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Course Material For Singareni Collieries Limited (SCCLtd) Ramagundem AP
By Dr.K.U.M.Rao Professor Department of Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 721302
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Rock Mechanics as a Discipline
Rock mechanics is a discipline that uses the principles of mechanics to describe the behaviour of rocks. Here, the term of rock is in the scale of engineering. The scale is generally in the order of between a few metres to a few thousand metres. Therefore, the rock considered in rock mechanics is in fact the rock mass, which composes intact rock materials and rock discontinuities. What is so special of rock mechanics? For normal construction materials, e.g., steel and concrete, the mechanical behaviours are continuous, homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic (CHILE). Properties of the manmade materials are known and can often be controlled. For rocks, due to the existence of discontinuities, the behaviours are discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and non-linearly elastic (DIANE). Properties of the natural geomaterials are unknown and often can not be controlled. It is important to be award that in rock mechanics, rock discontinuities dominate the mechanical and engineering behaviours. The existence of discontinuity depends on the scale. The discontinuous nature and scale dependence feature is not common in other man-made materials. Rock mechanics is applied to various engineering disciplines: civil, mining, hydropower, petroleum. In civil engineering, it involves foundation, slope and tunnel. In structural engineering, the design process generally is as following: Calculate external loading imposed on the structure; Design the structure and analyse loading in structure elements; Design the structure element and select materials. In rock engineering, or geotechnical engineering, the whole process is different. Loading condition is not easily calculateable, rock engineering, being sloping cutting or underground excavation, does not impose loading, but disturbs the existing stress field of the ground and redistribute the load. Therefore, the key process in rock engineering is to understand the how the stress field is disturbed by engineering activities and how the rock is behaving (responding) to the change of boundary conditions, and yet the material does not has a characteristics controlled by man. The objectives of learning rock mechanics are: • • To understand of the mechanical behaviour of rock materials, rock discontinuities and rock masses. To be able to analyse and to determine mechanical and engineering properties of rocks for engineering applications.
CHAPTER 2 ROCK FORMATION AND ROCK MASS 2.1 Rock Formations and Types Rock is a natural geo-material. In geological term, rock is a solid substance composed of minerals, of which can consist in particulate form (soil particles) or in large form (mountains, tectonic plates, planetary cores, planets). In common term, rock is an aggregate of minerals. Rocks are formed by three main origins: igneous rocks from magma, sedimentary rock from sediments lithfication and metamorphic rocks through metamorphism. Figure 2.1.1a shows the geological process involved in the formations of various rocks. It should be noted that the processes are dynamic and continuous.
Figure 2.1.1a Rock cycle illustrating the role of various geological processes in rock formation. 2.1.3 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization. They can be formed below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks, or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from either the Earth's mantle or pre-existing rocks made molten by extreme temperature and pressure changes. Figure 2.1.1a shows the origin of magma and igneous rock through the rock cycle. As magma cools, minerals crystallize from the melt at different temperatures. The magma from which the minerals crystallize is rich in only silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium,
Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock into particles without producing changes in the chemical composition of the minerals in the rock.1. They are formed deep beneath the Earth's surface by great stresses from rocks above and high pressures and temperatures. Four basic processes are involved in the formation of a clastic sedimentary rock: weathering (erosion). Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by mineral assembly. Heat and pressure are the causes of metamorphism. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface. The combined effects of recrystallisation and re-orientation usually lead to foliation. known as regional metamorphism. Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by chemical reaction. All rocks disintegrate slowly as a result of mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. clay. Igneous rocks make up approximately 95% of the upper part of the Earth's crust. 2. and thus new minerals are formed.4 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is formed in three main ways – by the deposition of the weathered remains of other rocks (known as 'clastic' sedimentary rocks).5 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rock is a new rock type transformed from an existing rock type. which is a unique feature .1.1. heat causes minerals to recrystallise. The high temperatures and pressures in the depths of the Earth are the cause of the changes. iron. but their great abundance is hidden on the Earth's surface by a relatively thin but widespread layer of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. and each mineral assemblage produced provides us with a clue as to the temperatures and pressures at the time of metamorphism. igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock (Figure 2. Sedimentary rocks include common types such as sandstone. known as contact metamorphism. transportation. and by precipitation from solution. but count for only 5% of the rock in the earth crust. Metamorphic rocks are also formed by the intrusion of molten rock (magma) into solid rock and form particularly at the place of contact between the magma and solid rock where the temperatures are high. and magnesium minerals. the rock undergoes profound physical and/or chemical change. 2. by the deposition of the results of biogenic activity. In the process atoms are exchanged between the minerals. The existing rock may be sedimentary rock. shale. conglomerate. chalk and limestone.potassium. calcium.1a). Another important mechanism of metamorphism is that of chemical reactions that occur between minerals without them melting. When an existing rock is subjected to heat and extreme pressure. deposition and compaction. When above 200°C. Many complex high-temperature reactions may take place. which account for over 90% of all igneous rocks. These are the elements which combine to form the silicate minerals. through metamorphism. Pressure forces some crystals to re-orient.
Typically.2. 2. Columnar jointing or columnar basalts are typical joint features by cooling. This result in a banded. as the spacing of joints usually is between a few centimetres and a few metres. (ii) three sets. A joint set is a group of parallel joints. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes. Joints can also be caused by cooling of hot rock masses. This causes the platy or elongated crystals of minerals. to grow with their long axes perpendicular to the direction of the force.of metamorphic rocks.2. the term fault zone is used when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane.2 Rock Discontinuities 2. The removal of overlying rock results in change of stresses. They are generally considered as part of the rock mass. Joints are also formed by tectonic movement. such as mica and chlorite. or foliated. which form cooling joints. Figure 2. Joints can be formed due to erosion of the overlying strata exposed at the surface.2.2 Faults Geologic faults are planar rock fractures which show evidence of relative movement. but many faults occur far from active plate boundaries. Since faults usually do not consist of a single. 2.2. a rock mass can have between one to a few joint sets. .1a). It occurs when a strong compressive force is applied from one direction to a recrystallizing rock.2a. rock. The largest examples are at tectonic plate boundaries. Joints are always in sets. with the bands showing the colours of the minerals that formed them. Figure 2. Joints are the most common type of rock discontinuities.1a Typical joints seen (i) one dominant set. Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along faults.1 Joints A geological joint is a generally planar fracture formed in a rock as a result of extensional stress.2. and hence leads to the fracturing of underlying rock. Joints are often in sets. Joints do not have any significant offset of strata either vertically or horizontally (Figure 2. clean fracture.
A shear zone is a wide zone of distributed shearing in rock.3 Folds The term fold is used in geology when originally flat and planar rock strata are bent as a result of tectonic force or movement. are large scale geological features.4 Bedding Planes As sedimentary rocks are formed in layers.2a Faults.Figure 2. 2. Folds are usually not considered as part of the rock mass. Bedding plane often can be fully closed and cemented.2. fault zone and shear zone. 2. if a project is to be constructed over or close such zones. They are often dealt separately from the rock mass. Typically this is a type of fault but it may be difficult to place a distinct fault plane into the shear zone. Folds can be commonly observed in sedimentary formation and as well as in metamorphic rocks (Figure 2. the interfaces between layers are termed as bedding planes. but the results of folding is often reflected in the rock mass consideration. Folds. or up to several kilometres wide. Shear zones can be only inches wide. However.4a). It should be noted that fold has huge variation of features. are often associated with high degree of fracturing and relatively weak and soft rocks. Small scale single faults often have the similar effects as a joint. Although the folding feature may not be directly taking into account of rock mass. .2.2. Folds form under very varied conditions of stress. The behaviour large scale fault and shear zones require specific investigation and analysis. particularly intense folds.2. As faults.3a). folds can be of the similar scale as the engineering project and hence the significance of folds on the behaviour of the rock mass must be taken into consideration.2. Bedding plane therefore is a discontinuity separating different rocks (Figure 2. particularly fault zone and shear zone.
g. consists of rock blocks and fractures. It mainly creates an interface of two rock materials. For civil engineering works. some bedding planes could also become potential weathered zones and pocket of groundwater.3. the scale of projects is usually a few ten metres to a few hundreds metres.3 Rock Material and Rock Masses 2.2. This mass of rock. However..2. For example. which leads to cavities along the interface. .1b.Figure 2.3b Folds in a sedimentary formation. Bedding planes are isolated geological features to engineering activities. an interface between porous sandstone and limestone may lead to extensive weathering of the limestone. typically seen in Figure 2. 2. A borehole can be typically around 8 cm while a mine can spread up to a few km. foundations. e. When such engineering scale is considered.1 Engineering Scale and Rock Engineering in and on rock has different scales. often termed as rock mass. is the whole body of the rock in situ. slopes and tunnels. varying from a few centimetres to a few kilometres.3a Folds in a sedimentary formation.3. Figure 2. then rock in such scale is generally a mass of rock at the site.
4b Some typical bedding planes.1b Typical rock masses.2.4a Some typical bedding planes.2. . Figure 2.Figure 2. Figure 2.3.
in the forms of fractures.3 Role of Joints in Rock Mass Behaviour Rock joints change the properties and behaviour of rock mass in the following terms: (i) Cuts rock into slabs.2a). joints.3.3.3. they have relative small deformation and low permeability. (iii)Alters stress distribution and orientation. Figure 2. 2.4.3. and (b) rock discontinuities that cuts through the rock.4 Inhomogeneity and Anisotropy 2. Faults are often filled with weathered materials. Rock materials and discontinuities together form rockmass. (ii) Acts as weak planes for sliding and moving. Rocks are formed by nature and exhibits great inhomogeneity.2 Composition of Rock Mass A rock mass contains (a) rock material. varying from extremely soft clay and fractured and crushed rocks. It is therefore obvious that rock mass behaviour by large is governed by rock joints. of various sizes. Because the rock materials between rock joints are intact and solid. rock mass may also include filling materials in the discontinuities and dyke and sill igneous intrusions (Figure 2. blocks and wedges. blocks and wedges. .4.2a A dyke intrusion. 2. Most of the engineering materials have varying degrees of inhomogeneity. 2. (i) Provides water flow channel and creates flow networks.2.3.1 Inhomogeneity of Rock Materials Inhomogeneity represents property varying with locations. in the form of intact rock plates. Rock masses are also inhomogeneous due to the mix of rock types.2 Inhomogeneity of Rock Masses Inhomogeneity of a rock mass is primarily due to the existence of discontinuities. and faults.3a). interbedding and intrusion. (ii) Gives large deformation. to be free to fall and move (Figure 2. In addition.
Rock with most obvious anisotropy is slate. Figure 2. Other sedimentary may not have clear anisotropy. Some sedimentary rocks.g.2a). have noticeable anisotropic characteristics. e. .3 Anisotropy Anisotropy is defined as properties are different in different direction.4.3b). (i) slate and (ii) sandstone.Anisotropy occurs in both rock materials and rock mass.2. and (ii) sedimentary layer (Figure 2.3a.3b A Limestone rock mass with one dominating joint set. under the influence of formation process and pressure. However. Phyllite and schist are the other foliated metamorphic rocks that exhibit anisotropy.4.4. as seen in Figure 2. Rock mass anisotropy is controlled by (i) joint set (Figure 2. Figure 2.4. shale.4.3a Some common anisotropic rocks. small degree of anisotropy is possible.4..
2. One distinguishes between coarse-texture (coarse-grained) and fine-textures rock. . 3. only about nine of them partake decisively in forming the composition of rocks. Mineralogical composition . and • Dolomite These minerals are glued together by four types of materials such as silicates. 7. showing the geometrical aspects of the rock including shape. 4. Thus the texture is the appearance. 8. 5. seen on a smooth surface of a mineral aggregate. This Chapter addresses properties of rock material. megascopic or microscopic. argillaceous and ferrous minerals. 3. They are: • Quartz • Feldspar • Mica • Hornblende(Amphiboles) • Pyroxenes • Olivine • Calcite • Kaolinite. calcites. S Permeability to water k Mineralogical composition is the intrinsic property controlling the strength of the rock Although there exist more than 2000 kinds of known minerals. structure. The Rocks containing quartz as the binder are known as siliceous rocks and are the strongest while the rocks with calcium and magnesium carbonates are the weakest. and texture. A coarse-grained rock is one in which the large crystals are seen easily while the fine grained rocks need to be seen under a microscope. and arrangement.CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF ROCK MATERIALS Rock material is the intact rock portion. Specific gravity G Unit weight γ Porosity n Void ratio e Moisture content w Degree of saturation. size. The term “rock texture” refers to the arrangement of its grains. Rock structure and texture affect the strength properties of the rock.1 Physical Properties of Rock Material The physical properties of rocks affecting design and construction in rocks are: 1. 6.
It is the ratio of the non-solid volume (VV) to the total volume (V) of material.800 kg/m3.3. V V − (WS / Gγ W ) e = n= V = V 1+ e V V 1 = S 1+ e V γ Dry = (The unit weight of water = 1 g/cm3 = 1 t/m3 = 9. Density of rock material various. and often related to the porosity of the rock. Most rocks have density between 2. Density. M 1 G= S ⋅ VS ρ W (where M S = mass of solids and VS -volume of solids) Unit weight ( γ ) W V ( W is the total weight of the sample and V the total volume of the sample) γ = Density is a measure of mass per unit of volume.500nd 2.1.1 Specific Gravity.81 kN/m3 = 62. Void ratio (e) is the ratio of the volume of voids (VV) to the volume of solids (VS) e= VV VS Wd γ G = ⋅γW = V 1+ e 1+ w Porosity (n) describes how densely the material is packed.81 kN/m3 w = moisture content of the sample . Porosity and Water Content Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of solids to the density of water. Porosity therefore is a fraction between 0 and 1. It is sometimes defined by unit weight and specific gravity.4 lb/ft3) Where Wd = dry weight of the sample WS = weight of solids VV and VS = volume of voids and volume of solids V = total volume of the sample G = specific gravity e = Void ratio of the sample γ w = Unit weight of water = 9.
01 for solid granite to up to 0. A low density and high porosity rock usually has low strength. High porosity therefore naturally leads to high permeability. It may also be represented in percent terms by multiplying the fraction by 100%.8. Density and porosity often related to the strength of rock material. Porosity is one of the governing factors for the permeability.5 for porous sandstone. It is simply the ratio of the weight of water (Ww) to the weight (WS) of the rock material. Water content is a measure indicating the amount of water the rock material contains. w= Ww W − WS × 100 = × 100 WS WS Degree of saturation S is S= Vw × 100 VV Density is common physical properties. However.5 to 2. Density is used to estimate overburden stress. Porosity provides the void for water to flow through in a rock material.The value is typically ranging from less than 0. most rocks are well compacted and then have specific gravity between 2. Figure Phase diagram illustrating the weights and volume relationship . It is influenced by the specific gravity of the composition minerals and the compaction of the minerals.
Hardness of rock materials depends on several factors. Porous rocks such as sandstones usually have high permeability while granites . 3.2 Hardness Hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. 3.1. The higher quartz content gives higher abrasivity. It is an important measure for estimate wear of rock drilling and boring equipment.g.Abrasivity measures are given by several tests. e.Table 3. permeability of rock material is governed by porosity.1.1a gives common physical properties. metamorphic and chemical sedimentary rocks. A typical measure is the Schmidt rebound hardness number. Most rocks.1a Physical properties of fresh rock materials 3.1. Table 3.4 Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of a material to transmit fluids.1. Abrasivity is highly influenced by the amount of quartz mineral in the rock material. including igneous.1. generally have very low permeability. steel.. including density and porosity of rock materials. including mineral composition and density. Cerchar and other abrasivity tests are described later.3 Abrasivity Abrasivity measures the abrasiveness of a rock materials against other materials. As discussed earlier.
1a. Permeability of rock fractures is discussed later.1a presents a typical stress-strain curve of a rock under uniaxial compression. represent 6 stages that the rock material is undergoing. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock material.1b and Figure 3.2.1 Compressive Strength Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed compressive forces. analysis and modeling.1. S waves. Wave velocities are also commonly used to assess the degree of rock mass fracturing at large scale.1.2.2. A well compacted rock has generally high velocity as the grains are all in good contact and wave are traveling through the solid.2 Mechanical Properties of Rock Material 3. so the wave will partially travel through void (air or water) and the velocity will be reduced (P-wave velocities in air and in water are 340 and 1500 m/s respectively and are much lower than that in solid).5 Wave Velocity Measurements of wave are often done by using P wave and sometimes. P wave velocity measures the travel speed of longitudinal (primary) wave in the material. 3. flow is concentrated in fractures in the rock mass. Permeability of rock materials. Usually compressive strength of rock is defined by the ultimate stress. using the same principle.have low permeability.1c show the states of rock in those stages of compression. except for those porous one. Typical values of P and S wave velocities of some rocks are given in Table 3. the grains are not in good contact. The complete stressstrain curve can be divided into 6 sections. and it will be discussed in a later chapter. The velocity measurements provide correlation to physical properties in terms of compaction degree of the material. For a poorly compact rock material. The most common measure of compressive strength is the uniaxial compressive strength or unconfined compressive strength. 3. . while S-wave velocity measures the travel speed of shear (secondary) wave in the material. used in design. Figure 4. has limited interests as in the rock mass. Figure 3.2.
particularly in stiffer unconfined rocks. Stage III – The rock behaves near-linear elastic. The rock is primarily undergoing elastic deformation with minimum cracking inside the material. Stage IV – The rock is undergone a rapid acceleration of microcracking events and volume increase. even though the internal structure is highly disrupt. The spreading of microcracks is no longer independent and clusters of cracks in the zones of highest stress tend to coalesce and start to form tensile fractures or shear planes .1a Typical uniaxial compression stress-strain curve of rock material. of about 35-40% peak strength. the stress-strain is largely recoverable. Stage I – The rock is initially stressed. The specimen is undergone strain softening (failure) . Stage V – The rock has passed peak stress.1c Samples of rock material under uniaxial compression test and failure. This initial non-linearity is more obvious in weaker and more porous rocks. Stage II – The rock basically has a linearly elastic behaviour with linear stress-strain curves.depending on the strength of the rock.Figure 3. The upper boundary of the stage is the point of maximum compaction and zero volume change and occurs at about 80% peak strength. pre-existing microcracks or pore orientated at large angles to the applied stress is closing. as the there is little permanent damage of the micro-structure of the rock material. In this stage the crack arrays fork and coalesce into macrocracks or fractures. but is still intact.2. Figure 3. tends to be low. The Poisson's ratio. both axially and laterally. in addition to deformation. This causes an initial non-linearity of the axial stress-strain curve. Microcrack propagation occurs in a stable manner during this stage and that microcracking events occur independently of each other and are distributed throughout the specimen. There is a slight increase in lateral strain due to dilation. At this stage. Micro-cracks are likely initiated at the later portion of this stage.2. The axial stress-strain curve is nearlinear and is nearly recoverable.
we often are interested in the rock at depth. and is subjected to lateral stresses.2.2. The compressive strength with lateral pressures is called triaxial compressive strength.1d Triaxial compression test and failure 3. The rock is covered by overburden materials. Compressive strength with lateral pressures is higher than that without. of the rate of change of stress with strain. Stage VI – The rock has essentially parted to form a series of blocks rather than an intact structure. In underground excavation. i. Figure 3. These blocks slide across each other and the predominant deformation mechanism is friction between the sliding blocks.2. Thus further strain will be concentrated on weaker elements of the rock which have already been subjected to strain. Figure 3.. . Discussion on the influence of confining pressure to the mechanical characteristics is given in a later section. the stress-strain characteristics also changed. at peak stress the test specimen starts to become weaker with increasing strain.2.1a. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve obtained during compressional or tensile tests conducted on a rock sample. The axial stress or force acting on the specimen tends to fall to a constant residual strength value.deformation. Typical strengths and modulus of common rocks are given in Table 3.2 Young's Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio Young's Modulus is modulus of elasticity measuring of the stiffness of a rock material.e. It is defined as the ratio. for small strains. equivalent to the frictional resistance of the sliding blocks. In addition to the significant increase of strength with confining pressure. Secondary fractures may occur due to differential shearing.1d shows the results of a series triaxial compression tests. This in turn will lead to zones of concentrated strain or shear planes.
4. . mainly of sedimentary origin. typically crystalline rocks. behave ductile.2. the Poisson’s ratio is between 0. such as shale and mudstone. typically around 0. Brittle rocks.1a Mechanical properties of rock materials. Most rocks. while soft rock. Young’s Modulus of rock materials varies widely with rock type. have low strain at failure. Strain at failure increases with increasing confining pressure under triaxial compression conditions.3a. Young’s Modulus can be as high as 100 GPa.15 and 0. Strain at failure is the strain measured at ultimate stress.2.4% under uniaxial compression. beyond the linearly elastic region the increase in lateral strain is faster than the axial strain and hence indicates a higher ratio. For extremely hard and strong rocks. A few soft rocks. As seen from the tests that at later stage of loading beyond. could have relatively high strain at failure. as shown in Figure 3. 3. Strain at failure sometimes is used as a measure of brittleness of the rock. at linearly-elastic region. Rocks generally fail at a small strain. including all crystalline igneous. Similar to strength.Table 3. that is. behave brittle under uniaxial compression.3 Stress-Strain at and after Peak A complete stress-strain curve for a rock specimen in uniaxial compression test can be obtained. metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Rocks can have brittle or ductile behaviour after peak.2. Poisson’s ratio measures the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain.2 to 0. For most rocks.
3a Complete stress-strain curves of several rocks showing post peak behaviour (Brady and Brown). maximum tensile stress the rock material can withstand. Figure 3. Cohesion is a measure of internal bonding of the rock material. i.4a illustrates the failure mechanism of the Brazilian tensile tests. φ. The most common tensile strength determination is by the Brazilian tests.2.2. Tensile strength of rock materials can be obtained from several types of tensile tests: direct tensile test. 3.4 Tensile Strength Tensile strength of rock material is normally defined by the ultimate strength in tension. Brazilian test and flexure test.2. .2. Different rocks have different cohesions and different friction angles. Figure 3.2. Rock material generally has a low tensile strength. Direct test is not commonly performed due to the difficulty in sample preparation. Internal friction is caused by contact between particles. Rock resists shear stress by two internal mechanisms. and is defined by the internal friction angle.4a Stress and failure of Brazilian tensile tests by RFPA simulation.5 Shear Strength Shear strength is used to describe the strength of rock materials. 3.Figure 3.. cohesion and internal friction. The existence of microcracks may also be the cause of rock failing suddenly in tension with a small strain. The low tensile strength is due to the existence of microcracks in the rock. to resist deformation due to shear stress.e.
1 Effects of Confining Pressure Figure 4. In general.. the shear envelope is defined which gives the cohesion and internal friction angle. even the loading may appears to be compression. Rocks generally have high compressive strength so failure in pure compression is not common.5a Determination of shear strength by triaxial tests. It shows that with increasing confining pressure. (a) (b) the peak strength increases.5a. 3. the later methods is widely used and accepted. By plotting Mohr circles. With a series of triaxial tests conducted at different confining pressures. In practice.2.3.2. as shown in Figure 3. e. Figure 3. This brittle-ductile transition pressure varies with rock type. (c) (d) The confining pressure that causes the post-peak reduction in strength disappears and the behaviour becomes fully ductile (48. the post-peak drop in stress to the residual strength reduces and disappears at high confining stress. is known as the brittle-ductile transition pressure.3 Effects of Confining and Pore Water Pressures on Strength and Deformation 3. the region incorporating the peak of the axial stress-axial strain curve flattens and widens.3 MPa in the figure).Shear strength of rock material can be determined by direct shear test and by triaxial compression tests.1a illustrates a number of important features of the behaviour of rock in triaxial compression. peak stresses (σ1) are obtained at various lateral stresses (σ3).3. igneous and high grade metamorphic rocks. Tensile and shear strengths are important as rock fails mostly in tension and in shearing. .g. there is a transition from typically brittle to fully ductile behaviour with the introduction of plastic mechanism of deformation. granite and quartzite. remain brittle at room temperature at confining pressures of up to 1000 MPa or more.
There is a transition from ductile to brittle behaviour as pore pressure is increased from 0 to 69 MPa. A series of triaxial compression tests was carried out on a limestone with a constant confining pressure of 69 MPa.3. .2 Effects of Pore Water Pressure The influence of pore-water pressure on the behaviour of porous rock in the triaxial compression tests is illustrated by Figure 4. Effect of pore water pressure is only applicable for porous rocks where sufficient pore pressure can be developed within the materials. 3.2a Effect of pore pressure on the stress-strain behaviour of rock materials.3. but with various level of pore pressure (0-69 MPa). Figure 3.3.2a. In this case. the classical effective stress law does not hold.1a Complete axial stress-axial strain curves obtained in triaxial compression tests on Marble at various confining pressures (after Wawersik & Fairhurst 1970).3. For low porosity rocks. mechanical response is controlled by the effective confining stress (σ3' = σ3 – u).Figure 3.
5. calculated from the point load at failure and the size of the specimen. The correlation between hardness and strength is shown in Figure 3. the uniaxial compressive strength is reduced.1a. compressional (or longitudinal) P-wave velocity (vp) is related to the elastic modulus E s and the density (ρ) of the material as. 4. At the same time. . Figure 3. Density. Is(50). The correlation is also influenced by the density of the material.5. Young’s Modulus and Strength.5. the hardness index can be used to estimate uniaxial compressive strength of the rock material.3 Velocity and Modulus While seismic wave velocity gives a physical measurement of the rock material.5.4. 3.5. It gives the standard point load index.1a Correlation between hardness. From the theory of elasticity.1 Point Load Strength Index Point load test is another simple index test for rock material. compared to the strength in dry condition. It is a measure of the hardness of the rock material by count the rebound degree.3.1 Rock Hardness.5 Relationships between Physical and Mechanical Properties 3.4 Other Engineering Properties of Rock Materials 3. 3. and Strength Schmidt hammer rebound hardness is often measured during early part of field investigation. with size correction to an equivalent core diameter of 50 mm.2 Effect of Water Content on Strength Many tests showed that the when rock materials are saturated or in wet condition. it is also used to estimate the elastic modulus of the rock material.
4a Correlation between strength and modulus.4a. i. or perhaps on the texture of the rocks. higher elastic modulus is often associated with higher strength.4 Compressive Strength and Modulus It is a general trend that a stronger rock material is also stiffer. . Seismic Poisson’s ration νs can be determined from. Figure 3.5. The value of the seismic modulus is generally slightly higher than the modulus determined from static compression tests.e. and S-wave velocity vs is in km/s. Gs is in GPa. and vp in km/s.If ρ in g/cm3. Alternatively.5. but should not be mistaken as the modulus under dynamic compression). There is reasonable correlation between compressive strength and elastic modulus. seismic Young’s modulus Es can be determined from shear modulus (Gs) and Poisson’s ratio (νs).. seismic shear modulus Gs may be determined from shear S-wave velocity vs. It is different from the modules obtained by the uniaxial compression tests. It should be noted that the correlation is not precisely linear and also depends on the rock type. Es = 2 Gs (1 + νs) 3. when density ρ is in g/cm3. then Es in GPa (109 N/m2). Similarly.5. The elastic modulus estimated by this method is the sometime termed as seismic modulus (also called dynamic modulus. The correlations are presented in Figure 3.
where c = cohesion and φ = angle of internal friction. or In a shear stress-normal stress plot. with an intercept c on the τ axis and an angle of φ with .6. the Coulomb shear strength criterion τ = c + σn tanφ is represented by a straight line. Therefore. Figure 3.e. Applying the stress transformation equations or from the Mohr’s circle.1a Stresses on failure plane a-b and representation of Mohr’s circle. a constant cohesion (c) and a normal stress-dependent frictional component..6.1 Mohr-Coulomb criterion Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion assumes that a shear failure plane is developed in the rock material. it gives: Coulomb suggested that shear strengths of rock are made up of two parts. i. by combining the above three equations. Refer to Figure 3.3. When failure occurs. the stresses on the failure plane a-b are the normal stress σn and shear stress τ. the stresses developed on the failure plane are on the strength envelope.6 Failure Criteria of Rock Materials 3.6.1a.
with tensile cut-off. rock failure starts with the formation of the shear failure plane a-b. the stress condition on the a-b plane satisfies the shear strength condition. a tensile cut-off is usually applied at a selected value of uniaxial tensile stress. σt′. For most rocks. At each tangent point.the σn axis.1b is extrapolated. As assumed.6. Therefore. as shown in Figure 4. and θ=¼π+½φ Then Figure 3. and once the stress condition meet the envelope. failure will occur. the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope straight line touches (makes a tangent) to the Mohr’s circles. the failure plane is defined by θ. the measured values of tensile strength are generally lower than those predicted by the above equation.1b. σt′ is about 1/10 σc.6. For this reason. Any stress condition below the strength envelope is safe. the stress condition on the a-b plane meets the strength envelope. As seen from the Mohr’s circle.6. If the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope shown in Figure 4. . This straight line is often called the strength envelope.1b Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope in terms of normal and shear stresses and principal stresses. In another word. the uniaxial compressive strength is related to c and φ by: An apparent value of uniaxial tensile strength of the material is given by: However.
6. due to its simplicity and popularity. so the criterion is widely used. At h i h σ3. Griffith extended the theory to the case of applied compressive stresses.2 Griffith strength criterion Based on the energy instability concept.2a). .6. In most cases.2a Griffith crack model for plane compression. 3. It also overestimates tensile strength. Assuming that the elliptical crack will propagate from the points of maximum tensile stress concentration (P in Figure 4. rock engineering deals with shallow problems and low σ3.1b. Then.6. it overestimates the strength.The Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope can also be shown in σ1–σ3 plots. and or g The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is only suitable for the low range of σ3. as seen in Figure 4. Griffith obtained the following criterion for crack extension in plane compression: Figure 3.6.
The strength envelopes given by the above equations in principal stresses and in normal and shear stresses are shown in Figure 3. which represents the cohesion. When σ3 = 0. Hoek and Brown (1980) found that the peak triaxial compressive strengths of a wide range of isotropic rock materials could be described by the following equation: or Where m is a parameter that changes with rock type in the following general way: .2b.6.3 Hoek-Brown criterion Because the classic strength theories used for other engineering materials have been found not to apply to rock over a wide range of applied compressive stress conditions.2b Griffith envelope for crack extension in compression.6. the above equation becomes It in fact suggests that the uniaxial compressive stress at crack extension is always eight times the uniaxial tensile strength Figure 3. 3.6. a number of empirical strength criteria have been introduced for practical use. One of the most widely used criteria is Hoek-Brown criterion for isotropic rock materials and rock masses. τ = 2σt. This criterion can also be expressed in terms of the shear stress (τ) and normal stress (σn) acting on the plane containing the major axis of the crack: When σn = 0.where σt is the uniaxial tensile strength of the material.
It is also extended to rock masses with the same equation. It is evident that the Hoek-Brown strength envelope is not a straight line. the behaviour of those rocks is anisotropic. Figure 3. so it gives low strength estimate than the MohrCoulomb envelope.6. Because of some preferred orientation of fabric or microstructure. . to be discussed here. transverse isotropy. 3. It is however very easy to use and select parameters. or the presence of bedding or cleavage planes. The Hoek-Brown peak strength criterion is an empirical criterion based on substantial test results on various rocks.3a Normalized peak strength envelope for (i) granites and (ii) sandstones (after Hoek & Brown 1980).7 Effects of Rock Microstructures on Mechanical Properties 3. but a curve.7. It is therefore only the simplest form of anisotropy.1 Strength of rock material with Anisotropy Rocks. the envelope curves down.3a shows normalized Hoek-Brown peak strength envelope for some rocks. Figure 3.1a shows some measured variations in peak principal stress difference with the angle of inclination of the major principal stress to the plane of weakness. with respect to the principal stress directions. There are several forms of anisotropy with various degrees of complexity.Figure 3. hence makes it is so far the only acceptable criterion for both material and mass. The peak strengths developed by transversely isotropic rocks in triaxial compression vary with the orientation of the plane of isotropy. are not isotropic.7.6. At high stress level. plane of weakness or foliation plane. such as shale and slate.
β = inclination of the plane.1a Variation of differential stresses with the inclination angle of the plane of weakness (see Brady & Brown 1985) Analytical solution shows that principal stress difference (σ1–σ3) of a transversely isotropic specimen under triaxial compression shown in Figure 3. ϕ w = angle of friction of the plane. The minimum strength occurs when The corresponding value of principal stress difference is. .7.1a can be given by the equation below (Brady & Brown 1985): Where: c w = cohesion of the plane of weakness.7.Figure 3.
φw is about 30° to 50°. plotted using the above equation. The specimen is then compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate around 1 μm/s such that failure occurs within 5-10 minutes of loading.1 Compression Tests (a) Uniaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding.7.8. 3. stress and strain relationship. hence β is about 60° to 70°.8. In compression tests. the strength is the lowest. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the failure load. . Two axial and one circumferential deformation measurement devices (LVDTs) are attached to each of the specimen.1b shows variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.1b Variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.9 Laboratory Testing of Rock Materials 3. The load is measured by a load transducer. Load. intact rock specimens generally fail to form a shear plane at an angle about 60° to 70°.3 Failure Mechanism of Rock Material under Impact and Shock Loading 3.8. Fo r rock s.8 Time Dependent Characteristics of Rock Materials 3. This in fact shows that when the rock containing an existing weakness plane that is about to become a failure plane. two axial deformations and one circumferential deformation measurements are recorded at every 25 KN interval until failure.1 Rheologic Properties of Rock Materials 3. When the weakness plane is at an angle of 45° + ½ φw. Uniaxial compressive strength. the rock has the lowest strength.Figure 3. Figure 3.2 Effect of Loading Rate on Rock Strength 3.7.9.
Poisson's ratio. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate arou nd 1 μm/s su ch that failu re occu rs with in 5-15 minutes of loading.. (b) Triaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding.g. The specimen is placed in a triaxial cell (e. Two axial and two lateral deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used).3a A typical uniaxial compression test set-up with load and strain measurements. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength. Figure 3. The . ν50%.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. specimen anisotropy. Poisson's ratio at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength. mode of failure. uniaxial compressive strength. The specimen is then further compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. measurement devices are attached to each of the specimen. density and water content at time of test. Hoek-Franklin cell) and a desired confining stress is applied and maintained by a hydraulic pump. modulus of elasticity. is calculated as: v50% = slope of axial stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c slope of lateral stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . specimen dimension.9. σ c is calculated as the failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen.Uniaxial compressive strength.
2 axial strain or deformation and 2 lateral strains or deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used) are recorded at a fixed interval until failure. Triaxial compressive strength. Mohr's stress circle are plotted using confining stress as σ 3 and axial stress as σ 1 . Poisson's ratio at 50% of triaxial compressive strength is calculated with the same methods as for the uniaxial compression test. triaxial compressive strength. Reporting of results includes description of the rock. specimen dimension. is calculated as the axial failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. Triaxial compressive strength. σ 1 .9. stress and strain relationship. density and water content at time of test. For a group of triaxial compression tests at different confining stress level. specimen anisotropy.3b Triaxial compression test using Hoek cell. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of triaxial compressive strength. Mohr's circles and failure envelope. Figure 3. Failure envelopes (Mohr. . Load. Poisson's ratio. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. modulus of elasticity. Coulomb or Hoek and Brown) and parameters of specified failure criterion are determined.load is measured by a load transducer.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. mode of failure. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the axial failure load.
9.25 mm and square and parallel to within 0. due to the difficulty in specimen preparation. mode of failure. 3. rock specimen is to be prepared in dog-bone shape with a thin middle. For direct tension test.4b Brazilian tensile test.4 Tensile Tests (a) Direct Tension Test Direct tension tests on rock materials are not common. Loading is applied continuously at a constant rate such that failure occurs within 15-30 seconds. Figure 3. Deformation modulus can be measured by having strain gauges attached to the specimen. calculation and the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio is similar to that for the uniaxial compression test. The specimen is then loaded in tension by pulling from the two ends. (b) Brazilian Tensile Strength Test Cylindrical specimen of diameter approximately equals to 50 mm and thickness approximately equal to the radius is prepared. orientation of the axis of loading with respect to specimen anisotropy. test duration and loading rate.9.25°. specimen diameter (D) and specimen thickness (t) by the following formula: σT = − 0. water content and degree of saturation.9.636 P Dt Reporting of results includes description of the rock. The cylindrical surfaces should be free from obvious tool marks and any irregularities across the thickness.5 Shear Strength Tests . Ten specimens of the same sample shall be tested.3. The specimen is wrapped around its periphery with one layer of the masking tape and loaded into the Brazil tensile test apparatus across its diameter. End faces shall be flat to within 0. The tensile strength of the rock is calculated from failure load (P).
rock core specimen of diameter D is loaded between the point load apparatus across its diameter.45 . Load at failure is recorded as P. = 4A / π A = H D = minimum cross sectional area of a plane through the loading points. For axial test. the "equivalent core diameter".5 D to D and is loaded between the point load apparatus axially. The length/diameter ratio for the diametrical test should be greater than 1. Alternatively. rock core is cut to a height between 0. 3. A straight line is draw to fit best by tangent to all the Mohr’s circles. The line represents the shear strength envelope. a series equation can be formed for sets of σ 1 and σ 1 .I s 0. Uncorrected point load strength. For De ≠ 50 mm. Cohesion c and friction angle ‘φ’ can be computed by solving the equations. In diametrical test. The point load strength is corrected to the point load strength at equivalent core diameter of 50 mm. The angle of the line to the horizontal is the internal friction angle φ. based on the MohrCoulomb criterion. is calculated as: De where De . The Mohr’s circle can be plotted for a series of triaxial tests results with σ 1 at different σ 3 .(a) Direct Punch Shear (b) Shear Strength Determination by Triaxial Compression Results Shear strength parameters. Is. cohesion (c) and international friction angle (φ) can be determined from triaxial compression test data.0. is given by: for diametrical test. block and lump tests. De2 = D 2 for axial.6 Point Load Strength Index Test Point load test of rock cores can be conducted diametrically and axially. the size correction factor is: Is = P 2 D F = e 50 The corrected point load strength index I s (50 ) is calculated as: I s (50 ) = F . forming a series circles.9. and the intercept at τ axis is the cohesion c. as typically shown in the figure below.
3. At least 20 tests should be conducted on any one rock specimen. .9. The velocity is calculated from dividing the length of rock sample by wave travel time.9. transmitter and receiver transducers are used for sonic pulse velocity measurement. Figure 3. It is suggest to omit 2 lowest and 2 highest reading.7a Measuring P and S wave velocity in a rock specimen. The Schmidt hammer is point perpendicularly and touch the surface of rock. The reading gives directly the Schmidt hammer hardness value.6a Point load test.8 Hardness (a) Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness A Schmidt hammer with rebound measurement is used for this test. The transmitter and the receiver are positioned at the ends of specimen and the pulse wave travel time is measured.9. Both P-wave and S-wave velocities can be measured. The hammer is released and reading on the hammer is taken. and to use the remaining reading for calculating the average hardness value.7 Ultrasonic wave velocity Cylindrical rock sample is prepared by cutting and lapping the ends. 3.Figure 3. If the hammer is point to horizontal and upward. The standard Schmidt hardness number is taken when the hammer is point vertically down. correction is needed to add to the number from the hammer. An ultrasonic digital indicator consist a pulse generator unit.9. The length is measured.
It was proposed by the Laboratoire du Centre d’Etudes et Recherches des Charbonnages (Cerchar) in France. Displacement of the vice (1) is measured by a scale (3). A dead weight (6) of 70 N is applied on the stylus. The abrasiveness of the rock is then obtained by measuring the resulting wear flat on the tip of the steel stylus. loaded on the surface of the rock sample. 3. fitting into a holder (5). 3. roughly spherical in shape with corners rounded during preparation.9.9.10 Abrasivity (a) Cerchar Abrasivity Test The Cerchar abrasivity test is an abrasive wear with pressure test .Figure 3.8a Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test.10a. A steel stylus (4). To determine the CAI value the rock is slowly displaced by 10 mm with a velocity of approximately 1 mm/s. CAI = 10 −2 d where ‘d’ is the wear flat diameter of the stylus tip in μm. It consists of a vice for holding rock sample (1). which can be moved across the base of the apparatus by a hand wheel (2) that drives a screwthread of pitch 1 mm /revolution turning. The CAI value is calculated as.9. The sample is placed in the test drum of 2 mm standard mesh cylinder of 100 mm long and 140 mm in diameter with .10a Cerchar abrasivity test West apparatus (West 1989).9.12 Slake Durability Test Select representative rock sample consisting of 10 lumps each of 40-60g. The testing apparatus is featured in Figure 3. Figure 3.9.
usually tap water at 20°C.9.solid removable lid and fixed base. The sample and drum is placed in trough which is filled with slaking fluid. to a level 20 mm below the drum axis. The drum and sample are removed from trough and oven dried to a constant mass at 105°C without the lid. I d 2 = × 100% A− D The first cycle slake-durability index should be calculated when I d 2 is 0-10%. The slake-durability index is taken as the percentage ratio of final to initial dry sample masses after to cycles. Slake-durability index. The drum is brushed clean and its mass is recorded (Mass D). C−D Slake-durability index.9. and is dried to a constant mass at 105°C. B−D × 100% A− D Table 3. The mass of the drum and sample is recorded after cooling (Mass B). Figure 3. The slaking and drying process is repeated and the mass of the drum and sample is recorded (Mass C).12a).12a Slake durability test.9. The mass of drum and sample is recorded (Mass A). and the drum is rotated at 20 rpm for 10 minutes (Figure 3.12a Slake Durability Classification = .
Figure Two fundamental cases of stress application (a) and (b).Special Note AE Activity in rocks under compression The term acoustic emission (AE) is widely used to denote the phenomenon in which a material or structure emits elastic waves of shock type and sometimes of continuous type caused by the sudden occurrence of fractures or frictional sliding along discontinuous surfaces. or. The application of AE to nondestructive testing of materials in the ultrasonic regime. generate sources of elastic waves. such as mechanical loading. quality control. AE occurs when a small surface displacement of a material is produced. of practical interest. and temporal variations of strain ( ε ) and the frequency (n) of AE events in these cases . Acoustic Emission (AE) is a naturally occurring phenomenon whereby external stimuli. system feedback. in methods used to stimulate and capture AE in a controlled fashion for study and/or use in inspection. This occurs due to stress waves generated when there is a rapid release of energy in a material. process monitoring and others. typically takes place between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The wave generated by the AE source. or on its surface.
Figure Temporal variations of number of AE events and axial strain ( ε 1 ), lateral strain ∆V ( ε θ ) and non-elastic volumetric strain ( V ne
CHAPTER 6 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION
Rock mass property is governed by the properties of intact rock materials and of the discontinuities in the rock. The behaviour if rock mass is also influenced by the conditions the rock mass is subjected to, primarily the in situ stress and groundwater. The quality of a rock mass quality can be quantified by means of rock mass classifications. This Chapter addresses rock mass properties and rock mass classifications. 6.1 Rock Mass Properties and Quality 6.1.1 Properties Governing Rock Mass Behaviour Rock mass is a matrix consisting of rock material and rock discontinuities. As discussed early, rock discontinuity that distributed extensively in a rock mass is predominantly joints. Faults, bedding planes and dyke intrusions are localised features and therefore are dealt individually. Properties of rock mass therefore are governed by the parameters of rock joints and rock material, as well as boundary conditions, as listed in Table 6.1.1a. Table 6.1.1a Prime parameters governing rock mass property
The behaviour of rock changes from continuous elastic of intact rock materials to discontinues running of highly fractured rock masses. The existence of rock joints and other discontinuities plays important role in governing the behaviour and properties of the rock mass, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.1a. Chapter 4 has covered the properties of intact rock materials, and Chapter 5 has dealt with rocks contains 1 or 2 localised joints with emphasis on the properties of joints. When a rock mass contains several joints, the rock mass can be treated a jointed rock mass, and sometimes also termed a Hoek-Brown rock mass, that can be described by the Hoek-Brown criterion (discussed later). 6.1.2 Classification by Rock Load Factor (Terzaghi 1946) Based in extensive experiences in steel arch supported rail tunnels in the Alps, Terzaghi (1946) classified rock mass by mean of Rock Load Factor. The rock mass is classified into 9 classes from hard and intact rock to blocky, and to squeezing rock. The concept used in this classification system is to estimate the rock load to be carried by the steel arches installed to support a tunnel, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.2a. The classification is presented by Table 6.1.2a.
Figure 6.1.2a Terzaghi’s rock load concept. For obtaining the support pressure (p) from the rock load factor (Hp), Terzaghi suggested the equation below, p = Hp γ H where γ is the unit weight of the rock mass, H is the tunnel depth or thickness of the overburden. Attempts have been made to link Rock Load Factor classification to RQD. As suggested by Deere (1970), Class I is corresponding to RQD 95-100%, Class II to RQD 90-99%, Class III to RQD 85-95%, and Class IV to RQD 75-85%. Singh and Goel (1999) gave the following comments to the Rock Load Factor classification: (a) It provides reasonable support pressure estimates for small tunnels with diameter up to 6 metres. It gives over-estimates for large tunnels with diameter above 6 metres. The estimated support pressure has a wide range for squeezing and swelling rock conditions for a meaningful application.
6.1.3 Classification by Active Span and Stand-Up Time (Stini 1950, Lauffer 1958) The concept of active span and stand-up time is illustrated in Figure 6.1.3a and Figure 6.1.3b. Active span is in fact the largest dimension of the unsupported tunnel section. Stand-up time is the length of time which an excavated opening with a given active span can stand without any mean of support or reinforcement. Rock classes from A to G are assigned according to the stand-up time for a given active span. Use of active span and stand-up time will be further discussed in later sections.
3b Relationship between active span and stand-up time and rock mass classes (Class A is very good and Class G is very poor) Table 22.214.171.124a Rock class and rock load factor classification by Terzaghi for steel arch supported tunnels .1.3a Definition of active span. Figure 6.Figure 6.
1.6.4 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) (Deere 1964) .
His parameter has been used in the rock mass classification systems. The RMR system in use now incorporates five basic parameters below.2 Rock Mass Rating – RMR System 6. Therefore. Table 6.2.1a is the RMR classification updated in 1989. as an attempt to quantify rock mass quality.1. Part A of the table shows the RMR classification with the above 5 parameters. As discussed earlier. RQD: RQD is used as described before. roughness. 1989) The rock mass rating (RMR) system is a rock mass quality classification developed by South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).Rock quality designation (RQD) was introduced in 1960s. It does not account for the strength of the rock or mechanical and other geometrical properties of the joints. this geomechanics classification system incorporated eight parameters. point load index is acceptable. For rock of moderate to high strength. and presence of infilling.2a Rock mass quality classification according to RQD RQD has been widely accepted as a measure of fracturing degree of the rock mass. close associated with excavation for the mining industry (Bieniawski 1973).1. RQD partially reflects on the rock mass quality. Individual rate for each parameter is .2a reproduces the proposed expression of rock mass quality classification according to RQD. (b) (c) (d) (e) Table 6. 6. Originally. Spacing of joints: Average spacing of all rock discontinuities is used. Table 6. joint surface weathering and alteration. Groundwater conditions: It is to account for groundwater inflow in excavation stability. (a) Strength of intact rock material: Uniaxial compressive strength is preferred. Condition of joints: Condition includes joint aperture. RQD only represents the degree of fracturing of the rock mass.2. including the RMR and the Q systems. persistence.1 Concept of RMR System (1973.
This correlation allow engineer to estimate the stand-up time for a given span and a given rock mass.1b. The weight of each parameter has already considered in the rating. Explanation of the descriptive terms used is given table Part C. The table also gives the meaning of rock mass classes in terms of stand-up time. Table 6. it can be also expresses in rock mass class.obtained from the property of each parameter. for example.2. as shown in Figure 6.1b Rock mass classes determined from total ratings and meaning . RMR was applied to correlate with excavated active span and stand-up time.2. Influence of joint orientation on the stability of excavation is considered in Part B of the same table. as shown in Table 6. a final RMR rating is obtained. equivalent rock mass cohesion and friction angle. With adjustment made to account for joint orientation. maximum rating for joint condition is 30 while for rock strength is 15.2. The overall basic RMR rate is the sum of individual rates.1a.
average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. average RQD is 88%.2. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. average joint spacing is 0.2 Examples of using RMR System (a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed.2. Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: .24 m.1a Stand-up time and RMR quality 6. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough.Figure 6.
The calculated basic RMR is 76. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. average joint spacing is 0. but given in terms of groundwater pressure of 70 m water head and overburden pressure of 80 m ground. Here. groundwater parameter is not directly given. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. However. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. It falls in rock class B which indicates the rock mass is of good quality. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. and are highly weathered. Since there is no indication of in situ stress ratio. (b) A sandstone rock mass. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. average RQD is 70%. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. average RQD is 41%. RQD is given and from the relationship between RQD and joint frequency. It falls in rock class C which indicates the rock mass is of fair quality. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute.11 m. filled with clay.32 Joint water pressure / In situ stress Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 52. .7) 0. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. with the equation below. overburden stress is taken as the major in situ stress as an approximation. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. Joint water pressure = In situ stress = groundwater pressure = Overburden pressure = = = 70 m × γw 80 m × γ (70 × 1)/(80× 2. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. joint spacing is not provided. joint surfaces are slightly rough. In the above information. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. it is possible to calculate average joint spacing.
3a.2.1λ (0. F2 and F3 are given in Table 6. i.3 Extension of RMR – Slope Mass Rating (SMR) The slope mass rating (SMR) is an extension of the RMR system applied to rock slope engineering..2. which gives average joint spacing 0. .2. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the RMR parameter rating. SMR = RMR + (F1⋅F2⋅F3) + F4 where F1 = (1 . Judgement often is needed to interpret the information given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the RMR table. F2 = 1. For topping. SMR value is obtained by adjust RMR value with orientation and excavation adjustments for slopes.RQD = 100 e–0.e. F2 = (tan βj)2 B = joint dip angle = βj.sin A)2 and A = angle between the strikes of the slope and the joint = |αj . Details on rock slope analysis and engineering including excavation methods and support and stabilisation will be covered in a later chapter dealing slope engineering.αs|. 6.05 m Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 34. Table 6. It falls in rock class D which indicates the rock mass is of poor quality.3b gives the classification category of rock mass slope.0 Value of F1.1λ +1) (where λ is the mean number of discontinuities per meter) Joint frequency is estimated to be 20.
Table 6.2.3 Rock Tunnel Quality Q-System 6.3a Adjustment rating of F1.3a Classification of Rock Slope according to SMT 6. The numerical value of this index Q is defined by: RQD is the Rock Quality Designation measuring the fracturing degree. F3 and F4 for joints Table 6. Jr is the joint roughness number .2. and is an index for the determination of the tunnelling quality of a rock mass. The system was based on evaluation of a large number of case histories of underground excavation stability. Jn is the joint set number accounting for the number of joint sets.1 Concept of the Q-System The Q-system was developed as a rock tunnelling quality index by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) (Barton et al 1974).3. F2.
Ja is the joint alteration number indicating the degree of weathering. The classification system gives a Q value which indicates the rock mass quality. Q value is considered as a function of only three parameters which are crude measures of: (a) (b) (c) Block size: Inter-block shear strength Active stress RQD / Jn Jr / Ja Jw / SRF Parameters and rating of the Q system is given in Table 6.1c. and SRF is the stress reduction factor indicating the influence of in situ stress.accounting for the joint surface roughness.3. Equivalent dimension is used in the figure and ESR is given in Table 6.3.1a Rock mass classification Q system . as shown in Figure 6. Table 6. Q value is applied to estimate the support measure for a tunnel of a given dimension and usage. alteration and filling.3. Jw is the joint water reduction factor accounting for the problem from groundwater pressure.1b.3.3.1a.1a. shown in Table 6.
quantities of swelling clays .
1b Rock mass quality rating according to Q values .Table 6.3.
1c Excavation Support Ratio (ESR) for various tunnel categories 6.2 Examples of Using the Q-System .Figure 6.3.1a Support design based on Q value Table 6.3.3.
11 m. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 4. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. (b) A sandstone rock mass. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 29. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. and the rock mass is classified as fair quality. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. average joint spacing is 0.(a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. and the rock mass is classified as good quality. joint surfaces are slightly rough. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. average RQD is 70%. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures.4. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. filled with clay. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 . tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed.24 m. average RQD is 41%. average RQD is 88%. average joint spacing is 0. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. and are highly weathered.
σm is the rock mass strength (MPa) estimated from a complicated equation including the Q-value measured in the tunnel direction. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground.3. Rock stress level is also considered. F is the average cutter load (ton) through the same zone. 6. and the rock mass is classified as very poor quality. 20 in the CLI term and 5 in the σθ term are normalising constants. and σθ is the induced biaxial stress (MPa) on tunnel face in the same zone. and SRF ratings are the same parameters in the original Q-system. Orientation of joint structure is accounted for. judgement is frequently needed to interpret the descriptions given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the Q table.85. The constants 20 in the σm term. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute.3 Extension of Q-System – QTBM for Mechanised Tunnelling Q-system was extended to a new QTBM system for predicting penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR) for tunnelling using tunnel boring machine (TBM) in 1999 (Barton 1999). Again. together with the rock material strength.MPa. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. The new parameter QTBM is to estimate TBM performance during tunnelling. Jr. The abrasive or nonabrasive nature of the rock is incorporated via the cutter life index (CLI). The components of the QTBM are as follows: where RQD0= RQD (%) measured in the tunnelling direction. . CLI is the cutter life index. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the Q parameter rating. The method is based on the Q-system and average cutter force in relations to the appropriate rock mass strength. q is the quartz content (%) in rock mineralogy. Ja. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 0. Jn. Jw.
In the Hoek-Brown . they were not selected to describe rock mass boreability. as GSI was initiated to be a tool to estimate rock mass strength with the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. with increasing of rock mass quality. GSI does not include the parameter of rock strength.The experiences on the application of QTBM vary between projects. penetration decreases. such as sheared zones. The original rock mass classifications are independent of TBM characteristics. It was aimed to estimate the reduction in rock mass strength for different geological conditions.3a. Rock mass classification systems. the GSI value does in fact reflect the rock mass quality. Although QTBM has added a number of parameters to reflect cutting force and wear.4 Geological Strength Index GSI System and Others 6. the following equivalent between rock mass structural descriptions of blocky to the block size description is suggested below. In general.1a. very poor rock mass does not facilitate penetration. Parameters in those rock mass classifications were related to support design. Example of using the QTBM is given in Figure 6. However. mainly to cover more complex geological features. The direct application of GSI value is to estimate the parameters in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion for rock masses. GSI system has been modified and updated in the recent years. However. simple block size description does not include geological structural features.2. Rock mass structure given in the chart is general description and there may be many cases that does not directly match the description. such as folds and shear zones.4.4. The use of GSI requires careful examination and understanding of engineering geological features of the rock mass. while penetration however is a result of interaction between rock mass properties and TBM machine parameters (Zhao 2006). 6.1 GSI System The Geological Strength Index (GSI) was introduced by Hoek in 1994. the emphasis is obviously not be justified. The system gives a GSI value estimated from rock mass structure and rock discontinuity surface condition. This system is presented in Tables 6. were intended to classify rock mass quality to arrive a suitable support design. The systems were not meant for the design of excavation methodology. It appears that the correlation between QTBM and Advanced Rate is not consistent and varies with a large margin. In general. including RMR and Q. when developed. Although it was not aimed at to be a rock mass classification.
4. However. it is suggested that GSI can be related to RMR (GSI = RMR – 5). An approximate classification of rock mass quality and GSI is suggested in Table 6.1b. GSI system did not suggest a direct correlation between rock mass quality and GSI value.1a Geological Strength Index (GSI) . The use of GSI to estimate rock mass strength is given later in the section dealing with rock mass strength. for reasonable good quality rock mass.criterion. rock material uniaxial strength is used as a base parameter to estimate rock mass uniaxial strength as well as triaxial strengths of rock material and rock mass.4. based on the correlation between RMR and GSI Table 6.
tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. Rock Mass Structure for the above siltstone is blocky /folded/ faulted. and Joint Surface Condition is fair to poor. Therefore GSI is 40±5. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. Therefore GSI is 75±5. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. average joint spacing is 0. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. and Joint Surface Condition is very poor. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. Rock Mass Structure for the above granite is blocky. with the same rock masses used previously to estimate RMR and Q. average joint spacing is 0.4.24 m. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass.11 m.Table 6. Refer to the GSI chart. average RQD is 41%. The rock mass is classified as fair quality. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. (a) Granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. average RQD is 88%. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. The rock mass is classified as good to very good quality. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. average RQD is 70%. Refer to the GSI chart. filled with clay. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. The rock mass is classified as very poor to poor quality. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. Refer to the GSI chart. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. and Joint Surface Condition is very good. (b) A sandstone rock mass. joint surfaces are slightly rough.4.2 Examples of Using the GSI System Examples of estimating GSI is given below. Rock Mass Structure for the above sandstone is very blocky. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. . and are highly weathered.1b Rock mass classes determined from GSI 6. Therefore GSI is 20±5.
Q and GSI from the above three examples are given below.4.3a shows the comparison and correlation between RMR and Q. Figure 6. Figure 6.It is advised that while selecting an average value of GSI. and average of A is 44. RMR = 9 lnQ + A A varies between 26 and 62. 6.4.3 Correlation and Comparison between Q.3a Correlation between RMR and Q values. RMR and GSI Correlation between Q and RMR are found to be. . it is perhaps better to select a range of the GSI value for that rock mass.4. Summary of RMR.
For generally competent rock masses with GSI > 25.. For example. normal condition. 6. (a) Rock Mass Number. The importance of in situ stress on the stability of underground excavation is insufficiently represented in the Q-system. It has been noticed that SRF in the Q-system is not sensitive in rock engineering design. RMR classification should not be used for estimating the GSI values for poor quality rock masses. For very poor quality rock masses. N = (RQD/Jn) (Jr/Ja) (Jw) This system is used because the difficult in obtaining SRF in the Q-system. a few will be briefly discussed due to their unique application in certain aspect. stress reduction is not considered)..e. estimate the value of one classification from another is not advisable.Several other correlation equations have been proposed. one of which is: RMR = 13. the value assign to SRF cover too great range. . Another application of N number is to the rock squeezing condition. the value of RMR is very difficult to estimate and the correlation between RMR and GSI is no longer reliable. and without adjustment for joint orientation. For that reason. for a rock with σc = 50 MPa. N Rock Mass Number (N) is the rock mass quality Q value when SRF is set at 1 (i. N can be computed as. In section. i. The use of N in squeezing rock mass classification will be presented in a later section in this chapter.5 logQ +43. SRF = 1 for σc/σ1 = 10~200. due to the special behaviour and nature of the squeezing ground.4. Consequently. It should be noted that each classification uses a set of parameters that are different from other classifications. Squeezing has been noted in the Q-system but is not sufficiently dealt. They are all in the general form of semi-log equation. in situ stresses of 0.3 Other Classification Systems Several other classification approaches have been proposed.25 to 5 MPa yield the same SRF value.e. the value of GSI can be related to Rock Mass Rating RMR value as. GSI = RMR – 5 RMR is the basic RMR value by setting the Groundwater rating at 15 (dry).
1 Strength of Rock Mass As discussed earlier. 6.5. It is calculated by the following equation.2 Hoek-Brown Strength Criterion of Rock Mass Hoek and Brown criterion discussed in Chapter 4 is not only for rock materials.5.5.(b) Rock Mass Index. RMi = σc Jp where σc is the uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock material. and Jp is the jointing parameter accounting for 4 joint characteristics. few joints and good joint surface quality) will have a higher strength and high deformation modulus than that of a poor rock mass. strength and deformation properties of a rock mass are much governed by the existence of joints. Jp = 1 for a intact rock. It is also applicable to rock masses (Figure 6. joint density (or block size). the mechanical properties of a rock mass are also related to the quality of the rock mass.5 Rock Mass Strength and Rock Mass Quality 6.2a). Jp is in fact a reduction factor representing the effects of jointing on the strength of rock mass. a rock mass of good quality (strong rock. The Hoek-Brown criterion for rock mass is described by the following equation: or . joint roughness. namely. RMi Rock Mass Index is proposed as an index characterising rock mass strength as a construction material. In general. joint alteration and joint size. In another word. 6. Jp = 0 for a crushed rock masses.
For intact rock. . mb becomes mi.5. Constants mb and s are parameters that changes with rock type and rock mass quality.5. In the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion.5.5. Parameter a is generally equal to 0. The HoekBrown criterion for intact rock material is a special form of the generalised equation when s =1 and a = 0. σci is consistently referred to the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material in the Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and for rock mass. σci is the uniaxial strength of the intact rock in the rock mass. The equation above is the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion of rock mass.2a gives an earlier suggestion of mb and s values. Table 6.2a Applicability of Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and rock masses.e. i. σ1 is the strength of the rock mass at a confining pressure σ3.Figure 6. Note in the Hoek-Brown criterion..
Table 6. .Brown constants Development and application of the Hoek-Brown criterion lead to better definition of the parameters mb and s.5.2a Relation between rock mass quality and Hoek.5. according to different rocks.2b presents the latest definition of mi values for the intact rock materials. Table 6.
5 For GSI < 25. the value of mi should be calculated from the test results.e.5. rock masses of good to reasonable quality. the original Hoek-Brown criterion is applicable with. i. For GSI > 25.e. variation of mi value for each rock can be as great as 18. Once the Geological Strength Index has been estimated.2b Values of constant mi for intact rock in Hoek-Brown criterion The values in the above table are suggestive.5. rock masses of very poor quality.Table 6. and a = 0. the parameters which describe the rock mass strength characteristics. are calculated as follows. Value of a can be estimated from GSI by the following equation. and a in the Hoek-Brown criterion is no longer equal to 0. i. s = 0. If triaxial tests have been conducted. As seen from the table. .
range of values should be used to give upper and lower bounds. . Clearly. with material uniaxial strength 85 MPa. mi given for granite is approximately 32. mean GSI 40. (a) Granite rock mass. although in practice. when σ3 = 0. From the mi table. for rock masses of very poor quality. with material uniaxial strength 150 MPa. when σ3 = 0. From the mi table. mean GSI 75. The Hoek-Brown equation for the granite rock mass is. mi given for sandstone is approximately 17. Example of using the Hoek-Brown equation to determine rock mass strength is given below by the same three examples used for determining the rock mass qualities RMR. Q and GSI. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is. (b) Sandstone rock mass.Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is the value of σ1 when σ3 is zero. the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock masses equal to zero. it gives the uniaxial compressive strength as. From the Hoek-Brown criterion. Calculation in the example uses average values only.
Attempts have also been made to correlated deformation modulus of the rock mass with rock mass quality. the rock mass strength is close to the strength of intact rock material. mi given for siltstone is approximately 7. .2a and the Hoek-Brown criterion relating GSI.e. mean GSI 20.5. When the rock mass is solid and massive with few joints. the rock mass has very low uniaxial compressive strength close to zero.. Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. Q < 0.5. RMR < 23. in the equations below.4 Correlations between Rock Mass Quality and Mechanical Properties Correlations between rock mass strength and rock mass quality are reflected in Table 6. When the rock mass is very poor. with material uniaxial strength 65 MPa.1. (c) Siltstone rock mass. The better rock mass quality gives high rock mass strength. From the mi table. i. or GSI < 25.Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. In situ rock mass modulus (Em) can be estimated from the Q and the RMR systems. 6.
The above Em-RMR equations are generally for competent rock mass with RMR greater than 20. Then plotting the Mohr circle using the generated σ1–σ3 data and fitting with the best linear envelope. the equation is obtained by substituting GSI for RMR in the original Em-RMR equation. At the same time. For rock mass with σci < 100 MPa.5. For a tunnel problem. for poorer quality rock masses. plotting the Mohr circle and fitting with the best strength envelope. the equation below has been proposed. Often. the input for a design software or numerical modelling required for rock masses are in terms of MohrCoulomb parameters c and φ. If a series tests have been conducted on the rock mass. 6. the deformation of the intact rock pieces contributes to the overall deformation process. The Em-GSI equation indicates that modulus Em is reduced progressively as the value of σci falls below 100. using for example. Care must be taken when deciding the ‘best’ linear line in fitting the Mohr circles. they caution the user that is a major problem to obtain c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. Attempts have been made by Hoek and Brown to estimate c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. For poor rocks. The suggested approach to obtain rock mass Mohr-Coulomb parameters c and φ is by generate a series σ1–σ3 results by the Hoek-Brown equation.4 Relationship between Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb Criteria There is no direct correlation between the linear Mohr-Coulomb Criterion and the nonlinear Hoek-Brown Criterion defined by the two equations. where c and φ can be readily calculated. obviously test results should be used directly to obtain parameters c and φ. where c and φ can be readily calculated Common problems were there is no or limited test results on rock mass. the line should be fitting best for the . if the depth and stress range is known. It depends on the stress region of the engineering application. This reduction is based upon the reasoning that the deformation of better quality rock masses is controlled by the discontinuities while.
As shown in Figure 6. H > 350 Q1/3. Closure rate reduces with time. Usually the rate is high at initial stage. i.6 Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass 6.1 Squeezing Phenomenon ISRM (Barla 1995) defines that squeezing of rock is the time dependent large deformation. 6. Rock masses of competent rock of poor rock mass quality at great depth (under high cover) may also suffer from squeezing. which occurs around a tunnel and other underground openings. squeezing may be identified from rock class classification Q-value and overburden thickness (H).2a. i. and is essentially associated with creep caused by exceeding shear strength. Rate of squeezing depends on the degree of over-stress. . 6.Mohr circles in that stress region. several centimetres of tunnel closure per day for the first 1-2 weeks of excavation. the division between squeezing and non-squeezing condition is by a line H = 350 Q1/3. > 5% of tunnel diameter.6. (i) (ii) (iii) Mild squeezing: closure Moderate squeezing: closure High squeezing: closure 1-3% of tunnel diameter. Squeezing may continue for years in exceptional cases. and the fitting a line at low stress level (where the curvature is the greatest for the non-linear Hoek-Brown strength envelope) is very sensitive to the stress level. Behaviour of rock squeezing is typically represented by rock mass squeezes plastically into the tunnel and the phenomenon is time dependent. Squeezing may occur at shallow depths in weak and poor rock masses such as mudstone and shale. Squeezing condition may occur above the line. the stress region may vary from 0 to some level of stress... where H is in metres. moderate and high.e.6. For a slope problem. say. by the conditions below. H < 350 Q1/3. 3-5% of tunnel diameter. Also. Deformation may terminate during construction or may continue over a long time period.6.e. The degree of squeezing often is classified to mild. pore pressure needs to be considered as this affects the effective stress level. Below the line.2 Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification Based on case studies. the ground condition is generally non-squeezing.
the line separating non-squeezing from squeezing condition is. As discussed in the previous section.2a Predicting squeezing ground using Q-value Another approach predicting squeezing is by using the Rock Mass Number (N).6.6.Figure 6. N is the Q-value when SRF is set to be 1. In situ stress. The parameters allow one to separate in situ stress effects from rock mass quality. . From Figure 6. which is the external cause of squeezing is dealt separated by considering the overburden depth.2b. Where H is the tunnel depth or overburden in metres and B is the tunnel span or diameter in metres.
with overburden stress P. . Mild squeezing occurs when (275 N1/3) B–0.1 Moderate squeezing occurs when (450 N1/3) B–0. Squeezing may not occur in hard rocks with high values of parameter A.1 < H < (630 N1/3) B–0.6.1 High squeezing occurs when H > (630 N1/3) B–0.1. Theoretically. It is also possible to characterise the degree of squeezing base on the same figure. and A is a rock parameter proportion to friction.1. squeezing conditions around a tunnel opening can occur when. Px is the in situ stress in the tunnel axis direction. σθ > Strength = σcm + Px A/2 where σθ is the tangential stress at the tunnel opening. The above equation can be written in the form below for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic in situ stress field. σcm is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass.2b Squeezing ground condition is presented by: H > (275 N1/3) B–0. P=γH.1 < H < (450 N1/3) B–0.Figure 6.
6.6. relating tunnel closure to rock mass strength/in situ stress ratio.2c. Overburden stress can be estimated from the overburden depth and rock unit weight.ISRM classifies squeezing rock mass and ground condition in Table 6. A prediction curve was proposed by Hoek and reproduced in Figure 6.3. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass can be estimated from the Hoek-Brown criterion with rock mass quality assessment (e. Figure 6.6.2a Suggested predictions of squeezing conditions The prediction equations for squeezing require the measurements of in situ stress and rock mass strength. .. Table 6.6.g. Studies carried out by Hoek (2000) indicate that squeezing can in fact start at rock mass strength / in situ stress ratio of 0. The prediction curve was compared with tunnel squeezing case histories.2c Squeezing prediction curve and comparison with case histories. GSI).2a.
2a. Figure 3.2a In situ stress measurements at various (Brady and Brown 157).027 z. Depth. which represents the overburden pressure. Z (m) .5. Change of vertical stress with depth is scattered about the tend line.CHAPTER 3 In situ Stress In situ stress measurements have been compiled and presented in Figure 2. σv = 0.
Measuring convergence of roof and floor( or HW and F 4. Nature of sub-audible vibrations originating in rock 6. 2.The horizontal stresses are presented in the figure by a ratio of average horizontal stress to vertical stress. Measuring strains in rock remote from a free surface 3.While vertical stress can be estimated with reasonable reliability. inherent) stresses in rock. Measuring stresses in supporting structures . Changes in the modulus of elasticity of the ground 5. The physical characteristics which may be measured are: Following physical features of a rock are modified when it is subjected to the stresses induced by creation of an opening: 1. in situ stress measurements is required. Deformation of boreholes 7. Tangential deformation of exposed surfaces 3. Deformation and restoration of slots in the rock surfaces Measurements of strains and stresses include the following: 1. k. 2. Measuring absolute movements of roof and floor ( or HW and FW) 5. The following stresses are important in influencing the behaviour of rock around subsurface openings: 1. These are: 1. In situ stress measurement Instrumentation For the development of information for the design of underground openings and their supporting structures. It is very common in rock mechanics that one of the horizontal stresses represent the major principal stress. Measurement of loads on structures for supporting ground and stresses in the supporting structures. Measuring strains in rock at exposed rock surface 2. These are induced by creation of an opening. For projects that maximum stress direction and magnitude may be important. The magnitude and directions of natural (pre-existing. The magnitude and directions of induced (concentrated or re-aligned) stresses. Measuring ground pressures in supporting structures 7. while the vertical stress or the other horizontal stress represents the minor principal stress. Closure of roof and floor or closure of sides 2. Measurements of pressures on mine void filling material. Changes in velocity of sound waves passed through the ground 4. Measurement of strains in the ground surrounding an opening. four principal classes of measurements are of interest. Measurement of convergence movements of rock surfaces. Measuring pressures on mine filling materials 6. 3. 4. The horizontal stress should not be estimated.
large changes in stress values are produced by very small changes in dimensions (strain). is the most conspicuous phenomenon associated with underground openings and the easiest to measure. In the Strain restoration method strain gauges are fixed to the rock surface and readings are taken.0005 mm. The deformation in rocks is very small and therefore the determination of stresses depends on the measurement of extremely small deformations. The rock stresses are not measured directly. The amount of the expansion is a function of the initial stress within the rock and of the modulus of elasticity of the rock. but the measuring techniques are designed to measure strains and the stresses are then computed by using the values of the rock modulus of elasticity. freeing the rock surface to expand. In order to measure these minute changes in dimensions of the openings it is necessary to employ instruments capable of measuring to within a few ten-thousands of a cm. The pressure in the jack is then assumed to be equal to the original pressure in the rock normal to the slot surface. the deformation in the rock is 0. There are two general methods for determining absolute rock strain. A flat jack is cemented into the slot and expanded by application of hydraulic pressure until the strain gauges indicate that the rock has been restored to the state of strain existing prior to cutting of the slot. However. The modulii of elasticity of rocks ranges from 20 to 70 × 10 6 KPa. or of walls and ribs. 2. In an elastic material a stress concentration is created near the boundary of the opening. and The strain restoration method In the Strain relief method strain gauges are fixed to the opening walls at selected locations. For example in a rock with an elastic modulus of 7 0 × 10 6 KPa (70. Strain relief method Method 1: The strain gauge is cemented on the surface of the wall rock and a standard diamond drill is used to cut an annular slot in the rock around the gauges. The strain relief method.Measuring Strain (deformation) in rock The closure of roof and floor. These are: 1. such measurements do not yield information as to the stresses existing in the rock. thus allowing the portion of rock to expand.000 MPa). A deep slot is then cut into the rock above the gauges and the rock in allowed to expand. Thus. A groove is then cut around the location of the strain gauge. . Methods for determining the actual magnitudes of stresses within the rock involve measurements of deformation of rock blocks which are freed from the main mass and allowed to expand.
The rock surface is thoroughly dried before the gauges are cemented to the rock and dried with a hear lamp after gauges are cemented in place.The surface on which the gauges are mounted required careful selection and preparation. Maximum deformation is caused to the vertical axis of a horizontal borehole due to the vertical stress (assuming the horizontal stress is in effective). Method 2 Measurement of Diametral Borehole Deformation for Stress Determination Another method for determining rock stresses is the accurate measurement of borehole horizontal and vertical axes to determine the relative deformation produced in the crosssection of the borehole by stresses in the rock. When the vertical and horizontal stress in the rock is equal there will be no differential deformation along the two axes of the borehole. The surface is ground smooth with a hand grinding wheel. Strain gauges are sealed with waterproof mastic to protect them against moisture. Figure Borehole deformation gauge Theory and Equations Uni-axial stress .
the deformation is U= U =− dS E (2) (3) And the minus sign signifies that. T θ E r S θ S T Figure Schematic representation of biaxial stress acting across a borehole When θ = 00. as the stress increases. and equation 1 reduces to 3dS E 0 When θ = 90 . the deformation is in the direction of the applied uniaxial stress. the hole (at the point) is expanding.The deformation of the hole in a uni-axial stress and in plan stress is given by U= dS (1) (1 + 2 cos 2θ ) E = deformation of hole (change in length of a diameter) = radius of hole = diameter of hole = 2a = perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) = angle (counterclockwise) from S to r = modulus of elasticity T Where U a d S. The deformation versus the angle θ for one quadrant of the hole ( θ = 00 to θ = 900) is plotted in the figure below .
Figure Borehole deformation gauge 5 Deformation (arbitrary units) 4 3 2 1 0 -1 15 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Angle ( in degrees) Figure Sectional View of a borehole deformation gauge .
U= (6) If the deformation is measured across three different diameters and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are known. U= (5) When θ = 900. The equations for these conditions will be S U2 2 U3 2 U1 2 600 600 600 θ d/2 U1 2 U3 2 U2 2 S .Bi-axial stress For bi-axial stress field and plane stress. the magnitude and direction of the stresses S and T can be computed. the deformation is related to the biaxial stresses S and T by U= d [( S + T ) + 2( S − T ) cos 2θ ] E d (3S − T ) E d (3T − S ) E (4) When θ = 00.
In practice when a flat jack 70cm long and 70cm wide was used the distance A-B was made about 30cm. The measuring points A-Bare established prior to cutting slot and the distance between the points is accurately determined.In this investigation rock stress was determined by measuring the deformation (change in diameter) of a borehole before and after the hole was stress-relieved. T = borehole deformation at a 600 separation (600 deformation rosette) in cm. to accommodate a flat jack. . Hydraulic pressure is applied to the flat jack until measurements show that the distance between points A and B has been restored to its original dimension. The flat jack is then placed in the slot and cemented tightly in place with quick-setting cement mortar. U is +ve for increase in the diameter radius of hole diameter of hole = 2a perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) angle (counterclockwise) from S to U1 modulus of elasticity = = = = = θ1 E Strain restoration methods In this method a slot is cut. U3 a d S. . And best results were obtained when the measuring points were placed within a distance equal to about two-thirds the length of the flat-jack. It has been shown that the borehole deformation in a biaxial stress field is related to the magnitude and direction of the applied stresses in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the hole by the following equations: S +T = E (U 1 + U 2 + U 3 ) 3d 1 2E [(U 1 − U 2 ) 2 + (U 2 − U 3 ) 2 + (U 3 − U 1 ) 2 ] 2 6d S −T = tan 2θ = 3 (U 3 − U 2 ) 2U 1 − U 2 − U 3 Where U1. as shown in the figure. It has been reported from extensive experimentation with this system that the pressure required to restore the original strain with the locations of the measuring points relative to the slot. The pressure in the flat jack is then a function of the original pressure in the rock before the slot was cut. U2.
Because of the difficulty in cutting deep flatjack slots the method is restricted to near-surface measurements.Flat jack method does not require any knowledge of the elastic properties of the rock and hence it is considered to be a true stress measuring method. Figure Stress measurement using a flatjack Figure Modified Flakjack method .
Figure roof sag measuring station . have been used for decades in metal mines Figure. such as a vernier scale. also called extensometers. consisting of a top and bottom anchor. Mechanical extensometers. of which convergence gagues are special types. dial gauge. micrometer. steel wire or rigid tubing.Measurement of Rock Movement/deformation Convergence Measurement The mechanically simplest deformation measuring devices are deformeters. This class of instruments consists of a length-sensing device. Multipoint extensometers installed in boreholes have been used to detect roof movements. and some kind of micrometer or dial gauge.
Figure Axial deformation gauges Figure dial gauge deformeter .
Extensometers are installed into boreholes. In mining a simple extensometer such as this is known as a “telltale” because it gives a visual indication of roof movement. Convergence Measurement Monitoring technology and techniques to provide early warning of hazardous roof fall conditions have been a longstanding goal for safety engineers and practitioners working in the mining sector. Roof-to-floor convergence monitors are perhaps the oldest and most common method of measuring roof deflection as a means to detect roof rock instabilities. The simplest form of extensometer makes use of a stainless steel spring reference anchor with a tube indicator attached to it by stainless steel wire and visible at the hole mouth. is an indication of the magnitude of the pressure on the rock above the opening. etc. The steel wire will be brought to the down surface of roof. Extensometers are used to determine the magnitude.has four/six spider type strong leaf spring anchors (Above figure). position and rate of movement of rock surrounding an excavation. The amount of strain depends upon several factors. Each wire will be attached with steel scale of different colour for identification of the anchor height.The relative amount of closure between roof and floor. After installation of all the anchors the reference head will be installed leaving all the scales hanging freely. which are progressively covered as movement develops. Telltale extensometer is a very simple and general design to measure deformation in the roof of coal mines at 4 or 6 different points up to 6 meter height. or between HW and FW. When the bed/roof separation is taking place the reading will change in the respective scale. Movement is indicated by coloured reflective bands on the indicator. The essential features of an extensometer installation are a stable reference anchor position at the far end of the borehole. . characteristics of the country rock. a borehole mouth anchor at the tunnel wall and a means of indicating or measuring change in distance between them. The steel wire will be attached with each anchor before pushing of anchors. such as the amount of ground which is open. The relative movement of the anchor points is measured with either mechanical or electromechanical devices. This type of instrument consist of an anchor device mounted on the mine roof and floor and connected by a ridged bar or a metal wire. Measurement of convergence may be useful in predicting the imminence of failure of roof or floor rock. These anchors will be installed in a 42 mm hole at four different heights with the help of installation tool. the amount and quality of filling material. Model SME 248.
Figure Evolution of Dual height Telltale .
The AEM is a hand held device comprising an integral geophone and readout unit. Support system and lining condition Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) is a simple nondestructive testing device for checking the ‘looseness’ of exposed rock surfaces in tunnels. Figure Strain gauged rock bolts . They typically have pairs of diametrically opposed resistance strain gauges. To date RMT have manufactured around 4000 strain gauged rockbolts. This has the advantage that small roof movements can be easily read even when the tunnel height approaches 5m (Figure above).Here roof movement is converted to rotation of a pointer around a dial. where areas of detached shotcrete lining were delineated. allowing calculation and display of mean and bending strains. British Coal began producing strain gauged bolts for this purpose in 1990. but one which is difficult to measure. and for the detection of voids behind tunnel linings. The technology has recently been extended to include flexible bolts. which are encapsulated multi-wire steel strands. Examples of recent civil engineering use of the instrument include a steel lined water tunnel in the UK where voids behind the 45mm thick lining were detected. The device is installed at the same time as the rockbolts into a 5m long roof hole of 27mm-35mm diameter. It measures the reverberation decay rate of a surface when struck with a hammer. This was developed and patented by British Coal in 1992 as a safety device for coal mine tunnels where rockbolts were being introduced as support. Instruments installed in two coal mine shaft linings were found to be still returning consistent readings twenty five years later. an underground wastewater plant in Finland and the Joskin tunnel in the UK. Loads in support systems and linings The load distribution in rockbolts and cablebolts is an important support design parameter. The most common form of telltale is the dual-height version. supplied to mine and tunnel projects in seven countries.
This phenomenon refers to the stress induced failure that occurs on the walls of a borehole resulting in spalling or sloughing of material from the borehole wall as shown in Figure 7.Observational methods of in situ stress determination or estimation Observations of the behaviour of openings or holes made in stressed rock can provide very valuable indications of the magnitudes and. the orientations of in situ stresses. etc). They can therefore often provide a reliable indication of the orientations of in situ stress fields. drilling. Zoback et al 1986. 1993). . Haimson and Song. Whilst this approach may have some potential for estimating indicative values of stress. 1993. Figure 7 Example of stress induced sloughing of material from a borehole wall The locations of the breakouts on diagonally opposite sides of the borehole are usually aligned with the orientations of the secondary principal stresses acting in the plane normal to the borehole axis. it is unlikely that it will be successful in the adequate quantification of stress magnitudes. It is commonly observed in deep boreholes. the width and depth of the breakout have been measured as a basis for estimating the stresses. This is due to the fact that breakout mechanisms will be different for different types of rock. and relative or comparative values of stress. Borehole breakouts (dog earing) “Borehole breakout” is the more widely used term for what is known in South African mining as “dog earing”. In these attempts. temperature. and extents of breakout will vary depending on rock properties and in situ conditions (water. Haimson and Herrick (1986) found that the depth and circumferential extent of the completed breakout were directly proportional to the state of stress normal to the borehole axis. Lee and Haimson. Attempts have been made to use breakout data to estimate the magnitudes of in situ stresses (Zoback et al. 1985. more particularly.
1982). as shown in Figure 8. Figure 8 Core discs symmetrical with respect to the core axis . However.Core discing Core discing appears to be closely associated with the formation of borehole breakouts. including the drill thrust. indicates that there is a shear stress acting the borehole axis that the axis is not in a principal stress direction. the two secondary principal stresses normal to the core axis will be approximately equal. It is therefore unlikely that observation and measurements of discing will be successful in quantifying the magnitudes of in situ stresses. The thinner are the discs the higher is the stress level. If the discs are symmetrical about the core axis. A measure of the inclination of a principal stress to the borehole axis can be gauged from the relative asymmetry of the disc. 1991). The direction defined by a line drawn between the peaks of the disc surfaces facing in the original drilling direction indicates the orientation of the minor secondary principal stress. can significantly affect the occurrence of discing (Kutter. the shape and symmetry of the discs can give a good indication of in situ stress orientations (Dyke. the formation of discs depends significantly on the properties of the rock and the magnitude of the stress in the borehole axial direction (Stacey. For unequal stresses normal to the core axis. If the discs are uniform in thickness as shown in Figure 8. Nevertheless. In addition. 1989). the type and technique of drilling. as shown in Figure 10. In brittle rocks it has been observed that discing and breakouts usually occur over the corresponding lengths of core and borehole. then it is probable that the hole has been drilled approximately along the orientation of one of the principal stresses. the core circumference will peak and trough as shown in Figure 9. Lack of symmetry of the discing.
e. This shows that the major secondary principal stress normal to the tunnel axis (i. .Disc peaks Orientation of the minor secondary principal stress Drilling direction Figure 9 Core discs resulting with unequal stresses normal to the core axis Figure 10 Non-symmetrical cores discing. the dog earring in the tunnel in Figure 12 shows that the major secondary principal stress is inclined at about 120 to the horizontal. Figure 11 shows a classic dog ear in the sidewall of a 5 m diameter tunnel. the maximum stress in the plane perpendicular to the tunnel axis) is vertical at this location. and observations of the behaviour of the walls of the excavations in response to the in situ stresses can provide very valuable indications of the in situ stress field. Dog earring in bored excavations can be equally pronounced as in boreholes. Similarly. indicating that the core axis is not a principal stress direction Observations of failures in excavations Excavations can be considered as large boreholes.
Although hydraulic fracturing had been used previously for other purposes such as borehole stimulation for increasing the yield of water supply or dewatering boreholes. Scheidegger (1962) and Fairhurst (1964) were the first to suggest its use for the determination of in situ stresses. 1977. It has been widely used in the oil well industry. Rummel (Rummel. 1977. The characteristics of the pressure induced breakdown and the subsequent reopening of the fracture under repressurisation are monitored carefully. The orientation of the induced fracture is measured using a borehole television camera or a special impression packer to obtain a physical record of the surface of the borehole.3. Zoback et al. 4. The application of the method is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 14. 1987. Rummel et al. isolated using hydraulic packers on either side of it. From all these data the orientations of the secondary principal stresses normal to the axis of the borehole can be interpreted. 1983.Figure 11 Dog earing (photograph provided by Dr C D Martin) Hydraulic Fracturing for In situ Stress measurement Hydraulic fracturing is now a well established method for determining in situ stress magnitudes. Cornet (1993a).1 Hydraulic fracturing Conventional hydraulic fracturing involves the pressurizing of a short length of borehole. Haimson (1968. . Zoback et al. 1983) and Zoback (Zoback et al. 1980. 1986) played a major role in developing and promoting the use of the hydraulic fracturing technique. Vertical boreholes are usually used and it is assumed that the in situ principal stresses are vertical and horizontal. 1993). The method involves the pressurization of a length of borehole and the measurement of the pressure required to fracture the rock or reopen existing fractures. until the hydraulic pressure causes the rock to fracture.
Fracture generation occurs at the location of the least tangential stress at the borehole wall and the fracture propagates perpendicular to the direction of the least principal stress 4. Although this represents the full sophistication of the method. it is illustrative of the sort of requirements that would be necessary for quality measurements at greenfields sites. the borehole has to be inspected using a television camera. and associated services and personnel. to determine the orientation of the induced fracture. A simpler set-up would be applicable for in mine tests. or a special impression of its surface taken using an impression packer. the pressurization occurs sufficiently fast to avoid fluid permeating into the rock and thus alter the pore pressure within the rock matrix 3. . After hydrofracturing. to carry out a measurement. the straightness and wall quality of the borehole are important. the borehole axis is parallel to the direction of one of the principal stress components 2. The borehole must be diamond drilled. Since packers are inserted in the borehole to seal off the test sections. A system for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in deep boreholes is illustrated in Figure 15. the shut-in pressure is equal to the stress component perpendicular to the fracture plane. The classical stress determination from hydraulic fracturing tests is generally based on a few assumption and they are: 1.Figure 14 Hydraulic fracture applications The method requires special equipment.
Fig 15 System for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (after Tunbridge et al. 1989) .
The schematic arrangements of hydro-fracturing technique is as shown below in the figure 16
Figure 16 Schematic arrangement of hydro-frac technique
In non-porous rocks the minimum principal stress is given by the shut-in pressure. If a borehole is drilled in the vertical direction, and it is assumed that this is a principal stress direction, and that the minimum principal stress is horizontal, the major horizontal principal stress SH can be determined from the following equation: Testing Procedure A single or double straddle packers system is set (inflated) at the required depth so as to isolate a test cavity. A liquid is injected into the test cavity and its pressure raised while monitoring the quantity injected. A sudden surge of fluid accompanied by sudden drop in pressure indicates that hydrofracture of rock formation (fracture inititation or break down) has occurred. The hydrofracture continues to propagate away from the hole as fluid is injected, and is oriented normal to the least principal stress direction (Fig.17) Once the hydro-fracturing has traveled about 10 drillhole diameters, injection is stopped by shutting a valve, and the instantaneous shut-in pressure is measured. The process is repeated several times to ensure a consistent measurement of this pressure, which is equal to the minimum principal stress.
SV = γ .Z S h = PSi S H = T + 3.S h − PC T = PC − PR Where T is the tensile strength of the rock Sh and SV are the minor and major horizontal principal stress Pc is the breakdown pressure at fracture generation PR is the pressure necessary to re-open the induced fracture (T=0) PSi is the shut-in pressure to merely keep the fracture open against the normal stress acting in the fracture plane Z is the depth of the over burden and γ is the unit weight of the rock. Interpretation of hydrofracture records can require expert input if the shut-in pressure is not distinct. Interpretation of test results is not a straightforward activity, and the experience of the interpreter has some effect on the in situ stress values ultimately determined. Different interpreters may derive somewhat different results from the same set of field data. In porous rocks in particular, interpretation of hydraulic fracturing tests may be very difficult and, owing to the pore pressure, definition of the major principal stress may be doubtful. In sedimentary rocks, beds with a thickness of at least 2 to 3m are necessary for satisfactory testing to be carried out. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements have been carried out at depths in the 6km to 9km range (Amadei and Stephannson, 1997) and therefore the method is, in theory, suitable for the high stress conditions encountered in deep mines. At such high pressures, valves, tubing and packers must be of special design to be able to perform as required. In boreholes in which spalling or breakouts are occurring, there may be a risk of not being able to insert (or recover) the packers, and it may also not be possible to seal off the borehole satisfactorily. Borehole breakouts due to high stress levels may also interfere with the location of the fracture on the borehole wall, and this may lead to inaccuracy in determining stress directions.
Table 1 Test No Depth (m)
Hydrofracture Field Data Shut-in Pressure-PR MPa 15.0 19.0 12.0 15.0 27.2 42.5 33.0 T=PC-PR MPa PSi MPa
BreakDown Pressure-PC MPa Underground Borehole –Sub-level 40 1 23.5 17.2 2 21.5 28.0 3 18.5 18.2 4 12.5 18.4 5 9.5 32.4 6 4.15 45.5 7 1.95 40.6
2.2 9.0 6.2 3.4 5.2 3.0 7.6
11.5 13.0 10.0 12.0 20.5 33.5 32.0
It is clear from the above that the application of the hydraulic fracturing method is theoretically possible, but would be expensive, and demanding on services. Perhaps the most severe restriction, however, is the requirement that the borehole be drilled in the direction of one of the principal stresses. In mining situations this is usually not known and is one of the in situ stress parameters to be determined. Bibliography Dyke, C G (1989) Core discing: its potential as an indicator of principal in situ stress directions, Rock at Great depth, ed Maury & Fourmaintraux, Balkema, pp 1057-1064. Fairhurst, C (1964) Measurement of in situ rock stresses with particular reference to hydraulic fracturing, Rock Mech. & Engng Geol., Vol 2, pp 129-147. Haimson, B C and Herrick, C G (1986) Borehole breakouts – a new tool for estimating in situ stress? Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 271-280. Haimson, B C, Lee, C F and Huang, J H S (1986) High horizontal stresses at Niagara Falls, their measurement and the design of a new hydroelectric plant, Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 615-624. Haimson, B C, Lee, M, Chandler, N and Martin, D (1993) Estimating the state of stress for subhorizontal hydraulic fractures at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol 30, No 7, pp 959-964. Haimson, B and Song, I (1993) Laboratory studies of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp1047- 1056. Kutter, H (1991) Influence of drilling method on borehole breakouts and core disking, Proc. 7th Int. Cong. Int. Soc. Rock Mech., Aachen, Balkema, Vol 3, pp 1659-1664. Martin, C D and Chandler, N A (1993) Stress heterogeneity and geological structures, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp 993-999. Rummel, F (1987) Fracture mechanics approach to hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, in Fracture Mechanics of Rocks, Academic Press, London, pp 217-239. Scheidegger, A E (1962) Stress in earth’s crust as determined from hydraulic fracturing data, Geol. Bauwesen, Vol 27, pp 45-53.
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