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(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP)

rd

Class 3 Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering)

Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403

Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor

Lecture Topic Methods of expressing compositions of solutions

Course Outcome CCHEM203.1 Program Outcome PO1,PO13

Duration 50 min Lecture 3 of 45 Unit I

REMEMBER UNDERSTAND APPLY ANALYSE EVALUATE CREATE

Learning Level

(Tick whichever is applicable)

1. Objectives

To make familiarize the Methods of expressing compositions of solutions

2. Topic Learning Outcomes

After the completion of the class the students will able to:

a. Define various concentration measurements Molarities, Molality, Normality and PPM and

PPB

b. Calculate the concentration of solutions in different forms like Molarities, Molality,

Normality and PPM and PPB

c. Convert the molarities to weight percent

3. Teaching Methodology

a. Chalk & Talk/PPT Mode

4. Applications

5. Evocation

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6. Discussion

Normally, all the calculations connected with a given problem are presented with respect

to some specific quantity of one of the streams of material entering or leaving the process. This

quantity of material is designate as the basis of calculation and should always be specifically

stated as the initial step in presenting the solution to the problem. Frequently the statement of the

problem makes the choice of a basis of calculation quite obvious.

Methods of Expressing the Composition of Mixtures and Solutions: Various methods are

employed for expressing the composition of mixtures and solutions. The different methods that

are in common use may be illustrated by considering a binary system, composed of components

which will be designated as A and B. The following symbols will be used in this discussion:

W = total weight of the system

WA and WB = the respective weights of components A and B

MA and MB = the respective molecular weights of components A and B if they are compounds

AA and AB = the respective atomic weights of components A and B if they are elementary

substances

V = volume of the system at a particular temperature and pressure

VA and VB = the respective pure-component volumes of components A and B. (The pure

component volume is defined as the volume occupied by a particular component if it is separated

from the mixture and brought to the same temperature and pressure as the original mixture).

Weight Per Cent. The weight percentage of each component is found by dividing its respective

weight by the total weight of the sytem and then multiplying by 100:

Weight %of A = WA / W x 100

This method of expressing compositions is commonly employed for solid systems and also for

liquid systems. It is not used ordinarily for gaseous systems. Percentage figures applying to a

solid or to a liquid system may be assumed to be in weight percent, it there is no definite

specification to the contrary. One advantage of expressing composition on the basis of weight

percent is that the composition values do not change if the temperature of the system is varied

(assuming there is no loss of material through volatilization or crystallization and that no

2

chemical reactions occur). The summation of all the weight percentages for a given system, of

necessity, totals exactly 100.

Volumetric Percent: The percent by volume of each component is found by dividing its pure-

component volume by the total volume of the system and then multiplying by 100.

Volumetric % of A = (VA/V) x 100

Mole Fraction and Mole Percent: If the components A and B are compounds, the system is a

mixture of two kinds of molecules. The total number of A molecules or moles present divided

by the sum of the A and the B molecules or moles represents the mole fraction of A in the

system . Thus,

W A /M A

Mole fraction of A=

W A /M A W B /M B

The mole fraction multiplied by 100 gives mole percentage. The summation of all the mole

percentages for a given system total exactly 100. The composition of a system expressed in

mole percent will not vary with the temperature, assuming there is no loss of material from the

system, and that no chemical reactions or associations occur.

Atomic Fraction and Atomic Percent: The general significance of these terms is the same as

for mole fraction and mole percent, except that the atom is the unit under consideration rather

than the molecule. Thus,

W A /AA

Atomic fraction of A =

(W A /AA ) (W B /AB )

The atomic fraction multiplied by 100 gives atomic percentage. The summation of all of the

atomic percentages for a given system is exactly 100. The composition, expressed in atomic

percent, will not vary with temperature, provided that no loss of material occurs. The

composition of a system expressed in atomic percent will remain the same, regardless of whether

or not reactions occur within the system.

In addition to wt %, vol % and mole %, the liquid composition can also be expressed as

molarity, molality and normality.

3

Molarity: Molarity is defined as the number of moles of substances (solute) present in one liter

of solution

Number of gm. moles of substance

Molarity =

total volume of solution in liters

Molality: Molality is defined as number of gm. Moles of substance (solute) dissolved 1000 gm

of solvent or 1 kg solvent.

Number of gm. equvalents of solute

Molality =

Kg of solvent

in one liter of solution and is give by

number of gm. equivalance of substance

Normality =

total volume of solution in liters

Molecular weight is defined as the weight of one mole of substance

Equivalent weight is given by molecular weight of the substance divided by basicity or acidity

(number of replaceable hydrogen ions or

hydroxyl ions).

weight in grams

Gm. Moles =

molecular weight

molecular weight

Equivalent weight =

acidity or basisity

weight in grams

Gram equivalence =

equivalent weight

per million (ppm). This means that the

concentration of a particular substance is very

low even though the regulatory agency may consider it a significant amount. One ppm is 1 part

4

in 1 million or the value is equivalent to the absolute fractional amount multiplied by one

million. Is 1 mg/L equal to 1 ppm? Metric system units go in steps of 10, 100, and 1,000.

ppb An even smaller concentration measurement is parts per billion (ppb). One ppb is one part

in 1 billion.

For example:

1 ppm = 1 mg/L = 1/1 million = 0.000001

1 ppb = 1 g/L = 1/1 billion = 0.000000001

7. Mind Map:

8. Readings:

Material and Energy Blances." (1948).

2. Himmelblau, David Mautner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in

chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012.

3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co.,

1996.

9. Questions:

Remember:

1) Write short notes on the following: Normality, molality.

5

2) Explain briey various concentration units used for liquid solutions when one of the

substance is solid

Understand:

1) Write the importance of process variables in a process.

Apply:

1) Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 12.5 g of sulfuric acid in 1.75 L of

solution

2) Determine the mass of calcium nitrate required to prepare 3.50 L of 0.800 M Ca(NO3)2 .

3) The specific gravity of concentrated HCl is 1.185 and it is 36.31% w/w HCl. What is its

molarity?

4) A solution of sodium chloride in water contains 230 grams of NaCl per litre at 200C. The

density of the solution at this temperature is 1.148 grams per cubic centimetre. Calculate

the following composition in weight percent, volumetric per cent of water, composition

in mole percent, composition in atomic percent, molality and kg of NaCl per kg H2O

10. Key Words:

Equivalent weight,

atomic percent,

molality

11. Scope for Mini Project

a. Try to solve the above problems in Aspen one

b. Prepare an excel sheet to easy converting mass to moles

6

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