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CONTENT OF DESIGN STANDARD 4S-10.

01

SECTION 1. SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION

2. CODES, STANDARDS AND REFERENCES

3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1 List of Materials
3.2 Shop Drawing
3.3 Performance Tests

4. MATERIALS
4.1 Resins
4.2 Resin Additives
4.3 Glass Fiber Reinforcing Materials
4.4 Synthetic Surfacing Materials
4.5 Resin Paste

5. F.R.P. LAMINATE
5.1 Construction
5.2 Liner
5.2.6 Resin for the Liner
5.3 Structural Laminates
5.3.1 Hand Lay-up Construction
5.3.2 Filament Winding Construction
5.4 Finishing of Outside Surfaces
5.5 Butt Joints
5.5.8 Resin for Joints
5.5.9 Material Supply for Field Joints
5.6 Appearance, Workmanship and Shop Condition

6. DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES

7. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL TEST METHODS


7.1 Hardness
7.2 Glass Content
7.3 Physical Properties for Inner Liner and Contact Molded Laminates
7.4 Properties of Filament Would Structural Laminates
7.5 Hydrostatic Leak Tests

8. REPAIR OF DAMAGED SECTIONS

9. IDENTIFICATION MARKS

10. INSPECTION

11. SHIPPING, HANDLING AND STORAGE

12. F.R.P. FIELD JOINTS - INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 1 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
1. SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION

1.1. This specification governs the manufacture and installation of glass fiber reinforced polyester pipe and
structures (further on referred to as FRP), manufactured by contact molding (hand lay-up and filament
winding) processes.

1.2. The purpose of this specification is to establish minimum acceptable standards for the fabrication and
installation of FRP structures.

1.3. If a fabricator takes exceptions to any requirement of this specification, he shall state so in his tender and
make appropriate alternate proposals.

1.4. Fabricating and installing product to this Standard may require the use of materials and equipment that
could be hazardous. This document does not purport to address all the safety aspects associated with
their use.

Anyone using this Standard has the responsibility to consult with manufacturers of constituent materials
and other appropriate authorities to establish appropriate health and safety practices in conjunction with
any existing applicable regulatory requirements prior to its use.

2. CODES, STANDARDS AND REFERENCES

The following publications are applicable to this Standard.

2.1. Local Codes

2.2. ASTM methods for testing FRP laminates and components:

D635 Flammability D757 Flammability


D638 Tensile Properties D790 Flexural Properties
D648 Heat Distortion D2583 Barcol Hardness
D695 Compression Properties D2584 Ignition Loss (Glass Content)

2.3. Definition of terms for Reinforced Plastics, as published in Section 3 of CAN/CGSB-41.22-93.

3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1. Listing of Materials

Fabricators shall submit, with their quotation, a list of all component materials which they intend to use for
fabrication of the quoted order. This list shall include resins, catalysts, and promoters; ultra-violet light
inhibitors; thixotropic tinting and parting agents, etc.; and all reinforcing materials. It shall state the
manufacturer, and the product's name and identification marks.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 2 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
3.2. Shop Drawing

After receiving an order for fabrication of any FRP product (including pipes, flanges, and fittings), the
fabricator shall submit a fabrication drawing (3 copies), and have it reviewed by the Engineer before
commencing the work. After the drawing has been accepted as satisfactory, one sepia shall be supplied.
Fabrication drawings are required for all FRP products, and shall show dimensions, location of field
joints, spool numbers, wall thickness, laminate construction, and resin systems. Marked-up sepias of
Engineer's drawings are acceptable.

3.3. Performance Tests

3.3.1. The Engineer may request mechanical or chemical tests to be performed by the fabricator, in order to
verify the quality of FRP laminates or structures, and the compliance with the requirements of these
specifications.

3.3.2. Results of tests performed as part of routine quality control programs of either the fabricator or the resin
manufacturer may be acceptable.

3.3.3. The Engineer may select any item of an order for testing, during or after fabrication.

3.3.4. Test procedures shall be specified by the Engineer, and shall be performed as per Section 7 or as per
appropriate ASTM specifications. Other special tests may be agreed upon by the Engineer and the
fabricator.

3.3.5. If test results are within requirements of this specification, the fabricator will be paid the quoted hourly
rates for labor, the quoted unit rates for FRP products, and cost for all auxiliary materials and equipment.

3.3.6. If test results do not meet the requirements of this specification, all costs incurred and all costs for
materials used shall be borne by the fabricator.

3.3.7. If there is any failure of either pipe, flanges, fittings, or joints, the whole order covered by this test shall be
rejected, and no part of it shall be shipped unless two additional tests on materials from that order, again
selected by the Engineer, prove satisfactory.

The two additional tests, including all materials, shall be at the fabricator's expense.

3.3.8. Results of the glass content test described in Section 7.2 shall be submitted to the Engineer, if requested.
Tests shall be made for each type of construction, hand lay-up, and filament winding.

3.3.9. Tests by independent laboratories may be specified by the Engineer at any time. Those costs will be
paid for by the Purchaser directly.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 3 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
4. MATERIALS

4.1. Resins

4.1.1. Type of resin or a particular resin shall conform to that specified on the Piping Classification Sheets or
detail drawings.

4.1.2. Cure systems (catalyst and promoters) shall be as specified or recommended by the resin manufacturer.

4.1.3. When resin has been supplied by its manufacturer with an optimum monomer content for normal use,
styrene or other monomer shall not be added, except for minor adjustments of viscosity. Such additions
shall not normally be more than 5% by weight, and shall be consistent with the resin manufacturer's
recommendations.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 4 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
4.1.4. TABLE FOR ACCEPTABLE RESIN APPLICATIONS

Manufacturer Trade Name Type Description Comment


Resin
Reichhold ATLAC 382 B Bisphenol Fumarates
ATLAC FLEX. BLEND F Bisphenol Fumarates Flexilized
4010 Versions
ATLAC 580 V Vinyl Esters
ATLAC 570 H Various - Hi Heat Resistance
ATLAC 400 I Isophthalic
ATLAC 711 FR Fire Retardant
ATLAC 297 X Speciality Resin

Dow Chemical DERAKANE 411-45 V Vinyl Esters


Company DERAKANE 470-36 H Various - Hi Heat Resistance
DERAKANE 510-A FR Fire Retardant
DERAKANE 510-N H Various - Heat Resistance

Ashlands HETRON 700 B Bisphenol Fumarates


Chemical HETRON 700C F Bisphenol Fumarates Flexilized
(Hooker) Versions
HETRON 901 V Vinyl Esters
HETRON 197 X Specialty Resin
HETRON 92 X Specialty Resin

Koppers DION COR-RES 6694 B Bisphenol Fumarates


Company Inc. DION COR-RES 6695FR FR Fire Retardant
DION COR-RES 7000A F Bisphenol Fumarates Flexilized
Versions

Uniroyal VIBRIN 539 I Isophthalic

Reichold POLYLITE 33-402 I Isophthalic

Rev 1 BASF Palatal A430 Epoxi-


vinylester base Fenol A

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 5 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
Rev 1 BASF Palatal A430 Epoxi-
vinylester base Novolac

Rev 1 BASF Palatal A430FR Epoxi-


vinylester with flame
retardent

Legend: = Resins acceptable due to performance history


= Resins conditionally acceptable due to chemical similarity and resin
fabricators' case histories
Note: Other resins may be considered, if adequate performance can be documented by resin supplier.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 6 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
4.2. Resin Additives

4.2.1. The resin may contain thixotropic agents as required for viscosity control to a maximum of 3% by weight
with prior agreement from the Owner or Engineer.

4.2.2. Pigments, fire retardant agents, or other fillers which interfere with the visual inspection of the laminate
may only be used where specifically authorized in writing by the Engineer.

4.2.3. Ultra-violet light inhibitors shall be used in accordance with the resin manufacturer's recommendations in
all resins for laminates which will be exposed to direct sunlight.

4.3. Glass Fiber Reinforcing Materials

4.3.1. All glass fiber used as reinforcing materials, except surfacing veil, shall be a commercial Grade 'E' type
glass. Glass fiber made from other types of glass are acceptable, if physical and chemical properties are
equal to or better than Grade 'E' type glass.

4.3.2. Surfacing veil used on the surface exposed to chemical attack shall be a commercial Grade 'C' type
glass, unless specified otherwise on Piping Classification Sheets or detail drawings. (See Section 4.4 for
synthetic surfacing materials.)

4.3.3. All glass fibers shall have received a chemical surface treatment immediately after they were formed.
The sizing agent for this surface treatment shall be compatible with the resin to be used. The diameter of
the glass fibers and the sizing agent shall be selected by the manufacturer of the fibers for imparting
optimum properties to the FRP laminates.

4.3.4. Fiberglass reinforcing materials fabricated from these glass fibers shall be designated by the glass fiber
manufacturer as being suitable for the particular fabrication method selected by the FRP manufacturer,
and shall produce laminates with minimum physical properties specified in Section 5.

4.3.5. Continuous rovings shall be flat and untwisted ribbons of parallel untwisted strands of glass fibers, wound
into suitable spools. The number of strands per roving and the yield, expressed as yards of rovings per
pound, may be selected by the FRP manufacturer to suit his application, subject to Clause 4.3.4.

4.3.6. Woven rovings shall be a coarse and loosely woven fabric, produced from rovings of Clause 4.3.5. The
warp and weft of this fabric shall consist of an equal number of equal rovings per unit length. The weight
of the woven rovings fabric shall be 24 oz./sq.yd. 18 oz./sq.yd. woven rovings may be permitted under
special circumstances, if extra drapeability is required. Approval by the Engineer is required before 18
oz. woven rovings may be used.

4.3.7. Chopped strand mat shall be commercially available grade of "High Solubility Mat". It shall consist of a
1 1/2 oz./sq.ft. of chopped strands of glass fiber, 1" to 2" long, arranged in a random pattern and held
together with a resinous binder. This binder shall dissolve quickly in the monomer of the resin and shall
be compatible with the resin of the laminate. The binder shall not affect the glass to resin bond nor allow
liquids to penetrate along fibers into the laminate. It shall not impair the chemical resistance of the resin.
Chopped strands may be produced from either continuous rovings of Clause 4.3.5 or from spun rovings
(single strand looped upon itself and held together with a slight twist).

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 7 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
4.3.8. Surfacing mat (veil) shall consist of continuous glass fibers arranged in a random swirl pattern. The
fibers shall be held together with a resinous binder. The properties of this binder shall be as stated in
Clause 4.3.7. The thickness of the surfacing mat shall be approximately 0.01".

4.3.9. Glass reinforcing materials, not described in Clauses 4.3.5 to 4.3.8, or other weights of those materials
shall not be used unless specified on detail drawings.

4.3.10. Combination reinforcing materials, like woven rovings and chopped strand mat to be applied as one unit,
may only be used with the written permission of the Engineer.

4.3.11. Glass reinforcing materials shall be protected from moisture at all times. Material on which moisture can
be detected, or which are under suspicion of being damp, shall be rejected and may not be used for
fabrication of FRP items.

Once glass reinforcing material has been exposed to moisture and thereby becoming unusable, it cannot
be restored by drying.

To prevent condensation on glass reinforcing materials, they shall be stored in heated buildings or be
heated in vapor-proof bags to ambient workroom temperature.

4.4. Synthetic Surfacing Materials

Surfacing material made from chemical resistant synthetic fibers (such as Dynel, Orlon, Dacron and
Terylene) for use in specific environments may be approved or specified by the Engineer. These
synthetic surfacing materials shall be designed by their producers as being suitable for use with polyester
resins.

4.5. Resin Paste

4.5.1. Type A may be quick setting paste of polyester resin with a suitable filler. This paste may be a
commercially available compound (Carpatch) or may be prepared by the fabricator.

Resin paste Type A may only be used where not exposed to the corrosive environment, such as filling
crevices in butt joints with inside overlay or rounding re-entrant corners on structures or fittings.

4.5.2. Type B shall be used whenever the paste is not sealed within a laminate. This paste shall be prepared
from flexible resins as specified in Clause 5.2.6.

This resin shall be filled with short glass fiber and silica flour to a consistency of a very soft paste. It shall
remain sufficiently liquid for bonding to surfaces in contact with, but it shall not flow out of vertical or
overhead crevices. A small amount of talc or similar material may be added to improve workability.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 8 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
5. FRP LAMINATES

5.1. Construction

All FRP laminates shall have a liner (see 5.2) on surfaces that are exposed to the corrosive environment
and a structural laminate.

The structural laminate may be constructed either by hand lay-up (see 5.3) or by filament winding (see
5.4).

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 9 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 10 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
5.2. Liner (See Fig. 1 and 2)

The requirements of this Section 5.2 shall apply to liners of all FRP laminates, unless specifically
modified on Piping Classification Sheets or detail drawings.

5.2.1. The surface of the liner exposed to the corrosive medium shall be resin rich and reinforced with a
surfacing veil. Its minimum thickness shall be .01".

5.2.2. The liner behind the surface shall have a minimum thickness of 0.10", and shall be reinforced with not
less than 20% and not more than 30% by weight of non-continuous glass fibers. Such reinforcement
shall consist of nominal 3 oz./sq. ft. of chopped strands. Chopped strand mat shall conform to Section
4.3.7; Clause 5.3.1.2 shall also apply to liners.

Other methods of incorporating the chopped strand reinforcement into the laminate may be accepted by
the Engineer, if equivalent uniformity of fiber distribution can be ensured.

5.2.3. The surface of liners to be in contact with the corrosive medium shall cure without being exposed to the
oxygen of the air. They shall be constructed on suitable molds, whenever possible.

5.2.4. The exposed surface shall be free of cracks and crazing and shall have a smooth surface with an
average of not more than 2 pits/sq.ft., provided the pits are less than 1/8" in diameter and 1/32" deep.
Some wrinkles are permissible, provided their surface is smooth and free of pits. See also Clause 5.6.1.

5.2.5. The liner shall be more resilient than the structural laminate, in order to increase impact resistance and to
reduce the occurrence of stress cracks. It shall withstand the elongation of the structural laminate under
five times design pressure, without incurring stress cracks or crazing of its surface.

5.2.6. Resin for the Liner

Unreinforced castings of resin for the liner shall have a minimum elongation of 4% before rupturing, a
o
minimum tensile strength of 9,000 psi, and a heat distortion point lower than 200 F. Agents used for
increasing the flexibility of resin for making it acceptable for liners shall be approved by the resin
manufacturer. The chemical resistance of the resin shall not be impaired.

5.2.7. The initial cure of the liner shall be completed, and it shall have cooled off to below 100F before the
structural laminate may be applied. [Heat developed during cure (exotherm) shall have dissipated.]

5.3. Structural Laminates

After completing the liner (see Section 5.2), the remainder of the wall thickness of FRP laminates shall be
built up to provide sufficient strength to meet the mechanical requirements.

This additional wall thickness may be constructed either by hand lay-up or by filament winding.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 11 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
5.3.1. Hand Lay-up Construction

5.3.1.1. For hand lay-up laminates, alternate layers of chopped strand mat and woven roving shall be added until
the required number of layers have been applied or the required wall thickness has been obtained. The
exterior of all hand lay-up laminates shall consist of a chopped stand mat. Mat and woven rovings shall
be lapped a minimum of 1". All overlaps shall be offset from those in previous layers.

5.3.1.2. Whenever possible, reinforcing materials shall be placed into a layer of liquid resin applied to the mold or
to the laminate already on the mold. The resin shall then be worked with suitable rollers through the
material from below its surface.

5.3.1.3. Glass content shall be between 30% and 50% by weight.

5.3.1.4. Laminates shall meet the mechanical properties of Table A, based on total thickness of laminate,
including liner. A factor of safety of 10 shall be applied for calculating allowable working stresses. (See
Section 7 for test procedures.)

5.3.1.5. Laminates over 3/8" total thickness may be designed on the following basis:

Assume an ultimate strength of 1500 lb./liner inch, in any direction for each layer, consisting of one mat
and one roving. Calculate the required number of mats and rovings for resisting 10 times the design
stress, add the inner liner (when applicable) and a mat on the outside. Inner liner and the cover mat are
assumed not to contribute to the structural strength.

The thickness of such laminate will vary, depending on the glass to resin ratio (see 5.3.1.3).

Therefore, the ultimate tensile strength of these structural laminates will vary approximately 15,000 psi at
30% glass to approximately 25,000 psi at 50% glass content. Flexural strength and tangent modulus
may be used as listed for 3/8" laminates, or as obtained through appropriate test.
o
TABLE A - MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAND LAY-UP LAMINATES AT 73 F

ASTM
PROPERTY AT 73F TEST 3/16" 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" Over 3/8"
SPEC.

Ultimate tensile strength psi See


D638 9,000 12,000 13,500 15,000
minimum 5.3.1.5

See
Flexural strength psi D790 16,000 19,000 20,000 22,000
5.3.1.5

See
Tangent modulus of elasticity psi D790 700,000 800,000 900,000 1,000,000
5.3.1.5

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 12 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
5.3.2. Filament Winding Construction

5.3.2.1. Filament wound structural laminates shall be constructed by saturating continuous rovings in a resin bath,
and then winding these rovings in a controlled pattern on a suitable mold. The rovings shall be applied at
an angle to the axis of the mold. The winding angle shall be selected by the fabricator for obtaining the
desired hoop and longitudinal properties. It shall be uniform throughout the entire length and thickness of
the product. Each cover, or bi-directional layer, shall consist of two complete layers of continuous
rovings. Rovings of each layer shall be placed parallel and close together and should touch each other.
Each layer shall be placed at an equal angle to the axis of the mold, but in opposite direction. The
rovings of these two layers shall be interwoven with each other at frequent and uniform intervals. The
interval shall be selected by the fabricator to suit the dimension of the product. Its maximum length shall
be 6'. The winding pattern of each layer shall be closed when placing the last band of rovings of that
layer. The winding pattern shall be regular and shall produce a dense laminate without unreinforced resin
pockets. The continuous rovings, also called glass filaments, shall be placed at an equal and constant
tension throughout the laminate. A maximum of 10% rovings in a band at the start are permitted to drop
out during the winding process, provided Clauses 5.3.2.3 and 6.2 are satisfied.

5.3.2.2. Filament wound structural laminates shall consist of not less than two covers of two layers of rovings.

5.3.2.3. Glass content shall be between 60% and 70%, by weight.


o o
5.3.2.4. Winding angles shall not be less than 45 and not more than 70 off the horizontal axis.

5.3.2.5. The thickness of a filament wound structural wall shall be designed by the fabricator within the limitations
of Clauses 5.3.2.6 to 5.3.2.9. Fabricators may specify number of covers (bi-directional layers) required in
their design, after they established the thickness and glass content of these covers produced by their
fabrication methods.

5.3.2.6. Filament wound structural laminate is assumed to have a minimum ultimate hoop tensile strength of
o
1,000 psi for each 1% of glass content, and zero psi longitudinal strength when winding angle = 90 .
The strengths available in hoop and longitudinal direction at other winding angles shall be calculated by
these formulas:
2
Hoop tensile strength, in psi = 1,000 x % glass x sin
2
Longitudinal tensile strength, in psi = 1,000 x % glass x cos

Where = the winding angle off the horizontal axis.

A safety factor of 10 shall be applied to these calculated available strengths for obtaining allowable
o
working stresses in tension and compression. At operating temperature above 180 F, working stresses
shall be lowered as required to maintain a safety factor of 10.

5.3.2.7. The longitudinal elongation of pressure vessels due to internal pressure shall not be more than 0.1% at
design stresses.

5.3.2.8. Tensile and flexural module must be obtained and substantiated through appropriate tests, if they are
required for structural design.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 13 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
To estimate the behavior of pipe, a tensile modulus of 2,000,000 psi in hoop direction, and 1,000,000 in
o
longitudinal direction may be assumed for pipe with = 55 and 70% glass.

5.3.2.9. For pipe and pressure vessels, the longitudinal working stress calculated with formulas of Clause 5.3.2.6
shall be equal to or greater than the required minimum longitudinal strength to be calculated by
multiplying the hoop stress at the selected wall thickness and at design pressure with the appropriate
factor in Table B.

TABLE B -RATIO OF REQUIRED MINIMUM LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH TO HOOP STRESS AT


DESIGN PRESSURE

Underground and Above Ground Lines Supported Per Standard 4S-30.03 or 4D-20.10

NOM. PIPE PRESSURE GRAVITY to


50 psi 75 psi 100 psi 125 psi 150 psi
DIAMETER LINES 25 psi

2" 0.5 2.0 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8

3" 0.5 1.5 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

Rev 1 4" to 60" 0.5 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6

5.3.2.10. If a fabricator proposes to deviate from these requirements for filament wound structures, he shall submit
detail engineering data and appropriate test results to the Engineer for evaluation.

5.4. Finishing of Outside Surfaces

5.4.1. All laminate surfaces not in contact with molds shall be coated for prevention of air-inhibition of the
exposed resin surfaces.

5.4.2. Pipe or other laminates to be used for further fabrication shall be cello-finished or shall receive a final
coat of non air-inhibited resin.

5.4.3. Pipe ends to be butt jointed in the field shall be cello-finished for a minimum of 12".

5.4.4. All other laminates surfaces not included above may receive a final coat of waxed resin instead of
finishes as per Clause 5.4.2. Wax shall be added to resin as per resin manufacturer's recommendation.
This waxed resin coat shall be applied during the final stages of the laminating work or during the initial
cure of the laminate, before the exotherm (heat of curing) develops.

If a waxed resin coat is applied after the exotherms have dissipated, heat shall be applied in a suitable
manner to cure this thin resin coat.

5.4.5. Cut edges of laminates, including those to be butt-jointed in the field, shall be sealed with a brush-coat of
non air-inhibited resin.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 14 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
5.4.6. All cut edges of laminates not to be shop or field-jointed shall be rounded off and then brush-coated with
resin specified for inner liner, containing wax as per 5.4.4.

5.5. Butt Joints (Made by Shop Manufacturer)

This type of joint shall be used for joining laminates of FRP structures, including pipe sections and
fittings, unless specified otherwise on drawings or purchase documents.

5.5.1. Laminate ends shall be fitted with a maximum gap of 1/2 the laminate thickness or 1/4", whichever is
smaller.

5.5.2. Surfaces to be overlaid shall be cleaned of parting agents, waxes, curing films, oil, grease, or other
contaminants. Cleaned surfaces shall be ground with suitable grinding equipment for removing surface
resin and resin paste, until glass reinforcing is exposed. Surface shall be roughened, with glass fiber
ends exposed. It shall not appear polished.

5.5.3. Gap between laminates to be joined shall be filled with resin paste (see Section 4.5). Resin paste shall
not protrude on the inside. After the paste has cured, the joint area shall be cleaned again by grinding.
All resin paste spread over the outside shall be removed.

5.5.4. Differences in laminate thickness shall either be ground down to a 10:1 slope or be built up with chopped
strand mat laminate. Resin paste shall not be used for filling of low spots when wall thicknesses differ.

5.5.5. Structural joint laminates shall be constructed with alternate layers of chopped strand mat and woven
roving, in accordance with Section 5.3.1. They shall be as strong as the laminates they join. Their
minimum width and the minimum layers of glass reinforcements shall be as shown in Table C.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 15 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
TABLE C - MINIMUM DIMENSION FOR STRUCTURAL JOINT LAMINATES
LAMINATE WIDTH - W IN INCHES NUMBER OF LAYERS OF GLASS
THICKNESS - T REINFORCING
UP TO 8" TO Over JOINTS ON HAND JOINTS ON FILAMENT
INCHES mm 6" 12" 14" LAY-UP PIPE WOUND PIPE
MAT WR MAT WR
3/16 .188 5 6 6 8 3 1 4 2
1/4 .250 6 6 8 10 4 2 4 2
5/16 .313 8 6 8 12 4 2 5 3
3/8 .375 10 8 10 12 5 3 6 4

7/16 .438 11 8 10 14 5 3 7 5
1/2 .500 13 8 12 14 6 4 9 7
9/16 .563 14 - 12 16 7 5 10 8
5/8 .625 16 - 14 16 8 6 11 9

11/16 .688 17 - 14 16 9 7 12 10
3/4 .750 19 - - 16 10 8 14 12
7/8 .875 22 - - 16 11 9 - -
1 1.000 25 - - 16 12 10 - -
Note: See Section 12 for special requirements of field joints.
5.5.6. All joint laminates shall start with two layers of 6" wide (minimum) chopped strand mat, centered over the
gap (6 joints shall have 4" wide mats). They shall be saturated with resin and thoroughly rolled out with
grooved metal rollers, before proceeding with the remainder of the laminate. Successive layers shall
increase in width to provide the minimum joint width specified in Table C. The additional layers may be of
uniform width. If they are uniform, they shall be placed so as to produce a joint laminate of the required
dimension. The minimum side and end lap of reinforcing layers shall be 4". Laps shall be staggered.
Only mat shall be in contact with cured laminates. All woven rovings shall be separated by mat. The top
layer shall be mat. If a joint laminate has to be constructed in two or more stages, each stage shall begin
and end with a layer of mat. At least one-half of the minimum joint width shall contain layers of woven
roving specified. The balance of the width shall taper smoothly on both sides to a feathered edge. The
center of the joint laminate shall be within 1" of the gap.

5.5.7. Gaps of butt joints on all pipe and structures with a diameter of 24" or more shall be overlaid on the liner
side with a laminate of the same construction as the liner (see Section 5.2). Gaps on a smaller pipe or
structure shall be overlaid whenever accessible. Minimum width of these overlays shall be 4".

5.5.8. Resin for Joints

Structural joint laminate on the outside of pipe or structures and made by the fabricator in his shop may
be made with resins specified for the structural laminate, provided that joint has an inside overlay.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 16 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
All other joint laminates shall be made with resins specified for the liner, unless specified otherwise on
Piping Classification Sheets or detailed drawings.

5.5.9. Material Supply for Field Joints

Fabricators of FRP pipe structures shall supply materials for each butt joint to be made in the field. This
material shall consist of:

a) Glass reinforcing materials, cut to length and width as in Tables A and B in Section 12 FRP Field
Joint & Installation Specifications. Material for each joint shall be packed in a waterproof 6 mil
(minimum) polyethylene bag, and be clearly labeled.

b) Resin at the rate of 2 times the weight of glass reinforcing (see Clause 5.5.8).

c) Bulk supply of promoters (in liquid form).

d) Bulk supply of catalyst (in liquid form).

e) Resin paste (see Section 4.5).

f) Instructions for promoting and catalyzing the resin at the temperature ranges expected during the
3
field installation, expressed in cm (cubic centimeters) per gallon of resin.

g) Priming agents when required (see Clause 5.5.10).

5.5.10. If new laminates have to be jointed to old laminates, the installation contractor shall make the appropriate
bonding test before commencing with the work. If bonds are not satisfactory, appropriate priming agents
shall be used to prepare the old laminates in accordance with recommendation of resin manufacturer.

5.6. Appearance, Workmanship, and Shop Condition

5.6.1. The laminate shall be as free as is commercially practicable from visual defects, such as dry spots, air
bubbles, pin holes, the inclusion of foreign matter, or other signs which may affect the quality of the
laminate. Sample laminates shall be used to establish acceptable limits, before placing an order for FRP
products.

Laminates with stress cracks or crazings will be rejected. See also Clause 5.2.4.

5.6.2. Laminates cured with excessive exotherm (as indicated by opaque discoloration, signs of styrene
evaporation, or brittleness) will be rejected.

5.6.3. A Barcol hardness of at least 90% of the resin manufacturer's minimum specified hardness for cured
resin castings is required before FRP items may leave the fabricator's shop. This applies to liners,
structural laminates, joints, and repair patches.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 17 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
o
5.6.4. Laminates shall be constructed at ambient temperatures of 60 F or above in dry and draft-free work
areas. Laminates shall not be constructed in direct sunlight. After the outside surface has been
completed, as per Section 5.4, sunlight may assist curing laminates.

6. DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES

6.1. Dimensions of FRP structures shall be within 1/8" or 1/2%, or dimension given on fabrication drawings,
whichever is greater.

The inside diameter of pipe shall be within 1/8" or 1% of nominal diameter specified, whichever is
greater. For larger diameter pipe, which may sag under its own weight, the external circumference shall
be measured and shall be within 3% of the calculated nominal circumference.

6.2. Wall thickness 'T' of laminates (see Fig. 1 & 2) shall not be less than the nominal thickness specified by
the fabricator on fabrication drawings. Isolated spots may be accepted which are not less than 80% of
this nominal wall thickness.

The wall thickness 'T' may be larger than the specified nominal thickness, provided all reinforcing
materials are placed as specified, and the glass/resin ratio is within the specified limit.

6.3. Pipe and fittings shall be cut square with the axis of the pipe or fitting within 1/8" up to and including 24"
diameter, and 3/16" for all larger diameters.

7. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL TEST METHODS

7.1. Hardness

The Barcol Impressor (Model GYZJ 934-1) shall be used for determining hardness. Calibration of the
Barcol instrument shall be verified by taking readings on a blank metal specimen of a known hardness.

At least 10 readings on the clean resin rich surfaces of FRP laminates shall be made. After eliminating
the two high and two low readings, the average of the remainder shall be the reported hardness reading.

7.2. Glass Content

7.2.1. Glass content shall be determined on a weight loss by ignition basis.

Sample tested may be the full thickness of the laminate, approximately one (1) square inch in area. Low
temperature pre-ignition prior to placing in a muffle furnace is recommended.

The average results of three samples shall be considered the glass content.

7.2.2. If liner and structural wall cannot be tested separately, the glass content of structural laminates may be
calculated by using the result of tests as per 7.2.1 and assuming a glass content of 25% for the inner
liner. This liner shall be assumed to be .11 inch thick for calculation purposes.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 18 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
7.3. Physical Properties for Inner Liner and Contact Molded Laminates

7.3.1. Whenever possible, physical properties of contact molded laminates shall be tested on specimens taken
at random from laminates of production line items, and ASTM test procedures shall be modified to suite
the shape of these test specimens.

7.3.2. If required, specimens shall be taken from a laminate laid up on a straight surface. It shall have the
same construction and thickness as the laminate whose physical properties are to be tested. The
molded surfaces shall not be machined.

7.3.3. The tensile, compressive, and flexural properties may be determined by using the appropriate ASTM test
procedures.

7.4. Properties of Filament Wound Structural Laminates

7.4.1. The properties of the filament wound structural laminates shall be determined by performing a hydrostatic
burst test on a section of the pipe in question. The length of this section shall be a minimum of five times
the internal diameter. Test pressure shall be increased at a maximum rate of 50 psi/min. Hoop and
longitudinal properties may then be calculated by applying the appropriate formulas:
o
If is 55 or smaller, use: f = Pd/(2t sin2)
o
If is larger than 55 , use: f = Pd/(4t cos2)

d = inside diameter

t = laminate thickness (without inner liner)

P = pressure at burst in psi

= winding angle off horizontal axis

f = stress in filament wall in direction a winding angle at failure in psi. 'f' shall be equal to
or greater than 1,000 psi x % glass content.

7.5. Hydrostatic Leak Tests

7.5.1. A true failure of a filament wound laminate is difficult to obtain, due to premature leaks. Therefore, a leak
test may be substituted for a burst test. The leak test shall be performed on a section with a length of not
less then five times the diameter. The pipe shall be fitted with suitable domed end closures.

7.5.2. To be considered satisfactory, the leak test shall show that the pipe and fitting and joints (if applicable)
will withstand at least five times the design pressure for a period of not less than one hour, without any
leakage occurring. The test pressure shall be increased at maximum rate of 50 psi/min.

7.5.3. After completing a leak test successfully, the pressure shall be relieved and after a 5 minute rest period,
again be increased to failure or to the limit of the pumping equipment.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 19 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
7.5.4. Pipe subjected to this leak test shall not be used in the piping installation.

7.6. Bonding Tests

Bonding tests may be requested by the Engineer at any time when new laminate is added to existing
laminates (secondary lay-ups), either in the fabrication shop or in the field.

Bonding may be verified on full size normal production work like joint lay-ups on piping or other
secondary laminates, or with bond-test laminates.

The minimum dimensions of a bond-test laminate shall be 6" x 6" x 3/8". Such laminates shall be applied
near the joint to be verified, at the same time and with the same batch of resin used for the first lay-up.
After the test laminate did cure, it shall be removed with hammer, chisels and wedges.

If the bonding of a test laminate is unsatisfactory, then the bond of the production laminate shall also be
tested. For field joints, refer to Section 12.5.16.

8. REPAIR OF DAMAGED SECTIONS

8.1. Mechanical damage to FRP pipe or structures with fabrication blemishes may be repaired, if permitted by
the Engineer.

8.2. All repair work shall be performed under dry conditions, with ambient temperature above 60F. At lower
ambient temperatures, suitable heaters shall be used.

8.3. Repair to Inner Liner

Air bubbles, dry spots, stress cracks or any other imperfection of the inner liner shall be overlaid with a
laminate identical to the liner. Stress cracks shall be completely removed by grinding. All other
imperfections may be overlaid after grinding the surface only. Repair patches shall be at least 2" larger
all around than the imperfection, and cello-finish must always be done.

In case of major damage, that section of pipe shall be replaced using two butt & strap joints. Repair of
damages to other FRP structures shall be discussed with the Engineer.

8.4. Repair to Structural Laminate

Only very minor damage to structural laminates may be patched. Mechanical damages to the structural
laminate of pipe or fittings shall be repaired with an overlay all around the pipe. Similar as specified for
butt joints in Section 5.5.

9. IDENTIFICATION MARKS

9.1. All FRP items shall have visible and durable identification tags. This tag shall be overlaid with one (1)
layer of chopped strand mat.

9.2. Identification tags shall show the following information:

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 20 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
a) Fabricator's name

b) Name of resin or resins used

c) Design pressure rating

d) Line number and spool number for fabricated piping systems, or equipment number

10. INSPECTION

10.1. Access

The fabricator shall allow the Engineer or his Agent free access to the work involving any phase of the
manufacture of the pipe, structures, or their components for the purpose of assuring compliance with this
specification and/or conditions contained in the Purchase Order for which the pipe or components are
manufactured.

10.2. The Engineer or his Agent shall be permitted to take any FRP laminates, component materials, or spool
pieces from the fabricator's premises for testing in outside laboratories. Payment shall be in accordance
with Section 3.3.

10.3. Notification

The fabricator shall notify the Engineer 7 days in advance or a proposed shipment of an FRP order, or
part of it.

No FRP order or part of it shall be shipped without having been cleared for shipment by the Engineer.

10.4. Acceptance

A clearance for shipment shall not be construed as an unconditional acceptance for the FRP order. The
fabricator's performance guarantees as to quality of materials and workmanship, and dimensional
conformity with drawings shall not be affected.

11. SHIPPING, HANDLING AND STORAGE

11.1. FRP structures shall be suitably protected from damage in storage, during shipping, and when handling.

11.2. Spooled section of pipe shall have flange faces suitably protected.

11.3. When nesting pipes of varying diameters for shipping, the liner of the receiving pipe shall be protected.
Scratch marks on the inner liner are not permissible. When nesting pipes, the pipes which are placed
inside other pipes must first be wrapped with 12" long bands of 1/4" thick foam plastic, taped in place, at
6' intervals.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 21 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
Large diameter pipes, tanks, etc. shall be internally braced with spiders (at least 6 spokes). All spider
spokes shall rest against pieces of plywood which shall rest against pieces of plywood which, in turn, rest
on styrene foam or equal. Frequency of spider placement depends on the wall thickness of the laminate
and shall be determined by the Engineer.

The method of strapping on the truck shall be such that no point loading will occur. Use proper dunnage.

11.4. FRP pipe and structures shall be off-loaded with suitable lifting equipment. Rolling or dumping off trucks
shall not be permitted.

11.5. Pipe, fittings, or structures which arrive in the field with apparent damage shall not be installed, unless
instructed by the Engineer. Damages shall be repaired as specified in Section 12.7.

11.6. Fabricator shall be liable for any shipping damage.

12. FRP FIELD JOINTS - INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION

12.1. Scope

This specification covers the installation of FRP butt and strap joints, and other FRP laminates made in
the field during installation of FRP piping and structures. It is not applicable to FRP laminates made by
fabricators in their shops. (For shop joints, see Section 5.5.)

12.2. Codes and Standards

Local safety codes and standards having jurisdiction over any part of the work shall apply.

12.3. Protection of Working Area

The curing of FRP laminates and their bond to existing laminates is affected by temperature and
humidity. Polyester resins are poor adhesives. New resins do not react with cured resins of the old
laminates. New resins do bond to the millions of treated glass fibers of the old laminate, which are
exposed by proper grinding. However, glass fibers are hydrophillic. They absorb water from humid air.
Resins will not bond to damp glass. To ensure good bonding of field joints, the working area shall be
protected or improved as specified. Colder temperatures make field jointing more difficult. Refer to
Clause 12.3.6.

12.3.1. Whenever possible, field joints shall be made in heated and ventilated building.

12.3.2. If field joints have to be made outside, they shall be made under suitable covers to provide shade during
sunny periods, and to protect the work against possible rain showers.

12.3.3. When the relative humidity is 70% or higher, field joints shall be made inside a protective enclosure. This
enclosure shall be heated until the relative humidity has decreased to 60% or less.

FRP field jointing is not permitted when the relative humidity in the working area is 70% or over.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 22 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
However, under special circumstances, the Engineer may specify additional requirements for working in
humid environment and ask the contractor to proceed with the work.

12.3.4. Excavations for field joints on underground pipelines shall be kept free of standing water. If evaporating
moisture raises the relative humidity in the excavation above 70%, the bottom of the excavation inside
the protective enclosure shall be covered with polyethylene sheets and Clause 12.3.3 shall apply.
o
12.3.5. When the air temperature is less than 5 F above the dew point, Clause 12.3.3 shall apply.
o
12.3.6. Field jointing in temperatures below 60 F is permitted, provided Clauses 12.3.3 and 12.3.5 are adhered
to, and provided the contractor has adequate curing chemicals on hand for promoting and catalyzing the
resin as specified by the resin supplier for cold weather work. In addition, the contractor must have
adequate and suitable heating equipment available. See also Clause 12.3.8.

Note: This viscosity of resin increases in cold weather. More viscous resins tend to make joint
laminates too resin rich. Resin rich laminates tend to sag off the pipe when the resin heats up
due to the curing process.

12.3.7. Glass reinforcing material shall be protected from moisture at all times. They shall be kept in their
polyethylene bags until used for lay-ups. The temperature of glass reinforcing kits shall be equal to or
warmer than the air temperature in the working area, before polyethylene bags may be opened.

12.3.8. Electric resistance heaters, and especially infra-red heat lamps, have proven to be the most suitable
source of heat for FRP field jointing. Combustion type heaters (Salamanders) are permitted, provided all
exhaust gasses are vented to the outside of the protective enclosure.

12.3.9. When working inside buildings, the contractor shall avoid spreading the grinding dust onto equipment or
into other working areas.

12.4. Preparation of Pipe Ends

12.4.1. Pipe ends shall be fitted to each other with a maximum gap of 1/4". After fitting, exposed glass on the
edges shall be brush coated with hot resin (see Clause 12.5.11).

12.4.2. Thin wall pipe, 20" or larger, shall be aligned with each other and fixed in place by inserting a suitable
expandable device. This alignment device shall hold the inside diameters concentric and provide a
backing for the gap between the pipe ends all around the circumference. The device shall be removed
after the joint is completed.

12.4.3. Pipe 18" or smaller, and pipe of adequate stiffness to retain its shape, may be held in place by external
means or may be secured with hot patches (see Clause 12.5.11). The inside diameters shall be
concentric.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 23 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
12.4.4. Pipe ends shall be cleaned by grinding with a coarse disc (#16 grit) in a power grinder for the width of the
joint lay-up plus 4", equally spaced on either side of the gap. This grinding operation shall remove all
contamination and unreinforced resin from the surface, and shall expose the glass reinforcing of the pipe
laminate. High edges caused by differences in wall thickness shall be ground off to 8:1 slope (see also
Clause 12.4.7). Ensure grinding discs remain clean. Discs contaminated with uncured resin, wax and
others shall be replaced.

Note: Oil or grease on pipe ends shall be removed by washing with solvent or detergent. Wet pipe
ends shall be thoroughly dried before grinding may commence. Dried soil (mud) and wax
coating may be removed by grinding.

12.4.5. Pipe ends may be ground in advance of fitting and installing the pipes, provided the ends can be kept dry.
During storage, all pre-ground pipe ends shall be covered with plastic bags secured with masking tape.
The maximum permissible interval between pre-grinding and lay-up of the field joint depends on the
prevailing weather conditions. It should not exceed 24 hours unless permitted by the Engineer.

12.4.6. When pipes are cleaned and secured in place, the gap between ends shall be cleaned of grinding dust
with a clean dry brush. Do not use compressed air. The clean gap shall be filled with resin paste (putty).
Resin paste Type A may be used, if an inside lay-up will be made. All gaps on joints without an inside
lay-up shall be filled with resin paste Type B.

12.4.7. Resin paste shall not be used as filler when wall thicknesses differ. All fillers between pipe and joint shall
consist of laminates, reinforced with chopped strand mat. The only resin paste permitted between old
and new laminate is an 1/2" maximum radius filler in the root of three-way fittings. Filler laminates shall
have cured and the exotherms shall have dissipated, before the joint laminate may be applied.

12.5. Lay-Up of Field Joint

12.5.1. After the resin paste is cured and immediately before commencing the lay-up of the joint laminate, the
pipe ends shall be cleaned again by lightly grinding the entire area under the first lay-up. This grinding
shall remove all resin smears, finger marks, soil stains, or other contaminates from the pipe walls. This
touch-up grinding shall also remove glass fibers which may have absorbed water from the air since the
major grinding of Clause 12.4.4. Clean glass fibers exposed by grinding with a coarse and clean disc is
the best assurance for a good bond. Wiping with acetone or any other liquid is not permitted.

12.5.2. The grinding dust shall be brushed off with a clean dry brush. Do not blow dust off with compressed air.
The grinding dust shall be completely dry and fall off the brush while brushing. If a damp pipe surface or
high humidity causes the dust to cake and to cling to the bristles, then the joint lay-up work shall be
terminated. (See Clauses 12.3.3., 12.3.4, and 12.3.5.)

12.5.3. The cleaned joint area shall be brush-coated with a thin layer of resin for 6" either side of the gap, and the
first lay-up of the joint shall then be applied.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 24 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
12.5.4. Joint laminates shall be started by applying 2 chopped strand mats centered over the gap between the
pipe ends. These mats shall be well wetted out with resin and thoroughly rolled out with grooved steel
rollers. When all air bubbles within the mats and between pipe and mats have been removed, the
balance of the laminate shall be applied in alternate layers of woven roving and mat, ending with a layer
of mat. Woven roving shall never be in contact with pipe or cured laminates. The technique of applying
the laminates depends on the preference of the contractor, provided the resulting joint is of acceptable
quality.

However, if a joint consists of a single lay-up only, all rovings shall be applied to the pipe in full length and
one layer at a time. Ends shall be staggered. One mat may be applied together with each roving.

12.5.5. The joint laminate shall be uniformly wetted out without dry spots or resin rich areas. It shall be shaped
smoothly, and of uniform thickness; and contain 30% to 50% glass reinforcing, and 70% to 50% resin, by
weight. Air bubbles within the laminate or between pipe and laminate are not permitted. Joints in the
woven roving reinforcing shall overlap a minimum of 4" and shall be staggered.

Note: The amount of glass in a field joint is fixed by Tables D and E.

When the glass content is 50%, then the weight or resin is equal to the weight of glass. When the
MEASURED glass content is low, then the amount of glass shall still be as specified by Tables D
and E; but, the laminate contains more resin than required. If the measured glass content is 30%,
then the laminate contains resin 2.33 times the weight of the glass. Laminates with 30% glass
are significantly thicker than laminates with 50% glass content.

12.5.6. Each lay-up shall consist of a minimum of 4 mats and 3 woven rovings. The maximum thickness per lay-
up shall be 7 mats and 4 rovings. The first lay-up shall have a minimum of 5 mats and 3 rovings. The
total number of mats and rovings to be used for various pipe sizes and pressure rating are listed below in
Tables D and E. Field joint kits supplied by FRP fabricators shall be checked and adjusted to comply
with this tabulation, if necessary.

Note: Glass reinforcements are supplied in lengths equal to the circumference of the pipe, plus overlap.
Reinforcing for larger pipes are rather long. To facilitate installation, reinforcing for pipe 24" and
larger may be cut into two equal lengths, provided the cut sections overlap a minimum of 3" each.
Cutting reinforcing into more than two sections is not permitted.

12.5.7. After the first lay-up has cured and the exotherms (heat produced while resin is curing) have dissipated,
the other lay-ups shall be completed in a similar manner as the first one. Before each new lay-up, the old
laminate under the increased width of the next lay-up shall be prepared as noted in Clause 12.5.1.
Unreinforced resin smears and other contaminates shall be removed by touch-up grinding. Grinding of
the first lay-up is not required, if its surface is clean and smooth, well cured and the second lay-up is
started with one hour after the first one is cured. Grinding dust shall be brushed off. All ground surfaces
of pipe and previous lay-up shall be brush coated with resin. The joint shall then be completed in the
sequences and to the dimensions shown on Table E.

12.5.8. If it seems likely that the next lay-up of a joint cannot be started within the next 2 hours, the fresh
laminate may be wrapped tightly with cellophane or similar material to prevent contamination and air
inhibition of the surface resin. Before commencing the next lay-up, the surface gloss, gross irregularities,
and unreinforced resin smears on each side of the laminates shall be removed by grinding.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 25 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
12.5.9. Field joints and all ground areas near the joints shall be brush coated with waxed resins during the initial
cure of the last lay-up.

12.5.10. The pot life of resin for field joints shall be between 25 and 35 minutes. Pot life is the time the resin
remains usable after adding the catalyst. The pot life shall be adjusted by varying the ratio of resin and
curing chemicals as required by prevailing temperatures in accordance with recommendations by the
resin manufacturer. The recommended minimum ratio of catalyst shall be maintained at all times. If the
pot life is still too short at the minimum catalyst ratio, the contractor shall obtain advice from the fabricator
of the FRP pipe or from the Engineer.

12.5.11. Resin for brush coating cut edges or for hot patches shall have a pot life of 5 to 10 minutes.

12.5.12. Laminates which cannot be completed and properly rolled out with grooved steel rollers before the resin
commences gelling, shall be removed from the pipe while the resin is still soft. The pipe shall then be
cleaned and prepared again as noted in Clause 12.4.4, and a new lay-up shall be made. Lay-ups with
less than the number of glass reinforcing specified shall not be permitted.

12.5.13. If resin in a laminate does not gel within 60 minutes, or its cure is not substantially complete within
2 hours of adding the catalyst, the contractor shall apply heat. The laminate shall be kept heated until its
cure is completed. Laminates not cured satisfactorily after 24 hours shall be removed from the pipe and
redone.

12.5.14. Laminates cured with excessive exotherms and which show evidence of brittleness or pinholes shall be
removed and redone.

12.5.15. The cost of remedial work noted under Clauses12.5.12, 12.5.13, and 12.5.14, including the cost of new
materials, shall be to the contractor's account.

12.5.16. The Engineer may, at any time, ask the contractor to remove a completed or partially completed field joint
from the pipe. If the bond between pipe and joint is satisfactory, and if the joint laminate is of an
acceptable quality, the contractor will get reimbursed for the cost of removing the joint and replacing it. If
either the bond or the quality of the laminate is not acceptable, the contractor shall remove additional
joints as instructed by the Engineer. The cost of removal and of all remedial work shall then be to the
contractor's account.

12.6. Inside Lay-Ups

Field joints on piping made as specified in this Section 12 do NOT require inside joint lay-ups. Inside
joints shall not be made unless specified on drawings by the Engineer.

All laminating work inside pipes or other confined spaces shall be subject to Clause 12.7.2.

12.7. Repair of Damaged FRP Structures

12.7.1. The intent of these instructions is to prevent crews with inadequate training or without appropriate
equipment from working in confined spaces with potentially harmful materials.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 26 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
12.7.2. All repairs inside the vessels and repairs inside of pipes more than 30' from the open end shall be
performed by trained crews from an experienced fabricator and with appropriate safety precautions.

12.7.3. Repair of Structural Wall

12.7.3.1. Minor damage may be repaired with outside overlays equal in thickness and reinforcing as specified for
field joints. The overlay shall extend a minimum of 6" all around the damaged areas.

12.7.3.2. Major damage and damage with cracked liner shall be cut out and replaced with a section of pipe and
two field joints. If the damage is 3" or less in length, a patch of 3RW+5M over the damage, a minimum of
6" all around, plus a standard field joint are the minimum repair.

12.7.4. Repair of Corrosion Liner of Pipe

12.7.4.1. Prior to installation and while both ends of the pipe section are still open, damaged liners in large pieces
shall be repaired with an inside overlay at least equal to the liner.

12.7.4.2. After pipe is in the trench and jointed to other pipe lengths, Clause 12.7.2 shall apply. When trained
crews are not available, repair damaged liners from the outside as specified in Clause 12.7.3.2.

13.0 Demoulding material

Rev 1 All demoulding material must be water soluble in order to avoid process contamination.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 27 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
TABLE D - TYPE OF LAY-UPS FOR DIAMETER AND PRESSURE RATING

See Table E for lay-up details

PRESSURE RATING

DIA. GRAVITY 50 psi 100 psi 150 psi

2" 50 mm TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 1


3" 75 TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 1
4" 100 TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 1

6" 150 TYPE 1 TYPE 1 TYPE 1 + 2 TYPE 1 + 2


8" 200 TYPE 2 TYPE 1 + 2 TYPE 1 + 2 TYPE 1 + 2
10" 250 TYPE 2 TYPE 1 + 2 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3

12" 300 TYPE 2 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3


14" 350 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3
16" 400 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3

18" 450 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3


20" 500 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3
22" 550 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3

24" 600 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3


30" 750 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3*
36" 900 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1 + 2 + 3 T 1 + 2 + 3 + 4*

42" 1050 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 2 + 3 + 4* T 2 + 3 + 3 + 4*


48" 1200 TYPE 2 + 3 TYPE 1+2+3 TYPE 2 + 3 + 4* T 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4*
54" Rev. 1 1400 TYPE 2 + 3

Note: Joints marked thus *, shall be designed by the fabricator to suit the particular installation.

Joint design shall be approved by the Engineer.

If expert guidance is not available, then the combinations marked thus * are the minimum
requirements.

MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 28 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE
MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION SPECIFICATION FOR FRP STRUCTURES

DESIGN STANDARD
4S-10.01 1
ISSUED FOR P-2569 CMPC
PROJECT NO. LAJA MILL MODERNIZATION SHEET 29 OF 28 Rev.

PROJ. DATE OF
APPR. P. Healy ISSUE 20Feb2009

DEPT. GENERIC
APPR. I.G. Lorimer APPR. 22Feb2001
DATE