You are on page 1of 6 GMR Institute of Technology Rajam, Andhra Pradesh (An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP) Department of Chemical Engineering Class 3 rd Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering) Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403 Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor Lecture Topic Stoichiometric relations Course Outcome C CHEM 203.1 Program Outcome PO 1 ,PO 13 Duration 50 min Lecture 1 of 45 Unit I Learning Level REMEMBER UNDERSTAND APPLY ANALYSE EVALUATE CREATE (Tick whichever is applicable) √ √ √
• 1. Objectives

• a. To make understand mole

• b. To familiarize methods of converting mass to mole , mole to mass

• c. To understand the importance of Stoichiometric relations and their usage to industrial applications

• 2. Topic Learning Outcomes

• After the completion of the class the students will able to:

• a. Define mole

• b. Convert mass to mole and moles to mass

• c. Calculate amount of raw materials required to produce any compound

• 3. Teaching Methodology

• a. Chalk & Talk /PPT Mode

4.

Applications

• a. Process design.

• b. to predicting yields;

• c. to understanding recycle, purge, and bypass schemes.

• d. useful tools for the study of plant operation and troubleshooting.

5.

Evocation     6. Discussion

Chemical engineers are concerned with the design and development of processes which involve changes in the bulk properties of matter. To make a quantitative estimation of these processes, chemical equations showing the quantities of reactants and products are used. Though

internationally we follow SI system of units, a chemical engineer is expected to be familiar and conversant with all the systems so far adopted for measuring and expressing various quantities. A system is referred to a substances or a group of substances under consideration and process is to the changes take place within that system. Thus nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia may constitute a system. The reaction of nitrogen, hydrogen to form ammonia considered as a process. Within a isolated system, the mass of a system remains constant regardless of the changes taking place within the system. This statement is known as the law of conservations

of mass and it

is the basis of the so called material balance

of a process. (The first law of

thermodynamics) The state of a system is defined by numerous properties. These properties are divided into three types (i) intensive properties (ii) extensive properties and (iii) special properties. The intensive properties are independent of mass. Ex: temperature. The extensive properties depend upon on mass under consideration, Ex: volume. The special properties consist of molar properties and partial molar properties. Molar property is the one which defined as the ratio of intensive properties to number of moles considered whereas partial molar property is the one which accounts for non-ideality of the system. For ideal systems, molar property and partial molar properties both are equal. AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS- Mole 1 g mole of any gaseous substance at NTP occupies 22,414 cc or 22.414 litres and 1 lb mole of the same substance occupies 359 ft3at NTP. 1 kmole of any gaseous substance occupies 22.414 m3 at NTP.

Note: NTP = Normal temperature (273 K) and pressure (1 atmosphere) are also referred to at times

as standard conditions (SC).

MASS RELATIONS IN CHEMICAL REACTION

In stoichiometric calculations, the mass relations between reactants and products of a chemical reaction are considered and are based on the atomic weight of each element involved in the

reaction. For the following reactions the material balance is established as indicated below:

The relationship of mass and volumetric compositions of a chemical reaction designated as Stoichiometric relationship. Consider the reaction

N 2 +

3H 2 2NH 3

In the system of nitrogen and hydrogen underwent chemical reaction to form ammonia the total mass of system remains the same. The word weight is entrenched in engineering literature as synonymous with mass, the common practice will be followed as frequently referring to weights of material instead of using the more exact term mass as a measure of quantity. Weights and masses are numerically equal only at a location where the gravitational constant as the standard value of 980 cm/sec 2 . The variation in

the weight of a given mass over the earth’s surface is negligible for ordinary engineering work.

All the atoms of given element are of the same mass but the atoms of different elements have different masses. The individual mass of atoms of various elements vary and it is called atomic

weight of the element. The composition of a chemical compounds can be expressed by a formula which indicates the element that comprises the compound and relative proportions of atoms of various elements presented. Example: N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 Atomic Weights: Nitrogen 14.008 Hydrogen 1.008

Molecular Weights

NH 3 = 14.008+ 3 x 1.008 = 17.032

N 2

= 2 x 14.008

= 28.016

H 2 = 1.008 x 2 = 2.016 The relative weights of reactants and products is given by in the formula

Example: N 2 + 3H 2 → 2NH 3

28.016

3x2.016

Weight of reactants Nitrogen Hydrogen

=

=

2x17.032

28.016

6.048

--------

34.064

--------

Weight of products Ammonia = 2 x 17. 032 = 34.064 Thus 28.016 parts by weight of nitrogen will react with 6.048 parts by weight of hydrogen to form 34.064 parts by weight of ammonia.

CONCLUSION

The above problem indicate not only the relative weights involved the chemical reaction but also

the relative volumes of those reactants and products that are in gaseous state. Thus the three volumes of hydrogen, one volume of nitrogen produces two volumes of ammonia when all the materials are reduced to same temperature and pressure. This volumetric

relation follows from Avogadro’s law which states that equal volume of gases at the same

condition of temperature and pressure contains the same number of molecules regardless of nature of gas. This relation is applied only for ideal gases but not for liquids and solids. The

mass in grams of given element that is equal numerically to its atomic weight is termed as gram atom.

The formula of a chemical compound indicates the relative numbers of atoms that unite to form a compound. For example: The formula for NH 3 indicate that Nitrogen and Hydrogen Atoms are present in the compound in a 1:3 ratio and this is called one gram mole. One gram mole represents weight in grams of all gram atoms which in the formation of compound combined in the same ratio as the atoms themselves. G-atoms of an elementary substance = mass in grams / atoms weight

Grams of an elementary substance = g-atoms x atomic weight G-moles of a substance = mass grams / molecular weight Grams of a substance = g-moles x molecular weight It is observed that all the substances in ideal gaseous state one gram mole of material at standard contents occupies 22.414 liters. The standards conditions are 0 o C and 760 mmHg which indicates that 34.064 grams of ammonia contains two gram moles and will occupy 2 x 22.4 liters of volume at standard conditions.

• 7. Mind Map : • 8. Readings:

• 1. Hougen, Olaf A., and Kenneth M. Watson. "Chemical Process Principles-Part 1: Material and Energy Blances." (1948).

• 2. Himmelblau, David Mautner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012.

• 3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co.,

1996.

• 9. Questions:

Remember:

1) Define the fallowing: chemical Process, system, extensive and intensive properties,

mole, Stoichiometric coefficient

Understand:

 1) How the Stoichiometric coefficient is used to in predicting the reactions raw material 2) requirement in chemical industries What is a mol of a species of molecular weight M, in terms of i. a number of molecules? ii. a mass? Apply: 1) How many moles of Nitrogen is required for making 1 Kg ammonia 2) How many grams of C3H8are contained in 2kmol of this substance?

3) One hundred kilograms of molecular hydrogen (H2) is fed into a reactor each hour. What is the molar ﬂow rate of this stream in gram-moles/hour? 10. Key Words:

• Stoichiometric coefficient

• Mole

• Avogadro’s Number