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(An Autonomous Institution Affiliated to JNTUK, AP)

rd

Class 3 Sem. - B. Tech. (Chemical Engineering)

Course Chemical Process Calculations Course Code CHEM-2403

Prepared by Mr. P. Satya Sagar, Sr. Assistant Professor

Lecture Topic Density and Sp. Gravity

Course Outcome CCHEM203.2 Program Outcome PO1,PO13

Duration 50 min Lecture 4 of 45 Unit I

REMEMBER UNDERSTAND APPLY ANALYSE EVALUATE CREATE

Learning Level

(Tick whichever is applicable)

1. Objectives

To familiarize different methods of expressing Density and Sp. Gravity

2. Topic Learning Outcomes

a. After the completion of the class the students will able to:

b. Calculate gas density at given conditions

c. Calculate specific gravity of liquids and solids

3. Teaching Methodology

a. Chalk & Talk /PPT Mode

4. Applications

a. Evaporation

b. Drying

c. Distillation

d. Humidification and dehumidification

e. Cooling towers

f. Absorption and desorption/striping

5. Evocation

Form No. AC 04. 00.2016 P. Satya Sagar GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh 1

6. Discussion

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Density values are commonly expressed as grams

per cubic centimeter or as pounds per cubic foot or kg per cubic meter. The density of water at

4oC is 1 gram per cubic centimeter or 62.43 lb per cu ft or 1000 kg per cu.m.

The densities of solutions are functions of both concentration and temperature.

The relationships between these three properties have been determined for a majority of a the

common systems. Standard chemical handbooks contain extensive tabulations giving the

densities of solutions of varying concentrations at specified temperatures. These data are most

conveniently used in graphical form in which density is plotted against concentration. Each

curve on such a chart will correspond to a specified constant temperature. The density of a

solution of any concentration at any temperature may be readily estimated by interpolation

between at any temperature may be readily estimated by interpolation between these curves. In

fig.1 are plotted the densities of solutions of hydrogen peroxide at various temperatures.

For a given system of solute and solvent the density or specific gravity at a specified temperature

may serve as an indexed to the concentration. This method is useful only when there is a large

Form No. AC 04. 00.2016 P. Satya Sagar GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh 2

difference between the densities of the solutions and of the pure solvent. In several industries

specific gravities have become the universally accepted means of indicating concentrations and

products are purchased and sold on the basis of specific gravity specifications. Sulfuric acid, for

example, is marketed almost entirely on this basis. Specific gravities are also made the basis for

the control of many industrial processes in which solutions are involved. To meet the needs of

such industries, special means of numerically designating specific gravities have been developed.

Several scales are in use in which specific gravities are expressed in terms of degree which are

related to specific gravities and densities by arbitrary mathematical definitions.

Baume Gravity Scale. Two so-called Baume gravity scales are in common use, one for liquids

lighter and the other for liquids heavier than water. The former is defined by the following

expression;

140

Degrees Baume = - 130

G

Where G is the specific gravity at 60o/ 60oF. It is apparent from this definition that a liquid

having the density of water at 60oF (G=1.0) will have a gravity of 10 o Be. Lighter liquids will

have higher gravities on the Baume scale. Thus, a material having a specific gravity of 0.60 will

have a gravity of 103o Be.

The Baume scale for liquids heavier than water is defined as follows

145

Degrees Baume = 145 -

G

Gravities expressed on this scale increase with increasing, density. Thus a specific gravity of 1.0

at 60o/60oF corresponds to 0.0o. Be, and a specific gravity of 1.80 corresponds to 64.44o Be. It

will be noted that both the Baume scales compare the densitites of liquids at 60 oF. In order to

determine the Baume gravity, the specific gravity at 60 o/60o F must either be directly measured

or estimated from specific gravity thus independent of its temperature. The Baume gravity of a

liquid is thus independent of its temperature. Readings of Baume hydrometers at temperatures

other than 60oF must be corrected for temperature so as to give the value at 60oF.

API Scale. As a result of confusion of standards by instrument manufacturers, a special gravity

scale has been adopted by the American Petroleum Institute for expression of the gravities of

petroleum products. This scale is similar to the Baume scale for liquids lighter than water as

indicated by the following definition:

Form No. AC 04. 00.2016 P. Satya Sagar GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh 3

141.5

Degrees API = - 141.5

G

As on the Baume scale, a liquid having a specific gravity of 1.0 at60 o/60o F has a gravity of 10 o.

However, a liquid having a specific gravity of 0.60 has an API gravity of 104.3 as compared with

a Baume gravity of 103.3. The gravity of a liquid in degrees API is determined by its density at

60oF and is independent of temperatuare. Readings of API hydrometers at temperatures other

than 60o F must be corrected for temperature so as to give the value at 60 oF.

Twaddell Scale. The Twaddell scale is used only for liquids heavier than water. Its definition is

as follows:

Degrees Twaddell = 200 (G-1.0)

This scale has the advantage of a simple relationship to specific gravities. Numerous other

scales have been adopted for special industrial uses; for example, the Brix scale measures

directly the concentration of sugar solutions. If the stem of hydrometer graduated in specific-

gravity untis is examined, it is observed that the scale divisions are not uniform. The scale

becomes compressed and crowded together at the lower end. On the other hand, a Baume or

API hydrometer will have uniform scale graduations over the entire length of the stem.

For gases, water is unsatisfactory as a reference material for expressing specific-gravity values

because of its high density in comparison with the density of gas. Therefore, it is conventional

to express specific-gravity values with reference to dry air at the same temperature and pressure

as those of the gas.

Relative density, or specific gravity is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a

substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity usually means relative

density with respect to water. The term "relative density" is often preferred in modern scientific

usage. It is defined as a ratio of density of particular substance with that of water.

If a substance's relative density is less than one then it is less dense than the reference; if greater

than 1 then it is denser than the reference. If the relative density is exactly 1 then the densities are

equal; that is, equal volumes of the two substances have the same mass. If the reference material

is water then a substance with a relative density (or specific gravity) less than 1 will float in

water. For example, an ice cube, with a relative density of about 0.91, will float. A substance

with a relative density greater than 1 will sink.

Form No. AC 04. 00.2016 P. Satya Sagar GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh 4

Temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is

nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Where it is not, it is more usual to specify the density

directly. Temperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry. In British

brewing practice the specific gravity as specified above is multiplied by 1000.[3] Specific gravity

is commonly used in industry as a simple means of obtaining information about the

concentration of solutions of various materials such as brines, sugar solutions (syrups, juices,

honeys, brewers wort, must, etc.) and acids.

Relative density (RD) or specific gravity (SG) is a dimensionless quantity, as it is the ratio of

either densities or weights

where RD is relative density, substance is the density of the substance being measured, and

reference is the density of the reference. (By convention , the Greek letter rho, denotes

density.)

The reference material can be indicated using subscripts: RDsubstance/reference, which means

"the relative density of substance with respect to reference". If the reference is not explicitly

stated then it is normally assumed to be water at 4 C (or, more precisely, 3.98 C, which is the

temperature at which water reaches its maximum density). In SI units, the density of water is

(approximately) 1000 kg/m3 or 1 g/cm3, which makes relative density calculations particularly

convenient: the density of the object only needs to be divided by 1000 or 1, depending on the

units.

The relative density of gases is often measured with respect to dry air at a temperature of 20 C

and a pressure of 101.325 kPa absolute, which has a density of 1.205 kg/m3. Relative density

with respect to air can be obtained by

Where M is the molar mass and the approximately equal sign is used because equality pertains

only if 1 mol of the gas and 1 mol of air occupy the same volume at a given temperature and

pressure i.e. they are both Ideal gases. Ideal behaviour is usually only seen at very low pressure.

For example, one mol of an ideal gas occupies 22.414 L at 0 C and 1 atmosphere whereas

carbon dioxide has a molar volume of 22.259 L under those same conditions.

Form No. AC 04. 00.2016 P. Satya Sagar GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh 5

The temperatures of the two materials may be explicitly stated in the density symbols; for

example:

where the superscript indicates the temperature at which the density of the material is measured,

and the subscript indicates the temperature of the reference substance to which it is compared.

7. Mind Map:

8. Readings:

1. Hougen, Olaf A., and Kenneth M. Watson. "Chemical Process Principles-Part 1: Material

and Energy Blances." (1948).

Form No. AC 04. 00.2016 P. Satya Sagar GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh 6

2. Himmelblau, David Meitner, and James B. Riggs. Basic principles and calculations in

chemical engineering. FT Press, 2012.

3. Bhatt, B. I., and S. M. Vora. Stoichiometry:(si units). Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. Co., 1996.

9. Questions:

Apply:

1) A natural gas has the following composition, all gures being in volumetric per cent:

Methane CH483.5, Ethane C2H612.5, Nitrogen N24.0. Calculate density and specific

gravity of mixture at standard conditions as kg per m3.

10. Key Words:

Baume, hydrometers, American Petroleum Institute (API)Scale, Twaddell scale, Brix

scale

11. Scope for Mini Project

a. Try to solve the above problems in Aspen one

b. Prepare an excel sheet to easy converting obtaining of remaining parameters when two

parameters

Form No. AC 04. 00.2016 P. Satya Sagar GMRIT, Rajam, Andhra Pradesh 7

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