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Course Material For Singareni Collieries Limited (SCCLtd) Ramagundem AP
By Dr.K.U.M.Rao Professor Department of Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 721302
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Rock Mechanics as a Discipline
Rock mechanics is a discipline that uses the principles of mechanics to describe the behaviour of rocks. Here, the term of rock is in the scale of engineering. The scale is generally in the order of between a few metres to a few thousand metres. Therefore, the rock considered in rock mechanics is in fact the rock mass, which composes intact rock materials and rock discontinuities. What is so special of rock mechanics? For normal construction materials, e.g., steel and concrete, the mechanical behaviours are continuous, homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic (CHILE). Properties of the manmade materials are known and can often be controlled. For rocks, due to the existence of discontinuities, the behaviours are discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and non-linearly elastic (DIANE). Properties of the natural geomaterials are unknown and often can not be controlled. It is important to be award that in rock mechanics, rock discontinuities dominate the mechanical and engineering behaviours. The existence of discontinuity depends on the scale. The discontinuous nature and scale dependence feature is not common in other man-made materials. Rock mechanics is applied to various engineering disciplines: civil, mining, hydropower, petroleum. In civil engineering, it involves foundation, slope and tunnel. In structural engineering, the design process generally is as following: Calculate external loading imposed on the structure; Design the structure and analyse loading in structure elements; Design the structure element and select materials. In rock engineering, or geotechnical engineering, the whole process is different. Loading condition is not easily calculateable, rock engineering, being sloping cutting or underground excavation, does not impose loading, but disturbs the existing stress field of the ground and redistribute the load. Therefore, the key process in rock engineering is to understand the how the stress field is disturbed by engineering activities and how the rock is behaving (responding) to the change of boundary conditions, and yet the material does not has a characteristics controlled by man. The objectives of learning rock mechanics are: • • To understand of the mechanical behaviour of rock materials, rock discontinuities and rock masses. To be able to analyse and to determine mechanical and engineering properties of rocks for engineering applications.
CHAPTER 2 ROCK FORMATION AND ROCK MASS 2.1 Rock Formations and Types Rock is a natural geo-material. In geological term, rock is a solid substance composed of minerals, of which can consist in particulate form (soil particles) or in large form (mountains, tectonic plates, planetary cores, planets). In common term, rock is an aggregate of minerals. Rocks are formed by three main origins: igneous rocks from magma, sedimentary rock from sediments lithfication and metamorphic rocks through metamorphism. Figure 2.1.1a shows the geological process involved in the formations of various rocks. It should be noted that the processes are dynamic and continuous.
Figure 2.1.1a Rock cycle illustrating the role of various geological processes in rock formation. 2.1.3 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization. They can be formed below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks, or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from either the Earth's mantle or pre-existing rocks made molten by extreme temperature and pressure changes. Figure 2.1.1a shows the origin of magma and igneous rock through the rock cycle. As magma cools, minerals crystallize from the melt at different temperatures. The magma from which the minerals crystallize is rich in only silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium,
iron. known as contact metamorphism. heat causes minerals to recrystallise.4 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is formed in three main ways – by the deposition of the weathered remains of other rocks (known as 'clastic' sedimentary rocks).1. conglomerate. which is a unique feature . igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock (Figure 2. Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock into particles without producing changes in the chemical composition of the minerals in the rock. the rock undergoes profound physical and/or chemical change. When an existing rock is subjected to heat and extreme pressure. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface. Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by chemical reaction. but count for only 5% of the rock in the earth crust. and by precipitation from solution. When above 200°C.1.1a). calcium. which account for over 90% of all igneous rocks. Heat and pressure are the causes of metamorphism. through metamorphism. shale. and thus new minerals are formed. by the deposition of the results of biogenic activity. chalk and limestone. Igneous rocks make up approximately 95% of the upper part of the Earth's crust. The combined effects of recrystallisation and re-orientation usually lead to foliation. All rocks disintegrate slowly as a result of mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. The high temperatures and pressures in the depths of the Earth are the cause of the changes. 2. Four basic processes are involved in the formation of a clastic sedimentary rock: weathering (erosion). known as regional metamorphism. The existing rock may be sedimentary rock. Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by mineral assembly. Another important mechanism of metamorphism is that of chemical reactions that occur between minerals without them melting. Many complex high-temperature reactions may take place.5 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rock is a new rock type transformed from an existing rock type. These are the elements which combine to form the silicate minerals. They are formed deep beneath the Earth's surface by great stresses from rocks above and high pressures and temperatures. but their great abundance is hidden on the Earth's surface by a relatively thin but widespread layer of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. and magnesium minerals.1. In the process atoms are exchanged between the minerals. Sedimentary rocks include common types such as sandstone. 2. transportation. and each mineral assemblage produced provides us with a clue as to the temperatures and pressures at the time of metamorphism. clay.potassium. Pressure forces some crystals to re-orient. deposition and compaction. Metamorphic rocks are also formed by the intrusion of molten rock (magma) into solid rock and form particularly at the place of contact between the magma and solid rock where the temperatures are high.
2. Joints are often in sets. The removal of overlying rock results in change of stresses.2. Since faults usually do not consist of a single. rock.2. such as mica and chlorite.of metamorphic rocks. 2. Joints are always in sets. Figure 2. (ii) three sets. This causes the platy or elongated crystals of minerals. Columnar jointing or columnar basalts are typical joint features by cooling. Joints are the most common type of rock discontinuities. a rock mass can have between one to a few joint sets. and hence leads to the fracturing of underlying rock.1a Typical joints seen (i) one dominant set. They are generally considered as part of the rock mass. The largest examples are at tectonic plate boundaries. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes.1a). A joint set is a group of parallel joints. which form cooling joints. as the spacing of joints usually is between a few centimetres and a few metres.2a. Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along faults. . Figure 2. but many faults occur far from active plate boundaries. with the bands showing the colours of the minerals that formed them.1 Joints A geological joint is a generally planar fracture formed in a rock as a result of extensional stress. Joints can be formed due to erosion of the overlying strata exposed at the surface. Joints are also formed by tectonic movement. the term fault zone is used when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane.2 Faults Geologic faults are planar rock fractures which show evidence of relative movement. Typically. Joints can also be caused by cooling of hot rock masses.2. to grow with their long axes perpendicular to the direction of the force. clean fracture. 2.2. It occurs when a strong compressive force is applied from one direction to a recrystallizing rock. Joints do not have any significant offset of strata either vertically or horizontally (Figure 2.2 Rock Discontinuities 2. or foliated. This result in a banded.
2.4a). Folds are usually not considered as part of the rock mass. particularly intense folds. Folds can be commonly observed in sedimentary formation and as well as in metamorphic rocks (Figure 2. fault zone and shear zone. It should be noted that fold has huge variation of features. folds can be of the similar scale as the engineering project and hence the significance of folds on the behaviour of the rock mass must be taken into consideration. However.4 Bedding Planes As sedimentary rocks are formed in layers. 2.2. A shear zone is a wide zone of distributed shearing in rock.Figure 2.2. particularly fault zone and shear zone. but the results of folding is often reflected in the rock mass consideration. Small scale single faults often have the similar effects as a joint. They are often dealt separately from the rock mass. or up to several kilometres wide. the interfaces between layers are termed as bedding planes. Shear zones can be only inches wide.2a Faults. Bedding plane therefore is a discontinuity separating different rocks (Figure 2. Typically this is a type of fault but it may be difficult to place a distinct fault plane into the shear zone.2. 2. Folds form under very varied conditions of stress. if a project is to be constructed over or close such zones. As faults.2. Although the folding feature may not be directly taking into account of rock mass. Folds. Bedding plane often can be fully closed and cemented.3a). . are large scale geological features. The behaviour large scale fault and shear zones require specific investigation and analysis.3 Folds The term fold is used in geology when originally flat and planar rock strata are bent as a result of tectonic force or movement. are often associated with high degree of fracturing and relatively weak and soft rocks.
2. typically seen in Figure 2. some bedding planes could also become potential weathered zones and pocket of groundwater.3. It mainly creates an interface of two rock materials.2. often termed as rock mass. e. Bedding planes are isolated geological features to engineering activities.g.1 Engineering Scale and Rock Engineering in and on rock has different scales. slopes and tunnels.1b. This mass of rock. then rock in such scale is generally a mass of rock at the site. an interface between porous sandstone and limestone may lead to extensive weathering of the limestone. For example.2. which leads to cavities along the interface. consists of rock blocks and fractures. foundations. However. is the whole body of the rock in situ. For civil engineering works.Figure 2. When such engineering scale is considered. the scale of projects is usually a few ten metres to a few hundreds metres. varying from a few centimetres to a few kilometres.. Figure 2.3 Rock Material and Rock Masses 2.3a Folds in a sedimentary formation.3. A borehole can be typically around 8 cm while a mine can spread up to a few km.3b Folds in a sedimentary formation. .
2. .3.4a Some typical bedding planes.2. Figure 2.4b Some typical bedding planes.Figure 2. Figure 2.1b Typical rock masses.
they have relative small deformation and low permeability. (iii)Alters stress distribution and orientation. Most of the engineering materials have varying degrees of inhomogeneity. 2. blocks and wedges.2a). (i) Provides water flow channel and creates flow networks.3. Rock materials and discontinuities together form rockmass.2a A dyke intrusion. In addition. joints. 2.2 Inhomogeneity of Rock Masses Inhomogeneity of a rock mass is primarily due to the existence of discontinuities. blocks and wedges.3.2. to be free to fall and move (Figure 2.3. 2. Rock masses are also inhomogeneous due to the mix of rock types. of various sizes. Rocks are formed by nature and exhibits great inhomogeneity.3.4. rock mass may also include filling materials in the discontinuities and dyke and sill igneous intrusions (Figure 2. (ii) Gives large deformation. varying from extremely soft clay and fractured and crushed rocks. .3a).2 Composition of Rock Mass A rock mass contains (a) rock material. (ii) Acts as weak planes for sliding and moving. and (b) rock discontinuities that cuts through the rock. interbedding and intrusion.3 Role of Joints in Rock Mass Behaviour Rock joints change the properties and behaviour of rock mass in the following terms: (i) Cuts rock into slabs.3.4 Inhomogeneity and Anisotropy 2. Faults are often filled with weathered materials.4. in the forms of fractures. in the form of intact rock plates. It is therefore obvious that rock mass behaviour by large is governed by rock joints. and faults. Because the rock materials between rock joints are intact and solid.1 Inhomogeneity of Rock Materials Inhomogeneity represents property varying with locations. Figure 2.
4.3b). small degree of anisotropy is possible.4.2a).g. Phyllite and schist are the other foliated metamorphic rocks that exhibit anisotropy. have noticeable anisotropic characteristics. shale.4. e. under the influence of formation process and pressure.4.2.3 Anisotropy Anisotropy is defined as properties are different in different direction. as seen in Figure 2. However. and (ii) sedimentary layer (Figure 2.3a Some common anisotropic rocks.3b A Limestone rock mass with one dominating joint set.4.4. Other sedimentary may not have clear anisotropy. Figure 2. Some sedimentary rocks. Rock with most obvious anisotropy is slate. Figure 2.3a. (i) slate and (ii) sandstone. .. Rock mass anisotropy is controlled by (i) joint set (Figure 2.Anisotropy occurs in both rock materials and rock mass.
4. S Permeability to water k Mineralogical composition is the intrinsic property controlling the strength of the rock Although there exist more than 2000 kinds of known minerals.CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF ROCK MATERIALS Rock material is the intact rock portion.1 Physical Properties of Rock Material The physical properties of rocks affecting design and construction in rocks are: 1. They are: • Quartz • Feldspar • Mica • Hornblende(Amphiboles) • Pyroxenes • Olivine • Calcite • Kaolinite. 7. showing the geometrical aspects of the rock including shape. The Rocks containing quartz as the binder are known as siliceous rocks and are the strongest while the rocks with calcium and magnesium carbonates are the weakest. 3. only about nine of them partake decisively in forming the composition of rocks. . megascopic or microscopic. 8. argillaceous and ferrous minerals. Thus the texture is the appearance. 2. 3. One distinguishes between coarse-texture (coarse-grained) and fine-textures rock. and texture. calcites. and arrangement. A coarse-grained rock is one in which the large crystals are seen easily while the fine grained rocks need to be seen under a microscope. Specific gravity G Unit weight γ Porosity n Void ratio e Moisture content w Degree of saturation. structure. 5. size. and • Dolomite These minerals are glued together by four types of materials such as silicates. Mineralogical composition . Rock structure and texture affect the strength properties of the rock. This Chapter addresses properties of rock material. 6. The term “rock texture” refers to the arrangement of its grains. seen on a smooth surface of a mineral aggregate.
81 kN/m3 w = moisture content of the sample . It is sometimes defined by unit weight and specific gravity. V V − (WS / Gγ W ) e = n= V = V 1+ e V V 1 = S 1+ e V γ Dry = (The unit weight of water = 1 g/cm3 = 1 t/m3 = 9.1.500nd 2. Porosity therefore is a fraction between 0 and 1. Density of rock material various.4 lb/ft3) Where Wd = dry weight of the sample WS = weight of solids VV and VS = volume of voids and volume of solids V = total volume of the sample G = specific gravity e = Void ratio of the sample γ w = Unit weight of water = 9. and often related to the porosity of the rock. Density.1 Specific Gravity. It is the ratio of the non-solid volume (VV) to the total volume (V) of material.800 kg/m3. Porosity and Water Content Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of solids to the density of water. Most rocks have density between 2. Void ratio (e) is the ratio of the volume of voids (VV) to the volume of solids (VS) e= VV VS Wd γ G = ⋅γW = V 1+ e 1+ w Porosity (n) describes how densely the material is packed.3. M 1 G= S ⋅ VS ρ W (where M S = mass of solids and VS -volume of solids) Unit weight ( γ ) W V ( W is the total weight of the sample and V the total volume of the sample) γ = Density is a measure of mass per unit of volume.81 kN/m3 = 62.
A low density and high porosity rock usually has low strength. Density and porosity often related to the strength of rock material.01 for solid granite to up to 0.5 to 2.8.The value is typically ranging from less than 0. It is simply the ratio of the weight of water (Ww) to the weight (WS) of the rock material. High porosity therefore naturally leads to high permeability.5 for porous sandstone. However. Porosity provides the void for water to flow through in a rock material. Porosity is one of the governing factors for the permeability. Figure Phase diagram illustrating the weights and volume relationship . Density is used to estimate overburden stress. w= Ww W − WS × 100 = × 100 WS WS Degree of saturation S is S= Vw × 100 VV Density is common physical properties. most rocks are well compacted and then have specific gravity between 2. Water content is a measure indicating the amount of water the rock material contains. It may also be represented in percent terms by multiplying the fraction by 100%. It is influenced by the specific gravity of the composition minerals and the compaction of the minerals.
e. including igneous. metamorphic and chemical sedimentary rocks. As discussed earlier. including mineral composition and density.2 Hardness Hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. Cerchar and other abrasivity tests are described later.1. A typical measure is the Schmidt rebound hardness number. Most rocks.1a Physical properties of fresh rock materials 3. steel. The higher quartz content gives higher abrasivity. It is an important measure for estimate wear of rock drilling and boring equipment.1a gives common physical properties. Abrasivity is highly influenced by the amount of quartz mineral in the rock material. including density and porosity of rock materials.3 Abrasivity Abrasivity measures the abrasiveness of a rock materials against other materials.1. 3.1. 3.1. generally have very low permeability.Table 3..g. permeability of rock material is governed by porosity. Porous rocks such as sandstones usually have high permeability while granites .4 Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of a material to transmit fluids.Abrasivity measures are given by several tests. Table 3. Hardness of rock materials depends on several factors.1.
flow is concentrated in fractures in the rock mass.1 Compressive Strength Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed compressive forces.2.2 Mechanical Properties of Rock Material 3. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock material. Usually compressive strength of rock is defined by the ultimate stress. the grains are not in good contact. P wave velocity measures the travel speed of longitudinal (primary) wave in the material. using the same principle.1. while S-wave velocity measures the travel speed of shear (secondary) wave in the material. A well compacted rock has generally high velocity as the grains are all in good contact and wave are traveling through the solid.1b and Figure 3. The velocity measurements provide correlation to physical properties in terms of compaction degree of the material.2. except for those porous one. has limited interests as in the rock mass. used in design. so the wave will partially travel through void (air or water) and the velocity will be reduced (P-wave velocities in air and in water are 340 and 1500 m/s respectively and are much lower than that in solid). Figure 3.2. Permeability of rock fractures is discussed later. Permeability of rock materials.5 Wave Velocity Measurements of wave are often done by using P wave and sometimes. analysis and modeling. represent 6 stages that the rock material is undergoing. Figure 4.1. Wave velocities are also commonly used to assess the degree of rock mass fracturing at large scale. 3.1a. For a poorly compact rock material.1a presents a typical stress-strain curve of a rock under uniaxial compression.1c show the states of rock in those stages of compression.2. The most common measure of compressive strength is the uniaxial compressive strength or unconfined compressive strength. S waves. Typical values of P and S wave velocities of some rocks are given in Table 3.have low permeability. . 3. and it will be discussed in a later chapter. The complete stressstrain curve can be divided into 6 sections.
The upper boundary of the stage is the point of maximum compaction and zero volume change and occurs at about 80% peak strength. Stage III – The rock behaves near-linear elastic. Stage I – The rock is initially stressed. The Poisson's ratio. pre-existing microcracks or pore orientated at large angles to the applied stress is closing. particularly in stiffer unconfined rocks. Microcrack propagation occurs in a stable manner during this stage and that microcracking events occur independently of each other and are distributed throughout the specimen. as the there is little permanent damage of the micro-structure of the rock material. Figure 3. In this stage the crack arrays fork and coalesce into macrocracks or fractures. Stage II – The rock basically has a linearly elastic behaviour with linear stress-strain curves.1a Typical uniaxial compression stress-strain curve of rock material.1c Samples of rock material under uniaxial compression test and failure. the stress-strain is largely recoverable. This causes an initial non-linearity of the axial stress-strain curve. in addition to deformation. The spreading of microcracks is no longer independent and clusters of cracks in the zones of highest stress tend to coalesce and start to form tensile fractures or shear planes .depending on the strength of the rock.2. even though the internal structure is highly disrupt. tends to be low. The axial stress-strain curve is nearlinear and is nearly recoverable.2. both axially and laterally. There is a slight increase in lateral strain due to dilation.Figure 3. Micro-cracks are likely initiated at the later portion of this stage. but is still intact. The rock is primarily undergoing elastic deformation with minimum cracking inside the material. At this stage. Stage V – The rock has passed peak stress. This initial non-linearity is more obvious in weaker and more porous rocks. The specimen is undergone strain softening (failure) . of about 35-40% peak strength. Stage IV – The rock is undergone a rapid acceleration of microcracking events and volume increase.
2.1d shows the results of a series triaxial compression tests.2. . This in turn will lead to zones of concentrated strain or shear planes.1d Triaxial compression test and failure 3. The compressive strength with lateral pressures is called triaxial compressive strength. Figure 3. Discussion on the influence of confining pressure to the mechanical characteristics is given in a later section. In addition to the significant increase of strength with confining pressure. equivalent to the frictional resistance of the sliding blocks. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve obtained during compressional or tensile tests conducted on a rock sample.deformation. at peak stress the test specimen starts to become weaker with increasing strain. These blocks slide across each other and the predominant deformation mechanism is friction between the sliding blocks.2. Compressive strength with lateral pressures is higher than that without. In underground excavation. The rock is covered by overburden materials.1a. we often are interested in the rock at depth. It is defined as the ratio. and is subjected to lateral stresses. Secondary fractures may occur due to differential shearing.2 Young's Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio Young's Modulus is modulus of elasticity measuring of the stiffness of a rock material.e. i. Typical strengths and modulus of common rocks are given in Table 3. for small strains.2. of the rate of change of stress with strain. Stage VI – The rock has essentially parted to form a series of blocks rather than an intact structure. Figure 3. The axial stress or force acting on the specimen tends to fall to a constant residual strength value. Thus further strain will be concentrated on weaker elements of the rock which have already been subjected to strain.. the stress-strain characteristics also changed.
4% under uniaxial compression.2. typically crystalline rocks. Most rocks.3a.2 to 0. Brittle rocks. typically around 0.2. behave brittle under uniaxial compression. Young’s Modulus can be as high as 100 GPa.2.15 and 0. could have relatively high strain at failure. For extremely hard and strong rocks. while soft rock. at linearly-elastic region.1a Mechanical properties of rock materials. including all crystalline igneous. that is. as shown in Figure 3. As seen from the tests that at later stage of loading beyond.3 Stress-Strain at and after Peak A complete stress-strain curve for a rock specimen in uniaxial compression test can be obtained. Similar to strength. mainly of sedimentary origin. metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.Table 3. Strain at failure increases with increasing confining pressure under triaxial compression conditions. Strain at failure is the strain measured at ultimate stress. such as shale and mudstone. the Poisson’s ratio is between 0. . Strain at failure sometimes is used as a measure of brittleness of the rock. beyond the linearly elastic region the increase in lateral strain is faster than the axial strain and hence indicates a higher ratio. Poisson’s ratio measures the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain. Young’s Modulus of rock materials varies widely with rock type. behave ductile.4. have low strain at failure. For most rocks. Rocks generally fail at a small strain. A few soft rocks. 3. Rocks can have brittle or ductile behaviour after peak.
Rock material generally has a low tensile strength. 3. . Brazilian test and flexure test. i. cohesion and internal friction.4a Stress and failure of Brazilian tensile tests by RFPA simulation.2.2.5 Shear Strength Shear strength is used to describe the strength of rock materials. Different rocks have different cohesions and different friction angles. Rock resists shear stress by two internal mechanisms. φ. maximum tensile stress the rock material can withstand. Internal friction is caused by contact between particles.e. The low tensile strength is due to the existence of microcracks in the rock. 3. Tensile strength of rock materials can be obtained from several types of tensile tests: direct tensile test.2.2. Direct test is not commonly performed due to the difficulty in sample preparation.4a illustrates the failure mechanism of the Brazilian tensile tests. Figure 3. Figure 3.2. Cohesion is a measure of internal bonding of the rock material.Figure 3.. The most common tensile strength determination is by the Brazilian tests. The existence of microcracks may also be the cause of rock failing suddenly in tension with a small strain.3a Complete stress-strain curves of several rocks showing post peak behaviour (Brady and Brown).4 Tensile Strength Tensile strength of rock material is normally defined by the ultimate strength in tension. and is defined by the internal friction angle. to resist deformation due to shear stress.
Figure 3. the later methods is widely used and accepted.3 MPa in the figure). granite and quartzite. In general. the region incorporating the peak of the axial stress-axial strain curve flattens and widens. This brittle-ductile transition pressure varies with rock type. . (c) (d) The confining pressure that causes the post-peak reduction in strength disappears and the behaviour becomes fully ductile (48.1a illustrates a number of important features of the behaviour of rock in triaxial compression. By plotting Mohr circles. Tensile and shear strengths are important as rock fails mostly in tension and in shearing. In practice.2.3. (a) (b) the peak strength increases. remain brittle at room temperature at confining pressures of up to 1000 MPa or more. peak stresses (σ1) are obtained at various lateral stresses (σ3). With a series of triaxial tests conducted at different confining pressures.5a.5a Determination of shear strength by triaxial tests. is known as the brittle-ductile transition pressure.Shear strength of rock material can be determined by direct shear test and by triaxial compression tests. as shown in Figure 3. igneous and high grade metamorphic rocks.2. there is a transition from typically brittle to fully ductile behaviour with the introduction of plastic mechanism of deformation. It shows that with increasing confining pressure.3 Effects of Confining and Pore Water Pressures on Strength and Deformation 3.. the shear envelope is defined which gives the cohesion and internal friction angle. 3. e. even the loading may appears to be compression. Rocks generally have high compressive strength so failure in pure compression is not common.1 Effects of Confining Pressure Figure 4. the post-peak drop in stress to the residual strength reduces and disappears at high confining stress.g.3.
Effect of pore water pressure is only applicable for porous rocks where sufficient pore pressure can be developed within the materials.3.2a. 3. There is a transition from ductile to brittle behaviour as pore pressure is increased from 0 to 69 MPa.1a Complete axial stress-axial strain curves obtained in triaxial compression tests on Marble at various confining pressures (after Wawersik & Fairhurst 1970). In this case. the classical effective stress law does not hold. For low porosity rocks.3. Figure 3. but with various level of pore pressure (0-69 MPa). A series of triaxial compression tests was carried out on a limestone with a constant confining pressure of 69 MPa.3.Figure 3.2 Effects of Pore Water Pressure The influence of pore-water pressure on the behaviour of porous rock in the triaxial compression tests is illustrated by Figure 4. mechanical response is controlled by the effective confining stress (σ3' = σ3 – u).3. .2a Effect of pore pressure on the stress-strain behaviour of rock materials.
Figure 3. compressional (or longitudinal) P-wave velocity (vp) is related to the elastic modulus E s and the density (ρ) of the material as. with size correction to an equivalent core diameter of 50 mm.5. it is also used to estimate the elastic modulus of the rock material. The correlation between hardness and strength is shown in Figure 3.5. Is(50).2 Effect of Water Content on Strength Many tests showed that the when rock materials are saturated or in wet condition.3 Velocity and Modulus While seismic wave velocity gives a physical measurement of the rock material.1 Point Load Strength Index Point load test is another simple index test for rock material. The correlation is also influenced by the density of the material. the hardness index can be used to estimate uniaxial compressive strength of the rock material.5 Relationships between Physical and Mechanical Properties 3. the uniaxial compressive strength is reduced.1a Correlation between hardness.4. From the theory of elasticity.1a.5. 3.5. 3. compared to the strength in dry condition. At the same time.5. .4 Other Engineering Properties of Rock Materials 3.1 Rock Hardness. 4. Young’s Modulus and Strength. Density. It gives the standard point load index. calculated from the point load at failure and the size of the specimen.3. and Strength Schmidt hammer rebound hardness is often measured during early part of field investigation. It is a measure of the hardness of the rock material by count the rebound degree.
or perhaps on the texture of the rocks. It should be noted that the correlation is not precisely linear and also depends on the rock type.5. . Figure 3. The value of the seismic modulus is generally slightly higher than the modulus determined from static compression tests. Es = 2 Gs (1 + νs) 3. Similarly. then Es in GPa (109 N/m2). The correlations are presented in Figure 3. when density ρ is in g/cm3.4 Compressive Strength and Modulus It is a general trend that a stronger rock material is also stiffer. There is reasonable correlation between compressive strength and elastic modulus.4a Correlation between strength and modulus. The elastic modulus estimated by this method is the sometime termed as seismic modulus (also called dynamic modulus. Alternatively. It is different from the modules obtained by the uniaxial compression tests. Seismic Poisson’s ration νs can be determined from. seismic shear modulus Gs may be determined from shear S-wave velocity vs. but should not be mistaken as the modulus under dynamic compression). higher elastic modulus is often associated with higher strength. Gs is in GPa. and S-wave velocity vs is in km/s. and vp in km/s.5.If ρ in g/cm3. seismic Young’s modulus Es can be determined from shear modulus (Gs) and Poisson’s ratio (νs).. i.4a.5.e.
it gives: Coulomb suggested that shear strengths of rock are made up of two parts. where c = cohesion and φ = angle of internal friction.e.3. the stresses on the failure plane a-b are the normal stress σn and shear stress τ.6.6. a constant cohesion (c) and a normal stress-dependent frictional component. the stresses developed on the failure plane are on the strength envelope. Figure 3.1a Stresses on failure plane a-b and representation of Mohr’s circle. the Coulomb shear strength criterion τ = c + σn tanφ is represented by a straight line.1a. with an intercept c on the τ axis and an angle of φ with . by combining the above three equations. i.1 Mohr-Coulomb criterion Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion assumes that a shear failure plane is developed in the rock material.6 Failure Criteria of Rock Materials 3. or In a shear stress-normal stress plot. Refer to Figure 3. Therefore. When failure occurs.6.. Applying the stress transformation equations or from the Mohr’s circle.
a tensile cut-off is usually applied at a selected value of uniaxial tensile stress. the measured values of tensile strength are generally lower than those predicted by the above equation. For most rocks.1b is extrapolated. .1b. with tensile cut-off. As assumed.the σn axis. rock failure starts with the formation of the shear failure plane a-b. the stress condition on the a-b plane satisfies the shear strength condition. σt′. and θ=¼π+½φ Then Figure 3. the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope straight line touches (makes a tangent) to the Mohr’s circles. as shown in Figure 4. and once the stress condition meet the envelope. the stress condition on the a-b plane meets the strength envelope.1b Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope in terms of normal and shear stresses and principal stresses. the uniaxial compressive strength is related to c and φ by: An apparent value of uniaxial tensile strength of the material is given by: However. As seen from the Mohr’s circle.6. This straight line is often called the strength envelope. Therefore. Any stress condition below the strength envelope is safe.6. If the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope shown in Figure 4. At each tangent point. σt′ is about 1/10 σc. the failure plane is defined by θ. For this reason. failure will occur. In another word.6.
2a Griffith crack model for plane compression. 3. In most cases. Assuming that the elliptical crack will propagate from the points of maximum tensile stress concentration (P in Figure 4. rock engineering deals with shallow problems and low σ3.6.2a). At h i h σ3. due to its simplicity and popularity.6. It also overestimates tensile strength.6.6. and or g The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is only suitable for the low range of σ3. . Griffith obtained the following criterion for crack extension in plane compression: Figure 3. it overestimates the strength. Then. Griffith extended the theory to the case of applied compressive stresses.2 Griffith strength criterion Based on the energy instability concept. so the criterion is widely used. as seen in Figure 4.1b.The Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope can also be shown in σ1–σ3 plots.
Hoek and Brown (1980) found that the peak triaxial compressive strengths of a wide range of isotropic rock materials could be described by the following equation: or Where m is a parameter that changes with rock type in the following general way: . the above equation becomes It in fact suggests that the uniaxial compressive stress at crack extension is always eight times the uniaxial tensile strength Figure 3.6.where σt is the uniaxial tensile strength of the material. The strength envelopes given by the above equations in principal stresses and in normal and shear stresses are shown in Figure 3. a number of empirical strength criteria have been introduced for practical use. When σ3 = 0. This criterion can also be expressed in terms of the shear stress (τ) and normal stress (σn) acting on the plane containing the major axis of the crack: When σn = 0.3 Hoek-Brown criterion Because the classic strength theories used for other engineering materials have been found not to apply to rock over a wide range of applied compressive stress conditions. τ = 2σt.6. which represents the cohesion. One of the most widely used criteria is Hoek-Brown criterion for isotropic rock materials and rock masses.2b. 3.6.2b Griffith envelope for crack extension in compression.
It is also extended to rock masses with the same equation. It is therefore only the simplest form of anisotropy. It is evident that the Hoek-Brown strength envelope is not a straight line.Figure 3. The peak strengths developed by transversely isotropic rocks in triaxial compression vary with the orientation of the plane of isotropy. Figure 3.3a Normalized peak strength envelope for (i) granites and (ii) sandstones (after Hoek & Brown 1980). It is however very easy to use and select parameters. At high stress level. are not isotropic. Figure 3. hence makes it is so far the only acceptable criterion for both material and mass.3a shows normalized Hoek-Brown peak strength envelope for some rocks. plane of weakness or foliation plane.7.6.7 Effects of Rock Microstructures on Mechanical Properties 3. so it gives low strength estimate than the MohrCoulomb envelope. The Hoek-Brown peak strength criterion is an empirical criterion based on substantial test results on various rocks. the behaviour of those rocks is anisotropic. such as shale and slate. transverse isotropy.6.7. There are several forms of anisotropy with various degrees of complexity. with respect to the principal stress directions. .1 Strength of rock material with Anisotropy Rocks.1a shows some measured variations in peak principal stress difference with the angle of inclination of the major principal stress to the plane of weakness. to be discussed here. Because of some preferred orientation of fabric or microstructure. the envelope curves down. 3. but a curve. or the presence of bedding or cleavage planes.
1a Variation of differential stresses with the inclination angle of the plane of weakness (see Brady & Brown 1985) Analytical solution shows that principal stress difference (σ1–σ3) of a transversely isotropic specimen under triaxial compression shown in Figure 3. The minimum strength occurs when The corresponding value of principal stress difference is.7.Figure 3. ϕ w = angle of friction of the plane. .1a can be given by the equation below (Brady & Brown 1985): Where: c w = cohesion of the plane of weakness. β = inclination of the plane.7.
9. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the failure load. the rock has the lowest strength. two axial deformations and one circumferential deformation measurements are recorded at every 25 KN interval until failure. This in fact shows that when the rock containing an existing weakness plane that is about to become a failure plane. the strength is the lowest.1b Variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.8. Uniaxial compressive strength. Fo r rock s.7. The load is measured by a load transducer. stress and strain relationship.2 Effect of Loading Rate on Rock Strength 3. Two axial and one circumferential deformation measurement devices (LVDTs) are attached to each of the specimen.1 Rheologic Properties of Rock Materials 3.9 Laboratory Testing of Rock Materials 3. φw is about 30° to 50°.1 Compression Tests (a) Uniaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. 3. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate around 1 μm/s such that failure occurs within 5-10 minutes of loading. .1b shows variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.8. In compression tests. Load.7. hence β is about 60° to 70°. When the weakness plane is at an angle of 45° + ½ φw. plotted using the above equation. The specimen is then compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating.8.8 Time Dependent Characteristics of Rock Materials 3. intact rock specimens generally fail to form a shear plane at an angle about 60° to 70°. Figure 3.3 Failure Mechanism of Rock Material under Impact and Shock Loading 3.Figure 3.
Poisson's ratio. modulus of elasticity. σ c is calculated as the failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength.g. The specimen is then further compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating.. ν50%. Hoek-Franklin cell) and a desired confining stress is applied and maintained by a hydraulic pump. is calculated as: v50% = slope of axial stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c slope of lateral stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c Reporting of results includes description of the rock. mode of failure. measurement devices are attached to each of the specimen. Two axial and two lateral deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used). specimen anisotropy. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate arou nd 1 μm/s su ch that failu re occu rs with in 5-15 minutes of loading. density and water content at time of test.3a A typical uniaxial compression test set-up with load and strain measurements. The . Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . specimen dimension. (b) Triaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding.Uniaxial compressive strength.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength.9. uniaxial compressive strength. Figure 3. The specimen is placed in a triaxial cell (e. Poisson's ratio at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength.
is calculated as the axial failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. Mohr's stress circle are plotted using confining stress as σ 3 and axial stress as σ 1 . Triaxial compressive strength. Poisson's ratio. Failure envelopes (Mohr. σ 1 .load is measured by a load transducer.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. Mohr's circles and failure envelope. For a group of triaxial compression tests at different confining stress level. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the axial failure load. Load. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of triaxial compressive strength. stress and strain relationship. triaxial compressive strength. mode of failure. Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Triaxial compressive strength. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. specimen dimension. modulus of elasticity. Coulomb or Hoek and Brown) and parameters of specified failure criterion are determined. 2 axial strain or deformation and 2 lateral strains or deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used) are recorded at a fixed interval until failure. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . .9. density and water content at time of test. specimen anisotropy. Figure 3. Poisson's ratio at 50% of triaxial compressive strength is calculated with the same methods as for the uniaxial compression test.3b Triaxial compression test using Hoek cell.
3. specimen diameter (D) and specimen thickness (t) by the following formula: σT = − 0.4b Brazilian tensile test. For direct tension test. Deformation modulus can be measured by having strain gauges attached to the specimen.636 P Dt Reporting of results includes description of the rock.3.4 Tensile Tests (a) Direct Tension Test Direct tension tests on rock materials are not common. The cylindrical surfaces should be free from obvious tool marks and any irregularities across the thickness.9. (b) Brazilian Tensile Strength Test Cylindrical specimen of diameter approximately equals to 50 mm and thickness approximately equal to the radius is prepared.9. The specimen is wrapped around its periphery with one layer of the masking tape and loaded into the Brazil tensile test apparatus across its diameter. Figure 3. End faces shall be flat to within 0. Ten specimens of the same sample shall be tested. water content and degree of saturation. rock specimen is to be prepared in dog-bone shape with a thin middle. due to the difficulty in specimen preparation. calculation and the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio is similar to that for the uniaxial compression test. mode of failure. The tensile strength of the rock is calculated from failure load (P).5 Shear Strength Tests . The specimen is then loaded in tension by pulling from the two ends. Loading is applied continuously at a constant rate such that failure occurs within 15-30 seconds. orientation of the axis of loading with respect to specimen anisotropy.25°.9.25 mm and square and parallel to within 0. test duration and loading rate.
5 D to D and is loaded between the point load apparatus axially. Is. Uncorrected point load strength. A straight line is draw to fit best by tangent to all the Mohr’s circles. cohesion (c) and international friction angle (φ) can be determined from triaxial compression test data. The point load strength is corrected to the point load strength at equivalent core diameter of 50 mm. forming a series circles. is calculated as: De where De . rock core is cut to a height between 0. and the intercept at τ axis is the cohesion c.I s 0.45 . The line represents the shear strength envelope. Alternatively. The length/diameter ratio for the diametrical test should be greater than 1. is given by: for diametrical test. based on the MohrCoulomb criterion. Load at failure is recorded as P.(a) Direct Punch Shear (b) Shear Strength Determination by Triaxial Compression Results Shear strength parameters. rock core specimen of diameter D is loaded between the point load apparatus across its diameter.9. 3.0. a series equation can be formed for sets of σ 1 and σ 1 . = 4A / π A = H D = minimum cross sectional area of a plane through the loading points. the size correction factor is: Is = P 2 D F = e 50 The corrected point load strength index I s (50 ) is calculated as: I s (50 ) = F . For axial test. In diametrical test. For De ≠ 50 mm. as typically shown in the figure below.6 Point Load Strength Index Test Point load test of rock cores can be conducted diametrically and axially. The Mohr’s circle can be plotted for a series of triaxial tests results with σ 1 at different σ 3 . the "equivalent core diameter". The angle of the line to the horizontal is the internal friction angle φ. De2 = D 2 for axial. Cohesion c and friction angle ‘φ’ can be computed by solving the equations. block and lump tests.
If the hammer is point to horizontal and upward. The Schmidt hammer is point perpendicularly and touch the surface of rock.9. The velocity is calculated from dividing the length of rock sample by wave travel time. The reading gives directly the Schmidt hammer hardness value.9. transmitter and receiver transducers are used for sonic pulse velocity measurement. The standard Schmidt hardness number is taken when the hammer is point vertically down. 3. At least 20 tests should be conducted on any one rock specimen.9. Figure 3. The hammer is released and reading on the hammer is taken. and to use the remaining reading for calculating the average hardness value. It is suggest to omit 2 lowest and 2 highest reading. correction is needed to add to the number from the hammer. 3. The length is measured. . Both P-wave and S-wave velocities can be measured.7a Measuring P and S wave velocity in a rock specimen.7 Ultrasonic wave velocity Cylindrical rock sample is prepared by cutting and lapping the ends.9. The transmitter and the receiver are positioned at the ends of specimen and the pulse wave travel time is measured.6a Point load test.8 Hardness (a) Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness A Schmidt hammer with rebound measurement is used for this test. An ultrasonic digital indicator consist a pulse generator unit.Figure 3.
fitting into a holder (5). The CAI value is calculated as. It consists of a vice for holding rock sample (1).10 Abrasivity (a) Cerchar Abrasivity Test The Cerchar abrasivity test is an abrasive wear with pressure test .9. The testing apparatus is featured in Figure 3. 3. loaded on the surface of the rock sample. The abrasiveness of the rock is then obtained by measuring the resulting wear flat on the tip of the steel stylus.9. CAI = 10 −2 d where ‘d’ is the wear flat diameter of the stylus tip in μm. Figure 3. A dead weight (6) of 70 N is applied on the stylus. A steel stylus (4).9. roughly spherical in shape with corners rounded during preparation.9.9. which can be moved across the base of the apparatus by a hand wheel (2) that drives a screwthread of pitch 1 mm /revolution turning. To determine the CAI value the rock is slowly displaced by 10 mm with a velocity of approximately 1 mm/s.10a.10a Cerchar abrasivity test West apparatus (West 1989). Displacement of the vice (1) is measured by a scale (3).12 Slake Durability Test Select representative rock sample consisting of 10 lumps each of 40-60g. 3.8a Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test. It was proposed by the Laboratoire du Centre d’Etudes et Recherches des Charbonnages (Cerchar) in France. The sample is placed in the test drum of 2 mm standard mesh cylinder of 100 mm long and 140 mm in diameter with .Figure 3.
The mass of drum and sample is recorded (Mass A). The sample and drum is placed in trough which is filled with slaking fluid. The drum is brushed clean and its mass is recorded (Mass D). C−D Slake-durability index. The slaking and drying process is repeated and the mass of the drum and sample is recorded (Mass C). The mass of the drum and sample is recorded after cooling (Mass B).9. and the drum is rotated at 20 rpm for 10 minutes (Figure 3.9. The drum and sample are removed from trough and oven dried to a constant mass at 105°C without the lid. to a level 20 mm below the drum axis.12a Slake durability test. I d 2 = × 100% A− D The first cycle slake-durability index should be calculated when I d 2 is 0-10%. and is dried to a constant mass at 105°C. Slake-durability index.12a Slake Durability Classification = . B−D × 100% A− D Table 3.12a). usually tap water at 20°C. The slake-durability index is taken as the percentage ratio of final to initial dry sample masses after to cycles.9.solid removable lid and fixed base. Figure 3.
such as mechanical loading. This occurs due to stress waves generated when there is a rapid release of energy in a material. system feedback. or on its surface. generate sources of elastic waves. and temporal variations of strain ( ε ) and the frequency (n) of AE events in these cases . quality control. process monitoring and others.Special Note AE Activity in rocks under compression The term acoustic emission (AE) is widely used to denote the phenomenon in which a material or structure emits elastic waves of shock type and sometimes of continuous type caused by the sudden occurrence of fractures or frictional sliding along discontinuous surfaces. The wave generated by the AE source. Figure Two fundamental cases of stress application (a) and (b). Acoustic Emission (AE) is a naturally occurring phenomenon whereby external stimuli. of practical interest. typically takes place between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The application of AE to nondestructive testing of materials in the ultrasonic regime. in methods used to stimulate and capture AE in a controlled fashion for study and/or use in inspection. or. AE occurs when a small surface displacement of a material is produced.
Figure Temporal variations of number of AE events and axial strain ( ε 1 ), lateral strain ∆V ( ε θ ) and non-elastic volumetric strain ( V ne
CHAPTER 6 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION
Rock mass property is governed by the properties of intact rock materials and of the discontinuities in the rock. The behaviour if rock mass is also influenced by the conditions the rock mass is subjected to, primarily the in situ stress and groundwater. The quality of a rock mass quality can be quantified by means of rock mass classifications. This Chapter addresses rock mass properties and rock mass classifications. 6.1 Rock Mass Properties and Quality 6.1.1 Properties Governing Rock Mass Behaviour Rock mass is a matrix consisting of rock material and rock discontinuities. As discussed early, rock discontinuity that distributed extensively in a rock mass is predominantly joints. Faults, bedding planes and dyke intrusions are localised features and therefore are dealt individually. Properties of rock mass therefore are governed by the parameters of rock joints and rock material, as well as boundary conditions, as listed in Table 6.1.1a. Table 6.1.1a Prime parameters governing rock mass property
The behaviour of rock changes from continuous elastic of intact rock materials to discontinues running of highly fractured rock masses. The existence of rock joints and other discontinuities plays important role in governing the behaviour and properties of the rock mass, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.1a. Chapter 4 has covered the properties of intact rock materials, and Chapter 5 has dealt with rocks contains 1 or 2 localised joints with emphasis on the properties of joints. When a rock mass contains several joints, the rock mass can be treated a jointed rock mass, and sometimes also termed a Hoek-Brown rock mass, that can be described by the Hoek-Brown criterion (discussed later). 6.1.2 Classification by Rock Load Factor (Terzaghi 1946) Based in extensive experiences in steel arch supported rail tunnels in the Alps, Terzaghi (1946) classified rock mass by mean of Rock Load Factor. The rock mass is classified into 9 classes from hard and intact rock to blocky, and to squeezing rock. The concept used in this classification system is to estimate the rock load to be carried by the steel arches installed to support a tunnel, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.2a. The classification is presented by Table 6.1.2a.
Figure 6.1.2a Terzaghi’s rock load concept. For obtaining the support pressure (p) from the rock load factor (Hp), Terzaghi suggested the equation below, p = Hp γ H where γ is the unit weight of the rock mass, H is the tunnel depth or thickness of the overburden. Attempts have been made to link Rock Load Factor classification to RQD. As suggested by Deere (1970), Class I is corresponding to RQD 95-100%, Class II to RQD 90-99%, Class III to RQD 85-95%, and Class IV to RQD 75-85%. Singh and Goel (1999) gave the following comments to the Rock Load Factor classification: (a) It provides reasonable support pressure estimates for small tunnels with diameter up to 6 metres. It gives over-estimates for large tunnels with diameter above 6 metres. The estimated support pressure has a wide range for squeezing and swelling rock conditions for a meaningful application.
6.1.3 Classification by Active Span and Stand-Up Time (Stini 1950, Lauffer 1958) The concept of active span and stand-up time is illustrated in Figure 6.1.3a and Figure 6.1.3b. Active span is in fact the largest dimension of the unsupported tunnel section. Stand-up time is the length of time which an excavated opening with a given active span can stand without any mean of support or reinforcement. Rock classes from A to G are assigned according to the stand-up time for a given active span. Use of active span and stand-up time will be further discussed in later sections.
1.2a Rock class and rock load factor classification by Terzaghi for steel arch supported tunnels .1.3b Relationship between active span and stand-up time and rock mass classes (Class A is very good and Class G is very poor) Table 6. Figure 6.Figure 6.1.3a Definition of active span.
4 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) (Deere 1964) .6.1.
Therefore. As discussed earlier. including the RMR and the Q systems. RQD partially reflects on the rock mass quality. Condition of joints: Condition includes joint aperture.2. Spacing of joints: Average spacing of all rock discontinuities is used. Table 6. and presence of infilling.1 Concept of RMR System (1973. RQD: RQD is used as described before. (a) Strength of intact rock material: Uniaxial compressive strength is preferred. Table 6. 6. persistence. this geomechanics classification system incorporated eight parameters. The RMR system in use now incorporates five basic parameters below. point load index is acceptable.2a reproduces the proposed expression of rock mass quality classification according to RQD. Groundwater conditions: It is to account for groundwater inflow in excavation stability. Part A of the table shows the RMR classification with the above 5 parameters.1.1a is the RMR classification updated in 1989. RQD only represents the degree of fracturing of the rock mass. Originally. For rock of moderate to high strength.1. His parameter has been used in the rock mass classification systems. (b) (c) (d) (e) Table 6.2a Rock mass quality classification according to RQD RQD has been widely accepted as a measure of fracturing degree of the rock mass. close associated with excavation for the mining industry (Bieniawski 1973). roughness.2 Rock Mass Rating – RMR System 6. It does not account for the strength of the rock or mechanical and other geometrical properties of the joints. joint surface weathering and alteration. as an attempt to quantify rock mass quality. Individual rate for each parameter is .Rock quality designation (RQD) was introduced in 1960s. 1989) The rock mass rating (RMR) system is a rock mass quality classification developed by South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).2.
Explanation of the descriptive terms used is given table Part C.1b. for example. Influence of joint orientation on the stability of excavation is considered in Part B of the same table. This correlation allow engineer to estimate the stand-up time for a given span and a given rock mass. it can be also expresses in rock mass class. Table 6. as shown in Figure 6. as shown in Table 6.1a. The weight of each parameter has already considered in the rating. With adjustment made to account for joint orientation.1b Rock mass classes determined from total ratings and meaning .obtained from the property of each parameter. The table also gives the meaning of rock mass classes in terms of stand-up time. The overall basic RMR rate is the sum of individual rates. RMR was applied to correlate with excavated active span and stand-up time. maximum rating for joint condition is 30 while for rock strength is 18.104.22.168. equivalent rock mass cohesion and friction angle. a final RMR rating is obtained.
Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: .2. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough.24 m.1a Stand-up time and RMR quality 6.2. average joint spacing is 0.Figure 6. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected.2 Examples of using RMR System (a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. average RQD is 88%. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa.
but given in terms of groundwater pressure of 70 m water head and overburden pressure of 80 m ground. Here. However. groundwater parameter is not directly given. it is possible to calculate average joint spacing. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. average RQD is 41%. average RQD is 70%.The calculated basic RMR is 76. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. Since there is no indication of in situ stress ratio. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. (b) A sandstone rock mass. Joint water pressure = In situ stress = groundwater pressure = Overburden pressure = = = 70 m × γw 80 m × γ (70 × 1)/(80× 2. .7) 0. It falls in rock class C which indicates the rock mass is of fair quality. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. average joint spacing is 0. In the above information. and are highly weathered.11 m. joint surfaces are slightly rough. joint spacing is not provided. with the equation below. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. overburden stress is taken as the major in situ stress as an approximation.32 Joint water pressure / In situ stress Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 52. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. It falls in rock class B which indicates the rock mass is of good quality. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. RQD is given and from the relationship between RQD and joint frequency. filled with clay.
RQD = 100 e–0.2.0 Value of F1. . i. SMR = RMR + (F1⋅F2⋅F3) + F4 where F1 = (1 . 6.sin A)2 and A = angle between the strikes of the slope and the joint = |αj .3 Extension of RMR – Slope Mass Rating (SMR) The slope mass rating (SMR) is an extension of the RMR system applied to rock slope engineering. F2 and F3 are given in Table 6. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the RMR parameter rating. Judgement often is needed to interpret the information given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the RMR table. F2 = 1. It falls in rock class D which indicates the rock mass is of poor quality. SMR value is obtained by adjust RMR value with orientation and excavation adjustments for slopes. Details on rock slope analysis and engineering including excavation methods and support and stabilisation will be covered in a later chapter dealing slope engineering.e. For topping.2..3b gives the classification category of rock mass slope.αs|.2.05 m Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 34.3a.1λ (0. Table 6. F2 = (tan βj)2 B = joint dip angle = βj. which gives average joint spacing 0.1λ +1) (where λ is the mean number of discontinuities per meter) Joint frequency is estimated to be 20.
3a Classification of Rock Slope according to SMT 6. The system was based on evaluation of a large number of case histories of underground excavation stability.3 Rock Tunnel Quality Q-System 6.3a Adjustment rating of F1.2.3. F2. and is an index for the determination of the tunnelling quality of a rock mass.Table 6.2.1 Concept of the Q-System The Q-system was developed as a rock tunnelling quality index by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) (Barton et al 1974). Jr is the joint roughness number . F3 and F4 for joints Table 6. Jn is the joint set number accounting for the number of joint sets. The numerical value of this index Q is defined by: RQD is the Rock Quality Designation measuring the fracturing degree.
1a. Table 6.3. Q value is applied to estimate the support measure for a tunnel of a given dimension and usage. Equivalent dimension is used in the figure and ESR is given in Table 6.accounting for the joint surface roughness.3. alteration and filling.3.3. Jw is the joint water reduction factor accounting for the problem from groundwater pressure. as shown in Figure 6. The classification system gives a Q value which indicates the rock mass quality.1c.3.1a.1b. and SRF is the stress reduction factor indicating the influence of in situ stress. shown in Table 6. Q value is considered as a function of only three parameters which are crude measures of: (a) (b) (c) Block size: Inter-block shear strength Active stress RQD / Jn Jr / Ja Jw / SRF Parameters and rating of the Q system is given in Table 6.1a Rock mass classification Q system . Ja is the joint alteration number indicating the degree of weathering.
quantities of swelling clays .
Table 6.1b Rock mass quality rating according to Q values .3.
1a Support design based on Q value Table 6.Figure 6.3.2 Examples of Using the Q-System .1c Excavation Support Ratio (ESR) for various tunnel categories 6.3.3.
tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 . found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 4. filled with clay. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. average joint spacing is 0. average RQD is 41%. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 29. and are highly weathered. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. average RQD is 70%. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. average RQD is 88%. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface.4. joint surfaces are slightly rough. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. average joint spacing is 0. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. (b) A sandstone rock mass. and the rock mass is classified as good quality. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm.(a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets.24 m. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. and the rock mass is classified as fair quality.11 m.
together with the rock material strength. Rock stress level is also considered. judgement is frequently needed to interpret the descriptions given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the Q table.85. Again.MPa. The components of the QTBM are as follows: where RQD0= RQD (%) measured in the tunnelling direction. 6. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the Q parameter rating. Orientation of joint structure is accounted for. and SRF ratings are the same parameters in the original Q-system. F is the average cutter load (ton) through the same zone. . with considerable outwash of joint fillings. Ja. The abrasive or nonabrasive nature of the rock is incorporated via the cutter life index (CLI). CLI is the cutter life index. 20 in the CLI term and 5 in the σθ term are normalising constants. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground.3. σm is the rock mass strength (MPa) estimated from a complicated equation including the Q-value measured in the tunnel direction. Jw. q is the quartz content (%) in rock mineralogy. Jr. The method is based on the Q-system and average cutter force in relations to the appropriate rock mass strength. and σθ is the induced biaxial stress (MPa) on tunnel face in the same zone.3 Extension of Q-System – QTBM for Mechanised Tunnelling Q-system was extended to a new QTBM system for predicting penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR) for tunnelling using tunnel boring machine (TBM) in 1999 (Barton 1999). Jn. The new parameter QTBM is to estimate TBM performance during tunnelling. and the rock mass is classified as very poor quality. The constants 20 in the σm term. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 0.
Parameters in those rock mass classifications were related to support design. were intended to classify rock mass quality to arrive a suitable support design. such as folds and shear zones. the GSI value does in fact reflect the rock mass quality. Example of using the QTBM is given in Figure 6. The systems were not meant for the design of excavation methodology.3a. The direct application of GSI value is to estimate the parameters in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion for rock masses. as GSI was initiated to be a tool to estimate rock mass strength with the Hoek-Brown strength criterion.1a. Rock mass structure given in the chart is general description and there may be many cases that does not directly match the description. Rock mass classification systems.1 GSI System The Geological Strength Index (GSI) was introduced by Hoek in 1994. The original rock mass classifications are independent of TBM characteristics. the following equivalent between rock mass structural descriptions of blocky to the block size description is suggested below. Although QTBM has added a number of parameters to reflect cutting force and wear. mainly to cover more complex geological features. GSI system has been modified and updated in the recent years. penetration decreases. The use of GSI requires careful examination and understanding of engineering geological features of the rock mass. GSI does not include the parameter of rock strength. 6. However.The experiences on the application of QTBM vary between projects. It appears that the correlation between QTBM and Advanced Rate is not consistent and varies with a large margin. including RMR and Q. simple block size description does not include geological structural features. The system gives a GSI value estimated from rock mass structure and rock discontinuity surface condition. with increasing of rock mass quality. In the Hoek-Brown .4.2.4 Geological Strength Index GSI System and Others 6.4. while penetration however is a result of interaction between rock mass properties and TBM machine parameters (Zhao 2006). very poor rock mass does not facilitate penetration. However. In general. This system is presented in Tables 6. such as sheared zones. they were not selected to describe rock mass boreability. In general. when developed. It was aimed to estimate the reduction in rock mass strength for different geological conditions. the emphasis is obviously not be justified. Although it was not aimed at to be a rock mass classification.
based on the correlation between RMR and GSI Table 6. However. for reasonable good quality rock mass. rock material uniaxial strength is used as a base parameter to estimate rock mass uniaxial strength as well as triaxial strengths of rock material and rock mass.1a Geological Strength Index (GSI) .criterion. GSI system did not suggest a direct correlation between rock mass quality and GSI value. The use of GSI to estimate rock mass strength is given later in the section dealing with rock mass strength.4. An approximate classification of rock mass quality and GSI is suggested in Table 6.1b.4. it is suggested that GSI can be related to RMR (GSI = RMR – 5).
with considerable outwash of joint fillings.11 m.Table 6. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. Therefore GSI is 20±5.1b Rock mass classes determined from GSI 6. average RQD is 70%. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. average RQD is 41%. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. . The rock mass is classified as good to very good quality. and are highly weathered. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. Refer to the GSI chart. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. Rock Mass Structure for the above sandstone is very blocky. Rock Mass Structure for the above granite is blocky. and Joint Surface Condition is very poor.24 m. Rock Mass Structure for the above siltstone is blocky /folded/ faulted. (a) Granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. Therefore GSI is 40±5.4. The rock mass is classified as very poor to poor quality. The rock mass is classified as fair quality. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. with the same rock masses used previously to estimate RMR and Q. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. Therefore GSI is 75±5. Refer to the GSI chart. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. average joint spacing is 0.4. joint surfaces are slightly rough. Refer to the GSI chart. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. filled with clay. (b) A sandstone rock mass. and Joint Surface Condition is fair to poor.2 Examples of Using the GSI System Examples of estimating GSI is given below. average RQD is 88%. and Joint Surface Condition is very good. average joint spacing is 0. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface.
.3a shows the comparison and correlation between RMR and Q. Q and GSI from the above three examples are given below.It is advised that while selecting an average value of GSI. 6.4. RMR = 9 lnQ + A A varies between 26 and 62.3a Correlation between RMR and Q values.4. Figure 6.3 Correlation and Comparison between Q. Summary of RMR. and average of A is 44. Figure 6.4. it is perhaps better to select a range of the GSI value for that rock mass. RMR and GSI Correlation between Q and RMR are found to be.
Several other correlation equations have been proposed.e. the value assign to SRF cover too great range. N Rock Mass Number (N) is the rock mass quality Q value when SRF is set at 1 (i. It has been noticed that SRF in the Q-system is not sensitive in rock engineering design.25 to 5 MPa yield the same SRF value. Consequently. For very poor quality rock masses. The importance of in situ stress on the stability of underground excavation is insufficiently represented in the Q-system. RMR classification should not be used for estimating the GSI values for poor quality rock masses. For example.3 Other Classification Systems Several other classification approaches have been proposed.. GSI = RMR – 5 RMR is the basic RMR value by setting the Groundwater rating at 15 (dry). stress reduction is not considered). The use of N in squeezing rock mass classification will be presented in a later section in this chapter. estimate the value of one classification from another is not advisable. They are all in the general form of semi-log equation. For that reason. For generally competent rock masses with GSI > 25. and without adjustment for joint orientation. SRF = 1 for σc/σ1 = 10~200. in situ stresses of 0. .e.. It should be noted that each classification uses a set of parameters that are different from other classifications. due to the special behaviour and nature of the squeezing ground. N = (RQD/Jn) (Jr/Ja) (Jw) This system is used because the difficult in obtaining SRF in the Q-system. one of which is: RMR = 13. for a rock with σc = 50 MPa. 6.4. i.5 logQ +43. In section. (a) Rock Mass Number. normal condition. the value of GSI can be related to Rock Mass Rating RMR value as. a few will be briefly discussed due to their unique application in certain aspect. Another application of N number is to the rock squeezing condition. the value of RMR is very difficult to estimate and the correlation between RMR and GSI is no longer reliable. Squeezing has been noted in the Q-system but is not sufficiently dealt. N can be computed as.
namely. Jp = 1 for a intact rock. In another word.2 Hoek-Brown Strength Criterion of Rock Mass Hoek and Brown criterion discussed in Chapter 4 is not only for rock materials.5.5 Rock Mass Strength and Rock Mass Quality 6.2a). joint alteration and joint size. Jp = 0 for a crushed rock masses. 6. joint density (or block size). It is also applicable to rock masses (Figure 6. The Hoek-Brown criterion for rock mass is described by the following equation: or . a rock mass of good quality (strong rock.(b) Rock Mass Index. and Jp is the jointing parameter accounting for 4 joint characteristics. It is calculated by the following equation.1 Strength of Rock Mass As discussed earlier. strength and deformation properties of a rock mass are much governed by the existence of joints. RMi = σc Jp where σc is the uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock material.5. the mechanical properties of a rock mass are also related to the quality of the rock mass. 6. Jp is in fact a reduction factor representing the effects of jointing on the strength of rock mass. In general. joint roughness. few joints and good joint surface quality) will have a higher strength and high deformation modulus than that of a poor rock mass.5. RMi Rock Mass Index is proposed as an index characterising rock mass strength as a construction material.
In the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion. The equation above is the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion of rock mass. σci is consistently referred to the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material in the Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and for rock mass.2a gives an earlier suggestion of mb and s values. Parameter a is generally equal to 0. σci is the uniaxial strength of the intact rock in the rock mass. Table 6.5.5. Constants mb and s are parameters that changes with rock type and rock mass quality.Figure 6. .e. σ1 is the strength of the rock mass at a confining pressure σ3. mb becomes mi.5. Note in the Hoek-Brown criterion..2a Applicability of Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and rock masses. i. For intact rock. The HoekBrown criterion for intact rock material is a special form of the generalised equation when s =1 and a = 0.5.
. according to different rocks.2a Relation between rock mass quality and Hoek. Table 6.5.2b presents the latest definition of mi values for the intact rock materials.Table 6.5.Brown constants Development and application of the Hoek-Brown criterion lead to better definition of the parameters mb and s.
If triaxial tests have been conducted.5. s = 0. the original Hoek-Brown criterion is applicable with. For GSI > 25. i. rock masses of very poor quality. are calculated as follows.5. and a = 0. Value of a can be estimated from GSI by the following equation. and a in the Hoek-Brown criterion is no longer equal to 0.Table 6. i. . the value of mi should be calculated from the test results. Once the Geological Strength Index has been estimated.e. variation of mi value for each rock can be as great as 18.e. As seen from the table.5 For GSI < 25. rock masses of good to reasonable quality. the parameters which describe the rock mass strength characteristics.2b Values of constant mi for intact rock in Hoek-Brown criterion The values in the above table are suggestive.
From the mi table. The Hoek-Brown equation for the granite rock mass is. Q and GSI. From the mi table. . Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is. (a) Granite rock mass. it gives the uniaxial compressive strength as. Clearly. Calculation in the example uses average values only. with material uniaxial strength 150 MPa. mean GSI 75. range of values should be used to give upper and lower bounds. the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock masses equal to zero. when σ3 = 0. for rock masses of very poor quality. mi given for granite is approximately 32. Example of using the Hoek-Brown equation to determine rock mass strength is given below by the same three examples used for determining the rock mass qualities RMR. mean GSI 40. From the Hoek-Brown criterion.Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is the value of σ1 when σ3 is zero. (b) Sandstone rock mass. with material uniaxial strength 85 MPa. mi given for sandstone is approximately 17. although in practice. when σ3 = 0.
In situ rock mass modulus (Em) can be estimated from the Q and the RMR systems. mean GSI 20. The better rock mass quality gives high rock mass strength. When the rock mass is very poor. Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. in the equations below. Q < 0. with material uniaxial strength 65 MPa. mi given for siltstone is approximately 7.2a and the Hoek-Brown criterion relating GSI. When the rock mass is solid and massive with few joints.. the rock mass strength is close to the strength of intact rock material. RMR < 23.1.Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. or GSI < 25.5. From the mi table. Attempts have also been made to correlated deformation modulus of the rock mass with rock mass quality. 6. . the rock mass has very low uniaxial compressive strength close to zero.5. (c) Siltstone rock mass. i.4 Correlations between Rock Mass Quality and Mechanical Properties Correlations between rock mass strength and rock mass quality are reflected in Table 6.e.
The suggested approach to obtain rock mass Mohr-Coulomb parameters c and φ is by generate a series σ1–σ3 results by the Hoek-Brown equation. It depends on the stress region of the engineering application. the deformation of the intact rock pieces contributes to the overall deformation process.4 Relationship between Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb Criteria There is no direct correlation between the linear Mohr-Coulomb Criterion and the nonlinear Hoek-Brown Criterion defined by the two equations. For rock mass with σci < 100 MPa. the equation is obtained by substituting GSI for RMR in the original Em-RMR equation. plotting the Mohr circle and fitting with the best strength envelope. the line should be fitting best for the . the input for a design software or numerical modelling required for rock masses are in terms of MohrCoulomb parameters c and φ.The above Em-RMR equations are generally for competent rock mass with RMR greater than 20. For a tunnel problem. Then plotting the Mohr circle using the generated σ1–σ3 data and fitting with the best linear envelope. obviously test results should be used directly to obtain parameters c and φ. for poorer quality rock masses. they caution the user that is a major problem to obtain c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. the equation below has been proposed. 6. Attempts have been made by Hoek and Brown to estimate c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. where c and φ can be readily calculated Common problems were there is no or limited test results on rock mass. The Em-GSI equation indicates that modulus Em is reduced progressively as the value of σci falls below 100. Care must be taken when deciding the ‘best’ linear line in fitting the Mohr circles. If a series tests have been conducted on the rock mass. This reduction is based upon the reasoning that the deformation of better quality rock masses is controlled by the discontinuities while. where c and φ can be readily calculated.5. For poor rocks. using for example. if the depth and stress range is known. Often. At the same time.
the ground condition is generally non-squeezing. . Rock masses of competent rock of poor rock mass quality at great depth (under high cover) may also suffer from squeezing. and the fitting a line at low stress level (where the curvature is the greatest for the non-linear Hoek-Brown strength envelope) is very sensitive to the stress level.e. Behaviour of rock squeezing is typically represented by rock mass squeezes plastically into the tunnel and the phenomenon is time dependent. Squeezing may continue for years in exceptional cases. > 5% of tunnel diameter. i. (i) (ii) (iii) Mild squeezing: closure Moderate squeezing: closure High squeezing: closure 1-3% of tunnel diameter. several centimetres of tunnel closure per day for the first 1-2 weeks of excavation. pore pressure needs to be considered as this affects the effective stress level. Rate of squeezing depends on the degree of over-stress. 6. by the conditions below..Mohr circles in that stress region. The degree of squeezing often is classified to mild. which occurs around a tunnel and other underground openings. Squeezing condition may occur above the line. 6. Also.. the stress region may vary from 0 to some level of stress. Deformation may terminate during construction or may continue over a long time period. say. the division between squeezing and non-squeezing condition is by a line H = 350 Q1/3. Squeezing may occur at shallow depths in weak and poor rock masses such as mudstone and shale.6. H < 350 Q1/3.2 Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification Based on case studies. where H is in metres.2a. For a slope problem. i.6. As shown in Figure 6.e. H > 350 Q1/3. Usually the rate is high at initial stage. squeezing may be identified from rock class classification Q-value and overburden thickness (H). and is essentially associated with creep caused by exceeding shear strength. Below the line.6.6 Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass 6. moderate and high. 3-5% of tunnel diameter.1 Squeezing Phenomenon ISRM (Barla 1995) defines that squeezing of rock is the time dependent large deformation. Closure rate reduces with time.
6. N is the Q-value when SRF is set to be 1.2a Predicting squeezing ground using Q-value Another approach predicting squeezing is by using the Rock Mass Number (N). the line separating non-squeezing from squeezing condition is. In situ stress. which is the external cause of squeezing is dealt separated by considering the overburden depth. As discussed in the previous section. Where H is the tunnel depth or overburden in metres and B is the tunnel span or diameter in metres. The parameters allow one to separate in situ stress effects from rock mass quality.Figure 6.6.2b. . From Figure 6.
Theoretically. squeezing conditions around a tunnel opening can occur when. σθ > Strength = σcm + Px A/2 where σθ is the tangential stress at the tunnel opening. .1. The above equation can be written in the form below for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic in situ stress field.Figure 6.2b Squeezing ground condition is presented by: H > (275 N1/3) B–0. σcm is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass. with overburden stress P.1 Moderate squeezing occurs when (450 N1/3) B–0.1.1 High squeezing occurs when H > (630 N1/3) B–0.1 < H < (450 N1/3) B–0. Mild squeezing occurs when (275 N1/3) B–0.6.1 < H < (630 N1/3) B–0. It is also possible to characterise the degree of squeezing base on the same figure. Squeezing may not occur in hard rocks with high values of parameter A. P=γH. Px is the in situ stress in the tunnel axis direction. and A is a rock parameter proportion to friction.
relating tunnel closure to rock mass strength/in situ stress ratio.2a. The prediction curve was compared with tunnel squeezing case histories.6.g.2c Squeezing prediction curve and comparison with case histories. Table 6.6..3. . Studies carried out by Hoek (2000) indicate that squeezing can in fact start at rock mass strength / in situ stress ratio of 0.2c. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass can be estimated from the Hoek-Brown criterion with rock mass quality assessment (e. Overburden stress can be estimated from the overburden depth and rock unit weight.2a Suggested predictions of squeezing conditions The prediction equations for squeezing require the measurements of in situ stress and rock mass strength.ISRM classifies squeezing rock mass and ground condition in Table 6.6.6. Figure 6. GSI). A prediction curve was proposed by Hoek and reproduced in Figure 6.
027 z. Depth.2a. which represents the overburden pressure. Z (m) . Figure 3.5.CHAPTER 3 In situ Stress In situ stress measurements have been compiled and presented in Figure 2. Change of vertical stress with depth is scattered about the tend line. σv = 0.2a In situ stress measurements at various (Brady and Brown 157).
The horizontal stress should not be estimated. The magnitude and directions of natural (pre-existing. Nature of sub-audible vibrations originating in rock 6. 2. Measuring absolute movements of roof and floor ( or HW and FW) 5. k. 4. In situ stress measurement Instrumentation For the development of information for the design of underground openings and their supporting structures. Measuring pressures on mine filling materials 6. Measuring strains in rock at exposed rock surface 2. For projects that maximum stress direction and magnitude may be important. Measuring ground pressures in supporting structures 7. Deformation and restoration of slots in the rock surfaces Measurements of strains and stresses include the following: 1. Measuring stresses in supporting structures . These are: 1. It is very common in rock mechanics that one of the horizontal stresses represent the major principal stress. Measuring strains in rock remote from a free surface 3. Measurement of loads on structures for supporting ground and stresses in the supporting structures. while the vertical stress or the other horizontal stress represents the minor principal stress. The magnitude and directions of induced (concentrated or re-aligned) stresses. four principal classes of measurements are of interest. Changes in velocity of sound waves passed through the ground 4. 2. Closure of roof and floor or closure of sides 2. The following stresses are important in influencing the behaviour of rock around subsurface openings: 1. Tangential deformation of exposed surfaces 3. These are induced by creation of an opening. in situ stress measurements is required.While vertical stress can be estimated with reasonable reliability. Measurement of strains in the ground surrounding an opening. The physical characteristics which may be measured are: Following physical features of a rock are modified when it is subjected to the stresses induced by creation of an opening: 1.The horizontal stresses are presented in the figure by a ratio of average horizontal stress to vertical stress. Measurements of pressures on mine void filling material. Measuring convergence of roof and floor( or HW and F 4. inherent) stresses in rock. Measurement of convergence movements of rock surfaces. Changes in the modulus of elasticity of the ground 5. 3. Deformation of boreholes 7.
such measurements do not yield information as to the stresses existing in the rock. These are: 1. freeing the rock surface to expand. but the measuring techniques are designed to measure strains and the stresses are then computed by using the values of the rock modulus of elasticity. In order to measure these minute changes in dimensions of the openings it is necessary to employ instruments capable of measuring to within a few ten-thousands of a cm. The strain relief method. There are two general methods for determining absolute rock strain. Strain relief method Method 1: The strain gauge is cemented on the surface of the wall rock and a standard diamond drill is used to cut an annular slot in the rock around the gauges. or of walls and ribs. and The strain restoration method In the Strain relief method strain gauges are fixed to the opening walls at selected locations. is the most conspicuous phenomenon associated with underground openings and the easiest to measure.0005 mm. 2. In the Strain restoration method strain gauges are fixed to the rock surface and readings are taken. . large changes in stress values are produced by very small changes in dimensions (strain). Methods for determining the actual magnitudes of stresses within the rock involve measurements of deformation of rock blocks which are freed from the main mass and allowed to expand. For example in a rock with an elastic modulus of 7 0 × 10 6 KPa (70.000 MPa). The modulii of elasticity of rocks ranges from 20 to 70 × 10 6 KPa. Thus. A deep slot is then cut into the rock above the gauges and the rock in allowed to expand. However. A flat jack is cemented into the slot and expanded by application of hydraulic pressure until the strain gauges indicate that the rock has been restored to the state of strain existing prior to cutting of the slot. thus allowing the portion of rock to expand. In an elastic material a stress concentration is created near the boundary of the opening. The pressure in the jack is then assumed to be equal to the original pressure in the rock normal to the slot surface. The deformation in rocks is very small and therefore the determination of stresses depends on the measurement of extremely small deformations. The rock stresses are not measured directly. the deformation in the rock is 0. A groove is then cut around the location of the strain gauge. The amount of the expansion is a function of the initial stress within the rock and of the modulus of elasticity of the rock.Measuring Strain (deformation) in rock The closure of roof and floor.
The rock surface is thoroughly dried before the gauges are cemented to the rock and dried with a hear lamp after gauges are cemented in place.The surface on which the gauges are mounted required careful selection and preparation. Maximum deformation is caused to the vertical axis of a horizontal borehole due to the vertical stress (assuming the horizontal stress is in effective). Method 2 Measurement of Diametral Borehole Deformation for Stress Determination Another method for determining rock stresses is the accurate measurement of borehole horizontal and vertical axes to determine the relative deformation produced in the crosssection of the borehole by stresses in the rock. When the vertical and horizontal stress in the rock is equal there will be no differential deformation along the two axes of the borehole. The surface is ground smooth with a hand grinding wheel. Strain gauges are sealed with waterproof mastic to protect them against moisture. Figure Borehole deformation gauge Theory and Equations Uni-axial stress .
the deformation is in the direction of the applied uniaxial stress. The deformation versus the angle θ for one quadrant of the hole ( θ = 00 to θ = 900) is plotted in the figure below . as the stress increases.The deformation of the hole in a uni-axial stress and in plan stress is given by U= dS (1) (1 + 2 cos 2θ ) E = deformation of hole (change in length of a diameter) = radius of hole = diameter of hole = 2a = perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) = angle (counterclockwise) from S to r = modulus of elasticity T Where U a d S. the hole (at the point) is expanding. and equation 1 reduces to 3dS E 0 When θ = 90 . the deformation is U= U =− dS E (2) (3) And the minus sign signifies that. T θ E r S θ S T Figure Schematic representation of biaxial stress acting across a borehole When θ = 00.
Figure Borehole deformation gauge 5 Deformation (arbitrary units) 4 3 2 1 0 -1 15 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Angle ( in degrees) Figure Sectional View of a borehole deformation gauge .
the magnitude and direction of the stresses S and T can be computed. U= (6) If the deformation is measured across three different diameters and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are known. the deformation is related to the biaxial stresses S and T by U= d [( S + T ) + 2( S − T ) cos 2θ ] E d (3S − T ) E d (3T − S ) E (4) When θ = 00.Bi-axial stress For bi-axial stress field and plane stress. The equations for these conditions will be S U2 2 U3 2 U1 2 600 600 600 θ d/2 U1 2 U3 2 U2 2 S . U= (5) When θ = 900.
U3 a d S. The pressure in the flat jack is then a function of the original pressure in the rock before the slot was cut.In this investigation rock stress was determined by measuring the deformation (change in diameter) of a borehole before and after the hole was stress-relieved. It has been shown that the borehole deformation in a biaxial stress field is related to the magnitude and direction of the applied stresses in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the hole by the following equations: S +T = E (U 1 + U 2 + U 3 ) 3d 1 2E [(U 1 − U 2 ) 2 + (U 2 − U 3 ) 2 + (U 3 − U 1 ) 2 ] 2 6d S −T = tan 2θ = 3 (U 3 − U 2 ) 2U 1 − U 2 − U 3 Where U1. And best results were obtained when the measuring points were placed within a distance equal to about two-thirds the length of the flat-jack. U2. The measuring points A-Bare established prior to cutting slot and the distance between the points is accurately determined. . It has been reported from extensive experimentation with this system that the pressure required to restore the original strain with the locations of the measuring points relative to the slot. T = borehole deformation at a 600 separation (600 deformation rosette) in cm. U is +ve for increase in the diameter radius of hole diameter of hole = 2a perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) angle (counterclockwise) from S to U1 modulus of elasticity = = = = = θ1 E Strain restoration methods In this method a slot is cut. as shown in the figure. to accommodate a flat jack. The flat jack is then placed in the slot and cemented tightly in place with quick-setting cement mortar. Hydraulic pressure is applied to the flat jack until measurements show that the distance between points A and B has been restored to its original dimension. . In practice when a flat jack 70cm long and 70cm wide was used the distance A-B was made about 30cm.
Flat jack method does not require any knowledge of the elastic properties of the rock and hence it is considered to be a true stress measuring method. Because of the difficulty in cutting deep flatjack slots the method is restricted to near-surface measurements. Figure Stress measurement using a flatjack Figure Modified Flakjack method .
of which convergence gagues are special types. Figure roof sag measuring station . This class of instruments consists of a length-sensing device. Multipoint extensometers installed in boreholes have been used to detect roof movements. micrometer. steel wire or rigid tubing. dial gauge. also called extensometers. such as a vernier scale. have been used for decades in metal mines Figure.Measurement of Rock Movement/deformation Convergence Measurement The mechanically simplest deformation measuring devices are deformeters. and some kind of micrometer or dial gauge. Mechanical extensometers. consisting of a top and bottom anchor.
Figure Axial deformation gauges Figure dial gauge deformeter .
has four/six spider type strong leaf spring anchors (Above figure). The steel wire will be brought to the down surface of roof. Roof-to-floor convergence monitors are perhaps the oldest and most common method of measuring roof deflection as a means to detect roof rock instabilities. The relative movement of the anchor points is measured with either mechanical or electromechanical devices. The essential features of an extensometer installation are a stable reference anchor position at the far end of the borehole. Measurement of convergence may be useful in predicting the imminence of failure of roof or floor rock. is an indication of the magnitude of the pressure on the rock above the opening. Extensometers are used to determine the magnitude. etc. The steel wire will be attached with each anchor before pushing of anchors. position and rate of movement of rock surrounding an excavation. The simplest form of extensometer makes use of a stainless steel spring reference anchor with a tube indicator attached to it by stainless steel wire and visible at the hole mouth.The relative amount of closure between roof and floor. a borehole mouth anchor at the tunnel wall and a means of indicating or measuring change in distance between them. The amount of strain depends upon several factors. or between HW and FW. Model SME 248. which are progressively covered as movement develops. When the bed/roof separation is taking place the reading will change in the respective scale. Each wire will be attached with steel scale of different colour for identification of the anchor height. characteristics of the country rock. Movement is indicated by coloured reflective bands on the indicator. After installation of all the anchors the reference head will be installed leaving all the scales hanging freely. . the amount and quality of filling material. Telltale extensometer is a very simple and general design to measure deformation in the roof of coal mines at 4 or 6 different points up to 6 meter height. In mining a simple extensometer such as this is known as a “telltale” because it gives a visual indication of roof movement. This type of instrument consist of an anchor device mounted on the mine roof and floor and connected by a ridged bar or a metal wire. Extensometers are installed into boreholes. such as the amount of ground which is open. Convergence Measurement Monitoring technology and techniques to provide early warning of hazardous roof fall conditions have been a longstanding goal for safety engineers and practitioners working in the mining sector. These anchors will be installed in a 42 mm hole at four different heights with the help of installation tool.
Figure Evolution of Dual height Telltale .
British Coal began producing strain gauged bolts for this purpose in 1990. Figure Strain gauged rock bolts . This was developed and patented by British Coal in 1992 as a safety device for coal mine tunnels where rockbolts were being introduced as support. The AEM is a hand held device comprising an integral geophone and readout unit. This has the advantage that small roof movements can be easily read even when the tunnel height approaches 5m (Figure above). supplied to mine and tunnel projects in seven countries. The most common form of telltale is the dual-height version. but one which is difficult to measure. It measures the reverberation decay rate of a surface when struck with a hammer. They typically have pairs of diametrically opposed resistance strain gauges. which are encapsulated multi-wire steel strands. an underground wastewater plant in Finland and the Joskin tunnel in the UK. allowing calculation and display of mean and bending strains. The device is installed at the same time as the rockbolts into a 5m long roof hole of 27mm-35mm diameter. Instruments installed in two coal mine shaft linings were found to be still returning consistent readings twenty five years later.Here roof movement is converted to rotation of a pointer around a dial. Examples of recent civil engineering use of the instrument include a steel lined water tunnel in the UK where voids behind the 45mm thick lining were detected. where areas of detached shotcrete lining were delineated. The technology has recently been extended to include flexible bolts. Loads in support systems and linings The load distribution in rockbolts and cablebolts is an important support design parameter. and for the detection of voids behind tunnel linings. Support system and lining condition Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) is a simple nondestructive testing device for checking the ‘looseness’ of exposed rock surfaces in tunnels. To date RMT have manufactured around 4000 strain gauged rockbolts.
1993). more particularly. Haimson and Song. This phenomenon refers to the stress induced failure that occurs on the walls of a borehole resulting in spalling or sloughing of material from the borehole wall as shown in Figure 7. and relative or comparative values of stress. They can therefore often provide a reliable indication of the orientations of in situ stress fields. Borehole breakouts (dog earing) “Borehole breakout” is the more widely used term for what is known in South African mining as “dog earing”. Whilst this approach may have some potential for estimating indicative values of stress. This is due to the fact that breakout mechanisms will be different for different types of rock. temperature. 1985. and extents of breakout will vary depending on rock properties and in situ conditions (water. Zoback et al 1986. it is unlikely that it will be successful in the adequate quantification of stress magnitudes. It is commonly observed in deep boreholes. In these attempts. Attempts have been made to use breakout data to estimate the magnitudes of in situ stresses (Zoback et al. Haimson and Herrick (1986) found that the depth and circumferential extent of the completed breakout were directly proportional to the state of stress normal to the borehole axis. Lee and Haimson. Figure 7 Example of stress induced sloughing of material from a borehole wall The locations of the breakouts on diagonally opposite sides of the borehole are usually aligned with the orientations of the secondary principal stresses acting in the plane normal to the borehole axis. . drilling. 1993. the width and depth of the breakout have been measured as a basis for estimating the stresses. the orientations of in situ stresses.Observational methods of in situ stress determination or estimation Observations of the behaviour of openings or holes made in stressed rock can provide very valuable indications of the magnitudes and. etc).
If the discs are uniform in thickness as shown in Figure 8. If the discs are symmetrical about the core axis. 1982). indicates that there is a shear stress acting the borehole axis that the axis is not in a principal stress direction. then it is probable that the hole has been drilled approximately along the orientation of one of the principal stresses. Nevertheless. It is therefore unlikely that observation and measurements of discing will be successful in quantifying the magnitudes of in situ stresses. The direction defined by a line drawn between the peaks of the disc surfaces facing in the original drilling direction indicates the orientation of the minor secondary principal stress. the formation of discs depends significantly on the properties of the rock and the magnitude of the stress in the borehole axial direction (Stacey. The thinner are the discs the higher is the stress level. A measure of the inclination of a principal stress to the borehole axis can be gauged from the relative asymmetry of the disc. as shown in Figure 10. 1991). as shown in Figure 8. including the drill thrust. For unequal stresses normal to the core axis.Core discing Core discing appears to be closely associated with the formation of borehole breakouts. the type and technique of drilling. Lack of symmetry of the discing. can significantly affect the occurrence of discing (Kutter. In addition. 1989). the shape and symmetry of the discs can give a good indication of in situ stress orientations (Dyke. Figure 8 Core discs symmetrical with respect to the core axis . the core circumference will peak and trough as shown in Figure 9. the two secondary principal stresses normal to the core axis will be approximately equal. However. In brittle rocks it has been observed that discing and breakouts usually occur over the corresponding lengths of core and borehole.
and observations of the behaviour of the walls of the excavations in response to the in situ stresses can provide very valuable indications of the in situ stress field. Dog earring in bored excavations can be equally pronounced as in boreholes. the maximum stress in the plane perpendicular to the tunnel axis) is vertical at this location. indicating that the core axis is not a principal stress direction Observations of failures in excavations Excavations can be considered as large boreholes. . This shows that the major secondary principal stress normal to the tunnel axis (i.e. Similarly.Disc peaks Orientation of the minor secondary principal stress Drilling direction Figure 9 Core discs resulting with unequal stresses normal to the core axis Figure 10 Non-symmetrical cores discing. the dog earring in the tunnel in Figure 12 shows that the major secondary principal stress is inclined at about 120 to the horizontal. Figure 11 shows a classic dog ear in the sidewall of a 5 m diameter tunnel.
3. It has been widely used in the oil well industry. 1980. 1983. The application of the method is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 14. isolated using hydraulic packers on either side of it. 1986) played a major role in developing and promoting the use of the hydraulic fracturing technique. Although hydraulic fracturing had been used previously for other purposes such as borehole stimulation for increasing the yield of water supply or dewatering boreholes. Zoback et al. 1977. until the hydraulic pressure causes the rock to fracture. Vertical boreholes are usually used and it is assumed that the in situ principal stresses are vertical and horizontal. 1983) and Zoback (Zoback et al. 1993). 4. Rummel et al. 1977.1 Hydraulic fracturing Conventional hydraulic fracturing involves the pressurizing of a short length of borehole.Figure 11 Dog earing (photograph provided by Dr C D Martin) Hydraulic Fracturing for In situ Stress measurement Hydraulic fracturing is now a well established method for determining in situ stress magnitudes. Scheidegger (1962) and Fairhurst (1964) were the first to suggest its use for the determination of in situ stresses. The characteristics of the pressure induced breakdown and the subsequent reopening of the fracture under repressurisation are monitored carefully. From all these data the orientations of the secondary principal stresses normal to the axis of the borehole can be interpreted. Zoback et al. Rummel (Rummel. . 1987. The method involves the pressurization of a length of borehole and the measurement of the pressure required to fracture the rock or reopen existing fractures. Haimson (1968. The orientation of the induced fracture is measured using a borehole television camera or a special impression packer to obtain a physical record of the surface of the borehole. Cornet (1993a).
Figure 14 Hydraulic fracture applications The method requires special equipment. to determine the orientation of the induced fracture. the pressurization occurs sufficiently fast to avoid fluid permeating into the rock and thus alter the pore pressure within the rock matrix 3. The borehole must be diamond drilled. Although this represents the full sophistication of the method. After hydrofracturing. The classical stress determination from hydraulic fracturing tests is generally based on a few assumption and they are: 1. the straightness and wall quality of the borehole are important. and associated services and personnel. it is illustrative of the sort of requirements that would be necessary for quality measurements at greenfields sites. A simpler set-up would be applicable for in mine tests. the borehole axis is parallel to the direction of one of the principal stress components 2. Fracture generation occurs at the location of the least tangential stress at the borehole wall and the fracture propagates perpendicular to the direction of the least principal stress 4. or a special impression of its surface taken using an impression packer. A system for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in deep boreholes is illustrated in Figure 15. to carry out a measurement. . the borehole has to be inspected using a television camera. Since packers are inserted in the borehole to seal off the test sections. the shut-in pressure is equal to the stress component perpendicular to the fracture plane.
Fig 15 System for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (after Tunbridge et al. 1989) .
The schematic arrangements of hydro-fracturing technique is as shown below in the figure 16
Figure 16 Schematic arrangement of hydro-frac technique
In non-porous rocks the minimum principal stress is given by the shut-in pressure. If a borehole is drilled in the vertical direction, and it is assumed that this is a principal stress direction, and that the minimum principal stress is horizontal, the major horizontal principal stress SH can be determined from the following equation: Testing Procedure A single or double straddle packers system is set (inflated) at the required depth so as to isolate a test cavity. A liquid is injected into the test cavity and its pressure raised while monitoring the quantity injected. A sudden surge of fluid accompanied by sudden drop in pressure indicates that hydrofracture of rock formation (fracture inititation or break down) has occurred. The hydrofracture continues to propagate away from the hole as fluid is injected, and is oriented normal to the least principal stress direction (Fig.17) Once the hydro-fracturing has traveled about 10 drillhole diameters, injection is stopped by shutting a valve, and the instantaneous shut-in pressure is measured. The process is repeated several times to ensure a consistent measurement of this pressure, which is equal to the minimum principal stress.
SV = γ .Z S h = PSi S H = T + 3.S h − PC T = PC − PR Where T is the tensile strength of the rock Sh and SV are the minor and major horizontal principal stress Pc is the breakdown pressure at fracture generation PR is the pressure necessary to re-open the induced fracture (T=0) PSi is the shut-in pressure to merely keep the fracture open against the normal stress acting in the fracture plane Z is the depth of the over burden and γ is the unit weight of the rock. Interpretation of hydrofracture records can require expert input if the shut-in pressure is not distinct. Interpretation of test results is not a straightforward activity, and the experience of the interpreter has some effect on the in situ stress values ultimately determined. Different interpreters may derive somewhat different results from the same set of field data. In porous rocks in particular, interpretation of hydraulic fracturing tests may be very difficult and, owing to the pore pressure, definition of the major principal stress may be doubtful. In sedimentary rocks, beds with a thickness of at least 2 to 3m are necessary for satisfactory testing to be carried out. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements have been carried out at depths in the 6km to 9km range (Amadei and Stephannson, 1997) and therefore the method is, in theory, suitable for the high stress conditions encountered in deep mines. At such high pressures, valves, tubing and packers must be of special design to be able to perform as required. In boreholes in which spalling or breakouts are occurring, there may be a risk of not being able to insert (or recover) the packers, and it may also not be possible to seal off the borehole satisfactorily. Borehole breakouts due to high stress levels may also interfere with the location of the fracture on the borehole wall, and this may lead to inaccuracy in determining stress directions.
Table 1 Test No Depth (m)
Hydrofracture Field Data Shut-in Pressure-PR MPa 15.0 19.0 12.0 15.0 27.2 42.5 33.0 T=PC-PR MPa PSi MPa
BreakDown Pressure-PC MPa Underground Borehole –Sub-level 40 1 23.5 17.2 2 21.5 28.0 3 18.5 18.2 4 12.5 18.4 5 9.5 32.4 6 4.15 45.5 7 1.95 40.6
2.2 9.0 6.2 3.4 5.2 3.0 7.6
11.5 13.0 10.0 12.0 20.5 33.5 32.0
It is clear from the above that the application of the hydraulic fracturing method is theoretically possible, but would be expensive, and demanding on services. Perhaps the most severe restriction, however, is the requirement that the borehole be drilled in the direction of one of the principal stresses. In mining situations this is usually not known and is one of the in situ stress parameters to be determined. Bibliography Dyke, C G (1989) Core discing: its potential as an indicator of principal in situ stress directions, Rock at Great depth, ed Maury & Fourmaintraux, Balkema, pp 1057-1064. Fairhurst, C (1964) Measurement of in situ rock stresses with particular reference to hydraulic fracturing, Rock Mech. & Engng Geol., Vol 2, pp 129-147. Haimson, B C and Herrick, C G (1986) Borehole breakouts – a new tool for estimating in situ stress? Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 271-280. Haimson, B C, Lee, C F and Huang, J H S (1986) High horizontal stresses at Niagara Falls, their measurement and the design of a new hydroelectric plant, Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 615-624. Haimson, B C, Lee, M, Chandler, N and Martin, D (1993) Estimating the state of stress for subhorizontal hydraulic fractures at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol 30, No 7, pp 959-964. Haimson, B and Song, I (1993) Laboratory studies of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp1047- 1056. Kutter, H (1991) Influence of drilling method on borehole breakouts and core disking, Proc. 7th Int. Cong. Int. Soc. Rock Mech., Aachen, Balkema, Vol 3, pp 1659-1664. Martin, C D and Chandler, N A (1993) Stress heterogeneity and geological structures, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp 993-999. Rummel, F (1987) Fracture mechanics approach to hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, in Fracture Mechanics of Rocks, Academic Press, London, pp 217-239. Scheidegger, A E (1962) Stress in earth’s crust as determined from hydraulic fracturing data, Geol. Bauwesen, Vol 27, pp 45-53.
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