You are on page 1of 33

Sohar Refinery Expansion Project

Document Title: Document No. Rev:


Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

Table of Contents
Contents Page

1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 4


1.1 SCOPE...................................................................................................................................... 4
2.0 DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................................................................... 4
3.0 REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................................... 4
4.0 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 4
4.1 SPECIFICATIONS..................................................................................................................... 4
4.2 BRITISH STANDARDS ............................................................................................................. 5
4.3 AMERICAN CODES/STANDARDS ........................................................................................... 5
4.4 OTHER (AS REQUIRED) .......................................................................................................... 6
4.5 STANDARD DRAWINGS .......................................................................................................... 6
5.0 UNITS ................................................................................................................................................. 7
6.0 SITE CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................................. 7
7.0 MATERIALS........................................................................................................................................ 8
7.1 CONCRETE .............................................................................................................................. 8
7.2 REINFORCING STEEL ............................................................................................................. 8
7.3 CONCRETE PROTECTION....................................................................................................... 8
7.4 STRUCTURAL STEEL AND STEEL PIPE ............................................................................... 8
7.5 GROUT ..................................................................................................................................... 8
8.0 DESIGN PARAMETERS ..................................................................................................................... 9
8.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................. 9
8.2 LOADING COMPONENTS ........................................................................................................ 9
8.3 DESIGN LOADS ....................................................................................................................... 9
8.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS .......................................................................................................... 12
8.5 DESIGN STRESSES ............................................................................................................... 13
8.6 ALLOWABLE DEFLECTIONS AND DISPLACEMENTS ......................................................... 13
8.7 SLENDERNESS...................................................................................................................... 14
8.8 PIPE RACK DESIGN............................................................................................................... 14
8.9 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR HEAVY MACHINERY ............................................................... 17
8.10 BLAST RESILIENT AND BLAST RESISTANT DESIGN ......................................................... 18
9.0 DESIGN STANDARDS-GENERAL .................................................................................................... 21
9.1 MINIMUM OVERHEAD CLEARANCES (NET) ........................................................................ 21
10.0 DESIGN STANDARDS STRUCTURAL STEEL .............................................................................. 21
10.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................... 21
10.2 PLATFORMS AND WALKWAYS ............................................................................................ 21
10.3 STAIRWAYS ........................................................................................................................... 23
10.4 HAND-RAILING ...................................................................................................................... 23
10.5 FLOORING ............................................................................................................................. 23
10.6 TROLLEY BEAMS AND CRANE WAYS ................................................................................. 24
10.7 STRUCTURES ........................................................................................................................ 24
10.8 HOT-DIP GALVANIZED MATERIALS ..................................................................................... 24
11.0 DESIGN STANDARDS CONCRETE .............................................................................................. 25
11.1 ELEVATIONS OF FOUNDATIONS ......................................................................................... 25
11.2 CONCRETE COVER ............................................................................................................... 25
11.3 SPACING OF BARS ............................................................................................................... 25
11.4 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS ...................................................................................................... 26
11.5 EXPANSION JOINTS AND WATER STOPS ........................................................................... 26
11.6 ANCHOR BOLTS .................................................................................................................... 27

Page 2 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

11.7 OTHER INSERTED AND EMBEDDED ITEMS ........................................................................ 27


11.8 GROUTING OF STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT................................................................. 27
11.9 SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF CONCRETE ......................................................................... 28
11.10 CRACK WIDTH CONTROL ..................................................................................................... 28
11.11 FOUNDATION DESIGN .......................................................................................................... 28
11.12 SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES ..................................................................... 28
APPENDIX A LOAD COMBINATIONS..................................................................................................... 30
APPENDIX B CONCRETE WORK STANDARD DRAWINGS................................................................... 32
APPENDIX C STRUCTURAL STEEL STANDARD DRAWINGS .............................................................. 33

Page 3 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 SCOPE
This specification covers the minimum requirements for the design of steel structures and concrete
foundations and structures, e.g. equipment supporting structures, pipe racks, platforms and buildings
(defined as a closed concrete or steel structure).

2.0 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this specification, the following definitions shall hold:
Term Definition
CLIENT : Oman Refineries and Petrochemicals Company LLC.

CONSULTANT : Private or Public entity that provides the Services to the Client
under the Contract for this project.

CONTRACTOR : Private or Public entity responsible for Detailed Engineering and


design, Procurement, Construction and (pre-) Commissioning of
this project.

SUB-CONTRACTOR: Person or entity to whom/which the Contractor subcontracts any


part of the Services.
Shall: Is to be understood as mandatory.
Should: Is to be understood as strongly recommended.
May be: Is to be understood as giving a freedom of choice.

3.0 REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS


The work covered in this specification shall comply with all relevant governmental and local laws,
specifications, regulations and standards.
For subjects not covered by regulations, codes and standards or specifications, the design, material,
fabrication and erection shall be based on good economical engineering practice, subject to approval
by CLIENT.

4.0 REFERENCES
The following specifications, codes (including applicable addenda) and standards shall constitute the
minimum requirements for this specification. The latest edition of codes, standards, etc., shall be used.

4.1 SPECIFICATIONS

S-000-5320-002 Specification for Concrete Materials and Construction


Specification for Buildings (Minimum Design Requirements for
S-000-5340-001
Architectural Work)
Specification for Structural Steelwork (Materials, Fabrication and
S-000-5330-001
Erection)

Page 4 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

S-000-5317-001 Specification for Roads and Yard Paving


S-000-53B0-001 Specification for Fireproofing
S-000-5314-001 Specification for Piling
S-000-5312-002 Specification for Earth Works

4.2 BRITISH STANDARDS

BS 4 - Part 1 (2005) Structural Steel Sections - Specification for Hot Rolled Sections
BS EN 1993 (2005) Design of Steel structures - Eurocode 3
Design of Steel structures - Crane Supporting Structures-
BS EN 1993-6 (2007)
Eurocode 3
BS EN 1996 (2006) Design of Masonry Structures - Eurocode 6
BS 5744 (1979) Code of Practice for Safe Use of Cranes
BS EN 1991 (2005) Actions on Structures Eurocode 1
BS EN 1997 (2004) Geotechnical Design Eurocode 7
Design of Concrete Structures Liquid Retaining and Containing
BS EN 1992-3 (2006)
Structures Eurocode 2
BS EN 1992-1 & 2 (2004) Design of Concrete Structures Eurocode 2
BS EN 10025-2 (2004) Hot Rolled Products of Structural Steels-Part 2
Code of Practice for Foundations for Machinery - Foundations for
CP 2012 1 (1974)
reciprocating machines

4.3 AMERICAN CODES/STANDARDS

UBC Volume 2 (1997) Uniform Building Code-Volume 2: Structural Engineering Design


Provisions
AISC 325 (2005) Manual of Steel Construction (Allowable Stress Design) 13th
Edition
AISC 326 (2002) Detailing for Steel Construction
AISC 360 (2010) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
nd
AWS D1.1 (2010) Structural Welding Code Steel (22 Edition)
AASHTO GDPS (1993) + Supp. Guide for Design of Pavement Structures Revision 4
(998)
ANSI/ASCE 7 (2010) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
ASCE 41088 (2010) Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities
ASTM A35/35M (2010) Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped,
Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
ASTM A36/36M (2008) Standard Specification for Carbon Structural steel
ASTM A185 (2006) Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain for
Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A307 (2010) Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60000
PSI Tensile Strength

Page 5 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

ASTM A615/615M (2006) Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon Steel Bars
for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A775/775M (2006) Standard Specification for Epoxy-coated Reinforcing Steel Bars
ASTM A884/884M (2006) Standard Specification for Epoxy-coated Steel Wire and Welded
Wire Reinforcement
ANSI/API Specification 5L Specification for Line Pipe
(2007)
ACI 301 (2010) Specification for Structural Concrete
ACI 318/318M (2008) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
ACI 306R (2010) Guide to Hot Weather Concreting
ACI 350R (2001) Environmental Engineering for Concrete Structures
ACI 543R (R 2005) Design, Manufacture and Installation of Concrete Piles

4.4 OTHER (AS REQUIRED)

IBC 2009 International Building Code


BRE EP88 (2008) Concrete Durability: Achievement and Enhancement
Oman Highway Design Manual Ministry of Transportation and Communication - Sultanate of
Oman
General Specification for Roads Ministry of Transportation and Communication - Sultanate of
Oman
Building Regulation Document Requirements for Site planning and Architectural Detailing
No. 48/2000 Requirements for the Rest of Oman

4.5 STANDARD DRAWINGS


For Civil/Structural design details see applicable standard drawings as listed in appendix B and C

4.6 In case of conflict between above-mentioned codes and standards and this specification,
CONTRACTOR shall inform CLIENT, who will advise.

Page 6 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

5.0 UNITS
Units shall be in accordance with the metric (SI) system:

Elevations : meter (m).

Dimensions : millimeter (mm).

Force : kilo Newton (kN).

Mass : kilogram (kg).

Moment : kilo Newton meter (kNm).

Stress : Newton/mm (N/mm) or mega Pascal (MPa).

Pressure : kiloPascal (kPa)

Loadings : kiloNewton/m (kN/m).

Pipe size (for e.g. davits) measurements shall be to the ANSI (American National Standards
Institute).

For simplification purposes, one (1) kg weight may be taken as equal to 10 N (0.010 kN).

6.0 SITE CONDITIONS


For general physical and design data, reference is made to applicable geotechnical investigation report
on soil investigation and foundation advice, document D-000-5311-003
Any additional geotechnical information and/or advice required by the CONTRACTOR to carry out the
WORK shall be obtained by the CONTRACTOR.

Page 7 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

7.0 MATERIALS

7.1 CONCRETE
All structural concrete shall be Grade 30, with a characteristic compressive strength of 30MPa (cylinder
based) after twenty-eight (28) days, except where otherwise specified herein or on the design
drawings.
Concrete strength shall be in accordance with ACI 318/318M (2008).
Proposed concrete mix:
Final mix to be established by CONTRACTOR
Concrete mix type
Grade-A Grade-B Grade-C
Type of  Elevated structures  Fireproofing  Leveling Concrete
structures  Piles
 Equipment Foundation
 Pits
 Paving
 Open ditches
 Slope protection
Specified
compressive
30.0MPa 30.0MPa 14.0MPa
strength of
1)
concrete, fc
Water Cement
0.42 0.45 - -
Ratio
Minimum
cement weight 370 - -
3
(kg/m )
Note 1) Compressive strength shall be that by cylinder specimen at 28 days.

7.2 REINFORCING STEEL


Reinforcement steel shall be deformed high yield bars Grade 60 as ASTM A615/615M.
Reinforcing steel shall be fusion bonded epoxy-coated in accordance with ASTM A775/775M except for
items under high temperature such as sulfur pits.
Reinforcement of welded steel wire fabric shall be as per ASTM A185.
Welded mesh reinforcement shall be fusion bonded epoxy-coated in accordance with ASTM
A884/884M.

7.3 CONCRETE PROTECTION


All concrete surfaces which directly are exposed to earth shall be protected against sulfate and chloride
attacks.

7.4 STRUCTURAL STEEL AND STEEL PIPE


All design of structural plate (including open grating and raised pattern plate), shapes, bars and hollow
sections shall be steel in accordance with ASTM A36/36M, BS EN 10025 S275
All structural pipe shall be Steel pipes shall be seamless and comply with ASTM A53-Gr. B

7.5 GROUT
All grout shall be high strength cement based non-shrink flow grout.

Page 8 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

Epoxy grout shall only be applied when specified by equipment vendors/manufacturers (e.g. for rotating
equipment).

8.0 DESIGN PARAMETERS

8.1 GENERAL
The design shall be based on the codes and standards as stipulated in Section 4.0 of this specification.
The design shall be checked against the various combinations indicated in APPENDIX A of this
specification, with the following components:

8.2 LOADING COMPONENTS


a. = Weight of structure, including flooring (dead load)
b. = Weight of apparatus, machinery
c. = Empty weight } Voluminous
d. = Operating load } equipment,
e. = Hydrostatic test load } piping, etc.
f. = Exchanger bundle pull force.
g. = Thermal loads
h. = Crane loads and movable loads
i. = Live loads
j. = Wind loads
k. = Earthquake loads (not applicable)
l. = Other loads

8.3 DESIGN LOADS

8.3.1 Apparatus, Machinery (b)


The weight of equipment containing minor content, such as pumps, compressors, motors, etc., shall
be derived as far as possible from manufacturer's data and shall include controls, auxiliary machinery,
piping, etc.

8.3.2 Voluminous Equipment (c, d, e)


The weight of equipment containing major content, such as vessels, columns, heat exchangers,
condensers, settlers, filters and the like, complete with their piping.
In accordance with the various load combinations for the category of equipment, the following
weights/loads shall be considered in the calculations.
i. Empty Weight (c)
This is the dead weight of vessels, columns, etc., completely installed (including platforms and
ladders, piping, insulation and fireproofing) and ready for operation, however, without liquid filling.
Weights shall be derived from manufacturer's data.
ii. Operating Load (d)
This is the empty weight plus the weight of the maximum contents, including catalyst (when
applicable) of vessels, columns, etc., which will apply during operation of the plant.

Page 9 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

iii. Hydrostatic Test Load (e)


When hydrostatic pressure testing of equipment is required at site, the empty weight of this
equipment and the weight of the test medium shall be considered in the design of the supporting
structure; only one system is assumed to be tested at the same time.
iv. Exchanger Loadings (c, d, e)
When exchangers are located on structures, the supports shall be designed for vertical and
horizontal forces (bundle pulling forces or friction forces, see paragraph 8.3.3.
Weight distribution over two (2) saddles of an exchanger shall normally be as follows:
Exchanger Type Channel Side Shell Side

Floating head type 60% 40%


Fixed tube sheet type 50% 50%
Kettle type 45% 55%
U-tube and other types 67% 33%

Beams/Frames under exchangers and horizontal vessels, both saddles shall be supported on
identical beams with equal settlements/deflections.

8.3.3 Exchanger Bundle Pull Force (f)


When tube bundles of exchangers are removable (by means of mobile equipment or deadmen), the
beams and/or frames used to support the fixed end of the exchanger shall be designed for a horizontal
bundle pull force equal to:
Bundle Weight (BW) Horizontal Bundle Pull Force (H)
BW 50 kN H = BW
50 kN BW 100 kN H = 50 kN
BW 100 kN H = 0.5 BW
When several exchangers are stacked, only one bundle will be assumed to be pulled at a time.
Bundle pulling force is not applicable when bundles are pulled by means of a mechanical device, which
acts on the principle of equilibrium of forces (no forces on the support structure).
The assumed weight distribution and bundle pulling force should be checked against manufactor's
recommendations and adjusted, if required.

8.3.4 Thermal Loads (during Operation Conditions) (g)


When thermal loads (such as produced by temperature changes in piping, equipment and structures)
results in friction between equipment and supports (exchangers) or piping and supports, the friction
force shall be taken as the operating load on the support multiplied by the applicable friction coefficient
given below:
Surfaces Friction Coefficient
PTFE to PTFE (Teflon) 0.08*
Stainless steel to PTFE 0.10
Steel to PTFE 0.15
Steel to steel 0.30
Concrete to steel 0.45
Note: * = At a minimum compressive stress of 3.5 N/mm.

Page 10 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

8.3.5 Moving Loads (h)


Moving loads such as cranes and vehicles shall be incorporated for their vertical loads as well as
horizontal loads caused by braking or acceleration.
The design load for structures handling moving loads shall include an impact allowance, in percent of
maximum wheel loads, as given below:

Item (Including Connections) Vertical Lateral Longitudinal

Supporting members for travelling cranes Power operated 25% 20% 10%
Manually operated 15% 10% 10%

Trolley beams and jib cranes Power operated 25% -% 10%


Manually operated 15% -% 10%
Beams serving as hitching points 25% - -

8.3.6 Live Loads (i)


Live loads shall be defined as the weight of all movable loads, including personnel, tools,
miscellaneous equipment, parts of dismantled equipment and temporarily stored material. The live
loads should be checked against vendor's recommendations and adjusted, if required.
When specified uniformly distributed load or single point load shall be considered, whichever is the
more unfavourable for the structural element(s) under consideration.
The live load shall be uniformly distributed over the horizontal projection of the specified areas. Loads
shall be in accordance with ANSI/ASCE 7 (2010) but shall have the following minimum values:

Operating and services areas 5.0 kN/m


(see Note)
Access plant platforms, walkways
and tower platforms 2.5 kN/m

Roof areas 1.0 kN/m

Roof areas, concentrated load 2.0 kN


Plant stairs 3.0 kN/m

Exit or public stairs 5.0 kN/m

Storage areas, light 5.0 kN/m

Storage areas, heavy 10.0 kN/m

Compressor/generator platforms 10.0 kN/m


(see Note)

Exchanger head platform 5.0 kN/m


areas or similar equipment (see Note)
1
Hand railing, horizontal 0.5 kN/m

Ladder, moving concentrated load 2.5 kN

Page 11 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

Note: This live load applies only to platforms and floor slabs in areas where the possibility exists of the
flooring or slab being subjected to a concentrated load from either equipment parts or heavy
tools.
Live loads in buildings shall be according ANSI/ASCE 7 (2010) and engineering specification
S-000-5340-001

8.3.7 Wind loads (j)


Wind loading shall be in accordance with code ANSI/ASCE 7 (2010).
Following design wind pressure table is based on the following design parameters:
a. Basic design wind speed: 33.8 m/s.

b. Structure Design Wind Pressure: ANSI/ASCE 7 (2010)

c. Importance Factor Category: 1 I (I=1)d.


d. Exposure Category D, extends from the shoreline a distance of 460m or 10 times the height of
the structure or equipment
e. Exposure Category C, for all remaining area.
The wind can blow in any direction and the most unfavorable case shall be considered.

8.3.8 Seismic Load (k)


No seismic loads have to be taken into account.

8.3.9 Other Loads (l)


When applicable, the following loads shall also be considered in the design:
Thermal loads, such as produced by temperature changes in piping, equipment and structures.
Pressure loads, such as resulting from the use of expansion joints in piping.
Dynamic loads, such as resulting from rotating equipment and from surging fluids in piping and
equipment. Data for performing dynamic calculations shall be obtained from equipment vendor.
Allowances to be made for dynamic effects, in accordance with Section 8.9.
Blast loads, for buildings located within the proximity of a potential blast hazard (see
section 8.10).
Construction loads like temporary loads due to lifting, erection or installation of precast members
and equipment. In static calculations they shall be considered as live loads.
Vertical uplift load (buoyancy) due to ground water level shall be considered in order to determine
stability (uplift and overturning).
Earth loads like loads due to soil pressure against structures, retaining walls and foundations. For
soil pressure coefficients see applicable report on soil investigation and foundation advice.

8.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS


Structures and members of structures as well as their supports shall be designed for the combinations of
loading components tabulated in appendix A.
For loading conditions applied to two or more items of equipment supported by a common structure,
variable effects such as weight of contents, wind load (when considering shielding) and thermal reactions
of piping shall be based on compatible conditions.

Page 12 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

When hydrostatic pressure testing of equipment is required at site and more than one vessel, etc. is
supported by one structure, the structure shall be designed on the basis that only one vessel will be
tested at any one time, and that the others will be empty.
However, when the possibility of other combinations exists, e.g. test of more vessels at the same time or
tests of one vessel and other(s) in operation, then these combinations have to be considered in the
design.
Maintenance loads shall be considered in design, but shall be limited to reasonable combination of
operations, i.e.:

a. In designing a structure with more than one maintenance load, consideration shall be limited to
one crane or trolley load.

b. In designing skeleton frame-type structures, maintenance loads shall be combined with reduced
wind effects, i.e. 50% wind.

8.5 DESIGN STRESSES


Permissible Design stresses for structural steel shall be in accordance with AISC 325 (2005) - Manual of
Steel Construction (Allowable Stress Design) 13th Edition.
Design stresses of all reinforced concrete work shall be in accordance with code ACI 318/318M (2008).
The design of base plates shall be based on ultimate design pressure on the foundation, which shall not
exceed the following maximum values:

Non-shrink cementitious
ready-mixed grout : 10 N/mm2

8.6 ALLOWABLE DEFLECTIONS AND DISPLACEMENTS


(In Serviceability Limit State)
Maximum allowable deflections shall be:
Floor beams, walkways, platforms, stairs : L/400
Floor plate : L/200 (maximum 5 mm)
Equipment supporting beams : L/500
Trolley beams, crane tracks : L/600
Pipe rack (pipe supporting) beams : L/400
Masonry supporting beams : L/500
Main roof beams and purlins : L/250
L = span of beam or twice the length of a cantilever.

Maximum allowable horizontal displacement for structures and columns shall be:
Pipe racks and open structures : H/200
Closed structures : H/500 overall and h/300 (each story)
H = height of structure.
h = height of one storey

Page 13 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

8.7 SLENDERNESS
Unless otherwise specified the ratio of effective length to the appropriate radius of gyration shall not
exceed 180 for Primary members and 250 for Secondary members..

8.8 PIPE RACK DESIGN

8.8.1 General
In general, pipe racks consist of rigid main frames in transverse direction (longitudinally spaced as
required) and connected with longitudinal beams, which will transfer horizontal loads to braced
anchor bays.
For small pipes intermediate beams in transverse direction, supported by longitudinal beams, may
be introduced. Diagonal bracing in rigid main frames is not permitted unless required for special
design considerations. In longitudinal direction, pipe rack shall be divided into approximately 40 m
long sections, with an anchor bay, by means of sliding joints (at one end of the section only) at
longitudinal beams.

Pipe racks shall be designed in relation to actual piping arrangement and line sizes and for all
piping loading conditions, and any other additional loads as from equipment (e.g. de-aerators and
air coolers), cable trays, and platforms all as described below:
Weight of piping

For design, a basic uniform distributed average pipe load P (kN/m2) per level shall be determined
as total weight of actual pipes divided by the pipe rack width:.

a) P minimum = pipe empty weight (c)


Weight of pipe insulation shall be taken into account

b) P maximum = pipe weights in operating condition (d).

Pipe loads from pipes of extreme line sizes in relation to the average sizes shall be taken into
account separately as concentrated load.

In case of a fluid tested gas pipe hydrostatic test Load (e) shall be considered.

Free space on a pipe rack shall be assumed to carry the same average load as the covered part of
the rack.

Weight of fireproofing (if applicable) shall be taken into account.

Electrical/instrument requirements (overhead cable + tray loads) shall be considered.

Special loading, maximum deflection of beams, etc., may be required by the piping engineering
group, that will necessitate using special sections or details, such as bracing, extra beams, etc.

8.8.2 Transverse Direction


Transverse beams of pipe rack main frames shall be designed for a uniform distributed load:

q (kN/m1) = P x l

where:

l = Distance [m1] between main frames in longitudinal direction.

Page 14 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

When intermediate support beams are introduced, these beams shall be designed for a
uniform distributed load intensity equal to 1/3 q. At the same time, the uniform distributed load
on the main transverse beams will be reduced to 2/3 q.

For vertical loads, the transverse beams are normally considered laterally restrained by the
supported piping.

Pipe rack and supports shall be designed to resist the friction and anchor forces induced by the
piping.

a) Friction forces shall be assumed as a resultant longitudinal friction force equal to 5% of the
total pipe weight tributary to that pipe support (beam) of carrying more than three lines, 10% for
supports (beams) carrying two or three lines and 20% for supports carrying one line (applied to
the top flange of subject member). Friction forces are transferred to the anchor frames by the
longitudinal beams of the pipe rack. These friction forces will not be transferred to the
foundations.

b) Pipe anchor loads shall be supplied by the pipe stress and support group.
Anchor forces are transferred to the anchor frames by the longitudinal beams of the pipe rack.

For beams subjected to above-mentioned horizontal friction or anchor forces 50% of the minor
axis section modules shall be used. Therefore torsion does not need to be considered.

For pipe racks, a concentrated load of 10 kN at mid span shall be applied to all lowest main
beams and an axial load of 10 kN has to be applied to each pipe rack stanchion (contingency
loads). Above loads shall not be transferred to the foundations.

For wind on overhead pipe racks, the projected height of pipes (HWP) per layer for wind in
cross direction shall be:

HWP = DP + W tan 10, however, HWP need not to be more than the distance between the
pipe layers.

where:

DP = Largest pipe diameter + insulation


W = Corresponding width of pipe layer, (say width of pipe rack)

Shape factor to be used for pipe layer: C = 0.8

In addition to lateral wind load on pipe layers, the wind load on one longitudinal pipe rack frame
shall be taken into account.

8.8.3 Longitudinal Direction


Longitudinal beams shall normally be designed for an uniform distributed load:
q = 0.25 x p x W

where:

W = width of pipe rack, see above.


Or a 10kN concentrated load at mid span, whatever is the greater value.
In case of intermediate beams, the longitudinal beams shall be designed for the additional
loads (including wind load) of the intermediate beams.

Page 15 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

For vertical loads, the longitudinal beams are normally considered laterally restrained by the
intermediate beams.

Horizontal forces per pipe layer at the anchor bays shall be determined as follows:

HTOT = HS (or HWL or HE) + Ha (longitudinal direction)

Where:

HS = Stability force = 1% of the weight of the structure }


and operating loads of the pipes }
}
}
HWL = Longitudinal wind force = 0.3 x (DP + HB) x pw x L }
DP = largest pipe diameter + insulation. }
HB = depth of longitudinal beam }
Pw = wind pressure } Use the greater
L = the total length of an anchor bay section } value
between sliding joints. }
}
}
HE = Earthquake loading }

Ha = Resulting force of friction forces and pipe anchor loads as described above
= normally 5% of the operating pipe weight.
This force has to be verified with the pipe stress and support group and
shall be distributed to the foundations

In addition wind loads on columns shall be considered, the columns shall be calculated with
shape factor Cpe = 2.0.
L

Hwl /2 Anchorbay
+ n x Fc

Hwl /2
+ n x Fc Anchorbay

Wind
where :

Fc = Acolumn * pe * Cpe
n = number of column on one row between braced bays.
L = the total length of a section between sliding connections.

In case of concrete frames without anchor-bay, the wind loads will be distributed from the
longitudinal beams to the columns.

Page 16 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

8.9 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR HEAVY MACHINERY


For all reciprocating machinery and heavy centrifugal machinery a detailed design and a vibration
analysis shall be made in accordance with the requirements stated below.

8.9.1 Definition
Heavy machinery is any equipment having reciprocating or rotary masses as major moving parts (such
as rotary compressors, pumps, fans, engines and turbines), with a total rotating weight in excess of
1350 kg.
The basic principles of design involve:
a) The determination of the natural frequencies of the system (machinery plus foundation), to
ensure that these frequencies are outside the range of 0.8 to 1.2 times the operating frequencies
of the machinery. In case this is impossible, resonance shall be considered. An reasonable
estimate for damping will then be required.
b) The natural frequency of the supporting structure shall not coincide with any resonant frequency
of the equipment.
c) The suppression of vibration amplitudes to acceptable limits.
d) The provision of sufficient strength and rigidity to maintain equipment alignment and to prevent
failures due to fatigue or overstressing, caused by imposed piping forces and thermal distortions.
e) The provisions for adequate foundation bearing capacity and acceptable settlement.

The vibration amplitudes shall not exceed the lower of the following values:
The maximum allowable values stated by manufacturer of the equipment.
The amplitude (single amplitude) which causes the effective velocity of vibration to exceed:
a) 2 mm/s at the location of the machine bearing housings.
b) 2.5 mm/s at any location of the structure.
The dynamic amplitudes of any part of the foundation including any reciprocating compressor
shall be less than 80 x 10-6 m single amplitude (160 x 10-6 m peak-to-peak).
Note: In the case of a purely sinusoidal function, the effective velocity is 0.71 times the peak value of
the velocity.

8.9.2 Dynamic Force


Dynamic design for either type foundation shall be as follows, if not specified by manufacturer.
a) Amplitudes shall be determined using dynamic forces from each rotor, calculated as follows:
Dynamic Force:
0.08 (rotor weight) x (rotor speed, Rn min)
50 x 60
b) When there is more than one rotor, amplitudes shall be computed with the rotor forces assumed
in phase and 1800 out-of-phase to obtain, respectively, the maximum translational and torsional
amplitudes.

8.9.3 Slab Thickness


Unless detailed calculations of possible higher swing modes of the slab are performed and the slab is
proven suitable for the acting operation frequencies, the thickness of the foundation slab, in meters,
shall not be less than:
0.6 + L ; where L = longest dimension of foundation slab (m).
30

Page 17 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

8.9.4 Minimum Reinforcement


The effects of shrinkage and thermal expansion shall be taken into account. The reinforcement in each
direction, each face shall not be less than 0.09% of the gross area perpendicular to the direction of
reinforcement. Maximum bar spacing shall be 300 mm.
Exception: For foundations greater than 1.2 m in depth, the minimum amount of reinforcement
needs not be more than 1000 mm/m each face, unless a greater amount is required for
strength design.
The minimum reinforcement, tri-axially arranged, shall be 7.5 kg/m.
Main reinforcement in piers shall not be less than 1% nor more than 6% of the cross-sectional area of
the piers.

8.9.5 Pile loads or Soil Bearing Pressures


In case the natural frequency of foundation plus machinery exceeds that of the speed of the machinery
itself, (high-tuned foundations) the pile loads or soil bearing pressures shall not exceed 50% of the
design values for static loads.
Otherwise, the pile loads or soil bearing pressures shall not exceed 75% of the design values for static
loads.

8.9.6 Isolation of Foundations


Foundations subject to vibration shall in, principle, be properly isolated from adjacent structures.

8.10 BLAST RESILIENT AND BLAST RESISTANT DESIGN

8.10.1 General
Buildings shall not be located within 30 m of a potential blast source. Buildings located within 120 m
from a potential blast source, shall be designed to withstand loads resulting from any one of the
following conditions:
Blast pressure equivalent to a static uniform distributed load (UDL) of q1 kPa, acting on exterior
surfaces. Condition 1A, 1B or 1C shall be considered (see below).
Suction pressure equivalent to a static uniform distributed load (UDL) of q2 kPa, acting on all
external surfaces. Condition 2 (see below).
Values of q1 and q2 depend on the distance from the blast source, as shown in the table below. Values
given are ultimate design values.

Page 18 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

Conditions 1A, 1B and 1C


UDL equal to q1 kPa.

1A

Longitudinal section Cross section

1B

Longitudinal section Cross section

1C

Longitudinal section Cross section

Condition 2
UDL equal to q2 kPa.

Longitudinal section Cross section

Page 19 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

Distance Versus Design Pressures


Distance from Blast
Source (m) q1 (kPa) q2 (kPa)
30 to 45 30 10

45 to 60 15 5

60 to 75 10 3

75 to 150 5 2

8.10.2 Stresses and Load Combinations


Blast resistant and blast resilient designs shall be in accordance with ASCE 41088 (2010).
Blast loads are not to be combined with wind loads.

8.10.3 Structural Design Criteria


Design the structure as a shear wall structure, with the roof acting as a horizontal diaphragm
that transfers the transverse loads to the side shear walls.
Design of walls and roof shall be based on the "Yield Line Theory".
Provide cast-in-situ reinforced concrete walls and roof of load-bearing type, designed to resist
bending and transmit horizontal shear. Precast concrete panels may be used but shall be
either mechanically bonded to cast-in-situ reinforced concrete columns or provided with built-in,
load transmitting steel plates or angles so that the panels can be welded in place.
Anchor walls to foundations and concrete roof slabs with steel reinforcing bars to provide full
moment connections.
Provide roof framing with adequate bearing and good anchorage to the supporting walls. Weld
roof form decking, if used, to the top member of the roof frame.
Consider stress reversals at each member and provide a minimum 20% stress reversal.
Design reinforced concrete members with good ductile properties. Limit tension steel to 1% of
the gross concrete area, and limit total reinforcement to 2% of the concrete area. To allow for
stress reversal, provide reinforcing steel in both concrete faces; shear reinforcement shall be
perpendicular, not inclined.
Provide local strengthening of concrete at openings by applying additional diagonal
reinforcement.

8.10.4 Openings
Minimise openings in the building enclosure and locate openings away from the blast source.
Windows, if unavoidable, shall be limited in size to maximum 0.25 m per window. The total
glazed area shall not exceed 7% of the wall area. Windows shall be provided with special
glazing.
Select external doors, louvers and similar items, together with their frames, capable of
withstanding the pressures given in paragraph 8.10.1. Do not use glass panels in these doors.
Provide at least two personnel access doors, located away from each other and where possible
not in opposite walls. Size equipment doors for manoeuvring factory-fabricated items like
control panels into or out of the building.

Page 20 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

9.0 DESIGN STANDARDS-GENERAL

9.1 MINIMUM OVERHEAD CLEARANCES (NET)


See piping Specification S-000-5360-001

10.0 DESIGN STANDARDS STRUCTURAL STEEL

10.1 GENERAL

10.1.1 Structures shall be designed such that the surfaces of all parts will be accessible for inspection,
cleaning and painting.

10.1.2 Structural Members


Gusset plates, stiffener plates, etc., and angles shall have a minimum thickness of 6 mm.
For trolley beams and crane ways for underslung cranes, joists with tapered flanges are
preferred. If only broad flange beams are available, the bottom flange shall be checked
separately for distortion and reinforced, if required.
The flange width of purlins supporting concrete slabs shall not be less than 65 mm. For
supporting roof sheeting and wall cladding, flange width shall not be less than 50 mm.
Width of steel rolled sections, etc., which will be connected to other structural members, shall
be at least 50 mm.
The depth of beams for platforms of all structures shall not be less than 120 mm.
Steel columns shall be provided with earthing lugs, in accordance with design and standards

10.2 PLATFORMS AND WALKWAYS

10.2.1 Platforms, stairs and ladders shall be provided for access to all major equipment requiring operator's
regular attention, servicing, inspection and maintenance. Basic platform layouts and elevations and
location of stairs and ladders are given on piping layout drawings.

10.2.2 Connecting walkways and access platforms for servicing other parts of equipment shall have a clear
width not less than 750 mm. However, in case this space is not available, the minimum allowable clear
width is 600 mm.

10.2.3 The minimum width of walkways over ground level pipe tracks shall be 750 mm.

10.2.4 Platforms with areas greater than 25 m2 and subject to fire hazard shall have at least two exits at
opposite ends or corners. Main escape routes from all main operating platforms shall be via walkways
and stairs.

10.2.5 Equipment platforms shall normally be bracketed from the vessel.

10.2.6 Platform connections to vessels shall be as per standard drawings, unless otherwise shown on the
design drawings.

10.2.7 Circular platforms:


Orientation of platforms and brackets on drawings shall be given from 00, which equals the
North direction of the Plant North Arrow.

Page 21 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

Design of platforms shall be in such way that the total rotation of the platforms is not more then
1800. In case the platform exceeds 1800 splicing with additional splice angles shall be shown.
Platform connections to vessels shall be as per standard drawings, unless otherwise shown on
the design drawings.
Location of brackets and ladder clips shall be carefully checked in relation to weld seams,
vessel-shell stiffeners rungs and fireproofing.
Center-line of ladder-rung has to stay 200 mm clear of any obstruction, including vessel
stiffening-rings.
Sloping ladders, used for vessels with more than one diameter or a sloping skirt, shall
0
preferably follow the slope of the vessel skirt, but shall never be more than 10 towards the
centre line of the vessel.
All clip loads not being as per standard drawing shall be clearly noted on the drawing to enable
the vendor doing his vessel design.
All brackets and platform members not meeting the maximum loading requirements from
standard drawing, shall be proven by design.

Page 22 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

10.3 STAIRWAYS

10.3.1 All stairs shall be in accordance with standard drawings.

10.3.2 Stairways shall be constructed of standard channel stringers with open grating treads
(see par 10.5.8).

10.4 HAND-RAILING

10.4.1 All hand railing shall be in accordance with standard drawings.

10.4.2 Stairways, platforms and walkways shall be provided with hand railing except as mentioned below
and/or as called for on the design drawings.

10.4.3 For walkways over ground level pipe tracks and for walkways with a height up to 1200 mm and their
steps, hand-railing shall be provided on one side. For walkways higher than 1200 mm, hand-railing
shall be provided on both sides.

10.4.4 Hand-railing consists of top rail, mid rail and toe-plate.

10.4.5 Toe-plate shall be provided on the edge of platforms where hand-railing is omitted to provide
maintenance or operating space for equipment, valves, etc. The same applies to ladder entries on
platforms.

10.4.6 All hand-rail shall be permanent hand-rail. If removable hand railing is required for ergonomic reasons it
shall be clearly indicated on design drawings.

10.5 FLOORING

10.5.1 In general, platform flooring shall be open grating.

10.5.2 Raised pattern type flooring shall be used instead of open grating flooring where handling of solids is
anticipated.

10.5.3 All flooring shall be fixed, unless noted otherwise on the design drawings (removable panels).

10.5.4 Removable panels shall not exceed 70 kg in weight.

10.5.5 All floor panels shall be spliced (in span direction) near cut-outs to prevent locking in position by piping,
conduit or other equipment.

10.5.6 Minimum diameter pipe opening through the flooring shall be the greater of the following hole
diameters:
Diameter hole = pipe diameter including insulation + 50 mm or diameter hole = flange diameter +
20 mm.

10.5.7 Toe-plates shall be welded to flooring around holes and cut-outs and at places where hand-railing is
omitted (see 10.4.5). Height of toe-plate shall be 60 mm above top of flooring.

10.5.8 Grating
Grating and stair treads shall be hot-dip galvanized and shall be approved by CLIENT.
Grating shall be factory made open type grating. Bearing bars shall be 25 mm x 5 mm strip.
Bearing bars shall be spaced 30 mm on centre, and cross bars shall be spaced 100 mm on

Page 23 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

centre. All floor grating panels shall have closed ends with end bearing bars having the same
size as the bearing bars.
Stair treads shall be galvanized serrated grating.
Unsupported bearing bars at holes and cut-outs shall be trimmed by a steel strip (toe-plate).
Connections of grating panels shall be done with minimum four bolted clamps. At large grating
panels minimum four panels clamps per square meter to be provided. Clamps shall be hot-dip
galvanized.

10.5.9 Raised Pattern Plate


Raised pattern plate (tear bubbles in cross wise pattern) shall be skid resistant and shall be
hot-dip galvanized. Thickness shall be 6/8 mm.
Raised pattern plate shall be fixed in place by 8 mm diameter galvanized screws countersunk
flush with the top of plate.
2
One drainage hole 30 mm for every 1.5 m of floor plate shall be drilled after erection at low
spots, with a minimum of one hole per panel.

10.6 TROLLEY BEAMS AND CRANE WAYS

10.6.1 Trolley beams shall be provided for handling exchanger heads, tube bundles, blower and compressor
casings, rotors and cylinders, etc., when such equipment is not accessible from grade with mobile
lifting equipment.

10.6.2 Trolley beams, crane ways and their supports shall be designed for the heaviest load (including impact)
they may be required to handle.

10.6.3 Where multiple trolley beams are required, a travelling crane may be provided instead of trolley beams.

10.6.4 Trolleys over 30 kN capacity shall be geared.

10.6.5 No hoists shall be provided, unless specifically requested by CLIENT.

10.6.6 Trolley beams shall be designed, tested and certified in accordance with regulatory requirements.

10.7 STRUCTURES

10.7.1 Structures shall be designed such that the surfaces of all parts will be accessible for inspection,
cleaning and painting.

10.8 HOT-DIP GALVANIZED MATERIALS


In order to prevent zinc embrittlement of stainless steel components, no galvanized steelwork shall be
installed above stainless steel components. However, when this cannot be avoided, protective covers
shall be fitted locally over the stainless steel components to protect them from melting zinc (in case of fire)
in accordance with the details shown on the design drawings.

Page 24 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

11.0 DESIGN STANDARDS CONCRETE

11.1 ELEVATIONS OF FOUNDATIONS

11.1.1 All elevations shall refer to Project Reference Plant Datum Elevation EL +100.000m which equals
4.00m above Mean Sea Level (MSL). High Point Paving (HPP) Plot Area is EL +101.000m which
equals 5.00m above Mean Sea Level (MSL).

11.1.2 Standard dimension to underside base plate above high point of paving, shall be:
Vertical Equipment : 150 mm
Horizontal pumps : 200 mm (except otherwise dictated)
Structural steel columns : 150 mm (does not apply to buildings)
High point roads : 200 mm (unless noted otherwise on the drawings)

11.2 CONCRETE COVER


Concrete cover to the first layers reinforcement shall be as follows, unless noted on design drawings:
Minimum concrete cover for paving = 40 mm
Cast against and permanently exposed to earth = 75 mm
Exposed to earth, weather or water = 50 mm
Not exposed to weather and not in
contact with the ground = 40 mm
In contact or above sea water:
a) Top of slabs = 50 mm
b) Other sides or elements = 75 mm
Cover on piles = 75 mm
Where piles extend 50 mm into foundations = 60 mm

For non-inspectable surfaces after placement of concrete, cover has to be increased with 5 mm.

11.3 SPACING OF BARS

11.3.1 The clear distance between individual bars shall not be less than:
1.3 times the maximum size of the coarse aggregate.
Twice the diameter of the bar or the diameter of the immersion vibrator.
50 mm for bars in walls.

11.3.2 The center-to-center distance of individual bars shall not be more than:
150 mm - For main bars in beams where bending moments are maximum.
250 mm - For bars in slabs.
- For bars in walls.
- For mild steel stirrups in beams.
300 mm - For longitudinal bars in columns.
- For horizontal side bars in beams.
- For high yield stirrups in beams.

Page 25 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

400 mm - For any other bars not mentioned above, provided the cross bars are
spaced at not more than 250 mm.

11.4 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

11.4.1 Where required, construction joints shall be provided in concrete structures.

11.4.2 Shrinkage Reinforcement


When walls or slabs are not cast monolithically (restraint condition), attention shall be paid to
reinforcement required due to differential shrinkage.
Shrinkage reinforcement shall be calculated and applied where necessary.

11.5 EXPANSION JOINTS AND WATER STOPS

11.5.1 Where required, expansion joints shall be provided in concrete structures.

11.5.2 Joints shall be in accordance with standard drawings.

11.5.3 Expansion joints and joints around equipment in concrete paving shall be formed with an approved
filler. A compound with the required resistance shall seal the joint as per manufacturer's written
instructions. Selection of joint sealer material with respect to chemical resistance (regarding possible
spills) shall be verified with process engineering.

11.5.4 Water stop in joints (type and size) shall be shown on the construction drawings. Practical installation
of water stop shall be considered during selection of material and installation shall be as per supplier's
written instructions.

Page 26 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

11.6 ANCHOR BOLTS


5
11.6.1 Anchor bolts shall not be less than 16 mm ( /8) diameter, except where equipment requires smaller
diameters, e.g. when expansion bolts will be used.

11.6.2 Anchor bolts subject to uplift or vibration shall be locked with a washer and two nuts.

11.6.3 Anchor bolts shall have a minimum distance of three times the bolt diameter from the centreline of bolts
to edge of concrete, but not less than 100 mm. Minimum distance between edge of sleeves and
concrete shall be 75 mm.

11.6.4 Type of anchor bolts to be in accordance with the standard drawings.

11.6.5 Anchor bolts shall be designed for working stresses, in tension and shear, and in addition for
shear/crushing strength of concrete. Embedded length of anchor bolts and pipe sleeves shall be
designed.

11.6.6 Anchor bolts set in concrete and subject to shear loads shall have such loads transferred to the
concrete as follows:
a. When combined with compressive loads, the shear loads shall be transferred to the concrete by
friction or by allowable anchor bolt shear or by means of a shear stub, welded underneath the base
plate of the steel column and embedded in the concrete.
b. When combined with tensile loads ("uplift"), the shear load shall be transferred to the concrete by
the anchor- bolts or a shear stub welded underneath the base plate of the steel column and
embedded in the concrete.

11.7 OTHER INSERTED AND EMBEDDED ITEMS

11.7.1 Unless otherwise specified, all inserted and embedded items shall be weldable structural steel in
accordance with ASTM A36/36M, or Grade S235JR in accordance with BS EN 10025-Part 2, as
applicable.
They shall be accurately located or templated in and be securely anchored prior to placing concrete.

11.7.2 At sliding ends of vessels and horizontal exchangers, sets of plain steel plates or plain steel plates shall
be provided. In order to reduce the horizontal force due to friction at sliding ends, sets of PTFE bonded
steel plates may be provided.

11.8 GROUTING OF STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT

11.8.1 Grout shall be used under all base plates of equipment and structures, where a uniform bearing
surface is required for the transfer of loads into the foundation.

11.8.2 Grout thickness shall be:


25 mm for plates, strips, base rings, etc., with a maximum width of 500 mm.
50 mm for plates, trips, base rings, etc., with a width of more than 500 mm.
40 mm for saddles of horizontal vessels and exchangers (fixed point).
40 mm including sliding plate for horizontal vessels and exchangers (sliding point).

Page 27 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

11.9 SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF CONCRETE


The temperature of the surface of the concrete shall not exceed 100C.
When the operating temperature of equipment bases exceeds 100C, insulation packages shall be
installed.
Attention should be paid to reinforcement required due to temperature differential and gradient.

11.10 CRACK WIDTH CONTROL


Crack width control shall be in accordance with ACI 318/318M (2008).

11.11 FOUNDATION DESIGN

11.11.1 Allowable Bearing Capacity of Soils and Piles


For allowable bearing capacity of soils and piles reference is made to applicable geotechnical
investigation report on soil investigation and foundation advice , document D-000-5311-003
Allowable soil bearing capacity shall be determined based on settlement criterion on 25 mm except for
tank foundations.

11.11.2 Increase of Allowable Pile & Soil Bearing Capacity


For short-term conditions, allowable bearing capacity of soil and pile shall be increased by 33.3%.

11.11.3 Factor of Safety for Stability


Structures and foundations shall be designed so that the factor of safety shall be equal to or greater
than the values mentioned hereafter based on un-factored load:

Condition Overturning Sliding Uplift

Operating with out


1.5 1.5 1.1
Wind

Operating + Wind/
1.5 1.2 1.1
Empty/Erection/Test

Note: Ground water Table at time of soilinvestigation = M.S.L. (Mean Sea Level) + 3.0 m. See
geotechnical investigation report on soil investigation and foundation advice, document D-000-5311-
003

11.12 SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS AND STRUCTURES

11.12.1 Foundations for Small Equipment


Foundations for small pumps, staircases, etc. may be placed on reinforced concrete slabs or yard
paving, provided that they are properly connected to the slabs or paving and that cable trench locations
are fixed. If required, slabs or paving shall be strengthened locally.

11.12.2 Liquid Retaining Structures


In addition to all other requirements for the design of structures, special precautions shall be taken
regarding the liquid tightness of liquid-retaining structures. Reference is made to recommendations laid
down in BS EN 1992-3 (2006): Design of Concrete Structures Liquid Retaining and Containing
Structures Eurocode 2.

Page 28 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

11.12.3 Sheet Piling


The calculation of sheet piling shall be in accordance with the recommendations laid down in BS EN
1997 (2004): Geotechnical Design Eurocode 7.

Page 29 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

APPENDIX A LOAD COMBINATIONS

Applicable LOAD COMBINATIONS1)

LOAD COMBINATIONS
LOADING

EMPTY OPERATING TEST ERECTION


COMPONENT TYPE

a. Weight of structure P x x x x
b. Weight of equipment P
category I x x x x

c. Empty weight P x x2) x3)


d. Operating weight P x2)
e. Hydrostatic test load P x
f. Exchanger bundle pull V
x
force
g. Thermal loads V x
h. Moving loads V x x x
4)
i. Live loads V x x4)
6) 8)
x6) 8)
5) 6) 7)
j. Wind loads V x x x5) 7)
k. Earthquake Loads V x6) x6)
l. Other loads P9)/V x6) x6) x6) x10)

(For load components a through l, see also subsection 8.2)


(For notes, see below)

P = Permanent load
V = Variable load

Notes: 1. The load combinations given above shall be regarded as supplementary to those
required by the local codes. The most stringent requirements shall govern.

2. The most unfavorable load combination shall be taken into account.

3. The weight of the equipment as shipped, excluding the weight of all parts that are field
installed after erection. For field assembled equipment, it shall be the minimum weight of
the complete shells, excluding the weight of all internal and external parts, fireproofing,
etc.

4. Live load shall be taken into account only when this is an unfavorable case.

5. The effect of wind forces acting on temporary scaffolding erected during construction or
for subsequent maintenance which will be transferred to the vessel or column shall be
considered. When considering these effects, the actual projected area of the scaffold
members together with the correct shape factor and drag coefficient should be used. As
an initial approximation, the overall width of the scaffolding itself can be taken as 1.5 m
on each side of the vessel or column with 50% closed surface and shape factor 1.

Page 30 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

6. Structures should not be designed for blast-design load, earthquake and wind load
occurring simultaneously.

7. Only 50% wind load shall be taken into account.

8. Wind load on equipment shall include an allowance for piping and platforms. In case the
data is not given on data sheet from mechanical, the design diameter shall be greater
than the actual diameter D, as indicated in tables 1 & 2 below and a shape factor 1.
9. Soil loads, fluids loads and differential settlement loads shall be taken as permanent
loads.

Page 31 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

APPENDIX B CONCRETE WORK STANDARD DRAWINGS


B.1 CONCRETE AND ANCHORBOLTS DETAILS

Document No. Title


D-000-5310-001 Standard Drawings for Concrete Work and Paving

Page 32 of 33
Sohar Refinery Expansion Project
Document Title: Document No. Rev:
Specification for Civil/Structural Design S-000-5310-001 2

APPENDIX C STRUCTURAL STEEL STANDARD DRAWINGS


C.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL STANDARD DRAWINGS

Document No. Title


D-000-5330-001 Standard Drawings for Structural Steel

Page 33 of 33