
(1 X) 2 FA0

V=0 X = X1 = 0.38

V=V X = X2

kC 2A0V 1 1
=1=
FA0 1 X 2 1 X1

1 1 1
= 1+ = 1+ = 2.62
1 X 2 1 X1 0.62

1 X 2 = 0.38

X 2 = 0.62

W13MidTermExamI.doc
(25 pts) 10) Study problem P5-9B. The gas phase reaction
A B+ C
follows an elementary rate law and is to be carried out first in a PFR and then in a separate
experiment in a CSTR. When Pure A is fed to a 10 dm3 PFR at 300K and a volumetric flow
rate of 5 dm3/s the conversion is 80%.

When a mixture of 50% A and 50% inert (I) is fed to a 10 dm3 CSTR at 320K and a
volumetric flow rate of 5 dm3/s the conversion is 80%.

What is the activation energy in cal/mol?


E = ________________

Solution
PFR
dX rA kC A0 (1 X) k (1 X)
= = =
dV FA0 C A0 0 (1+ X) 0 (1+ X)

X (1+ X)dX = k dV = k
0
(1 X) 0

1 '' 1 * *
k = ))(1+ ) ln , X,
(( 1 X + +
10dm 3
= = 2s
5 dm 3 s
= y A0 =1(1+11) =1
1' . 1 1 *
k = )(1+1) ln0 3 0.8,
2( /1 0.8 2 +
1
k = [2 1.61 0.8] =1.209 at 300K
2
CSTR
FA0 X 0C A0 X 0 X(1+ X)
V= = =
rA (1 X) k (1 X)
kC A0
(1+ X)

W13MidTermExamI.doc
1
= (1+11)
2
= 0.5

1 X(1+ X) 1 % 0.8(1+ 0.5(0.8))(


k= = ' *
(1 X) 2 '& 0.2 *)

= 2.8
k E#1 1 &
ln 2 = % (
k 1 R $ T1 T2 '

2.8 E# 1 1 & E 20
ln = % (=
1.21 R $ 300 320 ' R (320)(300)

E=R
(300)(320) ln 2.8 , R =1.987
cal
20 1.21 molK
cal
E = 8010
mol

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