Rock Mechanics and Ground control
Course Material For Singareni Collieries Limited (SCCLtd) Ramagundem AP
By Dr.K.U.M.Rao Professor Department of Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 721302
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Rock Mechanics as a Discipline
Rock mechanics is a discipline that uses the principles of mechanics to describe the behaviour of rocks. Here, the term of rock is in the scale of engineering. The scale is generally in the order of between a few metres to a few thousand metres. Therefore, the rock considered in rock mechanics is in fact the rock mass, which composes intact rock materials and rock discontinuities. What is so special of rock mechanics? For normal construction materials, e.g., steel and concrete, the mechanical behaviours are continuous, homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic (CHILE). Properties of the manmade materials are known and can often be controlled. For rocks, due to the existence of discontinuities, the behaviours are discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and non-linearly elastic (DIANE). Properties of the natural geomaterials are unknown and often can not be controlled. It is important to be award that in rock mechanics, rock discontinuities dominate the mechanical and engineering behaviours. The existence of discontinuity depends on the scale. The discontinuous nature and scale dependence feature is not common in other man-made materials. Rock mechanics is applied to various engineering disciplines: civil, mining, hydropower, petroleum. In civil engineering, it involves foundation, slope and tunnel. In structural engineering, the design process generally is as following: Calculate external loading imposed on the structure; Design the structure and analyse loading in structure elements; Design the structure element and select materials. In rock engineering, or geotechnical engineering, the whole process is different. Loading condition is not easily calculateable, rock engineering, being sloping cutting or underground excavation, does not impose loading, but disturbs the existing stress field of the ground and redistribute the load. Therefore, the key process in rock engineering is to understand the how the stress field is disturbed by engineering activities and how the rock is behaving (responding) to the change of boundary conditions, and yet the material does not has a characteristics controlled by man. The objectives of learning rock mechanics are: • • To understand of the mechanical behaviour of rock materials, rock discontinuities and rock masses. To be able to analyse and to determine mechanical and engineering properties of rocks for engineering applications.
CHAPTER 2 ROCK FORMATION AND ROCK MASS 2.1 Rock Formations and Types Rock is a natural geo-material. In geological term, rock is a solid substance composed of minerals, of which can consist in particulate form (soil particles) or in large form (mountains, tectonic plates, planetary cores, planets). In common term, rock is an aggregate of minerals. Rocks are formed by three main origins: igneous rocks from magma, sedimentary rock from sediments lithfication and metamorphic rocks through metamorphism. Figure 2.1.1a shows the geological process involved in the formations of various rocks. It should be noted that the processes are dynamic and continuous.
Figure 2.1.1a Rock cycle illustrating the role of various geological processes in rock formation. 2.1.3 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization. They can be formed below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks, or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from either the Earth's mantle or pre-existing rocks made molten by extreme temperature and pressure changes. Figure 2.1.1a shows the origin of magma and igneous rock through the rock cycle. As magma cools, minerals crystallize from the melt at different temperatures. The magma from which the minerals crystallize is rich in only silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium,
1. Metamorphic rocks are also formed by the intrusion of molten rock (magma) into solid rock and form particularly at the place of contact between the magma and solid rock where the temperatures are high. When an existing rock is subjected to heat and extreme pressure. clay. deposition and compaction. but count for only 5% of the rock in the earth crust. and by precipitation from solution. heat causes minerals to recrystallise. but their great abundance is hidden on the Earth's surface by a relatively thin but widespread layer of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. 2. known as contact metamorphism. When above 200°C. through metamorphism. shale.potassium. They are formed deep beneath the Earth's surface by great stresses from rocks above and high pressures and temperatures. Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock into particles without producing changes in the chemical composition of the minerals in the rock. Another important mechanism of metamorphism is that of chemical reactions that occur between minerals without them melting. In the process atoms are exchanged between the minerals. Four basic processes are involved in the formation of a clastic sedimentary rock: weathering (erosion). Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by mineral assembly.4 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is formed in three main ways – by the deposition of the weathered remains of other rocks (known as 'clastic' sedimentary rocks). The existing rock may be sedimentary rock. The combined effects of recrystallisation and re-orientation usually lead to foliation. by the deposition of the results of biogenic activity. The high temperatures and pressures in the depths of the Earth are the cause of the changes. and thus new minerals are formed. known as regional metamorphism. conglomerate.1. Many complex high-temperature reactions may take place. Pressure forces some crystals to re-orient. and each mineral assemblage produced provides us with a clue as to the temperatures and pressures at the time of metamorphism. Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by chemical reaction. the rock undergoes profound physical and/or chemical change. and magnesium minerals. Sedimentary rocks include common types such as sandstone. Igneous rocks make up approximately 95% of the upper part of the Earth's crust. calcium. These are the elements which combine to form the silicate minerals.1a). Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface. 2. All rocks disintegrate slowly as a result of mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. which is a unique feature
. chalk and limestone. which account for over 90% of all igneous rocks. igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock (Figure 2. Heat and pressure are the causes of metamorphism. transportation.1.5 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rock is a new rock type transformed from an existing rock type. iron.
2. Typically.2. Figure 2. A joint set is a group of parallel joints. the term fault zone is used when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane.2 Faults Geologic faults are planar rock fractures which show evidence of relative movement.2. This causes the platy or elongated crystals of minerals. Joints are also formed by tectonic movement. Joints can also be caused by cooling of hot rock masses.1a). They are generally considered as part of the rock mass. a rock mass can have between one to a few joint sets. Joints are often in sets. Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along faults. or foliated.2 Rock Discontinuities 2.
. Joints are the most common type of rock discontinuities. Joints are always in sets. to grow with their long axes perpendicular to the direction of the force.1a Typical joints seen (i) one dominant set.of metamorphic rocks.2. and hence leads to the fracturing of underlying rock. with the bands showing the colours of the minerals that formed them. but many faults occur far from active plate boundaries. which form cooling joints. clean fracture. Since faults usually do not consist of a single.1 Joints A geological joint is a generally planar fracture formed in a rock as a result of extensional stress. The largest examples are at tectonic plate boundaries. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes. Joints do not have any significant offset of strata either vertically or horizontally (Figure 2.2a. Joints can be formed due to erosion of the overlying strata exposed at the surface. such as mica and chlorite.2.2. rock. as the spacing of joints usually is between a few centimetres and a few metres. Columnar jointing or columnar basalts are typical joint features by cooling. The removal of overlying rock results in change of stresses. It occurs when a strong compressive force is applied from one direction to a recrystallizing rock. 2.
Figure 2. This result in a banded. (ii) three sets.
are often associated with high degree of fracturing and relatively weak and soft rocks. They are often dealt separately from the rock mass. 2. particularly intense folds. As faults.2.2. 2.2a Faults.2. Shear zones can be only inches wide.3 Folds The term fold is used in geology when originally flat and planar rock strata are bent as a result of tectonic force or movement.4 Bedding Planes As sedimentary rocks are formed in layers. However. Folds can be commonly observed in sedimentary formation and as well as in metamorphic rocks (Figure 2. are large scale geological features. It should be noted that fold has huge variation of features.Figure 2. Small scale single faults often have the similar effects as a joint. Folds form under very varied conditions of stress. Folds are usually not considered as part of the rock mass.3a). but the results of folding is often reflected in the rock mass consideration. Folds. Although the folding feature may not be directly taking into account of rock mass. Bedding plane therefore is a discontinuity separating different rocks (Figure 2. The behaviour large scale fault and shear zones require specific investigation and analysis. A shear zone is a wide zone of distributed shearing in rock.4a). Typically this is a type of fault but it may be difficult to place a distinct fault plane into the shear zone. Bedding plane often can be fully closed and cemented. or up to several kilometres wide. the interfaces between layers are termed as bedding planes.
. folds can be of the similar scale as the engineering project and hence the significance of folds on the behaviour of the rock mass must be taken into consideration. particularly fault zone and shear zone. if a project is to be constructed over or close such zones.2. fault zone and shear zone.2.
some bedding planes could also become potential weathered zones and pocket of groundwater.
Figure 2. foundations.2. consists of rock blocks and fractures. However. varying from a few centimetres to a few kilometres. It mainly creates an interface of two rock materials. is the whole body of the rock in situ.3. slopes and tunnels. an interface between porous sandstone and limestone may lead to extensive weathering of the limestone. 2.. Bedding planes are isolated geological features to engineering activities.2.3b Folds in a sedimentary formation. often termed as rock mass.g. then rock in such scale is generally a mass of rock at the site. which leads to cavities along the interface. e. A borehole can be typically around 8 cm while a mine can spread up to a few km. This mass of rock.1b.3 Rock Material and Rock Masses 2. For example. For civil engineering works.3a Folds in a sedimentary formation. When such engineering scale is considered.3.1 Engineering Scale and Rock Engineering in and on rock has different scales. typically seen in Figure 2. the scale of projects is usually a few ten metres to a few hundreds metres.
3.4b Some typical bedding planes.
.4a Some typical bedding planes.Figure 2.2.
Figure 2.2.1b Typical rock masses.
In addition.2. and (b) rock discontinuities that cuts through the rock.3 Role of Joints in Rock Mass Behaviour Rock joints change the properties and behaviour of rock mass in the following terms: (i) Cuts rock into slabs. in the form of intact rock plates. Rock masses are also inhomogeneous due to the mix of rock types. blocks and wedges. (iii)Alters stress distribution and orientation. varying from extremely soft clay and fractured and crushed rocks. and faults. Rocks are formed by nature and exhibits great inhomogeneity.4 Inhomogeneity and Anisotropy 2.2a).2 Composition of Rock Mass A rock mass contains (a) rock material. (ii) Gives large deformation. Rock materials and discontinuities together form rockmass.2 Inhomogeneity of Rock Masses Inhomogeneity of a rock mass is primarily due to the existence of discontinuities. 2. Faults are often filled with weathered materials.2a A dyke intrusion.3.3a).
Figure 2. in the forms of fractures. of various sizes. to be free to fall and move (Figure 2. (i) Provides water flow channel and creates flow networks. Most of the engineering materials have varying degrees of inhomogeneity. rock mass may also include filling materials in the discontinuities and dyke and sill igneous intrusions (Figure 2. joints.3. Because the rock materials between rock joints are intact and solid.1 Inhomogeneity of Rock Materials Inhomogeneity represents property varying with locations. blocks and wedges.3. interbedding and intrusion. (ii) Acts as weak planes for sliding and moving.3. they have relative small deformation and low permeability.4.3. It is therefore obvious that rock mass behaviour by large is governed by rock joints. 2. 2.
3b). Some sedimentary rocks.4. (i) slate and (ii) sandstone.Anisotropy occurs in both rock materials and rock mass. Rock mass anisotropy is controlled by (i) joint set (Figure 2.3b A Limestone rock mass with one dominating joint set. small degree of anisotropy is possible.3a.
. However.3a Some common anisotropic rocks.4.g. shale.
Figure 2.3 Anisotropy Anisotropy is defined as properties are different in different direction. e. and (ii) sedimentary layer (Figure 2. under the influence of formation process and pressure.4. Other sedimentary may not have clear anisotropy.126.96.36.199a). Phyllite and schist are the other foliated metamorphic rocks that exhibit anisotropy. as seen in Figure 2. Rock with most obvious anisotropy is slate.. have noticeable anisotropic characteristics.4.
size. Mineralogical composition . They are: • Quartz • Feldspar • Mica • Hornblende(Amphiboles) • Pyroxenes • Olivine • Calcite • Kaolinite. 8. seen on a smooth surface of a mineral aggregate. 4. only about nine of them partake decisively in forming the composition of rocks. Thus the texture is the appearance. Rock structure and texture affect the strength properties of the rock. and • Dolomite These minerals are glued together by four types of materials such as silicates. This Chapter addresses properties of rock material. The term “rock texture” refers to the arrangement of its grains. calcites. 3.
. 3. 6. S Permeability to water k
Mineralogical composition is the intrinsic property controlling the strength of the rock Although there exist more than 2000 kinds of known minerals. 7. One distinguishes between coarse-texture (coarse-grained) and fine-textures rock. A coarse-grained rock is one in which the large crystals are seen easily while the fine grained rocks need to be seen under a microscope. argillaceous and ferrous minerals. and arrangement.CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF ROCK MATERIALS Rock material is the intact rock portion. 5. megascopic or microscopic.1 Physical Properties of Rock Material The physical properties of rocks affecting design and construction in rocks are: 1. Specific gravity G Unit weight γ Porosity n Void ratio e Moisture content w Degree of saturation. structure. The Rocks containing quartz as the binder are known as siliceous rocks and are the strongest while the rocks with calcium and magnesium carbonates are the weakest. and texture. 2. showing the geometrical aspects of the rock including shape.
Most rocks have density between 2. Density of rock material various. Density. Porosity therefore is a fraction between 0 and 1. Void ratio (e) is the ratio of the volume of voids (VV) to the volume of solids (VS) e= VV VS
Wd γ G = ⋅γW = V 1+ e 1+ w Porosity (n) describes how densely the material is packed.800 kg/m3. Porosity and Water Content Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of solids to the density of water.500nd 2. and often related to the porosity of the rock.4 lb/ft3) Where Wd = dry weight of the sample WS = weight of solids VV and VS = volume of voids and volume of solids V = total volume of the sample G = specific gravity e = Void ratio of the sample γ w = Unit weight of water = 9.3. It is the ratio of the non-solid volume (VV) to the total volume (V) of material.81 kN/m3 = 62.1 Specific Gravity. It is sometimes defined by unit weight and specific gravity.81 kN/m3 w = moisture content of the sample
.1. V V − (WS / Gγ W ) e = n= V = V 1+ e V V 1 = S 1+ e V
γ Dry =
(The unit weight of water = 1 g/cm3 = 1 t/m3 = 9. M 1 G= S ⋅ VS ρ W (where M S = mass of solids and VS -volume of solids) Unit weight ( γ ) W V ( W is the total weight of the sample and V the total volume of the sample)
Density is a measure of mass per unit of volume.
Density is used to estimate overburden stress. A low density and high porosity rock usually has low strength.5 to 2.
Phase diagram illustrating the weights and volume relationship
. It is simply the ratio of the weight of water (Ww) to the weight (WS) of the rock material. Water content is a measure indicating the amount of water the rock material contains. most rocks are well compacted and then have specific gravity between 2. Density and porosity often related to the strength of rock material. w= Ww W − WS × 100 = × 100 WS WS
Degree of saturation S is
Vw × 100 VV
Density is common physical properties. High porosity therefore naturally leads to high permeability. It is influenced by the specific gravity of the composition minerals and the compaction of the minerals.The value is typically ranging from less than 0.01 for solid granite to up to 0. It may also be represented in percent terms by multiplying the fraction by 100%. Porosity is one of the governing factors for the permeability.5 for porous sandstone.8. However. Porosity provides the void for water to flow through in a rock material.
metamorphic and chemical sedimentary rocks.2 Hardness Hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. including igneous. 3.3 Abrasivity Abrasivity measures the abrasiveness of a rock materials against other materials.1.Abrasivity measures are given by several tests..Table 3.g. Porous rocks such as sandstones usually have high permeability while granites
. It is an important measure for estimate wear of rock drilling and boring equipment. e.1.1a Physical properties of fresh rock materials
3. 3.1. Cerchar and other abrasivity tests are described later. Table 3. As discussed earlier. permeability of rock material is governed by porosity. Hardness of rock materials depends on several factors. including mineral composition and density. including density and porosity of rock materials. A typical measure is the Schmidt rebound hardness number. Abrasivity is highly influenced by the amount of quartz mineral in the rock material. Most rocks. The higher quartz content gives higher abrasivity.1. steel.4 Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of a material to transmit fluids. generally have very low permeability.1.1a gives common physical properties.
1b and Figure 3. used in design. Figure 3.2. Usually compressive strength of rock is defined by the ultimate stress.2 Mechanical Properties of Rock Material 3.5 Wave Velocity Measurements of wave are often done by using P wave and sometimes. 3. For a poorly compact rock material. using the same principle. and it will be discussed in a later chapter. The most common measure of compressive strength is the uniaxial compressive strength or unconfined compressive strength.1.1 Compressive Strength Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed compressive forces.2.2.1a. represent 6 stages that the rock material is undergoing. A well compacted rock has generally high velocity as the grains are all in good contact and wave are traveling through the solid. The complete stressstrain curve can be divided into 6 sections.1. Permeability of rock materials.
. Wave velocities are also commonly used to assess the degree of rock mass fracturing at large scale. Permeability of rock fractures is discussed later. Typical values of P and S wave velocities of some rocks are given in Table 3. has limited interests as in the rock mass. S waves. so the wave will partially travel through void (air or water) and the velocity will be reduced (P-wave velocities in air and in water are 340 and 1500 m/s respectively and are much lower than that in solid). flow is concentrated in fractures in the rock mass. except for those porous one. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock material. P wave velocity measures the travel speed of longitudinal (primary) wave in the material. The velocity measurements provide correlation to physical properties in terms of compaction degree of the material. Figure 4. 3. analysis and modeling. the grains are not in good contact.1a presents a typical stress-strain curve of a rock under uniaxial compression. while S-wave velocity measures the travel speed of shear (secondary) wave in the material.2.1c show the states of rock in those stages of compression.have low permeability.
The specimen is undergone strain softening (failure)
. At this stage. Stage IV – The rock is undergone a rapid acceleration of microcracking events and volume increase. pre-existing microcracks or pore orientated at large angles to the applied stress is closing. The rock is primarily undergoing elastic deformation with minimum cracking inside the material. even though the internal structure is highly disrupt. This causes an initial non-linearity of the axial stress-strain curve.2. The upper boundary of the stage is the point of maximum compaction and zero volume change and occurs at about 80% peak strength. The axial stress-strain curve is nearlinear and is nearly recoverable. Stage V – The rock has passed peak stress.1a Typical uniaxial compression stress-strain curve of rock material.2. Stage II – The rock basically has a linearly elastic behaviour with linear stress-strain curves. the stress-strain is largely recoverable. both axially and laterally. In this stage the crack arrays fork and coalesce into macrocracks or fractures. particularly in stiffer unconfined rocks. Micro-cracks are likely initiated at the later portion of this stage. The spreading of microcracks is no longer independent and clusters of cracks in the zones of highest stress tend to coalesce and start to form tensile fractures or shear planes . Stage I – The rock is initially stressed.
Figure 3. This initial non-linearity is more obvious in weaker and more porous rocks.Figure 3. Stage III – The rock behaves near-linear elastic. Microcrack propagation occurs in a stable manner during this stage and that microcracking events occur independently of each other and are distributed throughout the specimen. of about 35-40% peak strength. There is a slight increase in lateral strain due to dilation. as the there is little permanent damage of the micro-structure of the rock material. in addition to deformation. but is still intact.1c Samples of rock material under uniaxial compression test and failure. tends to be low. The Poisson's ratio.depending on the strength of the rock.
1d shows the results of a series triaxial compression tests.
Figure 3. This in turn will lead to zones of concentrated strain or shear planes.2. The axial stress or force acting on the specimen tends to fall to a constant residual strength value. the stress-strain characteristics also changed. we often are interested in the rock at depth.. Typical strengths and modulus of common rocks are given in Table 3. These blocks slide across each other and the predominant deformation mechanism is friction between the sliding blocks. Discussion on the influence of confining pressure to the mechanical characteristics is given in a later section. Secondary fractures may occur due to differential shearing.2. i. The rock is covered by overburden materials.2 Young's Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio Young's Modulus is modulus of elasticity measuring of the stiffness of a rock material. The compressive strength with lateral pressures is called triaxial compressive strength.2.deformation.e. and is subjected to lateral stresses. Figure 3.1a.2. at peak stress the test specimen starts to become weaker with increasing strain. of the rate of change of stress with strain. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve obtained during compressional or tensile tests conducted on a rock sample. Compressive strength with lateral pressures is higher than that without. In addition to the significant increase of strength with confining pressure. for small strains. Thus further strain will be concentrated on weaker elements of the rock which have already been subjected to strain. In underground excavation.1d Triaxial compression test and failure 3. Stage VI – The rock has essentially parted to form a series of blocks rather than an intact structure. It is defined as the ratio.
. equivalent to the frictional resistance of the sliding blocks.
Brittle rocks. Young’s Modulus of rock materials varies widely with rock type. as shown in Figure 3. have low strain at failure. For most rocks. Rocks can have brittle or ductile behaviour after peak.2. 3. at linearly-elastic region. typically around 0. Young’s Modulus can be as high as 100 GPa.2. such as shale and mudstone.Table 3. Rocks generally fail at a small strain. behave brittle under uniaxial compression. typically crystalline rocks.4. Strain at failure is the strain measured at ultimate stress.1a Mechanical properties of rock materials.
. metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.3a. could have relatively high strain at failure. For extremely hard and strong rocks. Most rocks. Strain at failure increases with increasing confining pressure under triaxial compression conditions. A few soft rocks. while soft rock. Poisson’s ratio measures the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain.2 to 0.15 and 0. Strain at failure sometimes is used as a measure of brittleness of the rock. mainly of sedimentary origin. the Poisson’s ratio is between 0. As seen from the tests that at later stage of loading beyond. that is. behave ductile.3 Stress-Strain at and after Peak A complete stress-strain curve for a rock specimen in uniaxial compression test can be obtained.2. including all crystalline igneous.4% under uniaxial compression. beyond the linearly elastic region the increase in lateral strain is faster than the axial strain and hence indicates a higher ratio.
Similar to strength.
. 3. Rock resists shear stress by two internal mechanisms. maximum tensile stress the rock material can withstand. Tensile strength of rock materials can be obtained from several types of tensile tests: direct tensile test. and is defined by the internal friction angle. The low tensile strength is due to the existence of microcracks in the rock. cohesion and internal friction.2. i..Figure 3. Different rocks have different cohesions and different friction angles. The most common tensile strength determination is by the Brazilian tests.4a illustrates the failure mechanism of the Brazilian tensile tests. The existence of microcracks may also be the cause of rock failing suddenly in tension with a small strain. Cohesion is a measure of internal bonding of the rock material.2. Brazilian test and flexure test.4 Tensile Strength Tensile strength of rock material is normally defined by the ultimate strength in tension. φ.2. Rock material generally has a low tensile strength.4a Stress and failure of Brazilian tensile tests by RFPA simulation.2. to resist deformation due to shear stress.
Figure 3. Direct test is not commonly performed due to the difficulty in sample preparation. Internal friction is caused by contact between particles.3a Complete stress-strain curves of several rocks showing post peak behaviour (Brady and Brown). 3.5 Shear Strength Shear strength is used to describe the strength of rock materials.
It shows that with increasing confining pressure. By plotting Mohr circles. igneous and high grade metamorphic rocks.3 MPa in the figure).
The confining pressure that causes the post-peak reduction in strength disappears and the behaviour becomes fully ductile (48. 3. This brittle-ductile transition pressure varies with rock type.Shear strength of rock material can be determined by direct shear test and by triaxial compression tests. even the loading may appears to be compression.2.
. e. peak stresses (σ1) are obtained at various lateral stresses (σ3). there is a transition from typically brittle to fully ductile behaviour with the introduction of plastic mechanism of deformation. granite and quartzite. the region incorporating the peak of the axial stress-axial strain curve flattens and widens. the shear envelope is defined which gives the cohesion and internal friction angle. In general. remain brittle at room temperature at confining pressures of up to 1000 MPa or more.g. Rocks generally have high compressive strength so failure in pure compression is not common..1a illustrates a number of important features of the behaviour of rock in triaxial compression.3.1 Effects of Confining Pressure Figure 4. With a series of triaxial tests conducted at different confining pressures.
Figure 3.5a Determination of shear strength by triaxial tests. (a) (b) the peak strength increases.2. the post-peak drop in stress to the residual strength reduces and disappears at high confining stress.3 Effects of Confining and Pore Water Pressures on Strength and Deformation 3. as shown in Figure 3. the later methods is widely used and accepted. In practice. is known as the brittle-ductile transition pressure.3.5a. Tensile and shear strengths are important as rock fails mostly in tension and in shearing.
A series of triaxial compression tests was carried out on a limestone with a constant confining pressure of 69 MPa. but with various level of pore pressure (0-69 MPa).2a Effect of pore pressure on the stress-strain behaviour of rock materials. In this case. mechanical response is controlled by the effective confining stress (σ3' = σ3 – u).
Figure 3.2 Effects of Pore Water Pressure The influence of pore-water pressure on the behaviour of porous rock in the triaxial compression tests is illustrated by Figure 4.3. Effect of pore water pressure is only applicable for porous rocks where sufficient pore pressure can be developed within the materials.2a.
.3. the classical effective stress law does not hold.3. For low porosity rocks.1a Complete axial stress-axial strain curves obtained in triaxial compression tests on Marble at various confining pressures (after Wawersik & Fairhurst 1970).Figure 3.3. 3. There is a transition from ductile to brittle behaviour as pore pressure is increased from 0 to 69 MPa.
Density. It gives the standard point load index.3. the uniaxial compressive strength is reduced.5. it is also used to estimate the elastic modulus of the rock material.5. compared to the strength in dry condition. with size correction to an equivalent core diameter of 50 mm.1a Correlation between hardness. 4.2 Effect of Water Content on Strength Many tests showed that the when rock materials are saturated or in wet condition. the hardness index can be used to estimate uniaxial compressive strength of the rock material.4 Other Engineering Properties of Rock Materials 3. The correlation is also influenced by the density of the material. 3. Young’s Modulus and Strength.
Figure 3. From the theory of elasticity.4.1a.5 Relationships between Physical and Mechanical Properties 3.5. At the same time. calculated from the point load at failure and the size of the specimen.5. 3. It is a measure of the hardness of the rock material by count the rebound degree.5. The correlation between hardness and strength is shown in Figure 3. compressional (or longitudinal) P-wave velocity (vp) is related to the elastic modulus E s and the density (ρ) of the material as. Is(50).1 Point Load Strength Index Point load test is another simple index test for rock material. and Strength Schmidt hammer rebound hardness is often measured during early part of field investigation.1 Rock Hardness.3 Velocity and Modulus While seismic wave velocity gives a physical measurement of the rock material.
Seismic Poisson’s ration νs can be determined from. but should not be mistaken as the modulus under dynamic compression).. It is different from the modules obtained by the uniaxial compression tests.e. The correlations are presented in Figure 3. It should be noted that the correlation is not precisely linear and also depends on the rock type.5. seismic shear modulus Gs may be determined from shear S-wave velocity vs. Gs is in GPa.4 Compressive Strength and Modulus It is a general trend that a stronger rock material is also stiffer. and vp in km/s.
Figure 3. The elastic modulus estimated by this method is the sometime termed as seismic modulus (also called dynamic modulus. then Es in GPa (109 N/m2). The value of the seismic modulus is generally slightly higher than the modulus determined from static compression tests. Similarly. when density ρ is in g/cm3.4a. Es = 2 Gs (1 + νs) 3.
. i. higher elastic modulus is often associated with higher strength. There is reasonable correlation between compressive strength and elastic modulus. or perhaps on the texture of the rocks.5.5.If ρ in g/cm3.
Alternatively. and S-wave velocity vs is in km/s. seismic Young’s modulus Es can be determined from shear modulus (Gs) and Poisson’s ratio (νs).4a Correlation between strength and modulus.
6 Failure Criteria of Rock Materials 3. the stresses developed on the failure plane are on the strength envelope. it gives:
Coulomb suggested that shear strengths of rock are made up of two parts.6. When failure occurs.
In a shear stress-normal stress plot. Refer to Figure 3.1a Stresses on failure plane a-b and representation of Mohr’s circle. the Coulomb shear strength criterion τ = c + σn tanφ is represented by a straight line. i.1a. Therefore.
where c = cohesion and φ = angle of internal friction. a constant cohesion (c) and a normal stress-dependent frictional component.e. with an intercept c on the τ axis and an angle of φ with
. the stresses on the failure plane a-b are the normal stress σn and shear stress τ.
Figure 3.1 Mohr-Coulomb criterion Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion assumes that a shear failure plane is developed in the rock material.. by combining the above three equations.3.6. Applying the stress transformation equations or from the Mohr’s circle.6.
as shown in Figure 4. As assumed. rock failure starts with the formation of the shear failure plane a-b. and θ=¼π+½φ Then
Figure 3. the failure plane is defined by θ. a tensile cut-off is usually applied at a selected value of uniaxial tensile stress.1b is extrapolated. As seen from the Mohr’s circle. the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope straight line touches (makes a tangent) to the Mohr’s circles. and once the stress condition meet the envelope.the σn axis. the measured values of tensile strength are generally lower than those predicted by the above equation.6. Any stress condition below the strength envelope is safe. failure will occur.1b. In another word.6. Therefore. For this reason.
. For most rocks. the stress condition on the a-b plane satisfies the shear strength condition. σt′ is about 1/10 σc. with tensile cut-off. This straight line is often called the strength envelope. At each tangent point.6.1b Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope in terms of normal and shear stresses and principal stresses. σt′. If the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope shown in Figure 4. the stress condition on the a-b plane meets the strength envelope. the uniaxial compressive strength is related to c and φ by:
An apparent value of uniaxial tensile strength of the material is given by:
it overestimates the strength. so the criterion is widely used. Then. rock engineering deals with shallow problems and low σ3. At h i h σ3. It also overestimates tensile strength.6.6.
. Assuming that the elliptical crack will propagate from the points of maximum tensile stress concentration (P in Figure 4.The Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope can also be shown in σ1–σ3 plots. and
g The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is only suitable for the low range of σ3. 3. In most cases. Griffith obtained the following criterion for crack extension in plane compression:
Figure 3.6.1b. Griffith extended the theory to the case of applied compressive stresses.6.2a Griffith crack model for plane compression. as seen in Figure 4.2 Griffith strength criterion Based on the energy instability concept.2a). due to its simplicity and popularity.
τ = 2σt. 3. which represents the cohesion. the above equation becomes
It in fact suggests that the uniaxial compressive stress at crack extension is always eight times the uniaxial tensile strength
Figure 3. This criterion can also be expressed in terms of the shear stress (τ) and normal stress (σn) acting on the plane containing the major axis of the crack: When σn = 0. Hoek and Brown (1980) found that the peak triaxial compressive strengths of a wide range of isotropic rock materials could be described by the following equation:
or Where m is a parameter that changes with rock type in the following general way:
.where σt is the uniaxial tensile strength of the material. One of the most widely used criteria is Hoek-Brown criterion for isotropic rock materials and rock masses.6.6. a number of empirical strength criteria have been introduced for practical use.6.2b.3 Hoek-Brown criterion Because the classic strength theories used for other engineering materials have been found not to apply to rock over a wide range of applied compressive stress conditions. When σ3 = 0. The strength envelopes given by the above equations in principal stresses and in normal and shear stresses are shown in Figure 3.2b Griffith envelope for crack extension in compression.
hence makes it is so far the only acceptable criterion for both material and mass.6. transverse isotropy. so it gives low strength estimate than the MohrCoulomb envelope.
Figure 3. the behaviour of those rocks is anisotropic.7 Effects of Rock Microstructures on Mechanical Properties 3. the envelope curves down. or the presence of bedding or cleavage planes. It is evident that the Hoek-Brown strength envelope is not a straight line. The Hoek-Brown peak strength criterion is an empirical criterion based on substantial test results on various rocks. It is also extended to rock masses with the same equation. There are several forms of anisotropy with various degrees of complexity. At high stress level. 3. Because of some preferred orientation of fabric or microstructure.Figure 3. are not isotropic.3a Normalized peak strength envelope for (i) granites and (ii) sandstones (after Hoek & Brown 1980).
.3a shows normalized Hoek-Brown peak strength envelope for some rocks. It is therefore only the simplest form of anisotropy. Figure 3. It is however very easy to use and select parameters.7. plane of weakness or foliation plane.6. with respect to the principal stress directions. The peak strengths developed by transversely isotropic rocks in triaxial compression vary with the orientation of the plane of isotropy. to be discussed here.1 Strength of rock material with Anisotropy Rocks.7. such as shale and slate. but a curve.1a shows some measured variations in peak principal stress difference with the angle of inclination of the major principal stress to the plane of weakness.
The minimum strength occurs when
The corresponding value of principal stress difference is. ϕ w = angle of friction of the plane.
.7.Figure 3.7.1a Variation of differential stresses with the inclination angle of the plane of weakness (see Brady & Brown 1985) Analytical solution shows that principal stress difference (σ1–σ3) of a transversely isotropic specimen under triaxial compression shown in Figure 3.1a can be given by the equation below (Brady & Brown 1985):
Where: c w = cohesion of the plane of weakness. β = inclination of the plane.
8.1 Compression Tests (a) Uniaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. The specimen is then compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating.Figure 3. This in fact shows that when the rock containing an existing weakness plane that is about to become a failure plane. two axial deformations and one circumferential deformation measurements are recorded at every 25 KN interval until failure. Two axial and one circumferential deformation measurement devices (LVDTs) are attached to each of the specimen. The load is measured by a load transducer. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the failure load. the rock has the lowest strength.8. In compression tests. Load. plotted using the above equation. 3. hence β is about 60° to 70°. Fo r rock s. the strength is the lowest.1b shows variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.7.
Figure 3.7.8. Uniaxial compressive strength. φw is about 30° to 50°.
. intact rock specimens generally fail to form a shear plane at an angle about 60° to 70°.9.2 Effect of Loading Rate on Rock Strength 3.1 Rheologic Properties of Rock Materials 3.9 Laboratory Testing of Rock Materials 3. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate around 1 μm/s such that failure occurs within 5-10 minutes of loading.1b Variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β. When the weakness plane is at an angle of 45° + ½ φw.3 Failure Mechanism of Rock Material under Impact and Shock Loading 3.8 Time Dependent Characteristics of Rock Materials 3. stress and strain relationship.
density and water content at time of test.3a
A typical uniaxial compression test set-up with load and strain measurements.9. specimen anisotropy.. measurement devices are attached to each of the specimen. Poisson's ratio at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength. Poisson's ratio. σ c is calculated as the failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen.
(b) Triaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. specimen dimension. Two axial and two lateral deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used). is calculated as:
slope of axial stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c slope of lateral stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c
Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. mode of failure. uniaxial compressive strength. The specimen is then further compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating. The
.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength.
Figure 3.g. The specimen is placed in a triaxial cell (e. Hoek-Franklin cell) and a desired confining stress is applied and maintained by a hydraulic pump. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate arou nd 1 μm/s su ch that failu re occu rs with in 5-15 minutes of loading.Uniaxial compressive strength. modulus of elasticity. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength. ν50%.
specimen dimension. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. Poisson's ratio at 50% of triaxial compressive strength is calculated with the same methods as for the uniaxial compression test. Mohr's circles and failure envelope. Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Poisson's ratio.9. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the axial failure load. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . triaxial compressive strength.load is measured by a load transducer. Load.
. specimen anisotropy. modulus of elasticity.3b Triaxial compression test using Hoek cell.
Figure 3. For a group of triaxial compression tests at different confining stress level. Triaxial compressive strength. density and water content at time of test. is calculated as the axial failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. Mohr's stress circle are plotted using confining stress as σ 3 and axial stress as σ 1 . Coulomb or Hoek and Brown) and parameters of specified failure criterion are determined. Failure envelopes (Mohr. 2 axial strain or deformation and 2 lateral strains or deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used) are recorded at a fixed interval until failure. mode of failure. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of triaxial compressive strength.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. Triaxial compressive strength. σ 1 . stress and strain relationship.
(b) Brazilian Tensile Strength Test Cylindrical specimen of diameter approximately equals to 50 mm and thickness approximately equal to the radius is prepared.9. test duration and loading rate. water content and degree of saturation. orientation of the axis of loading with respect to specimen anisotropy. 3.9.9.
Figure 3.25°. calculation and the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio is similar to that for the uniaxial compression test. rock specimen is to be prepared in dog-bone shape with a thin middle.4b Brazilian tensile test.636 P Dt
Reporting of results includes description of the rock. mode of failure.3.25 mm and square and parallel to within 0.5 Shear Strength Tests
. Loading is applied continuously at a constant rate such that failure occurs within 15-30 seconds. The specimen is then loaded in tension by pulling from the two ends. due to the difficulty in specimen preparation. The specimen is wrapped around its periphery with one layer of the masking tape and loaded into the Brazil tensile test apparatus across its diameter. End faces shall be flat to within 0. The tensile strength of the rock is calculated from failure load (P). Ten specimens of the same sample shall be tested.4 Tensile Tests (a) Direct Tension Test Direct tension tests on rock materials are not common. Deformation modulus can be measured by having strain gauges attached to the specimen. For direct tension test. The cylindrical surfaces should be free from obvious tool marks and any irregularities across the thickness. specimen diameter (D) and specimen thickness (t) by the following formula:
σT = −
a series equation can be formed for sets of σ 1 and σ 1 . For axial test.(a) Direct Punch Shear (b) Shear Strength Determination by Triaxial Compression Results Shear strength parameters. For De ≠ 50 mm.5 D to D and is loaded between the point load apparatus axially. block and lump tests. Is. is given by: for diametrical test. is calculated as: De where De . forming a series circles. as typically shown in the figure below. cohesion (c) and international friction angle (φ) can be determined from triaxial compression test data. A straight line is draw to fit best by tangent to all the Mohr’s circles. 3.I s
0. The point load strength is corrected to the point load strength at equivalent core diameter of 50 mm. In diametrical test.6 Point Load Strength Index Test Point load test of rock cores can be conducted diametrically and axially. based on the MohrCoulomb criterion.
Cohesion c and friction angle ‘φ’ can be computed by solving the equations. The angle of the line to the horizontal is the internal friction angle φ. De2 = D 2 for axial. rock core specimen of diameter D is loaded between the point load apparatus across its diameter. The length/diameter ratio for the diametrical test should be greater than 1. The Mohr’s circle can be plotted for a series of triaxial tests results with σ 1 at different σ 3 . = 4A / π A = H D = minimum cross sectional area of a plane through the loading points.0. and the intercept at τ axis is the cohesion c. Alternatively. rock core is cut to a height between 0. the size correction factor is: Is = P
D F = e 50 The corrected point load strength index I s (50 ) is calculated as:
I s (50 ) = F . Load at failure is recorded as P. The line represents the shear strength envelope. Uncorrected point load strength.9.45
. the "equivalent core diameter".
6a Point load test.7a Measuring P and S wave velocity in a rock specimen. Both P-wave and S-wave velocities can be measured. The velocity is calculated from dividing the length of rock sample by wave travel time. and to use the remaining reading for calculating the average hardness value.9. The standard Schmidt hardness number is taken when the hammer is point vertically down.9.Figure 3. An ultrasonic digital indicator consist a pulse generator unit. The reading gives directly the Schmidt hammer hardness value.9. 3. If the hammer is point to horizontal and upward.9. transmitter and receiver transducers are used for sonic pulse velocity measurement. correction is needed to add to the number from the hammer.
. The Schmidt hammer is point perpendicularly and touch the surface of rock.8 Hardness (a) Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness A Schmidt hammer with rebound measurement is used for this test.7 Ultrasonic wave velocity Cylindrical rock sample is prepared by cutting and lapping the ends. It is suggest to omit 2 lowest and 2 highest reading. At least 20 tests should be conducted on any one rock specimen. The transmitter and the receiver are positioned at the ends of specimen and the pulse wave travel time is measured. The hammer is released and reading on the hammer is taken. The length is measured. 3.
10 Abrasivity (a) Cerchar Abrasivity Test The Cerchar abrasivity test is an abrasive wear with pressure test . The CAI value is calculated as. To determine the CAI value the rock is slowly displaced by 10 mm with a velocity of approximately 1 mm/s. A dead weight (6) of 70 N is applied on the stylus.10a Cerchar abrasivity test West apparatus (West 1989).
Figure 3. loaded on the surface of the rock sample.9. which can be moved across the base of the apparatus by a hand wheel (2) that drives a screwthread of pitch 1 mm /revolution turning.9. It was proposed by the Laboratoire du Centre d’Etudes et Recherches des Charbonnages (Cerchar) in France. fitting into a holder (5).9.Figure 3.12 Slake Durability Test Select representative rock sample consisting of 10 lumps each of 40-60g. roughly spherical in shape with corners rounded during preparation.8a Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test. A steel stylus (4).9. 3. It consists of a vice for holding rock sample (1). The sample is placed in the test drum of 2 mm standard mesh cylinder of 100 mm long and 140 mm in diameter with
.10a. 3. Displacement of the vice (1) is measured by a scale (3). The testing apparatus is featured in Figure 3. The abrasiveness of the rock is then obtained by measuring the resulting wear flat on the tip of the steel stylus.
CAI = 10 −2 d
where ‘d’ is the wear flat diameter of the stylus tip in μm.9.
The sample and drum is placed in trough which is filled with slaking fluid. The mass of drum and sample is recorded (Mass A). Slake-durability index. and the drum is rotated at 20 rpm for 10 minutes (Figure 3. I d 2 = × 100% A− D The first cycle slake-durability index should be calculated when I d 2 is 0-10%. The slaking and drying process is repeated and the mass of the drum and sample is recorded (Mass C). The slake-durability index is taken as the percentage ratio of final to initial dry sample masses after to cycles.9.9.
Figure 3. and is dried to a constant mass at 105°C. usually tap water at 20°C. B−D × 100% A− D Table 3. The mass of the drum and sample is recorded after cooling (Mass B).solid removable lid and fixed base. to a level 20 mm below the drum axis. The drum and sample are removed from trough and oven dried to a constant mass at 105°C without the lid. C−D Slake-durability index. The drum is brushed clean and its mass is recorded (Mass D).12a).9.12a Slake Durability Classification =
.12a Slake durability test.
AE occurs when a small surface displacement of a material is produced. in methods used to stimulate and capture AE in a controlled fashion for study and/or use in inspection.Special Note AE Activity in rocks under compression
The term acoustic emission (AE) is widely used to denote the phenomenon in which a material or structure emits elastic waves of shock type and sometimes of continuous type caused by the sudden occurrence of fractures or frictional sliding along discontinuous surfaces. of practical interest. such as mechanical loading. process monitoring and others. quality control. The wave generated by the AE source. generate sources of elastic waves. typically takes place between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. or on its surface. system feedback. The application of AE to nondestructive testing of materials in the ultrasonic regime. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a naturally occurring phenomenon whereby external stimuli. This occurs due to stress waves generated when there is a rapid release of energy in a material. and temporal variations of strain ( ε ) and the frequency (n) of AE events in these cases
Figure Two fundamental cases of stress application (a) and (b). or.
Figure Temporal variations of number of AE events and axial strain ( ε 1 ), lateral strain ∆V ( ε θ ) and non-elastic volumetric strain ( V ne
CHAPTER 6 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION
Rock mass property is governed by the properties of intact rock materials and of the discontinuities in the rock. The behaviour if rock mass is also influenced by the conditions the rock mass is subjected to, primarily the in situ stress and groundwater. The quality of a rock mass quality can be quantified by means of rock mass classifications. This Chapter addresses rock mass properties and rock mass classifications. 6.1 Rock Mass Properties and Quality 6.1.1 Properties Governing Rock Mass Behaviour Rock mass is a matrix consisting of rock material and rock discontinuities. As discussed early, rock discontinuity that distributed extensively in a rock mass is predominantly joints. Faults, bedding planes and dyke intrusions are localised features and therefore are dealt individually. Properties of rock mass therefore are governed by the parameters of rock joints and rock material, as well as boundary conditions, as listed in Table 6.1.1a. Table 6.1.1a Prime parameters governing rock mass property
The behaviour of rock changes from continuous elastic of intact rock materials to discontinues running of highly fractured rock masses. The existence of rock joints and other discontinuities plays important role in governing the behaviour and properties of the rock mass, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.1a. Chapter 4 has covered the properties of intact rock materials, and Chapter 5 has dealt with rocks contains 1 or 2 localised joints with emphasis on the properties of joints. When a rock mass contains several joints, the rock mass can be treated a jointed rock mass, and sometimes also termed a Hoek-Brown rock mass, that can be described by the Hoek-Brown criterion (discussed later). 6.1.2 Classification by Rock Load Factor (Terzaghi 1946) Based in extensive experiences in steel arch supported rail tunnels in the Alps, Terzaghi (1946) classified rock mass by mean of Rock Load Factor. The rock mass is classified into 9 classes from hard and intact rock to blocky, and to squeezing rock. The concept used in this classification system is to estimate the rock load to be carried by the steel arches installed to support a tunnel, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.2a. The classification is presented by Table 6.1.2a.
Figure 6.1.2a Terzaghi’s rock load concept. For obtaining the support pressure (p) from the rock load factor (Hp), Terzaghi suggested the equation below, p = Hp γ H where γ is the unit weight of the rock mass, H is the tunnel depth or thickness of the overburden. Attempts have been made to link Rock Load Factor classification to RQD. As suggested by Deere (1970), Class I is corresponding to RQD 95-100%, Class II to RQD 90-99%, Class III to RQD 85-95%, and Class IV to RQD 75-85%. Singh and Goel (1999) gave the following comments to the Rock Load Factor classification: (a) It provides reasonable support pressure estimates for small tunnels with diameter up to 6 metres. It gives over-estimates for large tunnels with diameter above 6 metres. The estimated support pressure has a wide range for squeezing and swelling rock conditions for a meaningful application.
6.1.3 Classification by Active Span and Stand-Up Time (Stini 1950, Lauffer 1958) The concept of active span and stand-up time is illustrated in Figure 6.1.3a and Figure 6.1.3b. Active span is in fact the largest dimension of the unsupported tunnel section. Stand-up time is the length of time which an excavated opening with a given active span can stand without any mean of support or reinforcement. Rock classes from A to G are assigned according to the stand-up time for a given active span. Use of active span and stand-up time will be further discussed in later sections.
3b Relationship between active span and stand-up time and rock mass classes (Class A is very good and Class G is very poor) Table 6.Figure 6.2a Rock class and rock load factor classification by Terzaghi for steel arch supported tunnels
.1.1.3a Definition of active span.1.
4 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) (Deere 1964)
as an attempt to quantify rock mass quality. Originally.Rock quality designation (RQD) was introduced in 1960s. RQD partially reflects on the rock mass quality. It does not account for the strength of the rock or mechanical and other geometrical properties of the joints.1.2. As discussed earlier. RQD only represents the degree of fracturing of the rock mass.2a reproduces the proposed expression of rock mass quality classification according to RQD. this geomechanics classification system incorporated eight parameters. Condition of joints: Condition includes joint aperture. and presence of infilling. point load index is acceptable.2 Rock Mass Rating – RMR System 6. The RMR system in use now incorporates five basic parameters below. Part A of the table shows the RMR classification with the above 5 parameters. Table 6. Therefore. Spacing of joints: Average spacing of all rock discontinuities is used.1. (a) Strength of intact rock material: Uniaxial compressive strength is preferred. RQD: RQD is used as described before. 6. including the RMR and the Q systems.1a is the RMR classification updated in 1989.1 Concept of RMR System (1973. For rock of moderate to high strength.
(b) (c) (d)
Table 6.2a Rock mass quality classification according to RQD
RQD has been widely accepted as a measure of fracturing degree of the rock mass. Individual rate for each parameter is
. His parameter has been used in the rock mass classification systems. roughness. Table 6. 1989) The rock mass rating (RMR) system is a rock mass quality classification developed by South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Groundwater conditions: It is to account for groundwater inflow in excavation stability. close associated with excavation for the mining industry (Bieniawski 1973).2. joint surface weathering and alteration. persistence.
obtained from the property of each parameter. for example. as shown in Table 6.2.1b Rock mass classes determined from total ratings and meaning
Table 6. The table also gives the meaning of rock mass classes in terms of stand-up time. The weight of each parameter has already considered in the rating. This correlation allow engineer to estimate the stand-up time for a given span and a given rock mass. Influence of joint orientation on the stability of excavation is considered in Part B of the same table. maximum rating for joint condition is 30 while for rock strength is 15.1a. RMR was applied to correlate with excavated active span and stand-up time. a final RMR rating is obtained. With adjustment made to account for joint orientation. as shown in Figure 6. equivalent rock mass cohesion and friction angle. it can be also expresses in rock mass class.2.1b.2. Explanation of the descriptive terms used is given table Part C. The overall basic RMR rate is the sum of individual rates.
the excavation surface is wet but not dripping.1a Stand-up time and RMR quality
6. Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below:
. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough.2.2 Examples of using RMR System (a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. average joint spacing is 0. average RQD is 88%. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa.2.24 m.Figure 6.
the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. average RQD is 41%. It falls in rock class C which indicates the rock mass is of fair quality.7) 0. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. it is possible to calculate average joint spacing.32
Joint water pressure / In situ stress
Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below:
The calculated basic RMR is 52. Joint water pressure = In situ stress = groundwater pressure = Overburden pressure = = = 70 m × γw 80 m × γ (70 × 1)/(80× 2. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground.11 m. with the equation below. filled with clay. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. (b) A sandstone rock mass. groundwater parameter is not directly given. RQD is given and from the relationship between RQD and joint frequency. and are highly weathered. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. but given in terms of groundwater pressure of 70 m water head and overburden pressure of 80 m ground. joint surfaces are slightly rough.The calculated basic RMR is 76. Here. average RQD is 70%. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. average joint spacing is 0.
. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. overburden stress is taken as the major in situ stress as an approximation. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. However. It falls in rock class B which indicates the rock mass is of good quality. joint spacing is not provided. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. In the above information. Since there is no indication of in situ stress ratio. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm.
0 Value of F1. For topping.αs|. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the RMR parameter rating.05 m Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below:
The calculated basic RMR is 34. F2 = 1. Table 6.2.e.3a. SMR value is obtained by adjust RMR value with orientation and excavation adjustments for slopes. F2 = (tan βj)2 B = joint dip angle = βj. i. It falls in rock class D which indicates the rock mass is of poor quality.1λ +1) (where λ is the mean number of discontinuities per meter) Joint frequency is estimated to be 20.. Details on rock slope analysis and engineering including excavation methods and support and stabilisation will be covered in a later chapter dealing slope engineering.3 Extension of RMR – Slope Mass Rating (SMR) The slope mass rating (SMR) is an extension of the RMR system applied to rock slope engineering. F2 and F3 are given in Table 6.RQD = 100 e–0.1λ (0.2. 6.3b gives the classification category of rock mass slope. Judgement often is needed to interpret the information given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the RMR table. SMR = RMR + (F1⋅F2⋅F3) + F4 where F1 = (1 .2.sin A)2 and A = angle between the strikes of the slope and the joint = |αj .
. which gives average joint spacing 0.
Table 6.3a Adjustment rating of F1. F3 and F4 for joints
Table 6.2.3 Rock Tunnel Quality Q-System 6.1 Concept of the Q-System The Q-system was developed as a rock tunnelling quality index by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) (Barton et al 1974). Jr is the joint roughness number
. Jn is the joint set number accounting for the number of joint sets. The system was based on evaluation of a large number of case histories of underground excavation stability. The numerical value of this index Q is defined by:
RQD is the Rock Quality Designation measuring the fracturing degree.2.3a Classification of Rock Slope according to SMT
6. and is an index for the determination of the tunnelling quality of a rock mass. F2.3.
1c. The classification system gives a Q value which indicates the rock mass quality.3.accounting for the joint surface roughness.3.1a.3. Ja is the joint alteration number indicating the degree of weathering. alteration and filling. Q value is considered as a function of only three parameters which are crude measures of: (a) (b) (c) Block size: Inter-block shear strength Active stress RQD / Jn Jr / Ja Jw / SRF
Parameters and rating of the Q system is given in Table 6.3.1b. Jw is the joint water reduction factor accounting for the problem from groundwater pressure.1a. shown in Table 6.3.
Table 6. Equivalent dimension is used in the figure and ESR is given in Table 6. Q value is applied to estimate the support measure for a tunnel of a given dimension and usage. and SRF is the stress reduction factor indicating the influence of in situ stress. as shown in Figure 6.1a Rock mass classification Q system
quantities of swelling clays
1b Rock mass quality rating according to Q values
1a Support design based on Q value
Table 6.Figure 188.8.131.52 Examples of Using the Q-System
.1c Excavation Support Ratio (ESR) for various tunnel categories
joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below:
The calculated Q-value is 29. average RQD is 70%.(a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. and the rock mass is classified as fair quality. (b) A sandstone rock mass. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. average joint spacing is 0. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa.24 m.11 m. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. average RQD is 88%. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. and the rock mass is classified as good quality. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below:
The calculated Q-value is 4. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. joint surfaces are slightly rough. filled with clay. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. and are highly weathered. average RQD is 41%. average joint spacing is 0.4.
(c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65
. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed.
The constants 20 in the σm term. The components of the QTBM are as follows:
where RQD0= RQD (%) measured in the tunnelling direction. 20 in the CLI term and 5 in the σθ term are normalising constants.3. q is the quartz content (%) in rock mineralogy. Jr. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below:
The calculated Q-value is 0.MPa. Ja. and SRF ratings are the same parameters in the original Q-system. Rock stress level is also considered. The new parameter QTBM is to estimate TBM performance during tunnelling. and σθ is the induced biaxial stress (MPa) on tunnel face in the same zone. together with the rock material strength.
. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. The abrasive or nonabrasive nature of the rock is incorporated via the cutter life index (CLI).85. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the Q parameter rating. F is the average cutter load (ton) through the same zone. Orientation of joint structure is accounted for. Jw. σm is the rock mass strength (MPa) estimated from a complicated equation including the Q-value measured in the tunnel direction. and the rock mass is classified as very poor quality. judgement is frequently needed to interpret the descriptions given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the Q table. Again. The method is based on the Q-system and average cutter force in relations to the appropriate rock mass strength. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. CLI is the cutter life index.3 Extension of Q-System – QTBM for Mechanised Tunnelling Q-system was extended to a new QTBM system for predicting penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR) for tunnelling using tunnel boring machine (TBM) in 1999 (Barton 1999). with considerable outwash of joint fillings. Jn. 6.
GSI system has been modified and updated in the recent years. In general. In the Hoek-Brown
. the GSI value does in fact reflect the rock mass quality. penetration decreases.3a. including RMR and Q. with increasing of rock mass quality. they were not selected to describe rock mass boreability. The systems were not meant for the design of excavation methodology. The use of GSI requires careful examination and understanding of engineering geological features of the rock mass. Parameters in those rock mass classifications were related to support design. Although it was not aimed at to be a rock mass classification.4. However. such as sheared zones. The direct application of GSI value is to estimate the parameters in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion for rock masses.
GSI does not include the parameter of rock strength.4 Geological Strength Index GSI System and Others 6. However. The system gives a GSI value estimated from rock mass structure and rock discontinuity surface condition. mainly to cover more complex geological features. It was aimed to estimate the reduction in rock mass strength for different geological conditions. simple block size description does not include geological structural features. as GSI was initiated to be a tool to estimate rock mass strength with the Hoek-Brown strength criterion.The experiences on the application of QTBM vary between projects. when developed.1a. such as folds and shear zones. very poor rock mass does not facilitate penetration. 6. In general. the emphasis is obviously not be justified. Example of using the QTBM is given in Figure 6. The original rock mass classifications are independent of TBM characteristics. while penetration however is a result of interaction between rock mass properties and TBM machine parameters (Zhao 2006). Rock mass structure given in the chart is general description and there may be many cases that does not directly match the description. the following equivalent between rock mass structural descriptions of blocky to the block size description is suggested below. Although QTBM has added a number of parameters to reflect cutting force and wear. were intended to classify rock mass quality to arrive a suitable support design. This system is presented in Tables 6. It appears that the correlation between QTBM and Advanced Rate is not consistent and varies with a large margin. Rock mass classification systems.2.4.1 GSI System The Geological Strength Index (GSI) was introduced by Hoek in 1994.
rock material uniaxial strength is used as a base parameter to estimate rock mass uniaxial strength as well as triaxial strengths of rock material and rock mass. based on the correlation between RMR and GSI Table 6. GSI system did not suggest a direct correlation between rock mass quality and GSI value.4. An approximate classification of rock mass quality and GSI is suggested in Table 6. The use of GSI to estimate rock mass strength is given later in the section dealing with rock mass strength. However. it is suggested that GSI can be related to RMR (GSI = RMR – 5).4.criterion.1b.1a Geological Strength Index (GSI)
. for reasonable good quality rock mass.
and Joint Surface Condition is very good.11 m.24 m. filled with clay. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. Therefore GSI is 20±5. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. Therefore GSI is 75±5. (a) Granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough.
. average RQD is 70%.4. The rock mass is classified as very poor to poor quality. with the same rock masses used previously to estimate RMR and Q. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa.Table 6. average RQD is 41%. and Joint Surface Condition is fair to poor.1b Rock mass classes determined from GSI
6. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. Therefore GSI is 40±5. joint surfaces are slightly rough. (b) A sandstone rock mass. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures.2 Examples of Using the GSI System Examples of estimating GSI is given below.4. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. and Joint Surface Condition is very poor. Refer to the GSI chart. Refer to the GSI chart. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. Rock Mass Structure for the above granite is blocky. The rock mass is classified as good to very good quality. and are highly weathered. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. Refer to the GSI chart. average joint spacing is 0. average RQD is 88%. average joint spacing is 0. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. Rock Mass Structure for the above sandstone is very blocky. Rock Mass Structure for the above siltstone is blocky /folded/ faulted. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. The rock mass is classified as fair quality. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel.
RMR and GSI Correlation between Q and RMR are found to be. Figure 6. and average of A is 44. Summary of RMR.4.
Figure 6. Q and GSI from the above three examples are given below.3a Correlation between RMR and Q values. RMR = 9 lnQ + A A varies between 26 and 62.4.3 Correlation and Comparison between Q.It is advised that while selecting an average value of GSI.4. it is perhaps better to select a range of the GSI value for that rock mass.3a shows the comparison and correlation between RMR and Q.
In section. They are all in the general form of semi-log equation. Another application of N number is to the rock squeezing condition.
. i. N = (RQD/Jn) (Jr/Ja) (Jw) This system is used because the difficult in obtaining SRF in the Q-system. For that reason. Consequently. GSI = RMR – 5 RMR is the basic RMR value by setting the Groundwater rating at 15 (dry). N Rock Mass Number (N) is the rock mass quality Q value when SRF is set at 1 (i. It should be noted that each classification uses a set of parameters that are different from other classifications. The importance of in situ stress on the stability of underground excavation is insufficiently represented in the Q-system.. the value of GSI can be related to Rock Mass Rating RMR value as. normal condition. the value of RMR is very difficult to estimate and the correlation between RMR and GSI is no longer reliable.Several other correlation equations have been proposed. SRF = 1 for σc/σ1 = 10~200.5 logQ +43. N can be computed as. Squeezing has been noted in the Q-system but is not sufficiently dealt. and without adjustment for joint orientation. 6. The use of N in squeezing rock mass classification will be presented in a later section in this chapter. stress reduction is not considered). for a rock with σc = 50 MPa.e. It has been noticed that SRF in the Q-system is not sensitive in rock engineering design. due to the special behaviour and nature of the squeezing ground. the value assign to SRF cover too great range. For generally competent rock masses with GSI > 25.e.25 to 5 MPa yield the same SRF value. a few will be briefly discussed due to their unique application in certain aspect. For very poor quality rock masses. one of which is: RMR = 13. (a) Rock Mass Number.. RMR classification should not be used for estimating the GSI values for poor quality rock masses.3 Other Classification Systems Several other classification approaches have been proposed. estimate the value of one classification from another is not advisable. in situ stresses of 0.4. For example.
namely. joint alteration and joint size.(b) Rock Mass Index. 6. Jp = 1 for a intact rock. the mechanical properties of a rock mass are also related to the quality of the rock mass.2 Hoek-Brown Strength Criterion of Rock Mass Hoek and Brown criterion discussed in Chapter 4 is not only for rock materials. joint density (or block size). RMi Rock Mass Index is proposed as an index characterising rock mass strength as a construction material. few joints and good joint surface quality) will have a higher strength and high deformation modulus than that of a poor rock mass. joint roughness. The Hoek-Brown criterion for rock mass is described by the following equation:
. In another word.1 Strength of Rock Mass As discussed earlier. and Jp is the jointing parameter accounting for 4 joint characteristics.5.5. 6. In general.2a).5. strength and deformation properties of a rock mass are much governed by the existence of joints. It is also applicable to rock masses (Figure 6. Jp is in fact a reduction factor representing the effects of jointing on the strength of rock mass.5 Rock Mass Strength and Rock Mass Quality 6. RMi = σc Jp where σc is the uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock material. It is calculated by the following equation. a rock mass of good quality (strong rock. Jp = 0 for a crushed rock masses.
i. The HoekBrown criterion for intact rock material is a special form of the generalised equation when s =1 and a = 0. Constants mb and s are parameters that changes with rock type and rock mass quality.5. Table 6. σci is consistently referred to the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material in the Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and for rock mass. Parameter a is generally equal to 0.Figure 6. For intact rock..5.5.5. σ1 is the strength of the rock mass at a confining pressure σ3.e. The equation above is the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion of rock mass. mb becomes mi.2a Applicability of Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and rock masses.
. σci is the uniaxial strength of the intact rock in the rock mass.
Note in the Hoek-Brown criterion. In the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion.2a gives an earlier suggestion of mb and s values.
.2a Relation between rock mass quality and Hoek.5.5. according to different rocks.2b presents the latest definition of mi values for the intact rock materials.Brown constants
Development and application of the Hoek-Brown criterion lead to better definition of the parameters mb and s.Table 6.
Value of a can be estimated from GSI by the following equation. the parameters which describe the rock mass strength characteristics. If triaxial tests have been conducted.5.e. rock masses of very poor quality. rock masses of good to reasonable quality.5.
For GSI > 25.
. variation of mi value for each rock can be as great as 18.2b Values of constant mi for intact rock in Hoek-Brown criterion
The values in the above table are suggestive. i. are calculated as follows. and a in the Hoek-Brown criterion is no longer equal to 0.Table 6. i. the value of mi should be calculated from the test results.
and a = 0.e.5 For GSI < 25. s = 0. Once the Geological Strength Index has been estimated. As seen from the table. the original Hoek-Brown criterion is applicable with.
with material uniaxial strength 85 MPa. when σ3 = 0.Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is the value of σ1 when σ3 is zero. (a) Granite rock mass. From the mi table. mi given for granite is approximately 32.
(b) Sandstone rock mass. Calculation in the example uses average values only. with material uniaxial strength 150 MPa. mean GSI 75.
Clearly. mean GSI 40. Q and GSI. Example of using the Hoek-Brown equation to determine rock mass strength is given below by the same three examples used for determining the rock mass qualities RMR. mi given for sandstone is approximately 17. the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock masses equal to zero.
Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is. for rock masses of very poor quality.
The Hoek-Brown equation for the granite rock mass is. From the mi table. it gives the uniaxial compressive strength as. although in practice.
. range of values should be used to give upper and lower bounds. From the Hoek-Brown criterion. when σ3 = 0.
1. RMR < 23.5. When the rock mass is very poor. the rock mass strength is close to the strength of intact rock material. mi given for siltstone is approximately 7. From the mi table.Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. Q < 0.4 Correlations between Rock Mass Quality and Mechanical Properties Correlations between rock mass strength and rock mass quality are reflected in Table 6. the rock mass has very low uniaxial compressive strength close to zero.
Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is.
(c) Siltstone rock mass. The better rock mass quality gives high rock mass strength. mean GSI 20. in the equations below.2a and the Hoek-Brown criterion relating GSI. i. or GSI < 25.5. Attempts have also been made to correlated deformation modulus of the rock mass with rock mass quality. When the rock mass is solid and massive with few joints. In situ rock mass modulus (Em) can be estimated from the Q and the RMR systems. with material uniaxial strength 65 MPa..
the line should be fitting best for the
. obviously test results should be used directly to obtain parameters c and φ. the equation is obtained by substituting GSI for RMR in the original Em-RMR equation. using for example. If a series tests have been conducted on the rock mass. if the depth and stress range is known. where c and φ can be readily calculated. the equation below has been proposed. they caution the user that is a major problem to obtain c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. It depends on the stress region of the engineering application. Attempts have been made by Hoek and Brown to estimate c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. the deformation of the intact rock pieces contributes to the overall deformation process. 6. This reduction is based upon the reasoning that the deformation of better quality rock masses is controlled by the discontinuities while. where c and φ can be readily calculated Common problems were there is no or limited test results on rock mass. Then plotting the Mohr circle using the generated σ1–σ3 data and fitting with the best linear envelope. The Em-GSI equation indicates that modulus Em is reduced progressively as the value of σci falls below 100. The suggested approach to obtain rock mass Mohr-Coulomb parameters c and φ is by generate a series σ1–σ3 results by the Hoek-Brown equation.
For rock mass with σci < 100 MPa.5. the input for a design software or numerical modelling required for rock masses are in terms of MohrCoulomb parameters c and φ. At the same time. For a tunnel problem. Care must be taken when deciding the ‘best’ linear line in fitting the Mohr circles. For poor rocks.4 Relationship between Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb Criteria There is no direct correlation between the linear Mohr-Coulomb Criterion and the nonlinear Hoek-Brown Criterion defined by the two equations.The above Em-RMR equations are generally for competent rock mass with RMR greater than 20. for poorer quality rock masses. plotting the Mohr circle and fitting with the best strength envelope. Often.
Deformation may terminate during construction or may continue over a long time period. several centimetres of tunnel closure per day for the first 1-2 weeks of excavation.1 Squeezing Phenomenon ISRM (Barla 1995) defines that squeezing of rock is the time dependent large deformation.2a. the ground condition is generally non-squeezing. 6. H < 350 Q1/3. The degree of squeezing often is classified to mild. squeezing may be identified from rock class classification Q-value and overburden thickness (H). and is essentially associated with creep caused by exceeding shear strength. Squeezing may occur at shallow depths in weak and poor rock masses such as mudstone and shale. the division between squeezing and non-squeezing condition is by a line H = 350 Q1/3. Closure rate reduces with time. where H is in metres. Squeezing condition may occur above the line. For a slope problem. by the conditions below. Usually the rate is high at initial stage. i. (i) (ii) (iii) Mild squeezing: closure Moderate squeezing: closure High squeezing: closure 1-3% of tunnel diameter. 3-5% of tunnel diameter. i..
Behaviour of rock squeezing is typically represented by rock mass squeezes plastically into the tunnel and the phenomenon is time dependent. which occurs around a tunnel and other underground openings. H > 350 Q1/3.. Also. As shown in Figure 6.
. Squeezing may continue for years in exceptional cases. and the fitting a line at low stress level (where the curvature is the greatest for the non-linear Hoek-Brown strength envelope) is very sensitive to the stress level. moderate and high. pore pressure needs to be considered as this affects the effective stress level.2 Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification Based on case studies.Mohr circles in that stress region. say.6. Rock masses of competent rock of poor rock mass quality at great depth (under high cover) may also suffer from squeezing. > 5% of tunnel diameter.6. the stress region may vary from 0 to some level of stress. Rate of squeezing depends on the degree of over-stress.6 Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass 6. 6.6. Below the line.e.e.
. From Figure 6.2b. which is the external cause of squeezing is dealt separated by considering the overburden depth.
Where H is the tunnel depth or overburden in metres and B is the tunnel span or diameter in metres. In situ stress.2a Predicting squeezing ground using Q-value Another approach predicting squeezing is by using the Rock Mass Number (N). N is the Q-value when SRF is set to be 1. the line separating non-squeezing from squeezing condition is. The parameters allow one to separate in situ stress effects from rock mass quality. As discussed in the previous section.
Mild squeezing occurs when (275 N1/3) B–0. with overburden stress P.1 Moderate squeezing occurs when (450 N1/3) B–0.1. Theoretically. P=γH.Figure 6.1.6. Px is the in situ stress in the tunnel axis direction. Squeezing may not occur in hard rocks with high values of parameter A.1 < H < (450 N1/3) B–0.1 High squeezing occurs when H > (630 N1/3) B–0. σθ > Strength = σcm + Px A/2 where σθ is the tangential stress at the tunnel opening. σcm is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass. It is also possible to characterise the degree of squeezing base on the same figure. The above equation can be written in the form below for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic in situ stress field.2b Squeezing ground condition is presented by: H > (275 N1/3) B–0.
.1 < H < (630 N1/3) B–0. and A is a rock parameter proportion to friction. squeezing conditions around a tunnel opening can occur when.
2c Squeezing prediction curve and comparison with case histories.6..2a. The prediction curve was compared with tunnel squeezing case histories.3.ISRM classifies squeezing rock mass and ground condition in Table 6.
.6. relating tunnel closure to rock mass strength/in situ stress ratio. Overburden stress can be estimated from the overburden depth and rock unit weight. GSI).2c. A prediction curve was proposed by Hoek and reproduced in Figure 6.6.2a Suggested predictions of squeezing conditions
The prediction equations for squeezing require the measurements of in situ stress and rock mass strength. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass can be estimated from the Hoek-Brown criterion with rock mass quality assessment (e.g. Table 6.6. Studies carried out by Hoek (2000) indicate that squeezing can in fact start at rock mass strength / in situ stress ratio of 0.
In situ Stress In situ stress measurements have been compiled and presented in Figure 2.2a. Change of vertical stress with depth is scattered about the tend line.5.2a In situ stress measurements at various (Brady and Brown 157). σv = 0. which represents the overburden pressure.027 z.
Depth. Z (m)
Tangential deformation of exposed surfaces 3. The physical characteristics which may be measured are: Following physical features of a rock are modified when it is subjected to the stresses induced by creation of an opening: 1. Measuring absolute movements of roof and floor ( or HW and FW) 5.The horizontal stresses are presented in the figure by a ratio of average horizontal stress to vertical stress. 2. Measuring strains in rock remote from a free surface 3. 2. Measuring strains in rock at exposed rock surface 2. Measuring convergence of roof and floor( or HW and F 4. k. It is very common in rock mechanics that one of the horizontal stresses represent the major principal stress. The horizontal stress should not be estimated. while the vertical stress or the other horizontal stress represents the minor principal stress. Measuring stresses in supporting structures
. Measurement of loads on structures for supporting ground and stresses in the supporting structures. four principal classes of measurements are of interest. 3. 4. Closure of roof and floor or closure of sides 2.While vertical stress can be estimated with reasonable reliability. These are induced by creation of an opening. inherent) stresses in rock. Deformation and restoration of slots in the rock surfaces Measurements of strains and stresses include the following: 1. Nature of sub-audible vibrations originating in rock 6. Deformation of boreholes 7. The magnitude and directions of induced (concentrated or re-aligned) stresses. In situ stress measurement Instrumentation For the development of information for the design of underground openings and their supporting structures. Measurements of pressures on mine void filling material. Changes in the modulus of elasticity of the ground 5. in situ stress measurements is required. Measurement of convergence movements of rock surfaces. Measuring pressures on mine filling materials 6. Measurement of strains in the ground surrounding an opening. The magnitude and directions of natural (pre-existing. The following stresses are important in influencing the behaviour of rock around subsurface openings: 1. Measuring ground pressures in supporting structures 7. Changes in velocity of sound waves passed through the ground 4. For projects that maximum stress direction and magnitude may be important. These are: 1.
or of walls and ribs. large changes in stress values are produced by very small changes in dimensions (strain).Measuring Strain (deformation) in rock The closure of roof and floor. is the most conspicuous phenomenon associated with underground openings and the easiest to measure. In the Strain restoration method strain gauges are fixed to the rock surface and readings are taken. These are: 1. The amount of the expansion is a function of the initial stress within the rock and of the modulus of elasticity of the rock. thus allowing the portion of rock to expand. the deformation in the rock is 0. 2. In order to measure these minute changes in dimensions of the openings it is necessary to employ instruments capable of measuring to within a few ten-thousands of a cm.000 MPa). Strain relief method Method 1: The strain gauge is cemented on the surface of the wall rock and a standard diamond drill is used to cut an annular slot in the rock around the gauges. freeing the rock surface to expand. There are two general methods for determining absolute rock strain.0005 mm. but the measuring techniques are designed to measure strains and the stresses are then computed by using the values of the rock modulus of elasticity. For example in a rock with an elastic modulus of 7 0 × 10 6 KPa (70. A groove is then cut around the location of the strain gauge.
. Thus. The modulii of elasticity of rocks ranges from 20 to 70 × 10 6 KPa. However. A flat jack is cemented into the slot and expanded by application of hydraulic pressure until the strain gauges indicate that the rock has been restored to the state of strain existing prior to cutting of the slot. such measurements do not yield information as to the stresses existing in the rock. and The strain restoration method
In the Strain relief method strain gauges are fixed to the opening walls at selected locations. The pressure in the jack is then assumed to be equal to the original pressure in the rock normal to the slot surface. The rock stresses are not measured directly. The strain relief method. The deformation in rocks is very small and therefore the determination of stresses depends on the measurement of extremely small deformations. Methods for determining the actual magnitudes of stresses within the rock involve measurements of deformation of rock blocks which are freed from the main mass and allowed to expand. A deep slot is then cut into the rock above the gauges and the rock in allowed to expand. In an elastic material a stress concentration is created near the boundary of the opening.
Maximum deformation is caused to the vertical axis of a horizontal borehole due to the vertical stress (assuming the horizontal stress is in effective).
Borehole deformation gauge
Theory and Equations Uni-axial stress
.The surface on which the gauges are mounted required careful selection and preparation. The surface is ground smooth with a hand grinding wheel. When the vertical and horizontal stress in the rock is equal there will be no differential deformation along the two axes of the borehole. Method 2 Measurement of Diametral Borehole Deformation for Stress Determination Another method for determining rock stresses is the accurate measurement of borehole horizontal and vertical axes to determine the relative deformation produced in the crosssection of the borehole by stresses in the rock. The rock surface is thoroughly dried before the gauges are cemented to the rock and dried with a hear lamp after gauges are cemented in place. Strain gauges are sealed with waterproof mastic to protect them against moisture.
The deformation of the hole in a uni-axial stress and in plan stress is given by
U= dS (1) (1 + 2 cos 2θ ) E = deformation of hole (change in length of a diameter) = radius of hole = diameter of hole = 2a = perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) = angle (counterclockwise) from S to r = modulus of elasticity
U a d S. The deformation versus the angle θ for one quadrant of the hole ( θ = 00 to θ = 900) is plotted in the figure below
. the deformation is in the direction of the applied uniaxial stress. T
Figure Schematic representation of biaxial stress acting across a borehole When θ = 00. the hole (at the point) is expanding. as the stress increases. the deformation is U= U =− dS E
And the minus sign signifies that. and equation 1 reduces to
3dS E 0 When θ = 90 .
Figure Borehole deformation gauge
Deformation (arbitrary units)
2 1 0 -1 15 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Angle ( in degrees)
Figure Sectional View of a borehole deformation gauge
the deformation is related to the biaxial stresses S and T by
U= d [( S + T ) + 2( S − T ) cos 2θ ] E d (3S − T ) E d (3T − S ) E
When θ = 00.
When θ = 900.Bi-axial stress For bi-axial stress field and plane stress. The equations for these conditions will be
If the deformation is measured across three different diameters and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are known. the magnitude and direction of the stresses S and T can be computed.
to accommodate a flat jack. And best results were obtained when the measuring points were placed within a distance equal to about two-thirds the length of the flat-jack. . It has been reported from extensive experimentation with this system that the pressure required to restore the original strain with the locations of the measuring points relative to the slot. U2. as shown in the figure. In practice when a flat jack 70cm long and 70cm wide was used the distance A-B was made about 30cm. U3 a d S. It has been shown that the borehole deformation in a biaxial stress field is related to the magnitude and direction of the applied stresses in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the hole by the following equations:
S +T = E (U 1 + U 2 + U 3 ) 3d
1 2E [(U 1 − U 2 ) 2 + (U 2 − U 3 ) 2 + (U 3 − U 1 ) 2 ] 2 6d
S −T =
tan 2θ =
3 (U 3 − U 2 ) 2U 1 − U 2 − U 3
Where U1. U is +ve for increase in the diameter radius of hole diameter of hole = 2a perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) angle (counterclockwise) from S to U1 modulus of elasticity
= = = = =
Strain restoration methods
In this method a slot is cut. Hydraulic pressure is applied to the flat jack until measurements show that the distance between points A and B has been restored to its original dimension. The measuring points A-Bare established prior to cutting slot and the distance between the points is accurately determined.In this investigation rock stress was determined by measuring the deformation (change in diameter) of a borehole before and after the hole was stress-relieved. T = borehole deformation at a 600 separation (600 deformation rosette) in cm. The pressure in the flat jack is then a function of the original pressure in the rock before the slot was cut. The flat jack is then placed in the slot and cemented tightly in place with quick-setting cement mortar.
Because of the difficulty in cutting deep flatjack slots the method is restricted to near-surface measurements.
Stress measurement using a flatjack
Modified Flakjack method
.Flat jack method does not require any knowledge of the elastic properties of the rock and hence it is considered to be a true stress measuring method.
Figure roof sag measuring station
. and some kind of micrometer or dial gauge. Multipoint extensometers installed in boreholes have been used to detect roof movements.Measurement of Rock Movement/deformation Convergence Measurement The mechanically simplest deformation measuring devices are deformeters. such as a vernier scale. consisting of a top and bottom anchor. This class of instruments consists of a length-sensing device. have been used for decades in metal mines Figure. also called extensometers. micrometer. of which convergence gagues are special types. dial gauge. Mechanical extensometers. steel wire or rigid tubing.
Figure Axial deformation gauges
Figure dial gauge deformeter
This type of instrument consist of an anchor device mounted on the mine roof and floor and connected by a ridged bar or a metal wire. Model SME 248. characteristics of the country rock. position and rate of movement of rock surrounding an excavation. Movement is indicated by coloured reflective bands on the indicator.
. Each wire will be attached with steel scale of different colour for identification of the anchor height. When the bed/roof separation is taking place the reading will change in the respective scale. The essential features of an extensometer installation are a stable reference anchor position at the far end of the borehole. which are progressively covered as movement develops. is an indication of the magnitude of the pressure on the rock above the opening. a borehole mouth anchor at the tunnel wall and a means of indicating or measuring change in distance between them. The steel wire will be attached with each anchor before pushing of anchors. Measurement of convergence may be useful in predicting the imminence of failure of roof or floor rock. The amount of strain depends upon several factors. After installation of all the anchors the reference head will be installed leaving all the scales hanging freely. etc.has four/six spider type strong leaf spring anchors (Above figure). In mining a simple extensometer such as this is known as a “telltale” because it gives a visual indication of roof movement.The relative amount of closure between roof and floor. The steel wire will be brought to the down surface of roof. or between HW and FW. The relative movement of the anchor points is measured with either mechanical or electromechanical devices. Telltale extensometer is a very simple and general design to measure deformation in the roof of coal mines at 4 or 6 different points up to 6 meter height. Convergence Measurement Monitoring technology and techniques to provide early warning of hazardous roof fall conditions have been a longstanding goal for safety engineers and practitioners working in the mining sector. the amount and quality of filling material. Extensometers are used to determine the magnitude. such as the amount of ground which is open. Extensometers are installed into boreholes. These anchors will be installed in a 42 mm hole at four different heights with the help of installation tool. Roof-to-floor convergence monitors are perhaps the oldest and most common method of measuring roof deflection as a means to detect roof rock instabilities.
The simplest form of extensometer makes use of a stainless steel spring reference anchor with a tube indicator attached to it by stainless steel wire and visible at the hole mouth.
Figure Evolution of Dual height Telltale
It measures the reverberation decay rate of a surface when struck with a hammer.Here roof movement is converted to rotation of a pointer around a dial. They typically have pairs of diametrically opposed resistance strain gauges. and for the detection of voids behind tunnel linings. Loads in support systems and linings The load distribution in rockbolts and cablebolts is an important support design parameter. The most common form of telltale is the dual-height version. The AEM is a hand held device comprising an integral geophone and readout unit. Instruments installed in two coal mine shaft linings were found to be still returning consistent readings twenty five years later. This has the advantage that small roof movements can be easily read even when the tunnel height approaches 5m (Figure above). British Coal began producing strain gauged bolts for this purpose in 1990. Support system and lining condition Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) is a simple nondestructive testing device for checking the ‘looseness’ of exposed rock surfaces in tunnels. allowing calculation and display of mean and bending strains. To date RMT have manufactured around 4000 strain gauged rockbolts. The device is installed at the same time as the rockbolts into a 5m long roof hole of 27mm-35mm diameter. an underground wastewater plant in Finland and the Joskin tunnel in the UK.
Figure Strain gauged rock bolts
. but one which is difficult to measure. which are encapsulated multi-wire steel strands. supplied to mine and tunnel projects in seven countries. The technology has recently been extended to include flexible bolts. Examples of recent civil engineering use of the instrument include a steel lined water tunnel in the UK where voids behind the 45mm thick lining were detected. This was developed and patented by British Coal in 1992 as a safety device for coal mine tunnels where rockbolts were being introduced as support. where areas of detached shotcrete lining were delineated.
the width and depth of the breakout have been measured as a basis for estimating the stresses. Haimson and Song. the orientations of in situ stresses. They can therefore often provide a reliable indication of the orientations of in situ stress fields. 1985. 1993. Haimson and Herrick (1986) found that the depth and circumferential extent of the completed breakout were directly proportional to the state of stress normal to the borehole axis. Lee and Haimson. and relative or comparative values of stress. In these attempts. This phenomenon refers to the stress induced failure that occurs on the walls of a borehole resulting in spalling or sloughing of material from the borehole wall as shown in Figure 7. more particularly. It is commonly observed in deep boreholes.
. Borehole breakouts (dog earing) “Borehole breakout” is the more widely used term for what is known in South African mining as “dog earing”. 1993). This is due to the fact that breakout mechanisms will be different for different types of rock. etc).
Figure 7 Example of stress induced sloughing of material from a borehole wall The locations of the breakouts on diagonally opposite sides of the borehole are usually aligned with the orientations of the secondary principal stresses acting in the plane normal to the borehole axis. temperature. Whilst this approach may have some potential for estimating indicative values of stress. drilling. Attempts have been made to use breakout data to estimate the magnitudes of in situ stresses (Zoback et al. Zoback et al 1986.Observational methods of in situ stress determination or estimation Observations of the behaviour of openings or holes made in stressed rock can provide very valuable indications of the magnitudes and. and extents of breakout will vary depending on rock properties and in situ conditions (water. it is unlikely that it will be successful in the adequate quantification of stress magnitudes.
The thinner are the discs the higher is the stress level. the type and technique of drilling. 1982). the two secondary principal stresses normal to the core axis will be approximately equal. Lack of symmetry of the discing. indicates that there is a shear stress acting the borehole axis that the axis is not in a principal stress direction. The direction defined by a line drawn between the peaks of the disc surfaces facing in the original drilling direction indicates the orientation of the minor secondary principal stress. including the drill thrust. If the discs are symmetrical about the core axis. then it is probable that the hole has been drilled approximately along the orientation of one of the principal stresses. as shown in Figure 8. If the discs are uniform in thickness as shown in Figure 8. However. It is therefore unlikely that observation and measurements of discing will be successful in quantifying the magnitudes of in situ stresses. the shape and symmetry of the discs can give a good indication of in situ stress orientations (Dyke. In addition. can significantly affect the occurrence of discing (Kutter. In brittle rocks it has been observed that discing and breakouts usually occur over the corresponding lengths of core and borehole. Nevertheless. 1991). the formation of discs depends significantly on the properties of the rock and the magnitude of the stress in the borehole axial direction (Stacey. 1989). as shown in Figure 10.Core discing Core discing appears to be closely associated with the formation of borehole breakouts. the core circumference will peak and trough as shown in Figure 9. A measure of the inclination of a principal stress to the borehole axis can be gauged from the relative asymmetry of the disc.
Figure 8 Core discs symmetrical with respect to the core axis
. For unequal stresses normal to the core axis.
Orientation of the minor secondary principal stress
Figure 9 Core discs resulting with unequal stresses normal to the core axis
Non-symmetrical cores discing. Dog earring in bored excavations can be equally pronounced as in boreholes. the dog earring in the tunnel in Figure 12 shows that the major secondary principal stress is inclined at about 120 to the horizontal. the maximum stress in the plane perpendicular to the tunnel axis) is vertical at this location.
.e. Similarly. This shows that the major secondary principal stress normal to the tunnel axis (i. and observations of the behaviour of the walls of the excavations in response to the in situ stresses can provide very valuable indications of the in situ stress field. indicating that the core axis is not a principal stress direction
Observations of failures in excavations Excavations can be considered as large boreholes. Figure 11 shows a classic dog ear in the sidewall of a 5 m diameter tunnel.
The application of the method is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 14. 1983.
. Although hydraulic fracturing had been used previously for other purposes such as borehole stimulation for increasing the yield of water supply or dewatering boreholes. Zoback et al. until the hydraulic pressure causes the rock to fracture. The orientation of the induced fracture is measured using a borehole television camera or a special impression packer to obtain a physical record of the surface of the borehole.3.1 Hydraulic fracturing Conventional hydraulic fracturing involves the pressurizing of a short length of borehole. 1993). Vertical boreholes are usually used and it is assumed that the in situ principal stresses are vertical and horizontal. 1983) and Zoback (Zoback et al. 1980. From all these data the orientations of the secondary principal stresses normal to the axis of the borehole can be interpreted. The method involves the pressurization of a length of borehole and the measurement of the pressure required to fracture the rock or reopen existing fractures. Scheidegger (1962) and Fairhurst (1964) were the first to suggest its use for the determination of in situ stresses. It has been widely used in the oil well industry. 1986) played a major role in developing and promoting the use of the hydraulic fracturing technique. Cornet (1993a). The characteristics of the pressure induced breakdown and the subsequent reopening of the fracture under repressurisation are monitored carefully. Haimson (1968. Rummel (Rummel. Rummel et al.Figure 11 Dog earing (photograph provided by Dr C D Martin) Hydraulic Fracturing for In situ Stress measurement Hydraulic fracturing is now a well established method for determining in situ stress magnitudes. isolated using hydraulic packers on either side of it. 1987. 1977. 4. 1977. Zoback et al.
The classical stress determination from hydraulic fracturing tests is generally based on a few assumption and they are: 1. A system for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in deep boreholes is illustrated in Figure 15. the shut-in pressure is equal to the stress component perpendicular to the fracture plane. it is illustrative of the sort of requirements that would be necessary for quality measurements at greenfields sites. After hydrofracturing. the pressurization occurs sufficiently fast to avoid fluid permeating into the rock and thus alter the pore pressure within the rock matrix
3.Figure 14 Hydraulic fracture applications The method requires special equipment. the borehole has to be inspected using a television camera. A simpler set-up would be applicable for in mine tests.
. and associated services and personnel. Fracture generation occurs at the location of the least tangential stress at the borehole wall and the fracture propagates perpendicular to the direction of the least principal stress 4. or a special impression of its surface taken using an impression packer. The borehole must be diamond drilled. the borehole axis is parallel to the direction of one of the principal stress components 2. to determine the orientation of the induced fracture. Since packers are inserted in the borehole to seal off the test sections. the straightness and wall quality of the borehole are important. Although this represents the full sophistication of the method. to carry out a measurement.
System for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (after Tunbridge et al. 1989)
The schematic arrangements of hydro-fracturing technique is as shown below in the figure 16
Figure 16 Schematic arrangement of hydro-frac technique
In non-porous rocks the minimum principal stress is given by the shut-in pressure. If a borehole is drilled in the vertical direction, and it is assumed that this is a principal stress direction, and that the minimum principal stress is horizontal, the major horizontal principal stress SH can be determined from the following equation: Testing Procedure A single or double straddle packers system is set (inflated) at the required depth so as to isolate a test cavity. A liquid is injected into the test cavity and its pressure raised while monitoring the quantity injected. A sudden surge of fluid accompanied by sudden drop in pressure indicates that hydrofracture of rock formation (fracture inititation or break down) has occurred. The hydrofracture continues to propagate away from the hole as fluid is injected, and is oriented normal to the least principal stress direction (Fig.17) Once the hydro-fracturing has traveled about 10 drillhole diameters, injection is stopped by shutting a valve, and the instantaneous shut-in pressure is measured. The process is repeated several times to ensure a consistent measurement of this pressure, which is equal to the minimum principal stress.
SV = γ .Z S h = PSi S H = T + 3.S h − PC T = PC − PR Where T is the tensile strength of the rock Sh and SV are the minor and major horizontal principal stress Pc is the breakdown pressure at fracture generation PR is the pressure necessary to re-open the induced fracture (T=0) PSi is the shut-in pressure to merely keep the fracture open against the normal stress acting in the fracture plane Z is the depth of the over burden and γ is the unit weight of the rock. Interpretation of hydrofracture records can require expert input if the shut-in pressure is not distinct. Interpretation of test results is not a straightforward activity, and the experience of the interpreter has some effect on the in situ stress values ultimately determined. Different interpreters may derive somewhat different results from the same set of field data. In porous rocks in particular, interpretation of hydraulic fracturing tests may be very difficult and, owing to the pore pressure, definition of the major principal stress may be doubtful. In sedimentary rocks, beds with a thickness of at least 2 to 3m are necessary for satisfactory testing to be carried out. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements have been carried out at depths in the 6km to 9km range (Amadei and Stephannson, 1997) and therefore the method is, in theory, suitable for the high stress conditions encountered in deep mines. At such high pressures, valves, tubing and packers must be of special design to be able to perform as required. In boreholes in which spalling or breakouts are occurring, there may be a risk of not being able to insert (or recover) the packers, and it may also not be possible to seal off the borehole satisfactorily. Borehole breakouts due to high stress levels may also interfere with the location of the fracture on the borehole wall, and this may lead to inaccuracy in determining stress directions.
Table 1 Test No Depth (m)
Hydrofracture Field Data Shut-in Pressure-PR MPa 15.0 19.0 12.0 15.0 27.2 42.5 33.0 T=PC-PR MPa PSi MPa
BreakDown Pressure-PC MPa Underground Borehole –Sub-level 40 1 23.5 17.2 2 21.5 28.0 3 18.5 18.2 4 12.5 18.4 5 9.5 32.4 6 4.15 45.5 7 1.95 40.6
2.2 9.0 6.2 3.4 5.2 3.0 7.6
11.5 13.0 10.0 12.0 20.5 33.5 32.0
It is clear from the above that the application of the hydraulic fracturing method is theoretically possible, but would be expensive, and demanding on services. Perhaps the most severe restriction, however, is the requirement that the borehole be drilled in the direction of one of the principal stresses. In mining situations this is usually not known and is one of the in situ stress parameters to be determined. Bibliography Dyke, C G (1989) Core discing: its potential as an indicator of principal in situ stress directions, Rock at Great depth, ed Maury & Fourmaintraux, Balkema, pp 1057-1064. Fairhurst, C (1964) Measurement of in situ rock stresses with particular reference to hydraulic fracturing, Rock Mech. & Engng Geol., Vol 2, pp 129-147. Haimson, B C and Herrick, C G (1986) Borehole breakouts – a new tool for estimating in situ stress? Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 271-280. Haimson, B C, Lee, C F and Huang, J H S (1986) High horizontal stresses at Niagara Falls, their measurement and the design of a new hydroelectric plant, Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 615-624. Haimson, B C, Lee, M, Chandler, N and Martin, D (1993) Estimating the state of stress for subhorizontal hydraulic fractures at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol 30, No 7, pp 959-964. Haimson, B and Song, I (1993) Laboratory studies of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp1047- 1056. Kutter, H (1991) Influence of drilling method on borehole breakouts and core disking, Proc. 7th Int. Cong. Int. Soc. Rock Mech., Aachen, Balkema, Vol 3, pp 1659-1664. Martin, C D and Chandler, N A (1993) Stress heterogeneity and geological structures, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp 993-999. Rummel, F (1987) Fracture mechanics approach to hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, in Fracture Mechanics of Rocks, Academic Press, London, pp 217-239. Scheidegger, A E (1962) Stress in earth’s crust as determined from hydraulic fracturing data, Geol. Bauwesen, Vol 27, pp 45-53.
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