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GMR Institute of Technology

Rajam, Andhra Pradesh


(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP)

Department of Chemical Engineering


rd
Class 3 Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering)
Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403
Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor
Lecture Topic Methods of expressing compositions of solutions
Course Outcome CCHEM203.1 Program Outcome PO1,PO13
Duration 50 min Lecture 3 of 45 Unit I
REMEMBER UNDERSTAND APPLY ANALYSE EVALUATE CREATE
Learning Level
(Tick whichever is applicable)

1. Objectives
To make familiarize the Methods of expressing compositions of solutions
2. Topic Learning Outcomes
After the completion of the class the students will able to:
a. Define various concentration measurements Molarities, Molality, Normality and PPM and
PPB
b. Calculate the concentration of solutions in different forms like Molarities, Molality,
Normality and PPM and PPB
c. Convert the molarities to weight percent
3. Teaching Methodology
a. Chalk & Talk/PPT Mode
4. Applications

5. Evocation

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6. Discussion

Normally, all the calculations connected with a given problem are presented with respect
to some specific quantity of one of the streams of material entering or leaving the process. This
quantity of material is designate as the basis of calculation and should always be specifically
stated as the initial step in presenting the solution to the problem. Frequently the statement of the
problem makes the choice of a basis of calculation quite obvious.

Methods of Expressing the Composition of Mixtures and Solutions: Various methods are
employed for expressing the composition of mixtures and solutions. The different methods that
are in common use may be illustrated by considering a binary system, composed of components
which will be designated as A and B. The following symbols will be used in this discussion:
W = total weight of the system
WA and WB = the respective weights of components A and B
MA and MB = the respective molecular weights of components A and B if they are compounds
AA and AB = the respective atomic weights of components A and B if they are elementary
substances
V = volume of the system at a particular temperature and pressure
VA and VB = the respective pure-component volumes of components A and B. (The pure
component volume is defined as the volume occupied by a particular component if it is separated
from the mixture and brought to the same temperature and pressure as the original mixture).

Weight Per Cent. The weight percentage of each component is found by dividing its respective
weight by the total weight of the sytem and then multiplying by 100:
Weight %of A = WA / W x 100
This method of expressing compositions is commonly employed for solid systems and also for
liquid systems. It is not used ordinarily for gaseous systems. Percentage figures applying to a
solid or to a liquid system may be assumed to be in weight percent, it there is no definite
specification to the contrary. One advantage of expressing composition on the basis of weight
percent is that the composition values do not change if the temperature of the system is varied
(assuming there is no loss of material through volatilization or crystallization and that no

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chemical reactions occur). The summation of all the weight percentages for a given system, of
necessity, totals exactly 100.
Volumetric Percent: The percent by volume of each component is found by dividing its pure-
component volume by the total volume of the system and then multiplying by 100.
Volumetric % of A = (VA/V) x 100

Mole Fraction and Mole Percent: If the components A and B are compounds, the system is a
mixture of two kinds of molecules. The total number of A molecules or moles present divided
by the sum of the A and the B molecules or moles represents the mole fraction of A in the
system . Thus,
W A /M A
Mole fraction of A=
W A /M A W B /M B

The mole fraction multiplied by 100 gives mole percentage. The summation of all the mole
percentages for a given system total exactly 100. The composition of a system expressed in
mole percent will not vary with the temperature, assuming there is no loss of material from the
system, and that no chemical reactions or associations occur.

Atomic Fraction and Atomic Percent: The general significance of these terms is the same as
for mole fraction and mole percent, except that the atom is the unit under consideration rather
than the molecule. Thus,
W A /AA
Atomic fraction of A =
(W A /AA ) (W B /AB )

The atomic fraction multiplied by 100 gives atomic percentage. The summation of all of the
atomic percentages for a given system is exactly 100. The composition, expressed in atomic
percent, will not vary with temperature, provided that no loss of material occurs. The
composition of a system expressed in atomic percent will remain the same, regardless of whether
or not reactions occur within the system.
In addition to wt %, vol % and mole %, the liquid composition can also be expressed as
molarity, molality and normality.

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Molarity: Molarity is defined as the number of moles of substances (solute) present in one liter
of solution
Number of gm. moles of substance
Molarity =
total volume of solution in liters

Molality: Molality is defined as number of gm. Moles of substance (solute) dissolved 1000 gm
of solvent or 1 kg solvent.
Number of gm. equvalents of solute
Molality =
Kg of solvent

Normality: Normality is defined as the number of gm equivalents of substance (solute) present


in one liter of solution and is give by
number of gm. equivalance of substance
Normality =
total volume of solution in liters
Molecular weight is defined as the weight of one mole of substance
Equivalent weight is given by molecular weight of the substance divided by basicity or acidity
(number of replaceable hydrogen ions or
hydroxyl ions).

weight in grams
Gm. Moles =
molecular weight

molecular weight
Equivalent weight =
acidity or basisity

weight in grams
Gram equivalence =
equivalent weight

ppm :Most contaminants are expressed as parts


per million (ppm). This means that the
concentration of a particular substance is very
low even though the regulatory agency may consider it a significant amount. One ppm is 1 part

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in 1 million or the value is equivalent to the absolute fractional amount multiplied by one
million. Is 1 mg/L equal to 1 ppm? Metric system units go in steps of 10, 100, and 1,000.
ppb An even smaller concentration measurement is parts per billion (ppb). One ppb is one part
in 1 billion.
For example:
1 ppm = 1 mg/L = 1/1 million = 0.000001
1 ppb = 1 g/L = 1/1 billion = 0.000000001

7. Mind Map:

8. Readings:

1. Hougen, Olaf A., and Kenneth M. Watson. "Chemical Process Principles-Part 1:


Material and Energy Blances." (1948).
2. Himmelblau, David Mautner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in
chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012.
3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co.,
1996.
9. Questions:
Remember:
1) Write short notes on the following: Normality, molality.

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2) Explain briey various concentration units used for liquid solutions when one of the
substance is solid
Understand:
1) Write the importance of process variables in a process.
Apply:
1) Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 12.5 g of sulfuric acid in 1.75 L of
solution
2) Determine the mass of calcium nitrate required to prepare 3.50 L of 0.800 M Ca(NO3)2 .
3) The specific gravity of concentrated HCl is 1.185 and it is 36.31% w/w HCl. What is its
molarity?
4) A solution of sodium chloride in water contains 230 grams of NaCl per litre at 200C. The
density of the solution at this temperature is 1.148 grams per cubic centimetre. Calculate
the following composition in weight percent, volumetric per cent of water, composition
in mole percent, composition in atomic percent, molality and kg of NaCl per kg H2O
10. Key Words:
Equivalent weight,
atomic percent,
molality
11. Scope for Mini Project
a. Try to solve the above problems in Aspen one
b. Prepare an excel sheet to easy converting mass to moles

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