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Course Material For Singareni Collieries Limited (SCCLtd) Ramagundem AP
By Dr.K.U.M.Rao Professor Department of Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 721302
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Rock Mechanics as a Discipline
Rock mechanics is a discipline that uses the principles of mechanics to describe the behaviour of rocks. Here, the term of rock is in the scale of engineering. The scale is generally in the order of between a few metres to a few thousand metres. Therefore, the rock considered in rock mechanics is in fact the rock mass, which composes intact rock materials and rock discontinuities. What is so special of rock mechanics? For normal construction materials, e.g., steel and concrete, the mechanical behaviours are continuous, homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic (CHILE). Properties of the manmade materials are known and can often be controlled. For rocks, due to the existence of discontinuities, the behaviours are discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and non-linearly elastic (DIANE). Properties of the natural geomaterials are unknown and often can not be controlled. It is important to be award that in rock mechanics, rock discontinuities dominate the mechanical and engineering behaviours. The existence of discontinuity depends on the scale. The discontinuous nature and scale dependence feature is not common in other man-made materials. Rock mechanics is applied to various engineering disciplines: civil, mining, hydropower, petroleum. In civil engineering, it involves foundation, slope and tunnel. In structural engineering, the design process generally is as following: Calculate external loading imposed on the structure; Design the structure and analyse loading in structure elements; Design the structure element and select materials. In rock engineering, or geotechnical engineering, the whole process is different. Loading condition is not easily calculateable, rock engineering, being sloping cutting or underground excavation, does not impose loading, but disturbs the existing stress field of the ground and redistribute the load. Therefore, the key process in rock engineering is to understand the how the stress field is disturbed by engineering activities and how the rock is behaving (responding) to the change of boundary conditions, and yet the material does not has a characteristics controlled by man. The objectives of learning rock mechanics are: • • To understand of the mechanical behaviour of rock materials, rock discontinuities and rock masses. To be able to analyse and to determine mechanical and engineering properties of rocks for engineering applications.
CHAPTER 2 ROCK FORMATION AND ROCK MASS 2.1 Rock Formations and Types Rock is a natural geo-material. In geological term, rock is a solid substance composed of minerals, of which can consist in particulate form (soil particles) or in large form (mountains, tectonic plates, planetary cores, planets). In common term, rock is an aggregate of minerals. Rocks are formed by three main origins: igneous rocks from magma, sedimentary rock from sediments lithfication and metamorphic rocks through metamorphism. Figure 2.1.1a shows the geological process involved in the formations of various rocks. It should be noted that the processes are dynamic and continuous.
Figure 2.1.1a Rock cycle illustrating the role of various geological processes in rock formation. 2.1.3 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization. They can be formed below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks, or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from either the Earth's mantle or pre-existing rocks made molten by extreme temperature and pressure changes. Figure 2.1.1a shows the origin of magma and igneous rock through the rock cycle. As magma cools, minerals crystallize from the melt at different temperatures. The magma from which the minerals crystallize is rich in only silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium,
chalk and limestone.1a).potassium. through metamorphism. Pressure forces some crystals to re-orient. and by precipitation from solution. the rock undergoes profound physical and/or chemical change. Igneous rocks make up approximately 95% of the upper part of the Earth's crust. When an existing rock is subjected to heat and extreme pressure. transportation. heat causes minerals to recrystallise. and each mineral assemblage produced provides us with a clue as to the temperatures and pressures at the time of metamorphism. known as regional metamorphism.1. shale. The high temperatures and pressures in the depths of the Earth are the cause of the changes. When above 200°C. The existing rock may be sedimentary rock. Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by mineral assembly. Four basic processes are involved in the formation of a clastic sedimentary rock: weathering (erosion). These are the elements which combine to form the silicate minerals. but their great abundance is hidden on the Earth's surface by a relatively thin but widespread layer of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. All rocks disintegrate slowly as a result of mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. In the process atoms are exchanged between the minerals. which account for over 90% of all igneous rocks. Heat and pressure are the causes of metamorphism. by the deposition of the results of biogenic activity. but count for only 5% of the rock in the earth crust. igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock (Figure 2. Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by chemical reaction. calcium. Sedimentary rocks include common types such as sandstone. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface.4 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is formed in three main ways – by the deposition of the weathered remains of other rocks (known as 'clastic' sedimentary rocks). known as contact metamorphism.1. deposition and compaction.5 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rock is a new rock type transformed from an existing rock type. Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock into particles without producing changes in the chemical composition of the minerals in the rock.1. They are formed deep beneath the Earth's surface by great stresses from rocks above and high pressures and temperatures. which is a unique feature . 2. and magnesium minerals. Many complex high-temperature reactions may take place. Metamorphic rocks are also formed by the intrusion of molten rock (magma) into solid rock and form particularly at the place of contact between the magma and solid rock where the temperatures are high. clay. Another important mechanism of metamorphism is that of chemical reactions that occur between minerals without them melting. The combined effects of recrystallisation and re-orientation usually lead to foliation. and thus new minerals are formed. iron. conglomerate. 2.
2. Columnar jointing or columnar basalts are typical joint features by cooling.2.1a). as the spacing of joints usually is between a few centimetres and a few metres. which form cooling joints.1a Typical joints seen (i) one dominant set. Joints can also be caused by cooling of hot rock masses. . Joints are often in sets.2. Typically.2. clean fracture.of metamorphic rocks. with the bands showing the colours of the minerals that formed them.2a. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes. The largest examples are at tectonic plate boundaries. 2. Since faults usually do not consist of a single. Joints are the most common type of rock discontinuities. Joints do not have any significant offset of strata either vertically or horizontally (Figure 2. the term fault zone is used when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane.2 Faults Geologic faults are planar rock fractures which show evidence of relative movement. Joints are always in sets. This causes the platy or elongated crystals of minerals. Figure 2. or foliated. This result in a banded. (ii) three sets. Figure 2. Joints are also formed by tectonic movement. Joints can be formed due to erosion of the overlying strata exposed at the surface. 2. such as mica and chlorite.1 Joints A geological joint is a generally planar fracture formed in a rock as a result of extensional stress. A joint set is a group of parallel joints. rock. and hence leads to the fracturing of underlying rock. to grow with their long axes perpendicular to the direction of the force. a rock mass can have between one to a few joint sets.2 Rock Discontinuities 2.2. Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along faults. The removal of overlying rock results in change of stresses. but many faults occur far from active plate boundaries. It occurs when a strong compressive force is applied from one direction to a recrystallizing rock. They are generally considered as part of the rock mass.
Shear zones can be only inches wide. . particularly fault zone and shear zone. Typically this is a type of fault but it may be difficult to place a distinct fault plane into the shear zone.Figure 2. It should be noted that fold has huge variation of features. particularly intense folds.4a).3 Folds The term fold is used in geology when originally flat and planar rock strata are bent as a result of tectonic force or movement. They are often dealt separately from the rock mass. Although the folding feature may not be directly taking into account of rock mass. However. A shear zone is a wide zone of distributed shearing in rock.3a). Folds are usually not considered as part of the rock mass.2a Faults. Small scale single faults often have the similar effects as a joint. or up to several kilometres wide. Bedding plane often can be fully closed and cemented. 2.2. Folds form under very varied conditions of stress. are often associated with high degree of fracturing and relatively weak and soft rocks. fault zone and shear zone.2. As faults.2.2. The behaviour large scale fault and shear zones require specific investigation and analysis. Folds. are large scale geological features. but the results of folding is often reflected in the rock mass consideration. Bedding plane therefore is a discontinuity separating different rocks (Figure 2.4 Bedding Planes As sedimentary rocks are formed in layers. if a project is to be constructed over or close such zones.2. folds can be of the similar scale as the engineering project and hence the significance of folds on the behaviour of the rock mass must be taken into consideration. Folds can be commonly observed in sedimentary formation and as well as in metamorphic rocks (Figure 2. 2. the interfaces between layers are termed as bedding planes.
It mainly creates an interface of two rock materials.1 Engineering Scale and Rock Engineering in and on rock has different scales. an interface between porous sandstone and limestone may lead to extensive weathering of the limestone. then rock in such scale is generally a mass of rock at the site.g. 2. which leads to cavities along the interface.2. e. foundations. varying from a few centimetres to a few kilometres. Bedding planes are isolated geological features to engineering activities. slopes and tunnels.3b Folds in a sedimentary formation.Figure 2. Figure 2. This mass of rock. A borehole can be typically around 8 cm while a mine can spread up to a few km. the scale of projects is usually a few ten metres to a few hundreds metres.3 Rock Material and Rock Masses 2. For civil engineering works. typically seen in Figure 2. often termed as rock mass. is the whole body of the rock in situ. some bedding planes could also become potential weathered zones and pocket of groundwater.3.. For example. .3. However.1b.3a Folds in a sedimentary formation.2. When such engineering scale is considered. consists of rock blocks and fractures.
Figure 2.4a Some typical bedding planes.4b Some typical bedding planes.Figure 2. Figure 2. .126.96.36.199b Typical rock masses.
Rock materials and discontinuities together form rockmass.3. in the form of intact rock plates.3. interbedding and intrusion.3 Role of Joints in Rock Mass Behaviour Rock joints change the properties and behaviour of rock mass in the following terms: (i) Cuts rock into slabs. In addition. in the forms of fractures.3a).3. 2.4.2. .1 Inhomogeneity of Rock Materials Inhomogeneity represents property varying with locations. (ii) Acts as weak planes for sliding and moving. (ii) Gives large deformation. Rock masses are also inhomogeneous due to the mix of rock types.2a). and faults. (iii)Alters stress distribution and orientation. blocks and wedges. joints.2a A dyke intrusion. Because the rock materials between rock joints are intact and solid. varying from extremely soft clay and fractured and crushed rocks.3. Figure 2. Faults are often filled with weathered materials. rock mass may also include filling materials in the discontinuities and dyke and sill igneous intrusions (Figure 2.4.3. to be free to fall and move (Figure 2. of various sizes.2 Composition of Rock Mass A rock mass contains (a) rock material. they have relative small deformation and low permeability.4 Inhomogeneity and Anisotropy 2. Rocks are formed by nature and exhibits great inhomogeneity. blocks and wedges.2 Inhomogeneity of Rock Masses Inhomogeneity of a rock mass is primarily due to the existence of discontinuities. and (b) rock discontinuities that cuts through the rock. Most of the engineering materials have varying degrees of inhomogeneity. It is therefore obvious that rock mass behaviour by large is governed by rock joints. 2. 2. (i) Provides water flow channel and creates flow networks.
Phyllite and schist are the other foliated metamorphic rocks that exhibit anisotropy.Anisotropy occurs in both rock materials and rock mass.3a Some common anisotropic rocks. Rock mass anisotropy is controlled by (i) joint set (Figure 2. . small degree of anisotropy is possible.3b A Limestone rock mass with one dominating joint set.4.4.4. Other sedimentary may not have clear anisotropy. have noticeable anisotropic characteristics.3 Anisotropy Anisotropy is defined as properties are different in different direction. shale. However.4.3a. Figure 2. Some sedimentary rocks. and (ii) sedimentary layer (Figure 2. Figure 2.3b). (i) slate and (ii) sandstone. e.2a). under the influence of formation process and pressure.4.2.g.4.. as seen in Figure 2. Rock with most obvious anisotropy is slate.
They are: • Quartz • Feldspar • Mica • Hornblende(Amphiboles) • Pyroxenes • Olivine • Calcite • Kaolinite. 7. 5. 4. 3. The Rocks containing quartz as the binder are known as siliceous rocks and are the strongest while the rocks with calcium and magnesium carbonates are the weakest. 3. . and • Dolomite These minerals are glued together by four types of materials such as silicates. A coarse-grained rock is one in which the large crystals are seen easily while the fine grained rocks need to be seen under a microscope. calcites. One distinguishes between coarse-texture (coarse-grained) and fine-textures rock. Specific gravity G Unit weight γ Porosity n Void ratio e Moisture content w Degree of saturation. 8. argillaceous and ferrous minerals. and texture. 6. showing the geometrical aspects of the rock including shape. size. and arrangement.CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF ROCK MATERIALS Rock material is the intact rock portion. megascopic or microscopic. Rock structure and texture affect the strength properties of the rock. This Chapter addresses properties of rock material. 2. S Permeability to water k Mineralogical composition is the intrinsic property controlling the strength of the rock Although there exist more than 2000 kinds of known minerals. The term “rock texture” refers to the arrangement of its grains. Thus the texture is the appearance. only about nine of them partake decisively in forming the composition of rocks. structure.1 Physical Properties of Rock Material The physical properties of rocks affecting design and construction in rocks are: 1. seen on a smooth surface of a mineral aggregate. Mineralogical composition .
500nd 2. V V − (WS / Gγ W ) e = n= V = V 1+ e V V 1 = S 1+ e V γ Dry = (The unit weight of water = 1 g/cm3 = 1 t/m3 = 9. It is the ratio of the non-solid volume (VV) to the total volume (V) of material. Density.3. M 1 G= S ⋅ VS ρ W (where M S = mass of solids and VS -volume of solids) Unit weight ( γ ) W V ( W is the total weight of the sample and V the total volume of the sample) γ = Density is a measure of mass per unit of volume. Most rocks have density between 2.800 kg/m3. Void ratio (e) is the ratio of the volume of voids (VV) to the volume of solids (VS) e= VV VS Wd γ G = ⋅γW = V 1+ e 1+ w Porosity (n) describes how densely the material is packed. It is sometimes defined by unit weight and specific gravity.81 kN/m3 w = moisture content of the sample . and often related to the porosity of the rock.4 lb/ft3) Where Wd = dry weight of the sample WS = weight of solids VV and VS = volume of voids and volume of solids V = total volume of the sample G = specific gravity e = Void ratio of the sample γ w = Unit weight of water = 9. Porosity therefore is a fraction between 0 and 1.1.1 Specific Gravity.81 kN/m3 = 62. Porosity and Water Content Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of solids to the density of water. Density of rock material various.
However.5 to 2.01 for solid granite to up to 0. High porosity therefore naturally leads to high permeability. w= Ww W − WS × 100 = × 100 WS WS Degree of saturation S is S= Vw × 100 VV Density is common physical properties. Density and porosity often related to the strength of rock material. Density is used to estimate overburden stress. Porosity is one of the governing factors for the permeability.8. Water content is a measure indicating the amount of water the rock material contains. It is influenced by the specific gravity of the composition minerals and the compaction of the minerals. It may also be represented in percent terms by multiplying the fraction by 100%.The value is typically ranging from less than 0.5 for porous sandstone. Porosity provides the void for water to flow through in a rock material. A low density and high porosity rock usually has low strength. Figure Phase diagram illustrating the weights and volume relationship . most rocks are well compacted and then have specific gravity between 2. It is simply the ratio of the weight of water (Ww) to the weight (WS) of the rock material.
3.2 Hardness Hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. Abrasivity is highly influenced by the amount of quartz mineral in the rock material.1. The higher quartz content gives higher abrasivity.g. metamorphic and chemical sedimentary rocks. including igneous.3 Abrasivity Abrasivity measures the abrasiveness of a rock materials against other materials. Cerchar and other abrasivity tests are described later.4 Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of a material to transmit fluids. As discussed earlier. e.1.Table 3. Hardness of rock materials depends on several factors. It is an important measure for estimate wear of rock drilling and boring equipment. Porous rocks such as sandstones usually have high permeability while granites .1.Abrasivity measures are given by several tests. steel. A typical measure is the Schmidt rebound hardness number. Table 3. 3. Most rocks. permeability of rock material is governed by porosity. including density and porosity of rock materials.1. generally have very low permeability.1. including mineral composition and density..1a Physical properties of fresh rock materials 3.1a gives common physical properties.
The complete stressstrain curve can be divided into 6 sections. . For a poorly compact rock material. analysis and modeling.2. except for those porous one. 3. The velocity measurements provide correlation to physical properties in terms of compaction degree of the material.1. using the same principle. P wave velocity measures the travel speed of longitudinal (primary) wave in the material.5 Wave Velocity Measurements of wave are often done by using P wave and sometimes.2.2 Mechanical Properties of Rock Material 3.1a. Permeability of rock materials. represent 6 stages that the rock material is undergoing. and it will be discussed in a later chapter.1a presents a typical stress-strain curve of a rock under uniaxial compression.have low permeability. The most common measure of compressive strength is the uniaxial compressive strength or unconfined compressive strength. so the wave will partially travel through void (air or water) and the velocity will be reduced (P-wave velocities in air and in water are 340 and 1500 m/s respectively and are much lower than that in solid).1b and Figure 3. S waves. Permeability of rock fractures is discussed later. Typical values of P and S wave velocities of some rocks are given in Table 3.1.2. Figure 4.2.1c show the states of rock in those stages of compression. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock material. flow is concentrated in fractures in the rock mass. has limited interests as in the rock mass. Figure 3. the grains are not in good contact. 3.1 Compressive Strength Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed compressive forces. Usually compressive strength of rock is defined by the ultimate stress. while S-wave velocity measures the travel speed of shear (secondary) wave in the material. Wave velocities are also commonly used to assess the degree of rock mass fracturing at large scale. used in design. A well compacted rock has generally high velocity as the grains are all in good contact and wave are traveling through the solid.
Stage IV – The rock is undergone a rapid acceleration of microcracking events and volume increase. At this stage. Stage V – The rock has passed peak stress. The upper boundary of the stage is the point of maximum compaction and zero volume change and occurs at about 80% peak strength. The axial stress-strain curve is nearlinear and is nearly recoverable. in addition to deformation. The specimen is undergone strain softening (failure) . Stage I – The rock is initially stressed. This initial non-linearity is more obvious in weaker and more porous rocks. Stage III – The rock behaves near-linear elastic. In this stage the crack arrays fork and coalesce into macrocracks or fractures. but is still intact. particularly in stiffer unconfined rocks. This causes an initial non-linearity of the axial stress-strain curve. as the there is little permanent damage of the micro-structure of the rock material. both axially and laterally. Microcrack propagation occurs in a stable manner during this stage and that microcracking events occur independently of each other and are distributed throughout the specimen. The Poisson's ratio.2. There is a slight increase in lateral strain due to dilation. pre-existing microcracks or pore orientated at large angles to the applied stress is closing.1a Typical uniaxial compression stress-strain curve of rock material.2.Figure 3. the stress-strain is largely recoverable. Micro-cracks are likely initiated at the later portion of this stage. Figure 3. of about 35-40% peak strength. even though the internal structure is highly disrupt. tends to be low.depending on the strength of the rock. The rock is primarily undergoing elastic deformation with minimum cracking inside the material. Stage II – The rock basically has a linearly elastic behaviour with linear stress-strain curves. The spreading of microcracks is no longer independent and clusters of cracks in the zones of highest stress tend to coalesce and start to form tensile fractures or shear planes .1c Samples of rock material under uniaxial compression test and failure.
Figure 3. Stage VI – The rock has essentially parted to form a series of blocks rather than an intact structure. the stress-strain characteristics also changed. This in turn will lead to zones of concentrated strain or shear planes. of the rate of change of stress with strain. These blocks slide across each other and the predominant deformation mechanism is friction between the sliding blocks.2.1d Triaxial compression test and failure 3. The rock is covered by overburden materials. Compressive strength with lateral pressures is higher than that without. In underground excavation. In addition to the significant increase of strength with confining pressure. for small strains. Typical strengths and modulus of common rocks are given in Table 3.2. It is defined as the ratio. we often are interested in the rock at depth. The axial stress or force acting on the specimen tends to fall to a constant residual strength value. at peak stress the test specimen starts to become weaker with increasing strain. . Discussion on the influence of confining pressure to the mechanical characteristics is given in a later section.2.deformation. i.. Secondary fractures may occur due to differential shearing. equivalent to the frictional resistance of the sliding blocks. Thus further strain will be concentrated on weaker elements of the rock which have already been subjected to strain. and is subjected to lateral stresses. The compressive strength with lateral pressures is called triaxial compressive strength. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve obtained during compressional or tensile tests conducted on a rock sample.1d shows the results of a series triaxial compression tests.e. Figure 3.1a.2.2 Young's Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio Young's Modulus is modulus of elasticity measuring of the stiffness of a rock material.
typically crystalline rocks. could have relatively high strain at failure. while soft rock. the Poisson’s ratio is between 0. typically around 0.2. Strain at failure is the strain measured at ultimate stress. Similar to strength. Rocks can have brittle or ductile behaviour after peak. A few soft rocks. For most rocks.4% under uniaxial compression.2. Rocks generally fail at a small strain. As seen from the tests that at later stage of loading beyond. such as shale and mudstone. Strain at failure sometimes is used as a measure of brittleness of the rock. behave ductile.2 to 0.1a Mechanical properties of rock materials. .15 and 0. Poisson’s ratio measures the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain. behave brittle under uniaxial compression.4. Young’s Modulus can be as high as 100 GPa. that is. as shown in Figure 3. metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.3a. Most rocks. 3. Young’s Modulus of rock materials varies widely with rock type. including all crystalline igneous. have low strain at failure.3 Stress-Strain at and after Peak A complete stress-strain curve for a rock specimen in uniaxial compression test can be obtained. at linearly-elastic region. beyond the linearly elastic region the increase in lateral strain is faster than the axial strain and hence indicates a higher ratio. Strain at failure increases with increasing confining pressure under triaxial compression conditions. mainly of sedimentary origin. For extremely hard and strong rocks. Brittle rocks.2.Table 3.
The most common tensile strength determination is by the Brazilian tests.2.3a Complete stress-strain curves of several rocks showing post peak behaviour (Brady and Brown). 3. i.2. Rock material generally has a low tensile strength.4 Tensile Strength Tensile strength of rock material is normally defined by the ultimate strength in tension.2. Figure 3. φ.5 Shear Strength Shear strength is used to describe the strength of rock materials.2. Direct test is not commonly performed due to the difficulty in sample preparation.4a illustrates the failure mechanism of the Brazilian tensile tests. Internal friction is caused by contact between particles..2. to resist deformation due to shear stress. Brazilian test and flexure test. Different rocks have different cohesions and different friction angles. Tensile strength of rock materials can be obtained from several types of tensile tests: direct tensile test.Figure 3. 3. Rock resists shear stress by two internal mechanisms. The low tensile strength is due to the existence of microcracks in the rock.4a Stress and failure of Brazilian tensile tests by RFPA simulation.e. and is defined by the internal friction angle. Cohesion is a measure of internal bonding of the rock material. cohesion and internal friction. . The existence of microcracks may also be the cause of rock failing suddenly in tension with a small strain. maximum tensile stress the rock material can withstand. Figure 3.
Shear strength of rock material can be determined by direct shear test and by triaxial compression tests.2.g.3 MPa in the figure). . even the loading may appears to be compression. the later methods is widely used and accepted. remain brittle at room temperature at confining pressures of up to 1000 MPa or more.3. there is a transition from typically brittle to fully ductile behaviour with the introduction of plastic mechanism of deformation. is known as the brittle-ductile transition pressure. the region incorporating the peak of the axial stress-axial strain curve flattens and widens. In general. In practice.5a. igneous and high grade metamorphic rocks. e. the post-peak drop in stress to the residual strength reduces and disappears at high confining stress. By plotting Mohr circles. This brittle-ductile transition pressure varies with rock type.. peak stresses (σ1) are obtained at various lateral stresses (σ3). Figure 3. 3. the shear envelope is defined which gives the cohesion and internal friction angle.2. Rocks generally have high compressive strength so failure in pure compression is not common. (c) (d) The confining pressure that causes the post-peak reduction in strength disappears and the behaviour becomes fully ductile (48. Tensile and shear strengths are important as rock fails mostly in tension and in shearing.5a Determination of shear strength by triaxial tests.1 Effects of Confining Pressure Figure 4.3.3 Effects of Confining and Pore Water Pressures on Strength and Deformation 3. With a series of triaxial tests conducted at different confining pressures. as shown in Figure 3. granite and quartzite.1a illustrates a number of important features of the behaviour of rock in triaxial compression. It shows that with increasing confining pressure. (a) (b) the peak strength increases.
In this case. For low porosity rocks. Effect of pore water pressure is only applicable for porous rocks where sufficient pore pressure can be developed within the materials. .2a. the classical effective stress law does not hold.Figure 3. mechanical response is controlled by the effective confining stress (σ3' = σ3 – u).3. There is a transition from ductile to brittle behaviour as pore pressure is increased from 0 to 69 MPa.3.1a Complete axial stress-axial strain curves obtained in triaxial compression tests on Marble at various confining pressures (after Wawersik & Fairhurst 1970).3. but with various level of pore pressure (0-69 MPa). 3.2 Effects of Pore Water Pressure The influence of pore-water pressure on the behaviour of porous rock in the triaxial compression tests is illustrated by Figure 4.3. Figure 3.2a Effect of pore pressure on the stress-strain behaviour of rock materials. A series of triaxial compression tests was carried out on a limestone with a constant confining pressure of 69 MPa.
4 Other Engineering Properties of Rock Materials 3. From the theory of elasticity. Is(50).5.1 Rock Hardness.3.1 Point Load Strength Index Point load test is another simple index test for rock material. calculated from the point load at failure and the size of the specimen.5. Figure 3. with size correction to an equivalent core diameter of 50 mm.5.5 Relationships between Physical and Mechanical Properties 3. the uniaxial compressive strength is reduced. Young’s Modulus and Strength. it is also used to estimate the elastic modulus of the rock material. the hardness index can be used to estimate uniaxial compressive strength of the rock material. 4. Density. The correlation between hardness and strength is shown in Figure 188.8.131.52. The correlation is also influenced by the density of the material.1a Correlation between hardness.2 Effect of Water Content on Strength Many tests showed that the when rock materials are saturated or in wet condition. 3. and Strength Schmidt hammer rebound hardness is often measured during early part of field investigation. compared to the strength in dry condition. compressional (or longitudinal) P-wave velocity (vp) is related to the elastic modulus E s and the density (ρ) of the material as. . It gives the standard point load index. 3. It is a measure of the hardness of the rock material by count the rebound degree.3 Velocity and Modulus While seismic wave velocity gives a physical measurement of the rock material. At the same time.1a.
i.4a. Similarly. It is different from the modules obtained by the uniaxial compression tests. seismic shear modulus Gs may be determined from shear S-wave velocity vs.5. . Gs is in GPa.5. or perhaps on the texture of the rocks. higher elastic modulus is often associated with higher strength. The value of the seismic modulus is generally slightly higher than the modulus determined from static compression tests. It should be noted that the correlation is not precisely linear and also depends on the rock type. Es = 2 Gs (1 + νs) 3. Seismic Poisson’s ration νs can be determined from.4 Compressive Strength and Modulus It is a general trend that a stronger rock material is also stiffer. Figure 3. The correlations are presented in Figure 3.4a Correlation between strength and modulus.. but should not be mistaken as the modulus under dynamic compression). when density ρ is in g/cm3. seismic Young’s modulus Es can be determined from shear modulus (Gs) and Poisson’s ratio (νs).e. then Es in GPa (109 N/m2). There is reasonable correlation between compressive strength and elastic modulus. and S-wave velocity vs is in km/s. and vp in km/s.5. The elastic modulus estimated by this method is the sometime termed as seismic modulus (also called dynamic modulus.If ρ in g/cm3. Alternatively.
the Coulomb shear strength criterion τ = c + σn tanφ is represented by a straight line. by combining the above three equations.6. Applying the stress transformation equations or from the Mohr’s circle.1a Stresses on failure plane a-b and representation of Mohr’s circle.3..6. the stresses developed on the failure plane are on the strength envelope.6 Failure Criteria of Rock Materials 3. a constant cohesion (c) and a normal stress-dependent frictional component. When failure occurs.6. it gives: Coulomb suggested that shear strengths of rock are made up of two parts.1a.1 Mohr-Coulomb criterion Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion assumes that a shear failure plane is developed in the rock material. with an intercept c on the τ axis and an angle of φ with . Refer to Figure 3.e. Figure 3. i. Therefore. where c = cohesion and φ = angle of internal friction. or In a shear stress-normal stress plot. the stresses on the failure plane a-b are the normal stress σn and shear stress τ.
For most rocks.6. the stress condition on the a-b plane satisfies the shear strength condition. failure will occur. and θ=¼π+½φ Then Figure 3. As seen from the Mohr’s circle. For this reason. If the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope shown in Figure 4. the failure plane is defined by θ. and once the stress condition meet the envelope. . as shown in Figure 4. Therefore. the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope straight line touches (makes a tangent) to the Mohr’s circles.1b Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope in terms of normal and shear stresses and principal stresses.1b.6. σt′. This straight line is often called the strength envelope. the stress condition on the a-b plane meets the strength envelope. In another word. σt′ is about 1/10 σc. the uniaxial compressive strength is related to c and φ by: An apparent value of uniaxial tensile strength of the material is given by: However. As assumed. Any stress condition below the strength envelope is safe. At each tangent point.1b is extrapolated. a tensile cut-off is usually applied at a selected value of uniaxial tensile stress.6. the measured values of tensile strength are generally lower than those predicted by the above equation. with tensile cut-off.the σn axis. rock failure starts with the formation of the shear failure plane a-b.
1b. In most cases. as seen in Figure 4. Assuming that the elliptical crack will propagate from the points of maximum tensile stress concentration (P in Figure 4.6. Griffith extended the theory to the case of applied compressive stresses.6. At h i h σ3.6. so the criterion is widely used.6. and or g The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is only suitable for the low range of σ3.2 Griffith strength criterion Based on the energy instability concept. due to its simplicity and popularity. it overestimates the strength. . It also overestimates tensile strength.2a Griffith crack model for plane compression. Then. 3. Griffith obtained the following criterion for crack extension in plane compression: Figure 3. rock engineering deals with shallow problems and low σ3.2a).The Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope can also be shown in σ1–σ3 plots.
where σt is the uniaxial tensile strength of the material.3 Hoek-Brown criterion Because the classic strength theories used for other engineering materials have been found not to apply to rock over a wide range of applied compressive stress conditions. which represents the cohesion.6.6. One of the most widely used criteria is Hoek-Brown criterion for isotropic rock materials and rock masses. a number of empirical strength criteria have been introduced for practical use.2b Griffith envelope for crack extension in compression.6. τ = 2σt. The strength envelopes given by the above equations in principal stresses and in normal and shear stresses are shown in Figure 3.2b. When σ3 = 0. This criterion can also be expressed in terms of the shear stress (τ) and normal stress (σn) acting on the plane containing the major axis of the crack: When σn = 0. the above equation becomes It in fact suggests that the uniaxial compressive stress at crack extension is always eight times the uniaxial tensile strength Figure 3. Hoek and Brown (1980) found that the peak triaxial compressive strengths of a wide range of isotropic rock materials could be described by the following equation: or Where m is a parameter that changes with rock type in the following general way: . 3.
The Hoek-Brown peak strength criterion is an empirical criterion based on substantial test results on various rocks. with respect to the principal stress directions.6.7. so it gives low strength estimate than the MohrCoulomb envelope. but a curve. It is evident that the Hoek-Brown strength envelope is not a straight line. There are several forms of anisotropy with various degrees of complexity. It is therefore only the simplest form of anisotropy.3a Normalized peak strength envelope for (i) granites and (ii) sandstones (after Hoek & Brown 1980). the envelope curves down. Figure 3.7 Effects of Rock Microstructures on Mechanical Properties 3. or the presence of bedding or cleavage planes. are not isotropic.1 Strength of rock material with Anisotropy Rocks. hence makes it is so far the only acceptable criterion for both material and mass.6. The peak strengths developed by transversely isotropic rocks in triaxial compression vary with the orientation of the plane of isotropy. to be discussed here. 3. plane of weakness or foliation plane. It is however very easy to use and select parameters.Figure 3. the behaviour of those rocks is anisotropic. Because of some preferred orientation of fabric or microstructure. Figure 3. It is also extended to rock masses with the same equation.7.3a shows normalized Hoek-Brown peak strength envelope for some rocks. such as shale and slate. . At high stress level.1a shows some measured variations in peak principal stress difference with the angle of inclination of the major principal stress to the plane of weakness. transverse isotropy.
7. ϕ w = angle of friction of the plane.7.1a can be given by the equation below (Brady & Brown 1985): Where: c w = cohesion of the plane of weakness. β = inclination of the plane.1a Variation of differential stresses with the inclination angle of the plane of weakness (see Brady & Brown 1985) Analytical solution shows that principal stress difference (σ1–σ3) of a transversely isotropic specimen under triaxial compression shown in Figure 3.Figure 3. . The minimum strength occurs when The corresponding value of principal stress difference is.
8. 3. Fo r rock s. two axial deformations and one circumferential deformation measurements are recorded at every 25 KN interval until failure.7.8 Time Dependent Characteristics of Rock Materials 3. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate around 1 μm/s such that failure occurs within 5-10 minutes of loading. the rock has the lowest strength.9 Laboratory Testing of Rock Materials 3.7.2 Effect of Loading Rate on Rock Strength 3.1 Rheologic Properties of Rock Materials 3.Figure 3. φw is about 30° to 50°.1b shows variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.1 Compression Tests (a) Uniaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. Load. . Two axial and one circumferential deformation measurement devices (LVDTs) are attached to each of the specimen. In compression tests. The load is measured by a load transducer. When the weakness plane is at an angle of 45° + ½ φw. hence β is about 60° to 70°. stress and strain relationship. Figure 3. This in fact shows that when the rock containing an existing weakness plane that is about to become a failure plane. the strength is the lowest. plotted using the above equation. intact rock specimens generally fail to form a shear plane at an angle about 60° to 70°.8.8. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the failure load. The specimen is then compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating. Uniaxial compressive strength.9.3 Failure Mechanism of Rock Material under Impact and Shock Loading 3.1b Variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.
Two axial and two lateral deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used). Figure 3. Poisson's ratio..axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. is calculated as: v50% = slope of axial stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c slope of lateral stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c Reporting of results includes description of the rock.g. The . modulus of elasticity. density and water content at time of test.Uniaxial compressive strength. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . ν50%. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. measurement devices are attached to each of the specimen. The specimen is placed in a triaxial cell (e. The specimen is then further compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating. Hoek-Franklin cell) and a desired confining stress is applied and maintained by a hydraulic pump.3a A typical uniaxial compression test set-up with load and strain measurements. σ c is calculated as the failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate arou nd 1 μm/s su ch that failu re occu rs with in 5-15 minutes of loading. uniaxial compressive strength. specimen anisotropy. Poisson's ratio at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength. (b) Triaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. specimen dimension. mode of failure.9.
Figure 3.load is measured by a load transducer. Mohr's stress circle are plotted using confining stress as σ 3 and axial stress as σ 1 . Load. Poisson's ratio at 50% of triaxial compressive strength is calculated with the same methods as for the uniaxial compression test. Mohr's circles and failure envelope. Coulomb or Hoek and Brown) and parameters of specified failure criterion are determined. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. σ 1 . stress and strain relationship.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. For a group of triaxial compression tests at different confining stress level. mode of failure. triaxial compressive strength. Triaxial compressive strength. Poisson's ratio. specimen anisotropy. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the axial failure load. density and water content at time of test. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of triaxial compressive strength. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . is calculated as the axial failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. . Reporting of results includes description of the rock. 2 axial strain or deformation and 2 lateral strains or deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used) are recorded at a fixed interval until failure. modulus of elasticity. specimen dimension.9.3b Triaxial compression test using Hoek cell. Failure envelopes (Mohr. Triaxial compressive strength.
The tensile strength of the rock is calculated from failure load (P). due to the difficulty in specimen preparation.5 Shear Strength Tests .9.25 mm and square and parallel to within 0.25°. orientation of the axis of loading with respect to specimen anisotropy. mode of failure. Loading is applied continuously at a constant rate such that failure occurs within 15-30 seconds. Deformation modulus can be measured by having strain gauges attached to the specimen. For direct tension test.636 P Dt Reporting of results includes description of the rock. rock specimen is to be prepared in dog-bone shape with a thin middle.9. The cylindrical surfaces should be free from obvious tool marks and any irregularities across the thickness. specimen diameter (D) and specimen thickness (t) by the following formula: σT = − 0. (b) Brazilian Tensile Strength Test Cylindrical specimen of diameter approximately equals to 50 mm and thickness approximately equal to the radius is prepared.4b Brazilian tensile test. 3.4 Tensile Tests (a) Direct Tension Test Direct tension tests on rock materials are not common. The specimen is then loaded in tension by pulling from the two ends.9.3. Figure 3. test duration and loading rate. water content and degree of saturation. Ten specimens of the same sample shall be tested. End faces shall be flat to within 0. The specimen is wrapped around its periphery with one layer of the masking tape and loaded into the Brazil tensile test apparatus across its diameter. calculation and the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio is similar to that for the uniaxial compression test.
In diametrical test.5 D to D and is loaded between the point load apparatus axially. The Mohr’s circle can be plotted for a series of triaxial tests results with σ 1 at different σ 3 . Alternatively. De2 = D 2 for axial.45 . For axial test.6 Point Load Strength Index Test Point load test of rock cores can be conducted diametrically and axially. the "equivalent core diameter". Load at failure is recorded as P. as typically shown in the figure below. is given by: for diametrical test. Uncorrected point load strength.I s 0. The length/diameter ratio for the diametrical test should be greater than 1. based on the MohrCoulomb criterion.9. A straight line is draw to fit best by tangent to all the Mohr’s circles. 3.0. The line represents the shear strength envelope. Cohesion c and friction angle ‘φ’ can be computed by solving the equations. a series equation can be formed for sets of σ 1 and σ 1 . For De ≠ 50 mm. and the intercept at τ axis is the cohesion c. is calculated as: De where De . The angle of the line to the horizontal is the internal friction angle φ. cohesion (c) and international friction angle (φ) can be determined from triaxial compression test data. Is. forming a series circles. block and lump tests. = 4A / π A = H D = minimum cross sectional area of a plane through the loading points. rock core is cut to a height between 0.(a) Direct Punch Shear (b) Shear Strength Determination by Triaxial Compression Results Shear strength parameters. rock core specimen of diameter D is loaded between the point load apparatus across its diameter. The point load strength is corrected to the point load strength at equivalent core diameter of 50 mm. the size correction factor is: Is = P 2 D F = e 50 The corrected point load strength index I s (50 ) is calculated as: I s (50 ) = F .
An ultrasonic digital indicator consist a pulse generator unit.6a Point load test. The transmitter and the receiver are positioned at the ends of specimen and the pulse wave travel time is measured. Figure 3. The hammer is released and reading on the hammer is taken. and to use the remaining reading for calculating the average hardness value.8 Hardness (a) Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness A Schmidt hammer with rebound measurement is used for this test. The standard Schmidt hardness number is taken when the hammer is point vertically down. 3. It is suggest to omit 2 lowest and 2 highest reading. The Schmidt hammer is point perpendicularly and touch the surface of rock. 3.9.7a Measuring P and S wave velocity in a rock specimen. Both P-wave and S-wave velocities can be measured. The reading gives directly the Schmidt hammer hardness value.9. The length is measured. At least 20 tests should be conducted on any one rock specimen.9. The velocity is calculated from dividing the length of rock sample by wave travel time. transmitter and receiver transducers are used for sonic pulse velocity measurement.Figure 3. If the hammer is point to horizontal and upward.7 Ultrasonic wave velocity Cylindrical rock sample is prepared by cutting and lapping the ends. correction is needed to add to the number from the hammer.9. .
The abrasiveness of the rock is then obtained by measuring the resulting wear flat on the tip of the steel stylus.9. CAI = 10 −2 d where ‘d’ is the wear flat diameter of the stylus tip in μm. A dead weight (6) of 70 N is applied on the stylus. roughly spherical in shape with corners rounded during preparation. fitting into a holder (5).9.9. 3. To determine the CAI value the rock is slowly displaced by 10 mm with a velocity of approximately 1 mm/s. A steel stylus (4). Displacement of the vice (1) is measured by a scale (3).10 Abrasivity (a) Cerchar Abrasivity Test The Cerchar abrasivity test is an abrasive wear with pressure test . Figure 3.9. which can be moved across the base of the apparatus by a hand wheel (2) that drives a screwthread of pitch 1 mm /revolution turning.12 Slake Durability Test Select representative rock sample consisting of 10 lumps each of 40-60g. It consists of a vice for holding rock sample (1).Figure 3.9.8a Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test. The CAI value is calculated as. loaded on the surface of the rock sample. The sample is placed in the test drum of 2 mm standard mesh cylinder of 100 mm long and 140 mm in diameter with . 3. The testing apparatus is featured in Figure 3.10a Cerchar abrasivity test West apparatus (West 1989).10a. It was proposed by the Laboratoire du Centre d’Etudes et Recherches des Charbonnages (Cerchar) in France.
solid removable lid and fixed base. Figure 3.9. and is dried to a constant mass at 105°C.12a). The slake-durability index is taken as the percentage ratio of final to initial dry sample masses after to cycles. The slaking and drying process is repeated and the mass of the drum and sample is recorded (Mass C). Slake-durability index. C−D Slake-durability index. B−D × 100% A− D Table 3. The drum is brushed clean and its mass is recorded (Mass D).9. and the drum is rotated at 20 rpm for 10 minutes (Figure 3. The drum and sample are removed from trough and oven dried to a constant mass at 105°C without the lid. to a level 20 mm below the drum axis.12a Slake durability test. The mass of the drum and sample is recorded after cooling (Mass B).9.12a Slake Durability Classification = . The mass of drum and sample is recorded (Mass A). I d 2 = × 100% A− D The first cycle slake-durability index should be calculated when I d 2 is 0-10%. The sample and drum is placed in trough which is filled with slaking fluid. usually tap water at 20°C.
and temporal variations of strain ( ε ) and the frequency (n) of AE events in these cases . process monitoring and others. AE occurs when a small surface displacement of a material is produced. The wave generated by the AE source. generate sources of elastic waves. The application of AE to nondestructive testing of materials in the ultrasonic regime. or on its surface. quality control. Figure Two fundamental cases of stress application (a) and (b).Special Note AE Activity in rocks under compression The term acoustic emission (AE) is widely used to denote the phenomenon in which a material or structure emits elastic waves of shock type and sometimes of continuous type caused by the sudden occurrence of fractures or frictional sliding along discontinuous surfaces. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a naturally occurring phenomenon whereby external stimuli. system feedback. or. in methods used to stimulate and capture AE in a controlled fashion for study and/or use in inspection. typically takes place between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. such as mechanical loading. of practical interest. This occurs due to stress waves generated when there is a rapid release of energy in a material.
Figure Temporal variations of number of AE events and axial strain ( ε 1 ), lateral strain ∆V ( ε θ ) and non-elastic volumetric strain ( V ne
CHAPTER 6 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION
Rock mass property is governed by the properties of intact rock materials and of the discontinuities in the rock. The behaviour if rock mass is also influenced by the conditions the rock mass is subjected to, primarily the in situ stress and groundwater. The quality of a rock mass quality can be quantified by means of rock mass classifications. This Chapter addresses rock mass properties and rock mass classifications. 6.1 Rock Mass Properties and Quality 6.1.1 Properties Governing Rock Mass Behaviour Rock mass is a matrix consisting of rock material and rock discontinuities. As discussed early, rock discontinuity that distributed extensively in a rock mass is predominantly joints. Faults, bedding planes and dyke intrusions are localised features and therefore are dealt individually. Properties of rock mass therefore are governed by the parameters of rock joints and rock material, as well as boundary conditions, as listed in Table 6.1.1a. Table 6.1.1a Prime parameters governing rock mass property
The behaviour of rock changes from continuous elastic of intact rock materials to discontinues running of highly fractured rock masses. The existence of rock joints and other discontinuities plays important role in governing the behaviour and properties of the rock mass, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.1a. Chapter 4 has covered the properties of intact rock materials, and Chapter 5 has dealt with rocks contains 1 or 2 localised joints with emphasis on the properties of joints. When a rock mass contains several joints, the rock mass can be treated a jointed rock mass, and sometimes also termed a Hoek-Brown rock mass, that can be described by the Hoek-Brown criterion (discussed later). 6.1.2 Classification by Rock Load Factor (Terzaghi 1946) Based in extensive experiences in steel arch supported rail tunnels in the Alps, Terzaghi (1946) classified rock mass by mean of Rock Load Factor. The rock mass is classified into 9 classes from hard and intact rock to blocky, and to squeezing rock. The concept used in this classification system is to estimate the rock load to be carried by the steel arches installed to support a tunnel, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.2a. The classification is presented by Table 6.1.2a.
Figure 6.1.2a Terzaghi’s rock load concept. For obtaining the support pressure (p) from the rock load factor (Hp), Terzaghi suggested the equation below, p = Hp γ H where γ is the unit weight of the rock mass, H is the tunnel depth or thickness of the overburden. Attempts have been made to link Rock Load Factor classification to RQD. As suggested by Deere (1970), Class I is corresponding to RQD 95-100%, Class II to RQD 90-99%, Class III to RQD 85-95%, and Class IV to RQD 75-85%. Singh and Goel (1999) gave the following comments to the Rock Load Factor classification: (a) It provides reasonable support pressure estimates for small tunnels with diameter up to 6 metres. It gives over-estimates for large tunnels with diameter above 6 metres. The estimated support pressure has a wide range for squeezing and swelling rock conditions for a meaningful application.
6.1.3 Classification by Active Span and Stand-Up Time (Stini 1950, Lauffer 1958) The concept of active span and stand-up time is illustrated in Figure 6.1.3a and Figure 6.1.3b. Active span is in fact the largest dimension of the unsupported tunnel section. Stand-up time is the length of time which an excavated opening with a given active span can stand without any mean of support or reinforcement. Rock classes from A to G are assigned according to the stand-up time for a given active span. Use of active span and stand-up time will be further discussed in later sections.
Figure 6.3a Definition of active span.1. Figure 6.3b Relationship between active span and stand-up time and rock mass classes (Class A is very good and Class G is very poor) Table 184.108.40.206a Rock class and rock load factor classification by Terzaghi for steel arch supported tunnels .
1.4 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) (Deere 1964) .6.
RQD partially reflects on the rock mass quality. Table 6. and presence of infilling.Rock quality designation (RQD) was introduced in 1960s.2. joint surface weathering and alteration. close associated with excavation for the mining industry (Bieniawski 1973). 6. Originally. RQD: RQD is used as described before.1 Concept of RMR System (1973. roughness. as an attempt to quantify rock mass quality. this geomechanics classification system incorporated eight parameters. Therefore.2.2a Rock mass quality classification according to RQD RQD has been widely accepted as a measure of fracturing degree of the rock mass. For rock of moderate to high strength. (b) (c) (d) (e) Table 6. Groundwater conditions: It is to account for groundwater inflow in excavation stability. It does not account for the strength of the rock or mechanical and other geometrical properties of the joints. (a) Strength of intact rock material: Uniaxial compressive strength is preferred. point load index is acceptable. The RMR system in use now incorporates five basic parameters below. RQD only represents the degree of fracturing of the rock mass.2 Rock Mass Rating – RMR System 6. Table 6. Spacing of joints: Average spacing of all rock discontinuities is used. As discussed earlier. Condition of joints: Condition includes joint aperture. 1989) The rock mass rating (RMR) system is a rock mass quality classification developed by South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).1a is the RMR classification updated in 1989. His parameter has been used in the rock mass classification systems.1. persistence.2a reproduces the proposed expression of rock mass quality classification according to RQD. including the RMR and the Q systems. Individual rate for each parameter is .1. Part A of the table shows the RMR classification with the above 5 parameters.
The weight of each parameter has already considered in the rating. This correlation allow engineer to estimate the stand-up time for a given span and a given rock mass. it can be also expresses in rock mass class.2.1b. a final RMR rating is obtained. The table also gives the meaning of rock mass classes in terms of stand-up time. The overall basic RMR rate is the sum of individual rates.obtained from the property of each parameter. Table 6. equivalent rock mass cohesion and friction angle. Explanation of the descriptive terms used is given table Part C. With adjustment made to account for joint orientation. as shown in Table 6.2.1a.2.1b Rock mass classes determined from total ratings and meaning . for example. as shown in Figure 6. Influence of joint orientation on the stability of excavation is considered in Part B of the same table. maximum rating for joint condition is 30 while for rock strength is 15. RMR was applied to correlate with excavated active span and stand-up time.
Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: .1a Stand-up time and RMR quality 6. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa.2.Figure 6. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected.24 m.2 Examples of using RMR System (a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough.2. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. average joint spacing is 0. average RQD is 88%.
(b) A sandstone rock mass. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. Joint water pressure = In situ stress = groundwater pressure = Overburden pressure = = = 70 m × γw 80 m × γ (70 × 1)/(80× 2. average RQD is 70%. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. but given in terms of groundwater pressure of 70 m water head and overburden pressure of 80 m ground. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. average joint spacing is 0. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. It falls in rock class B which indicates the rock mass is of good quality. groundwater parameter is not directly given. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. joint surfaces are slightly rough. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. it is possible to calculate average joint spacing. filled with clay.32 Joint water pressure / In situ stress Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 52.7) 0. average RQD is 41%. Here.11 m. overburden stress is taken as the major in situ stress as an approximation.The calculated basic RMR is 76. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. joint spacing is not provided. Since there is no indication of in situ stress ratio. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. RQD is given and from the relationship between RQD and joint frequency. with the equation below. It falls in rock class C which indicates the rock mass is of fair quality. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. In the above information. However. and are highly weathered. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. .
i.1λ +1) (where λ is the mean number of discontinuities per meter) Joint frequency is estimated to be 20.3a.2. F2 and F3 are given in Table 6.RQD = 100 e–0. SMR = RMR + (F1⋅F2⋅F3) + F4 where F1 = (1 . For topping.2. F2 = (tan βj)2 B = joint dip angle = βj. Judgement often is needed to interpret the information given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the RMR table.05 m Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 34. It falls in rock class D which indicates the rock mass is of poor quality. . 6.3b gives the classification category of rock mass slope.αs|.sin A)2 and A = angle between the strikes of the slope and the joint = |αj . F2 = 1. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the RMR parameter rating.e.0 Value of F1. Table 6. SMR value is obtained by adjust RMR value with orientation and excavation adjustments for slopes. which gives average joint spacing 0.1λ (0.3 Extension of RMR – Slope Mass Rating (SMR) The slope mass rating (SMR) is an extension of the RMR system applied to rock slope engineering.2. Details on rock slope analysis and engineering including excavation methods and support and stabilisation will be covered in a later chapter dealing slope engineering..
The numerical value of this index Q is defined by: RQD is the Rock Quality Designation measuring the fracturing degree.1 Concept of the Q-System The Q-system was developed as a rock tunnelling quality index by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) (Barton et al 1974). Jr is the joint roughness number . F2. Jn is the joint set number accounting for the number of joint sets.3a Adjustment rating of F1. The system was based on evaluation of a large number of case histories of underground excavation stability.3.2.3a Classification of Rock Slope according to SMT 6.3 Rock Tunnel Quality Q-System 6.Table 6.2. and is an index for the determination of the tunnelling quality of a rock mass. F3 and F4 for joints Table 6.
shown in Table 6. as shown in Figure 6. Ja is the joint alteration number indicating the degree of weathering. Table 6. Q value is considered as a function of only three parameters which are crude measures of: (a) (b) (c) Block size: Inter-block shear strength Active stress RQD / Jn Jr / Ja Jw / SRF Parameters and rating of the Q system is given in Table 6.1a. alteration and filling.1a Rock mass classification Q system .3.3.3. Q value is applied to estimate the support measure for a tunnel of a given dimension and usage.1b.1a.1c.accounting for the joint surface roughness.3. The classification system gives a Q value which indicates the rock mass quality. Jw is the joint water reduction factor accounting for the problem from groundwater pressure.3. and SRF is the stress reduction factor indicating the influence of in situ stress. Equivalent dimension is used in the figure and ESR is given in Table 6.
quantities of swelling clays .
Table 6.1b Rock mass quality rating according to Q values .3.
1a Support design based on Q value Table 6.3.Figure 6.3.1c Excavation Support Ratio (ESR) for various tunnel categories 6.3.2 Examples of Using the Q-System .
joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. (b) A sandstone rock mass. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. average joint spacing is 0.(a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. and the rock mass is classified as fair quality. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 4. average joint spacing is 0.4. average RQD is 70%. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. joint surfaces are slightly rough. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel.24 m. average RQD is 41%. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 . average RQD is 88%. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 29. and the rock mass is classified as good quality. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa.11 m. filled with clay. and are highly weathered.
Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the Q parameter rating. The abrasive or nonabrasive nature of the rock is incorporated via the cutter life index (CLI). Again. and the rock mass is classified as very poor quality.3 Extension of Q-System – QTBM for Mechanised Tunnelling Q-system was extended to a new QTBM system for predicting penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR) for tunnelling using tunnel boring machine (TBM) in 1999 (Barton 1999). Jr. The method is based on the Q-system and average cutter force in relations to the appropriate rock mass strength. Rock stress level is also considered. CLI is the cutter life index. σm is the rock mass strength (MPa) estimated from a complicated equation including the Q-value measured in the tunnel direction. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. The constants 20 in the σm term. Orientation of joint structure is accounted for.85. q is the quartz content (%) in rock mineralogy.MPa. and SRF ratings are the same parameters in the original Q-system. and σθ is the induced biaxial stress (MPa) on tunnel face in the same zone. . Jn. The new parameter QTBM is to estimate TBM performance during tunnelling. judgement is frequently needed to interpret the descriptions given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the Q table. 6. F is the average cutter load (ton) through the same zone. The components of the QTBM are as follows: where RQD0= RQD (%) measured in the tunnelling direction.3. together with the rock material strength. Ja. Jw. 20 in the CLI term and 5 in the σθ term are normalising constants. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 0. with considerable outwash of joint fillings.
3a.4. while penetration however is a result of interaction between rock mass properties and TBM machine parameters (Zhao 2006). GSI does not include the parameter of rock strength. simple block size description does not include geological structural features. including RMR and Q. with increasing of rock mass quality.1 GSI System The Geological Strength Index (GSI) was introduced by Hoek in 1994. were intended to classify rock mass quality to arrive a suitable support design. In the Hoek-Brown . The system gives a GSI value estimated from rock mass structure and rock discontinuity surface condition. Parameters in those rock mass classifications were related to support design. the GSI value does in fact reflect the rock mass quality. as GSI was initiated to be a tool to estimate rock mass strength with the Hoek-Brown strength criterion.4 Geological Strength Index GSI System and Others 6.1a. It appears that the correlation between QTBM and Advanced Rate is not consistent and varies with a large margin. Although QTBM has added a number of parameters to reflect cutting force and wear. the emphasis is obviously not be justified. when developed. penetration decreases. such as folds and shear zones. However. very poor rock mass does not facilitate penetration. GSI system has been modified and updated in the recent years. The original rock mass classifications are independent of TBM characteristics. 6.The experiences on the application of QTBM vary between projects.4. In general. However. In general. The use of GSI requires careful examination and understanding of engineering geological features of the rock mass. Example of using the QTBM is given in Figure 6. Rock mass structure given in the chart is general description and there may be many cases that does not directly match the description. It was aimed to estimate the reduction in rock mass strength for different geological conditions. such as sheared zones. The systems were not meant for the design of excavation methodology. mainly to cover more complex geological features. Although it was not aimed at to be a rock mass classification. This system is presented in Tables 6.2. they were not selected to describe rock mass boreability. The direct application of GSI value is to estimate the parameters in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion for rock masses. Rock mass classification systems. the following equivalent between rock mass structural descriptions of blocky to the block size description is suggested below.
1b.4.1a Geological Strength Index (GSI) .4. An approximate classification of rock mass quality and GSI is suggested in Table 6. it is suggested that GSI can be related to RMR (GSI = RMR – 5).criterion. The use of GSI to estimate rock mass strength is given later in the section dealing with rock mass strength. GSI system did not suggest a direct correlation between rock mass quality and GSI value. However. rock material uniaxial strength is used as a base parameter to estimate rock mass uniaxial strength as well as triaxial strengths of rock material and rock mass. based on the correlation between RMR and GSI Table 6. for reasonable good quality rock mass.
4. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. average RQD is 41%. and Joint Surface Condition is fair to poor.2 Examples of Using the GSI System Examples of estimating GSI is given below. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. and Joint Surface Condition is very poor. The rock mass is classified as good to very good quality. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. Therefore GSI is 40±5. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. and Joint Surface Condition is very good. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures.Table 6. and are highly weathered. filled with clay. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. (b) A sandstone rock mass. (a) Granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. Refer to the GSI chart. Refer to the GSI chart. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa.1b Rock mass classes determined from GSI 6. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. with the same rock masses used previously to estimate RMR and Q. average RQD is 70%. Rock Mass Structure for the above granite is blocky. average joint spacing is 0. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. Refer to the GSI chart. The rock mass is classified as very poor to poor quality. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface.11 m. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. Therefore GSI is 20±5. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. Therefore GSI is 75±5. The rock mass is classified as fair quality. Rock Mass Structure for the above siltstone is blocky /folded/ faulted. .4. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. Rock Mass Structure for the above sandstone is very blocky. joint surfaces are slightly rough.24 m. average RQD is 88%. average joint spacing is 0.
6.3a shows the comparison and correlation between RMR and Q.4. Summary of RMR. Figure 6. it is perhaps better to select a range of the GSI value for that rock mass. . Q and GSI from the above three examples are given below.4. and average of A is 44.3 Correlation and Comparison between Q. RMR = 9 lnQ + A A varies between 26 and 62. RMR and GSI Correlation between Q and RMR are found to be. Figure 6.3a Correlation between RMR and Q values.It is advised that while selecting an average value of GSI.4.
e. in situ stresses of 0.Several other correlation equations have been proposed. Consequently.. i. for a rock with σc = 50 MPa. N can be computed as. one of which is: RMR = 13. the value of RMR is very difficult to estimate and the correlation between RMR and GSI is no longer reliable.e.4. It has been noticed that SRF in the Q-system is not sensitive in rock engineering design. N Rock Mass Number (N) is the rock mass quality Q value when SRF is set at 1 (i. For very poor quality rock masses. normal condition. The use of N in squeezing rock mass classification will be presented in a later section in this chapter. due to the special behaviour and nature of the squeezing ground. For that reason. N = (RQD/Jn) (Jr/Ja) (Jw) This system is used because the difficult in obtaining SRF in the Q-system. 6.25 to 5 MPa yield the same SRF value. and without adjustment for joint orientation. the value of GSI can be related to Rock Mass Rating RMR value as. RMR classification should not be used for estimating the GSI values for poor quality rock masses. GSI = RMR – 5 RMR is the basic RMR value by setting the Groundwater rating at 15 (dry). The importance of in situ stress on the stability of underground excavation is insufficiently represented in the Q-system. stress reduction is not considered). SRF = 1 for σc/σ1 = 10~200. For example. In section. For generally competent rock masses with GSI > 25. the value assign to SRF cover too great range.. It should be noted that each classification uses a set of parameters that are different from other classifications. They are all in the general form of semi-log equation. . Squeezing has been noted in the Q-system but is not sufficiently dealt.3 Other Classification Systems Several other classification approaches have been proposed. Another application of N number is to the rock squeezing condition. (a) Rock Mass Number. estimate the value of one classification from another is not advisable.5 logQ +43. a few will be briefly discussed due to their unique application in certain aspect.
2 Hoek-Brown Strength Criterion of Rock Mass Hoek and Brown criterion discussed in Chapter 4 is not only for rock materials. Jp = 0 for a crushed rock masses. strength and deformation properties of a rock mass are much governed by the existence of joints.5. joint roughness. 6.2a). RMi Rock Mass Index is proposed as an index characterising rock mass strength as a construction material. a rock mass of good quality (strong rock. Jp is in fact a reduction factor representing the effects of jointing on the strength of rock mass. In another word.1 Strength of Rock Mass As discussed earlier. namely. few joints and good joint surface quality) will have a higher strength and high deformation modulus than that of a poor rock mass. and Jp is the jointing parameter accounting for 4 joint characteristics. It is also applicable to rock masses (Figure 6. The Hoek-Brown criterion for rock mass is described by the following equation: or .5. joint density (or block size). the mechanical properties of a rock mass are also related to the quality of the rock mass. It is calculated by the following equation. Jp = 1 for a intact rock. RMi = σc Jp where σc is the uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock material. joint alteration and joint size. In general.(b) Rock Mass Index.5. 6.5 Rock Mass Strength and Rock Mass Quality 6.
In the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion.5.2a gives an earlier suggestion of mb and s values. Constants mb and s are parameters that changes with rock type and rock mass quality. The equation above is the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion of rock mass.2a Applicability of Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and rock masses. i. Table 6.5. . σ1 is the strength of the rock mass at a confining pressure σ3. For intact rock..Figure 6. mb becomes mi.5. σci is consistently referred to the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material in the Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and for rock mass. σci is the uniaxial strength of the intact rock in the rock mass. The HoekBrown criterion for intact rock material is a special form of the generalised equation when s =1 and a = 0.5. Parameter a is generally equal to 0.e. Note in the Hoek-Brown criterion.
Brown constants Development and application of the Hoek-Brown criterion lead to better definition of the parameters mb and s. .Table 6.2b presents the latest definition of mi values for the intact rock materials.5.2a Relation between rock mass quality and Hoek. Table 6.5. according to different rocks.
For GSI > 25. As seen from the table.5. rock masses of very poor quality. i. s = 0. and a = 0.e. .5.5 For GSI < 25. rock masses of good to reasonable quality.Table 6. the parameters which describe the rock mass strength characteristics. Value of a can be estimated from GSI by the following equation.2b Values of constant mi for intact rock in Hoek-Brown criterion The values in the above table are suggestive. If triaxial tests have been conducted. variation of mi value for each rock can be as great as 18. the original Hoek-Brown criterion is applicable with. Once the Geological Strength Index has been estimated. i. and a in the Hoek-Brown criterion is no longer equal to 0. the value of mi should be calculated from the test results. are calculated as follows.e.
The Hoek-Brown equation for the granite rock mass is. with material uniaxial strength 85 MPa. mi given for sandstone is approximately 17. From the Hoek-Brown criterion. it gives the uniaxial compressive strength as. Example of using the Hoek-Brown equation to determine rock mass strength is given below by the same three examples used for determining the rock mass qualities RMR. although in practice. mean GSI 40. (a) Granite rock mass. with material uniaxial strength 150 MPa. From the mi table. when σ3 = 0. (b) Sandstone rock mass. when σ3 = 0. . for rock masses of very poor quality. the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock masses equal to zero. range of values should be used to give upper and lower bounds. Clearly. mi given for granite is approximately 32. Q and GSI. From the mi table. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is. Calculation in the example uses average values only. mean GSI 75.Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is the value of σ1 when σ3 is zero.
In situ rock mass modulus (Em) can be estimated from the Q and the RMR systems. When the rock mass is solid and massive with few joints. . Attempts have also been made to correlated deformation modulus of the rock mass with rock mass quality. mi given for siltstone is approximately 7. Q < 0.4 Correlations between Rock Mass Quality and Mechanical Properties Correlations between rock mass strength and rock mass quality are reflected in Table 6. in the equations below. From the mi table. (c) Siltstone rock mass.5..Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is.1. 6. Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is.e. the rock mass strength is close to the strength of intact rock material. the rock mass has very low uniaxial compressive strength close to zero. with material uniaxial strength 65 MPa. mean GSI 20. The better rock mass quality gives high rock mass strength. i.2a and the Hoek-Brown criterion relating GSI. or GSI < 25.5. RMR < 23. When the rock mass is very poor.
using for example. The suggested approach to obtain rock mass Mohr-Coulomb parameters c and φ is by generate a series σ1–σ3 results by the Hoek-Brown equation. obviously test results should be used directly to obtain parameters c and φ.4 Relationship between Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb Criteria There is no direct correlation between the linear Mohr-Coulomb Criterion and the nonlinear Hoek-Brown Criterion defined by the two equations. Then plotting the Mohr circle using the generated σ1–σ3 data and fitting with the best linear envelope. Often. Care must be taken when deciding the ‘best’ linear line in fitting the Mohr circles. the input for a design software or numerical modelling required for rock masses are in terms of MohrCoulomb parameters c and φ. If a series tests have been conducted on the rock mass. The Em-GSI equation indicates that modulus Em is reduced progressively as the value of σci falls below 100. Attempts have been made by Hoek and Brown to estimate c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. This reduction is based upon the reasoning that the deformation of better quality rock masses is controlled by the discontinuities while.The above Em-RMR equations are generally for competent rock mass with RMR greater than 20. For rock mass with σci < 100 MPa. plotting the Mohr circle and fitting with the best strength envelope. the equation below has been proposed. for poorer quality rock masses.5. It depends on the stress region of the engineering application. the equation is obtained by substituting GSI for RMR in the original Em-RMR equation. the line should be fitting best for the . where c and φ can be readily calculated Common problems were there is no or limited test results on rock mass. they caution the user that is a major problem to obtain c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. 6. At the same time. the deformation of the intact rock pieces contributes to the overall deformation process. For poor rocks. if the depth and stress range is known. For a tunnel problem. where c and φ can be readily calculated.
i. which occurs around a tunnel and other underground openings. (i) (ii) (iii) Mild squeezing: closure Moderate squeezing: closure High squeezing: closure 1-3% of tunnel diameter. where H is in metres. For a slope problem.6. Rate of squeezing depends on the degree of over-stress. the stress region may vary from 0 to some level of stress. Below the line. Squeezing may continue for years in exceptional cases. i. Behaviour of rock squeezing is typically represented by rock mass squeezes plastically into the tunnel and the phenomenon is time dependent.. Rock masses of competent rock of poor rock mass quality at great depth (under high cover) may also suffer from squeezing. Usually the rate is high at initial stage. 3-5% of tunnel diameter. H > 350 Q1/3.2 Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification Based on case studies.Mohr circles in that stress region. The degree of squeezing often is classified to mild. by the conditions below. the division between squeezing and non-squeezing condition is by a line H = 350 Q1/3.2a. Squeezing condition may occur above the line.6.6. Squeezing may occur at shallow depths in weak and poor rock masses such as mudstone and shale. H < 350 Q1/3.e. say. squeezing may be identified from rock class classification Q-value and overburden thickness (H). Also. Closure rate reduces with time. moderate and high. 6.6 Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass 6. 6.e. > 5% of tunnel diameter. As shown in Figure 6. . several centimetres of tunnel closure per day for the first 1-2 weeks of excavation. and is essentially associated with creep caused by exceeding shear strength. and the fitting a line at low stress level (where the curvature is the greatest for the non-linear Hoek-Brown strength envelope) is very sensitive to the stress level. pore pressure needs to be considered as this affects the effective stress level.. Deformation may terminate during construction or may continue over a long time period.1 Squeezing Phenomenon ISRM (Barla 1995) defines that squeezing of rock is the time dependent large deformation. the ground condition is generally non-squeezing.
6.2a Predicting squeezing ground using Q-value Another approach predicting squeezing is by using the Rock Mass Number (N). As discussed in the previous section. .2b. From Figure 6. the line separating non-squeezing from squeezing condition is. The parameters allow one to separate in situ stress effects from rock mass quality. which is the external cause of squeezing is dealt separated by considering the overburden depth. N is the Q-value when SRF is set to be 1.Figure 6. In situ stress.6. Where H is the tunnel depth or overburden in metres and B is the tunnel span or diameter in metres.
1 High squeezing occurs when H > (630 N1/3) B–0. It is also possible to characterise the degree of squeezing base on the same figure. σθ > Strength = σcm + Px A/2 where σθ is the tangential stress at the tunnel opening. Squeezing may not occur in hard rocks with high values of parameter A.1 < H < (630 N1/3) B–0.2b Squeezing ground condition is presented by: H > (275 N1/3) B–0. P=γH. The above equation can be written in the form below for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic in situ stress field. Mild squeezing occurs when (275 N1/3) B–0.6. and A is a rock parameter proportion to friction. with overburden stress P. σcm is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass.1 < H < (450 N1/3) B–0. Theoretically. Px is the in situ stress in the tunnel axis direction. squeezing conditions around a tunnel opening can occur when.1.1. .Figure 6.1 Moderate squeezing occurs when (450 N1/3) B–0.
Studies carried out by Hoek (2000) indicate that squeezing can in fact start at rock mass strength / in situ stress ratio of 0.g.3. GSI). The prediction curve was compared with tunnel squeezing case histories.6. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass can be estimated from the Hoek-Brown criterion with rock mass quality assessment (e. relating tunnel closure to rock mass strength/in situ stress ratio.2c Squeezing prediction curve and comparison with case histories. .6.6..6. A prediction curve was proposed by Hoek and reproduced in Figure 6.2a.2a Suggested predictions of squeezing conditions The prediction equations for squeezing require the measurements of in situ stress and rock mass strength.2c. Figure 6. Overburden stress can be estimated from the overburden depth and rock unit weight.ISRM classifies squeezing rock mass and ground condition in Table 6. Table 6.
CHAPTER 3 In situ Stress In situ stress measurements have been compiled and presented in Figure 2.027 z. Figure 3. σv = 0. Z (m) .2a.2a In situ stress measurements at various (Brady and Brown 157). Depth. which represents the overburden pressure. Change of vertical stress with depth is scattered about the tend line.5.
Measurement of strains in the ground surrounding an opening. These are induced by creation of an opening. Measuring ground pressures in supporting structures 7. Measurement of convergence movements of rock surfaces. 2. Changes in the modulus of elasticity of the ground 5.While vertical stress can be estimated with reasonable reliability. The magnitude and directions of natural (pre-existing. Measuring stresses in supporting structures . 3. In situ stress measurement Instrumentation For the development of information for the design of underground openings and their supporting structures. while the vertical stress or the other horizontal stress represents the minor principal stress. The following stresses are important in influencing the behaviour of rock around subsurface openings: 1. 2. four principal classes of measurements are of interest. inherent) stresses in rock. 4. Measuring convergence of roof and floor( or HW and F 4. Deformation of boreholes 7. These are: 1. The horizontal stress should not be estimated. For projects that maximum stress direction and magnitude may be important. Tangential deformation of exposed surfaces 3. k. Measuring strains in rock at exposed rock surface 2. Deformation and restoration of slots in the rock surfaces Measurements of strains and stresses include the following: 1. The magnitude and directions of induced (concentrated or re-aligned) stresses. Closure of roof and floor or closure of sides 2. Measuring pressures on mine filling materials 6. Measurements of pressures on mine void filling material. The physical characteristics which may be measured are: Following physical features of a rock are modified when it is subjected to the stresses induced by creation of an opening: 1. It is very common in rock mechanics that one of the horizontal stresses represent the major principal stress. in situ stress measurements is required. Nature of sub-audible vibrations originating in rock 6.The horizontal stresses are presented in the figure by a ratio of average horizontal stress to vertical stress. Measuring strains in rock remote from a free surface 3. Changes in velocity of sound waves passed through the ground 4. Measurement of loads on structures for supporting ground and stresses in the supporting structures. Measuring absolute movements of roof and floor ( or HW and FW) 5.
such measurements do not yield information as to the stresses existing in the rock.Measuring Strain (deformation) in rock The closure of roof and floor.0005 mm. thus allowing the portion of rock to expand. The deformation in rocks is very small and therefore the determination of stresses depends on the measurement of extremely small deformations. A deep slot is then cut into the rock above the gauges and the rock in allowed to expand. A flat jack is cemented into the slot and expanded by application of hydraulic pressure until the strain gauges indicate that the rock has been restored to the state of strain existing prior to cutting of the slot. However. The pressure in the jack is then assumed to be equal to the original pressure in the rock normal to the slot surface. A groove is then cut around the location of the strain gauge. The strain relief method. 2. For example in a rock with an elastic modulus of 7 0 × 10 6 KPa (70. or of walls and ribs. large changes in stress values are produced by very small changes in dimensions (strain). In order to measure these minute changes in dimensions of the openings it is necessary to employ instruments capable of measuring to within a few ten-thousands of a cm. Thus. The modulii of elasticity of rocks ranges from 20 to 70 × 10 6 KPa. . These are: 1. In an elastic material a stress concentration is created near the boundary of the opening. The rock stresses are not measured directly. In the Strain restoration method strain gauges are fixed to the rock surface and readings are taken. There are two general methods for determining absolute rock strain. The amount of the expansion is a function of the initial stress within the rock and of the modulus of elasticity of the rock. Methods for determining the actual magnitudes of stresses within the rock involve measurements of deformation of rock blocks which are freed from the main mass and allowed to expand.000 MPa). but the measuring techniques are designed to measure strains and the stresses are then computed by using the values of the rock modulus of elasticity. is the most conspicuous phenomenon associated with underground openings and the easiest to measure. the deformation in the rock is 0. freeing the rock surface to expand. Strain relief method Method 1: The strain gauge is cemented on the surface of the wall rock and a standard diamond drill is used to cut an annular slot in the rock around the gauges. and The strain restoration method In the Strain relief method strain gauges are fixed to the opening walls at selected locations.
Figure Borehole deformation gauge Theory and Equations Uni-axial stress . The surface is ground smooth with a hand grinding wheel. When the vertical and horizontal stress in the rock is equal there will be no differential deformation along the two axes of the borehole. Method 2 Measurement of Diametral Borehole Deformation for Stress Determination Another method for determining rock stresses is the accurate measurement of borehole horizontal and vertical axes to determine the relative deformation produced in the crosssection of the borehole by stresses in the rock. The rock surface is thoroughly dried before the gauges are cemented to the rock and dried with a hear lamp after gauges are cemented in place.The surface on which the gauges are mounted required careful selection and preparation. Strain gauges are sealed with waterproof mastic to protect them against moisture. Maximum deformation is caused to the vertical axis of a horizontal borehole due to the vertical stress (assuming the horizontal stress is in effective).
T θ E r S θ S T Figure Schematic representation of biaxial stress acting across a borehole When θ = 00. and equation 1 reduces to 3dS E 0 When θ = 90 . the hole (at the point) is expanding. The deformation versus the angle θ for one quadrant of the hole ( θ = 00 to θ = 900) is plotted in the figure below . the deformation is U= U =− dS E (2) (3) And the minus sign signifies that. the deformation is in the direction of the applied uniaxial stress.The deformation of the hole in a uni-axial stress and in plan stress is given by U= dS (1) (1 + 2 cos 2θ ) E = deformation of hole (change in length of a diameter) = radius of hole = diameter of hole = 2a = perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) = angle (counterclockwise) from S to r = modulus of elasticity T Where U a d S. as the stress increases.
Figure Borehole deformation gauge 5 Deformation (arbitrary units) 4 3 2 1 0 -1 15 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Angle ( in degrees) Figure Sectional View of a borehole deformation gauge .
U= (5) When θ = 900.Bi-axial stress For bi-axial stress field and plane stress. the deformation is related to the biaxial stresses S and T by U= d [( S + T ) + 2( S − T ) cos 2θ ] E d (3S − T ) E d (3T − S ) E (4) When θ = 00. the magnitude and direction of the stresses S and T can be computed. The equations for these conditions will be S U2 2 U3 2 U1 2 600 600 600 θ d/2 U1 2 U3 2 U2 2 S . U= (6) If the deformation is measured across three different diameters and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are known.
In practice when a flat jack 70cm long and 70cm wide was used the distance A-B was made about 30cm. . It has been shown that the borehole deformation in a biaxial stress field is related to the magnitude and direction of the applied stresses in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the hole by the following equations: S +T = E (U 1 + U 2 + U 3 ) 3d 1 2E [(U 1 − U 2 ) 2 + (U 2 − U 3 ) 2 + (U 3 − U 1 ) 2 ] 2 6d S −T = tan 2θ = 3 (U 3 − U 2 ) 2U 1 − U 2 − U 3 Where U1. And best results were obtained when the measuring points were placed within a distance equal to about two-thirds the length of the flat-jack. . U3 a d S. The flat jack is then placed in the slot and cemented tightly in place with quick-setting cement mortar. T = borehole deformation at a 600 separation (600 deformation rosette) in cm. as shown in the figure. The pressure in the flat jack is then a function of the original pressure in the rock before the slot was cut. Hydraulic pressure is applied to the flat jack until measurements show that the distance between points A and B has been restored to its original dimension.In this investigation rock stress was determined by measuring the deformation (change in diameter) of a borehole before and after the hole was stress-relieved. U2. It has been reported from extensive experimentation with this system that the pressure required to restore the original strain with the locations of the measuring points relative to the slot. The measuring points A-Bare established prior to cutting slot and the distance between the points is accurately determined. to accommodate a flat jack. U is +ve for increase in the diameter radius of hole diameter of hole = 2a perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) angle (counterclockwise) from S to U1 modulus of elasticity = = = = = θ1 E Strain restoration methods In this method a slot is cut.
Because of the difficulty in cutting deep flatjack slots the method is restricted to near-surface measurements. Figure Stress measurement using a flatjack Figure Modified Flakjack method .Flat jack method does not require any knowledge of the elastic properties of the rock and hence it is considered to be a true stress measuring method.
of which convergence gagues are special types. have been used for decades in metal mines Figure. also called extensometers.Measurement of Rock Movement/deformation Convergence Measurement The mechanically simplest deformation measuring devices are deformeters. Figure roof sag measuring station . Multipoint extensometers installed in boreholes have been used to detect roof movements. This class of instruments consists of a length-sensing device. micrometer. and some kind of micrometer or dial gauge. Mechanical extensometers. consisting of a top and bottom anchor. dial gauge. steel wire or rigid tubing. such as a vernier scale.
Figure Axial deformation gauges Figure dial gauge deformeter .
has four/six spider type strong leaf spring anchors (Above figure).The relative amount of closure between roof and floor. characteristics of the country rock. Convergence Measurement Monitoring technology and techniques to provide early warning of hazardous roof fall conditions have been a longstanding goal for safety engineers and practitioners working in the mining sector. Extensometers are used to determine the magnitude. Extensometers are installed into boreholes. a borehole mouth anchor at the tunnel wall and a means of indicating or measuring change in distance between them. Measurement of convergence may be useful in predicting the imminence of failure of roof or floor rock. These anchors will be installed in a 42 mm hole at four different heights with the help of installation tool. such as the amount of ground which is open. In mining a simple extensometer such as this is known as a “telltale” because it gives a visual indication of roof movement. etc. The steel wire will be attached with each anchor before pushing of anchors. position and rate of movement of rock surrounding an excavation. or between HW and FW. After installation of all the anchors the reference head will be installed leaving all the scales hanging freely. When the bed/roof separation is taking place the reading will change in the respective scale. This type of instrument consist of an anchor device mounted on the mine roof and floor and connected by a ridged bar or a metal wire. . Telltale extensometer is a very simple and general design to measure deformation in the roof of coal mines at 4 or 6 different points up to 6 meter height. The steel wire will be brought to the down surface of roof. The simplest form of extensometer makes use of a stainless steel spring reference anchor with a tube indicator attached to it by stainless steel wire and visible at the hole mouth. The amount of strain depends upon several factors. The essential features of an extensometer installation are a stable reference anchor position at the far end of the borehole. Model SME 248. is an indication of the magnitude of the pressure on the rock above the opening. Each wire will be attached with steel scale of different colour for identification of the anchor height. Roof-to-floor convergence monitors are perhaps the oldest and most common method of measuring roof deflection as a means to detect roof rock instabilities. the amount and quality of filling material. Movement is indicated by coloured reflective bands on the indicator. The relative movement of the anchor points is measured with either mechanical or electromechanical devices. which are progressively covered as movement develops.
Figure Evolution of Dual height Telltale .
Loads in support systems and linings The load distribution in rockbolts and cablebolts is an important support design parameter. and for the detection of voids behind tunnel linings. which are encapsulated multi-wire steel strands. but one which is difficult to measure. supplied to mine and tunnel projects in seven countries. Figure Strain gauged rock bolts . The device is installed at the same time as the rockbolts into a 5m long roof hole of 27mm-35mm diameter. where areas of detached shotcrete lining were delineated. This has the advantage that small roof movements can be easily read even when the tunnel height approaches 5m (Figure above). The most common form of telltale is the dual-height version. an underground wastewater plant in Finland and the Joskin tunnel in the UK. allowing calculation and display of mean and bending strains. To date RMT have manufactured around 4000 strain gauged rockbolts. This was developed and patented by British Coal in 1992 as a safety device for coal mine tunnels where rockbolts were being introduced as support.Here roof movement is converted to rotation of a pointer around a dial. British Coal began producing strain gauged bolts for this purpose in 1990. Examples of recent civil engineering use of the instrument include a steel lined water tunnel in the UK where voids behind the 45mm thick lining were detected. Instruments installed in two coal mine shaft linings were found to be still returning consistent readings twenty five years later. The AEM is a hand held device comprising an integral geophone and readout unit. Support system and lining condition Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) is a simple nondestructive testing device for checking the ‘looseness’ of exposed rock surfaces in tunnels. The technology has recently been extended to include flexible bolts. It measures the reverberation decay rate of a surface when struck with a hammer. They typically have pairs of diametrically opposed resistance strain gauges.
Haimson and Song. the orientations of in situ stresses. 1993). and relative or comparative values of stress. This is due to the fact that breakout mechanisms will be different for different types of rock. 1993. the width and depth of the breakout have been measured as a basis for estimating the stresses. more particularly. They can therefore often provide a reliable indication of the orientations of in situ stress fields. drilling. Whilst this approach may have some potential for estimating indicative values of stress. . 1985. temperature. It is commonly observed in deep boreholes. it is unlikely that it will be successful in the adequate quantification of stress magnitudes. In these attempts. This phenomenon refers to the stress induced failure that occurs on the walls of a borehole resulting in spalling or sloughing of material from the borehole wall as shown in Figure 7.Observational methods of in situ stress determination or estimation Observations of the behaviour of openings or holes made in stressed rock can provide very valuable indications of the magnitudes and. Zoback et al 1986. and extents of breakout will vary depending on rock properties and in situ conditions (water. Haimson and Herrick (1986) found that the depth and circumferential extent of the completed breakout were directly proportional to the state of stress normal to the borehole axis. Borehole breakouts (dog earing) “Borehole breakout” is the more widely used term for what is known in South African mining as “dog earing”. Lee and Haimson. Attempts have been made to use breakout data to estimate the magnitudes of in situ stresses (Zoback et al. Figure 7 Example of stress induced sloughing of material from a borehole wall The locations of the breakouts on diagonally opposite sides of the borehole are usually aligned with the orientations of the secondary principal stresses acting in the plane normal to the borehole axis. etc).
the shape and symmetry of the discs can give a good indication of in situ stress orientations (Dyke. can significantly affect the occurrence of discing (Kutter. as shown in Figure 8. 1982). the core circumference will peak and trough as shown in Figure 9. A measure of the inclination of a principal stress to the borehole axis can be gauged from the relative asymmetry of the disc. It is therefore unlikely that observation and measurements of discing will be successful in quantifying the magnitudes of in situ stresses. The direction defined by a line drawn between the peaks of the disc surfaces facing in the original drilling direction indicates the orientation of the minor secondary principal stress. Nevertheless. the type and technique of drilling. If the discs are symmetrical about the core axis. If the discs are uniform in thickness as shown in Figure 8.Core discing Core discing appears to be closely associated with the formation of borehole breakouts. including the drill thrust. the formation of discs depends significantly on the properties of the rock and the magnitude of the stress in the borehole axial direction (Stacey. Lack of symmetry of the discing. In brittle rocks it has been observed that discing and breakouts usually occur over the corresponding lengths of core and borehole. For unequal stresses normal to the core axis. The thinner are the discs the higher is the stress level. as shown in Figure 10. In addition. 1991). the two secondary principal stresses normal to the core axis will be approximately equal. However. Figure 8 Core discs symmetrical with respect to the core axis . then it is probable that the hole has been drilled approximately along the orientation of one of the principal stresses. indicates that there is a shear stress acting the borehole axis that the axis is not in a principal stress direction. 1989).
the maximum stress in the plane perpendicular to the tunnel axis) is vertical at this location. Figure 11 shows a classic dog ear in the sidewall of a 5 m diameter tunnel. This shows that the major secondary principal stress normal to the tunnel axis (i.Disc peaks Orientation of the minor secondary principal stress Drilling direction Figure 9 Core discs resulting with unequal stresses normal to the core axis Figure 10 Non-symmetrical cores discing.e. the dog earring in the tunnel in Figure 12 shows that the major secondary principal stress is inclined at about 120 to the horizontal. Similarly. . and observations of the behaviour of the walls of the excavations in response to the in situ stresses can provide very valuable indications of the in situ stress field. Dog earring in bored excavations can be equally pronounced as in boreholes. indicating that the core axis is not a principal stress direction Observations of failures in excavations Excavations can be considered as large boreholes.
The method involves the pressurization of a length of borehole and the measurement of the pressure required to fracture the rock or reopen existing fractures. . Rummel (Rummel.Figure 11 Dog earing (photograph provided by Dr C D Martin) Hydraulic Fracturing for In situ Stress measurement Hydraulic fracturing is now a well established method for determining in situ stress magnitudes.1 Hydraulic fracturing Conventional hydraulic fracturing involves the pressurizing of a short length of borehole. Although hydraulic fracturing had been used previously for other purposes such as borehole stimulation for increasing the yield of water supply or dewatering boreholes. The application of the method is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 14. Scheidegger (1962) and Fairhurst (1964) were the first to suggest its use for the determination of in situ stresses. until the hydraulic pressure causes the rock to fracture. Rummel et al. The characteristics of the pressure induced breakdown and the subsequent reopening of the fracture under repressurisation are monitored carefully. 4. 1993). The orientation of the induced fracture is measured using a borehole television camera or a special impression packer to obtain a physical record of the surface of the borehole. 1986) played a major role in developing and promoting the use of the hydraulic fracturing technique. Zoback et al. isolated using hydraulic packers on either side of it. Vertical boreholes are usually used and it is assumed that the in situ principal stresses are vertical and horizontal. Zoback et al. 1983. 1980. 1983) and Zoback (Zoback et al. 1987. It has been widely used in the oil well industry.3. 1977. Cornet (1993a). Haimson (1968. 1977. From all these data the orientations of the secondary principal stresses normal to the axis of the borehole can be interpreted.
the straightness and wall quality of the borehole are important. After hydrofracturing. the borehole axis is parallel to the direction of one of the principal stress components 2. or a special impression of its surface taken using an impression packer.Figure 14 Hydraulic fracture applications The method requires special equipment. the pressurization occurs sufficiently fast to avoid fluid permeating into the rock and thus alter the pore pressure within the rock matrix 3. A simpler set-up would be applicable for in mine tests. to carry out a measurement. Although this represents the full sophistication of the method. Fracture generation occurs at the location of the least tangential stress at the borehole wall and the fracture propagates perpendicular to the direction of the least principal stress 4. and associated services and personnel. to determine the orientation of the induced fracture. . A system for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in deep boreholes is illustrated in Figure 15. it is illustrative of the sort of requirements that would be necessary for quality measurements at greenfields sites. The borehole must be diamond drilled. the shut-in pressure is equal to the stress component perpendicular to the fracture plane. Since packers are inserted in the borehole to seal off the test sections. The classical stress determination from hydraulic fracturing tests is generally based on a few assumption and they are: 1. the borehole has to be inspected using a television camera.
Fig 15 System for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (after Tunbridge et al. 1989) .
The schematic arrangements of hydro-fracturing technique is as shown below in the figure 16
Figure 16 Schematic arrangement of hydro-frac technique
In non-porous rocks the minimum principal stress is given by the shut-in pressure. If a borehole is drilled in the vertical direction, and it is assumed that this is a principal stress direction, and that the minimum principal stress is horizontal, the major horizontal principal stress SH can be determined from the following equation: Testing Procedure A single or double straddle packers system is set (inflated) at the required depth so as to isolate a test cavity. A liquid is injected into the test cavity and its pressure raised while monitoring the quantity injected. A sudden surge of fluid accompanied by sudden drop in pressure indicates that hydrofracture of rock formation (fracture inititation or break down) has occurred. The hydrofracture continues to propagate away from the hole as fluid is injected, and is oriented normal to the least principal stress direction (Fig.17) Once the hydro-fracturing has traveled about 10 drillhole diameters, injection is stopped by shutting a valve, and the instantaneous shut-in pressure is measured. The process is repeated several times to ensure a consistent measurement of this pressure, which is equal to the minimum principal stress.
SV = γ .Z S h = PSi S H = T + 3.S h − PC T = PC − PR Where T is the tensile strength of the rock Sh and SV are the minor and major horizontal principal stress Pc is the breakdown pressure at fracture generation PR is the pressure necessary to re-open the induced fracture (T=0) PSi is the shut-in pressure to merely keep the fracture open against the normal stress acting in the fracture plane Z is the depth of the over burden and γ is the unit weight of the rock. Interpretation of hydrofracture records can require expert input if the shut-in pressure is not distinct. Interpretation of test results is not a straightforward activity, and the experience of the interpreter has some effect on the in situ stress values ultimately determined. Different interpreters may derive somewhat different results from the same set of field data. In porous rocks in particular, interpretation of hydraulic fracturing tests may be very difficult and, owing to the pore pressure, definition of the major principal stress may be doubtful. In sedimentary rocks, beds with a thickness of at least 2 to 3m are necessary for satisfactory testing to be carried out. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements have been carried out at depths in the 6km to 9km range (Amadei and Stephannson, 1997) and therefore the method is, in theory, suitable for the high stress conditions encountered in deep mines. At such high pressures, valves, tubing and packers must be of special design to be able to perform as required. In boreholes in which spalling or breakouts are occurring, there may be a risk of not being able to insert (or recover) the packers, and it may also not be possible to seal off the borehole satisfactorily. Borehole breakouts due to high stress levels may also interfere with the location of the fracture on the borehole wall, and this may lead to inaccuracy in determining stress directions.
Table 1 Test No Depth (m)
Hydrofracture Field Data Shut-in Pressure-PR MPa 15.0 19.0 12.0 15.0 27.2 42.5 33.0 T=PC-PR MPa PSi MPa
BreakDown Pressure-PC MPa Underground Borehole –Sub-level 40 1 23.5 17.2 2 21.5 28.0 3 18.5 18.2 4 12.5 18.4 5 9.5 32.4 6 4.15 45.5 7 1.95 40.6
2.2 9.0 6.2 3.4 5.2 3.0 7.6
11.5 13.0 10.0 12.0 20.5 33.5 32.0
It is clear from the above that the application of the hydraulic fracturing method is theoretically possible, but would be expensive, and demanding on services. Perhaps the most severe restriction, however, is the requirement that the borehole be drilled in the direction of one of the principal stresses. In mining situations this is usually not known and is one of the in situ stress parameters to be determined. Bibliography Dyke, C G (1989) Core discing: its potential as an indicator of principal in situ stress directions, Rock at Great depth, ed Maury & Fourmaintraux, Balkema, pp 1057-1064. Fairhurst, C (1964) Measurement of in situ rock stresses with particular reference to hydraulic fracturing, Rock Mech. & Engng Geol., Vol 2, pp 129-147. Haimson, B C and Herrick, C G (1986) Borehole breakouts – a new tool for estimating in situ stress? Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 271-280. Haimson, B C, Lee, C F and Huang, J H S (1986) High horizontal stresses at Niagara Falls, their measurement and the design of a new hydroelectric plant, Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 615-624. Haimson, B C, Lee, M, Chandler, N and Martin, D (1993) Estimating the state of stress for subhorizontal hydraulic fractures at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol 30, No 7, pp 959-964. Haimson, B and Song, I (1993) Laboratory studies of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp1047- 1056. Kutter, H (1991) Influence of drilling method on borehole breakouts and core disking, Proc. 7th Int. Cong. Int. Soc. Rock Mech., Aachen, Balkema, Vol 3, pp 1659-1664. Martin, C D and Chandler, N A (1993) Stress heterogeneity and geological structures, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp 993-999. Rummel, F (1987) Fracture mechanics approach to hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, in Fracture Mechanics of Rocks, Academic Press, London, pp 217-239. Scheidegger, A E (1962) Stress in earth’s crust as determined from hydraulic fracturing data, Geol. Bauwesen, Vol 27, pp 45-53.
Healy. M D.Stacey. Soc. B (1989) Measurement of rock stress using the hydraulic fracturing method in Cornwall. Vol 115. pp 135-152. Geophys. wellbore breakouts. S. National Group of Int. Sci & Geomech. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements. C M and Haimson. Rock Mech. J H and Rolles. pp 351-360. Rock Mech. J C (1977) Preliminary stress measurements in Central California using the hydraulic fracturing technique. Proc. Proc. pp 289. . L W.. UK – Part I. 1st Southern African Rock Engineering Symp. Int. SARES 97. Vol 26. Stockholm.299. Abstr. Symp. Pure Appl. Mastin. Min. L and Barton. and stonely wave polarization. Zoback. Zoback. Tunbridge. T R (1997) Practical method of in situ stress measurement for deep level mines. pp 502-514. Int.. Cooling. Centek Publishers.. J. M L. C (1986) In-situ stress measurements in deep boreholes using hydraulic fracturing.. Afr.