Rock Mechanics and Ground control
Course Material For Singareni Collieries Limited (SCCLtd) Ramagundem AP
By Dr.K.U.M.Rao Professor Department of Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 721302
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Rock Mechanics as a Discipline
Rock mechanics is a discipline that uses the principles of mechanics to describe the behaviour of rocks. Here, the term of rock is in the scale of engineering. The scale is generally in the order of between a few metres to a few thousand metres. Therefore, the rock considered in rock mechanics is in fact the rock mass, which composes intact rock materials and rock discontinuities. What is so special of rock mechanics? For normal construction materials, e.g., steel and concrete, the mechanical behaviours are continuous, homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic (CHILE). Properties of the manmade materials are known and can often be controlled. For rocks, due to the existence of discontinuities, the behaviours are discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and non-linearly elastic (DIANE). Properties of the natural geomaterials are unknown and often can not be controlled. It is important to be award that in rock mechanics, rock discontinuities dominate the mechanical and engineering behaviours. The existence of discontinuity depends on the scale. The discontinuous nature and scale dependence feature is not common in other man-made materials. Rock mechanics is applied to various engineering disciplines: civil, mining, hydropower, petroleum. In civil engineering, it involves foundation, slope and tunnel. In structural engineering, the design process generally is as following: Calculate external loading imposed on the structure; Design the structure and analyse loading in structure elements; Design the structure element and select materials. In rock engineering, or geotechnical engineering, the whole process is different. Loading condition is not easily calculateable, rock engineering, being sloping cutting or underground excavation, does not impose loading, but disturbs the existing stress field of the ground and redistribute the load. Therefore, the key process in rock engineering is to understand the how the stress field is disturbed by engineering activities and how the rock is behaving (responding) to the change of boundary conditions, and yet the material does not has a characteristics controlled by man. The objectives of learning rock mechanics are: • • To understand of the mechanical behaviour of rock materials, rock discontinuities and rock masses. To be able to analyse and to determine mechanical and engineering properties of rocks for engineering applications.
CHAPTER 2 ROCK FORMATION AND ROCK MASS 2.1 Rock Formations and Types Rock is a natural geo-material. In geological term, rock is a solid substance composed of minerals, of which can consist in particulate form (soil particles) or in large form (mountains, tectonic plates, planetary cores, planets). In common term, rock is an aggregate of minerals. Rocks are formed by three main origins: igneous rocks from magma, sedimentary rock from sediments lithfication and metamorphic rocks through metamorphism. Figure 2.1.1a shows the geological process involved in the formations of various rocks. It should be noted that the processes are dynamic and continuous.
Figure 2.1.1a Rock cycle illustrating the role of various geological processes in rock formation. 2.1.3 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization. They can be formed below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks, or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from either the Earth's mantle or pre-existing rocks made molten by extreme temperature and pressure changes. Figure 2.1.1a shows the origin of magma and igneous rock through the rock cycle. As magma cools, minerals crystallize from the melt at different temperatures. The magma from which the minerals crystallize is rich in only silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium,
The combined effects of recrystallisation and re-orientation usually lead to foliation. chalk and limestone. Igneous rocks make up approximately 95% of the upper part of the Earth's crust. which account for over 90% of all igneous rocks. These are the elements which combine to form the silicate minerals.potassium. Metamorphic rocks are also formed by the intrusion of molten rock (magma) into solid rock and form particularly at the place of contact between the magma and solid rock where the temperatures are high. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface. Four basic processes are involved in the formation of a clastic sedimentary rock: weathering (erosion). Heat and pressure are the causes of metamorphism. iron. and by precipitation from solution. heat causes minerals to recrystallise. In the process atoms are exchanged between the minerals. 2. the rock undergoes profound physical and/or chemical change. transportation. The existing rock may be sedimentary rock. 2. clay.4 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is formed in three main ways – by the deposition of the weathered remains of other rocks (known as 'clastic' sedimentary rocks).5 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rock is a new rock type transformed from an existing rock type. Pressure forces some crystals to re-orient.1.1. Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by mineral assembly. The high temperatures and pressures in the depths of the Earth are the cause of the changes. conglomerate. known as regional metamorphism. shale. Sedimentary rocks include common types such as sandstone. They are formed deep beneath the Earth's surface by great stresses from rocks above and high pressures and temperatures. All rocks disintegrate slowly as a result of mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. Many complex high-temperature reactions may take place. known as contact metamorphism. but their great abundance is hidden on the Earth's surface by a relatively thin but widespread layer of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock into particles without producing changes in the chemical composition of the minerals in the rock. Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by chemical reaction. through metamorphism. Another important mechanism of metamorphism is that of chemical reactions that occur between minerals without them melting. calcium. but count for only 5% of the rock in the earth crust.1a).1. by the deposition of the results of biogenic activity. When an existing rock is subjected to heat and extreme pressure. igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock (Figure 2. and thus new minerals are formed. and magnesium minerals. deposition and compaction. which is a unique feature
. When above 200°C. and each mineral assemblage produced provides us with a clue as to the temperatures and pressures at the time of metamorphism.
Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along faults. Figure 2. which form cooling joints. Columnar jointing or columnar basalts are typical joint features by cooling.2a.2.2. rock. Joints are always in sets. Joints are the most common type of rock discontinuities. with the bands showing the colours of the minerals that formed them. Joints can also be caused by cooling of hot rock masses. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes. 2. 2. A joint set is a group of parallel joints. This causes the platy or elongated crystals of minerals.of metamorphic rocks. (ii) three sets. Joints are also formed by tectonic movement.2.
Figure 2. and hence leads to the fracturing of underlying rock. to grow with their long axes perpendicular to the direction of the force. Joints are often in sets. The largest examples are at tectonic plate boundaries. Joints can be formed due to erosion of the overlying strata exposed at the surface.2. clean fracture.1a). a rock mass can have between one to a few joint sets.2. such as mica and chlorite. Typically. but many faults occur far from active plate boundaries.1 Joints A geological joint is a generally planar fracture formed in a rock as a result of extensional stress. The removal of overlying rock results in change of stresses. Joints do not have any significant offset of strata either vertically or horizontally (Figure 2.
.2 Rock Discontinuities 2. This result in a banded.2 Faults Geologic faults are planar rock fractures which show evidence of relative movement. It occurs when a strong compressive force is applied from one direction to a recrystallizing rock. or foliated. as the spacing of joints usually is between a few centimetres and a few metres. They are generally considered as part of the rock mass.1a Typical joints seen (i) one dominant set. Since faults usually do not consist of a single. the term fault zone is used when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane.
As faults. The behaviour large scale fault and shear zones require specific investigation and analysis.4a). 2.Figure 2. Folds. Bedding plane therefore is a discontinuity separating different rocks (Figure 2.2. Small scale single faults often have the similar effects as a joint.3a).4 Bedding Planes As sedimentary rocks are formed in layers. It should be noted that fold has huge variation of features. are often associated with high degree of fracturing and relatively weak and soft rocks. but the results of folding is often reflected in the rock mass consideration.2. folds can be of the similar scale as the engineering project and hence the significance of folds on the behaviour of the rock mass must be taken into consideration. However. Bedding plane often can be fully closed and cemented. Typically this is a type of fault but it may be difficult to place a distinct fault plane into the shear zone. They are often dealt separately from the rock mass.2. or up to several kilometres wide. Folds can be commonly observed in sedimentary formation and as well as in metamorphic rocks (Figure 2. fault zone and shear zone.
. Folds are usually not considered as part of the rock mass. A shear zone is a wide zone of distributed shearing in rock. particularly intense folds. Although the folding feature may not be directly taking into account of rock mass.3 Folds The term fold is used in geology when originally flat and planar rock strata are bent as a result of tectonic force or movement. Shear zones can be only inches wide. the interfaces between layers are termed as bedding planes. Folds form under very varied conditions of stress.2. are large scale geological features. if a project is to be constructed over or close such zones.2a Faults. particularly fault zone and shear zone. 2.2.
This mass of rock. consists of rock blocks and fractures. varying from a few centimetres to a few kilometres..3.1b.
. typically seen in Figure 2. For example. Bedding planes are isolated geological features to engineering activities. For civil engineering works.1 Engineering Scale and Rock Engineering in and on rock has different scales.2. then rock in such scale is generally a mass of rock at the site.Figure 2. is the whole body of the rock in situ.3b Folds in a sedimentary formation. slopes and tunnels. e. which leads to cavities along the interface.
Figure 2. the scale of projects is usually a few ten metres to a few hundreds metres.3 Rock Material and Rock Masses 2.3a Folds in a sedimentary formation. often termed as rock mass. When such engineering scale is considered. However. It mainly creates an interface of two rock materials. foundations.3. A borehole can be typically around 8 cm while a mine can spread up to a few km. an interface between porous sandstone and limestone may lead to extensive weathering of the limestone.g. 2. some bedding planes could also become potential weathered zones and pocket of groundwater.2.
1b Typical rock masses.
.3.4a Some typical bedding planes.Figure 2.4b Some typical bedding planes.
(ii) Gives large deformation. joints. (i) Provides water flow channel and creates flow networks.
. 2.4. in the form of intact rock plates. and faults. blocks and wedges.2.1 Inhomogeneity of Rock Materials Inhomogeneity represents property varying with locations.2a).3. (iii)Alters stress distribution and orientation. blocks and wedges.4 Inhomogeneity and Anisotropy 2.3.3. interbedding and intrusion. rock mass may also include filling materials in the discontinuities and dyke and sill igneous intrusions (Figure 2.3.3 Role of Joints in Rock Mass Behaviour Rock joints change the properties and behaviour of rock mass in the following terms: (i) Cuts rock into slabs. Faults are often filled with weathered materials.4. they have relative small deformation and low permeability. Most of the engineering materials have varying degrees of inhomogeneity. Rock masses are also inhomogeneous due to the mix of rock types.2a A dyke intrusion. of various sizes. (ii) Acts as weak planes for sliding and moving. and (b) rock discontinuities that cuts through the rock. Rocks are formed by nature and exhibits great inhomogeneity. to be free to fall and move (Figure 2. It is therefore obvious that rock mass behaviour by large is governed by rock joints.2 Composition of Rock Mass A rock mass contains (a) rock material. Rock materials and discontinuities together form rockmass. varying from extremely soft clay and fractured and crushed rocks. In addition.3.2 Inhomogeneity of Rock Masses Inhomogeneity of a rock mass is primarily due to the existence of discontinuities.
Figure 2. 2.3a). 2. Because the rock materials between rock joints are intact and solid. in the forms of fractures.
4.3a Some common anisotropic rocks. have noticeable anisotropic characteristics.
Figure 2.3a. and (ii) sedimentary layer (Figure 2. Rock mass anisotropy is controlled by (i) joint set (Figure 2.3 Anisotropy Anisotropy is defined as properties are different in different direction. as seen in Figure 2..3b).
Figure 2.Anisotropy occurs in both rock materials and rock mass.4.4. Other sedimentary may not have clear anisotropy. small degree of anisotropy is possible.126.96.36.199b A Limestone rock mass with one dominating joint set. However. e. shale.
. Rock with most obvious anisotropy is slate. under the influence of formation process and pressure.4. Phyllite and schist are the other foliated metamorphic rocks that exhibit anisotropy.g.2a). (i) slate and (ii) sandstone. Some sedimentary rocks.
8. 7. The term “rock texture” refers to the arrangement of its grains. megascopic or microscopic. 5. 3. argillaceous and ferrous minerals. They are: • Quartz • Feldspar • Mica • Hornblende(Amphiboles) • Pyroxenes • Olivine • Calcite • Kaolinite. size. only about nine of them partake decisively in forming the composition of rocks. One distinguishes between coarse-texture (coarse-grained) and fine-textures rock. 2.CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF ROCK MATERIALS Rock material is the intact rock portion. Thus the texture is the appearance. Rock structure and texture affect the strength properties of the rock. and • Dolomite These minerals are glued together by four types of materials such as silicates. Specific gravity G Unit weight γ Porosity n Void ratio e Moisture content w Degree of saturation. and arrangement. calcites. A coarse-grained rock is one in which the large crystals are seen easily while the fine grained rocks need to be seen under a microscope. structure.1 Physical Properties of Rock Material The physical properties of rocks affecting design and construction in rocks are: 1. Mineralogical composition . and texture. seen on a smooth surface of a mineral aggregate. The Rocks containing quartz as the binder are known as siliceous rocks and are the strongest while the rocks with calcium and magnesium carbonates are the weakest. showing the geometrical aspects of the rock including shape. This Chapter addresses properties of rock material. S Permeability to water k
Mineralogical composition is the intrinsic property controlling the strength of the rock Although there exist more than 2000 kinds of known minerals.
. 6. 4. 3.
Density of rock material various. and often related to the porosity of the rock.1 Specific Gravity. It is sometimes defined by unit weight and specific gravity.3.800 kg/m3.81 kN/m3 = 62.4 lb/ft3) Where Wd = dry weight of the sample WS = weight of solids VV and VS = volume of voids and volume of solids V = total volume of the sample G = specific gravity e = Void ratio of the sample γ w = Unit weight of water = 9. Porosity and Water Content Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of solids to the density of water.500nd 2. Density. Void ratio (e) is the ratio of the volume of voids (VV) to the volume of solids (VS) e= VV VS
Wd γ G = ⋅γW = V 1+ e 1+ w Porosity (n) describes how densely the material is packed. Porosity therefore is a fraction between 0 and 1. V V − (WS / Gγ W ) e = n= V = V 1+ e V V 1 = S 1+ e V
γ Dry =
(The unit weight of water = 1 g/cm3 = 1 t/m3 = 9. It is the ratio of the non-solid volume (VV) to the total volume (V) of material.81 kN/m3 w = moisture content of the sample
. Most rocks have density between 2. M 1 G= S ⋅ VS ρ W (where M S = mass of solids and VS -volume of solids) Unit weight ( γ ) W V ( W is the total weight of the sample and V the total volume of the sample)
Density is a measure of mass per unit of volume.1.
01 for solid granite to up to 0. It is influenced by the specific gravity of the composition minerals and the compaction of the minerals. Density is used to estimate overburden stress. most rocks are well compacted and then have specific gravity between 2. Density and porosity often related to the strength of rock material. Porosity is one of the governing factors for the permeability. w= Ww W − WS × 100 = × 100 WS WS
Degree of saturation S is
Vw × 100 VV
Density is common physical properties. It is simply the ratio of the weight of water (Ww) to the weight (WS) of the rock material.The value is typically ranging from less than 0.8.5 to 2.5 for porous sandstone. Porosity provides the void for water to flow through in a rock material. Water content is a measure indicating the amount of water the rock material contains. A low density and high porosity rock usually has low strength. High porosity therefore naturally leads to high permeability.
Phase diagram illustrating the weights and volume relationship
. However. It may also be represented in percent terms by multiplying the fraction by 100%.
. Hardness of rock materials depends on several factors. Abrasivity is highly influenced by the amount of quartz mineral in the rock material. Cerchar and other abrasivity tests are described later. As discussed earlier. The higher quartz content gives higher abrasivity.Table 3. e.1.1.Abrasivity measures are given by several tests.1.1a gives common physical properties.1a Physical properties of fresh rock materials
3. 3.2 Hardness Hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. steel.3 Abrasivity Abrasivity measures the abrasiveness of a rock materials against other materials. including mineral composition and density.4 Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of a material to transmit fluids.1. Most rocks. including density and porosity of rock materials. metamorphic and chemical sedimentary rocks. It is an important measure for estimate wear of rock drilling and boring equipment. Table 3. 3. generally have very low permeability.1. including igneous.g. permeability of rock material is governed by porosity. Porous rocks such as sandstones usually have high permeability while granites
. A typical measure is the Schmidt rebound hardness number.
so the wave will partially travel through void (air or water) and the velocity will be reduced (P-wave velocities in air and in water are 340 and 1500 m/s respectively and are much lower than that in solid). P wave velocity measures the travel speed of longitudinal (primary) wave in the material.5 Wave Velocity Measurements of wave are often done by using P wave and sometimes. Permeability of rock materials. The complete stressstrain curve can be divided into 6 sections. Permeability of rock fractures is discussed later. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock material. For a poorly compact rock material. flow is concentrated in fractures in the rock mass.1a. Figure 4.1b and Figure 3.
.1 Compressive Strength Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed compressive forces.have low permeability.1a presents a typical stress-strain curve of a rock under uniaxial compression. Wave velocities are also commonly used to assess the degree of rock mass fracturing at large scale. while S-wave velocity measures the travel speed of shear (secondary) wave in the material. The most common measure of compressive strength is the uniaxial compressive strength or unconfined compressive strength. using the same principle. S waves. used in design. the grains are not in good contact.2. except for those porous one.1. The velocity measurements provide correlation to physical properties in terms of compaction degree of the material. 3. A well compacted rock has generally high velocity as the grains are all in good contact and wave are traveling through the solid. Usually compressive strength of rock is defined by the ultimate stress.2 Mechanical Properties of Rock Material 3. has limited interests as in the rock mass. Figure 3. Typical values of P and S wave velocities of some rocks are given in Table 3. and it will be discussed in a later chapter.1. 3. represent 6 stages that the rock material is undergoing.2.1c show the states of rock in those stages of compression.2.2. analysis and modeling.
Micro-cracks are likely initiated at the later portion of this stage. The Poisson's ratio. Stage IV – The rock is undergone a rapid acceleration of microcracking events and volume increase. This initial non-linearity is more obvious in weaker and more porous rocks. in addition to deformation. The upper boundary of the stage is the point of maximum compaction and zero volume change and occurs at about 80% peak strength. The rock is primarily undergoing elastic deformation with minimum cracking inside the material. The axial stress-strain curve is nearlinear and is nearly recoverable. The specimen is undergone strain softening (failure)
. tends to be low. both axially and laterally. Stage II – The rock basically has a linearly elastic behaviour with linear stress-strain curves.depending on the strength of the rock.1a Typical uniaxial compression stress-strain curve of rock material. even though the internal structure is highly disrupt. pre-existing microcracks or pore orientated at large angles to the applied stress is closing. Microcrack propagation occurs in a stable manner during this stage and that microcracking events occur independently of each other and are distributed throughout the specimen. In this stage the crack arrays fork and coalesce into macrocracks or fractures. Stage I – The rock is initially stressed. but is still intact. The spreading of microcracks is no longer independent and clusters of cracks in the zones of highest stress tend to coalesce and start to form tensile fractures or shear planes .1c Samples of rock material under uniaxial compression test and failure. particularly in stiffer unconfined rocks. the stress-strain is largely recoverable.2.
Figure 3. of about 35-40% peak strength.2.Figure 3. There is a slight increase in lateral strain due to dilation. This causes an initial non-linearity of the axial stress-strain curve. At this stage. as the there is little permanent damage of the micro-structure of the rock material. Stage V – The rock has passed peak stress. Stage III – The rock behaves near-linear elastic.
The rock is covered by overburden materials. we often are interested in the rock at depth. This in turn will lead to zones of concentrated strain or shear planes. at peak stress the test specimen starts to become weaker with increasing strain. i. and is subjected to lateral stresses. The compressive strength with lateral pressures is called triaxial compressive strength. The axial stress or force acting on the specimen tends to fall to a constant residual strength value. In underground excavation. Compressive strength with lateral pressures is higher than that without.
Figure 3. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve obtained during compressional or tensile tests conducted on a rock sample.e.. It is defined as the ratio. of the rate of change of stress with strain.2. Figure 3.deformation.2.
.1d shows the results of a series triaxial compression tests. Secondary fractures may occur due to differential shearing. equivalent to the frictional resistance of the sliding blocks.1d Triaxial compression test and failure 3. Typical strengths and modulus of common rocks are given in Table 3.2. In addition to the significant increase of strength with confining pressure. for small strains. Discussion on the influence of confining pressure to the mechanical characteristics is given in a later section.2.1a. Stage VI – The rock has essentially parted to form a series of blocks rather than an intact structure. the stress-strain characteristics also changed. Thus further strain will be concentrated on weaker elements of the rock which have already been subjected to strain.2 Young's Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio Young's Modulus is modulus of elasticity measuring of the stiffness of a rock material. These blocks slide across each other and the predominant deformation mechanism is friction between the sliding blocks.
1a Mechanical properties of rock materials. Strain at failure sometimes is used as a measure of brittleness of the rock. Young’s Modulus can be as high as 100 GPa. For most rocks. Poisson’s ratio measures the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain. Strain at failure is the strain measured at ultimate stress. behave ductile. A few soft rocks. behave brittle under uniaxial compression.2. such as shale and mudstone. Most rocks.
. typically crystalline rocks. could have relatively high strain at failure.2. the Poisson’s ratio is between 0. Strain at failure increases with increasing confining pressure under triaxial compression conditions.2. at linearly-elastic region. as shown in Figure 3.3 Stress-Strain at and after Peak A complete stress-strain curve for a rock specimen in uniaxial compression test can be obtained.4. As seen from the tests that at later stage of loading beyond. mainly of sedimentary origin.
Similar to strength. beyond the linearly elastic region the increase in lateral strain is faster than the axial strain and hence indicates a higher ratio. metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.Table 3. Rocks can have brittle or ductile behaviour after peak.3a. Young’s Modulus of rock materials varies widely with rock type. For extremely hard and strong rocks. that is. while soft rock.15 and 0. have low strain at failure. 3.2 to 0. Rocks generally fail at a small strain.4% under uniaxial compression. Brittle rocks. including all crystalline igneous. typically around 0.
4a Stress and failure of Brazilian tensile tests by RFPA simulation. Direct test is not commonly performed due to the difficulty in sample preparation. Rock material generally has a low tensile strength. Internal friction is caused by contact between particles.
Figure 188.8.131.52. Brazilian test and flexure test. The existence of microcracks may also be the cause of rock failing suddenly in tension with a small strain. The most common tensile strength determination is by the Brazilian tests.e. 3.4a illustrates the failure mechanism of the Brazilian tensile tests. Tensile strength of rock materials can be obtained from several types of tensile tests: direct tensile test.5 Shear Strength Shear strength is used to describe the strength of rock materials.2. φ.3a Complete stress-strain curves of several rocks showing post peak behaviour (Brady and Brown).2.4 Tensile Strength Tensile strength of rock material is normally defined by the ultimate strength in tension. i.
. Cohesion is a measure of internal bonding of the rock material. Different rocks have different cohesions and different friction angles.Figure 3. The low tensile strength is due to the existence of microcracks in the rock. maximum tensile stress the rock material can withstand. 3. Rock resists shear stress by two internal mechanisms. to resist deformation due to shear stress. cohesion and internal friction. Figure 3.. and is defined by the internal friction angle.
granite and quartzite.1a illustrates a number of important features of the behaviour of rock in triaxial compression. Tensile and shear strengths are important as rock fails mostly in tension and in shearing. In practice. as shown in Figure 3.g. remain brittle at room temperature at confining pressures of up to 1000 MPa or more. (a) (b) the peak strength increases. Rocks generally have high compressive strength so failure in pure compression is not common. In general. 3. there is a transition from typically brittle to fully ductile behaviour with the introduction of plastic mechanism of deformation. e.1 Effects of Confining Pressure Figure 4.. igneous and high grade metamorphic rocks. With a series of triaxial tests conducted at different confining pressures.Shear strength of rock material can be determined by direct shear test and by triaxial compression tests. the region incorporating the peak of the axial stress-axial strain curve flattens and widens. This brittle-ductile transition pressure varies with rock type.3 Effects of Confining and Pore Water Pressures on Strength and Deformation 3.
. even the loading may appears to be compression.
The confining pressure that causes the post-peak reduction in strength disappears and the behaviour becomes fully ductile (48.3. It shows that with increasing confining pressure. the post-peak drop in stress to the residual strength reduces and disappears at high confining stress. peak stresses (σ1) are obtained at various lateral stresses (σ3). is known as the brittle-ductile transition pressure.3 MPa in the figure).2.
Figure 3. the later methods is widely used and accepted.2.5a Determination of shear strength by triaxial tests.5a.3. the shear envelope is defined which gives the cohesion and internal friction angle. By plotting Mohr circles.
In this case.Figure 3.
Figure 3. A series of triaxial compression tests was carried out on a limestone with a constant confining pressure of 69 MPa. Effect of pore water pressure is only applicable for porous rocks where sufficient pore pressure can be developed within the materials. the classical effective stress law does not hold.3. but with various level of pore pressure (0-69 MPa). There is a transition from ductile to brittle behaviour as pore pressure is increased from 0 to 69 MPa. For low porosity rocks. 3.1a Complete axial stress-axial strain curves obtained in triaxial compression tests on Marble at various confining pressures (after Wawersik & Fairhurst 1970).2a.3.2 Effects of Pore Water Pressure The influence of pore-water pressure on the behaviour of porous rock in the triaxial compression tests is illustrated by Figure 4.3.3. mechanical response is controlled by the effective confining stress (σ3' = σ3 – u).
.2a Effect of pore pressure on the stress-strain behaviour of rock materials.
It gives the standard point load index. It is a measure of the hardness of the rock material by count the rebound degree.5. Is(50).
.1a.2 Effect of Water Content on Strength Many tests showed that the when rock materials are saturated or in wet condition. From the theory of elasticity. compressional (or longitudinal) P-wave velocity (vp) is related to the elastic modulus E s and the density (ρ) of the material as.1a Correlation between hardness. The correlation is also influenced by the density of the material. At the same time.5. the hardness index can be used to estimate uniaxial compressive strength of the rock material.4. Density. it is also used to estimate the elastic modulus of the rock material. 3. calculated from the point load at failure and the size of the specimen.
Figure 3. compared to the strength in dry condition. with size correction to an equivalent core diameter of 50 mm.3 Velocity and Modulus While seismic wave velocity gives a physical measurement of the rock material.1 Rock Hardness. The correlation between hardness and strength is shown in Figure 3. the uniaxial compressive strength is reduced.3. 4.1 Point Load Strength Index Point load test is another simple index test for rock material.5. Young’s Modulus and Strength. 3.5.5 Relationships between Physical and Mechanical Properties 3. and Strength Schmidt hammer rebound hardness is often measured during early part of field investigation.5.4 Other Engineering Properties of Rock Materials 3.
higher elastic modulus is often associated with higher strength. then Es in GPa (109 N/m2). The correlations are presented in Figure 3. Gs is in GPa. seismic Young’s modulus Es can be determined from shear modulus (Gs) and Poisson’s ratio (νs). i. Seismic Poisson’s ration νs can be determined from. seismic shear modulus Gs may be determined from shear S-wave velocity vs.
Figure 3.5.e. but should not be mistaken as the modulus under dynamic compression). and S-wave velocity vs is in km/s. It is different from the modules obtained by the uniaxial compression tests. Similarly.
. It should be noted that the correlation is not precisely linear and also depends on the rock type. when density ρ is in g/cm3. and vp in km/s.If ρ in g/cm3. There is reasonable correlation between compressive strength and elastic modulus.4 Compressive Strength and Modulus It is a general trend that a stronger rock material is also stiffer..5.4a.4a Correlation between strength and modulus.
Alternatively. Es = 2 Gs (1 + νs) 3.5. The elastic modulus estimated by this method is the sometime termed as seismic modulus (also called dynamic modulus. The value of the seismic modulus is generally slightly higher than the modulus determined from static compression tests. or perhaps on the texture of the rocks.
Refer to Figure 3.e. by combining the above three equations.
Figure 3. i.6.
In a shear stress-normal stress plot.
where c = cohesion and φ = angle of internal friction. the stresses on the failure plane a-b are the normal stress σn and shear stress τ.6.3.1 Mohr-Coulomb criterion Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion assumes that a shear failure plane is developed in the rock material.. Therefore. the Coulomb shear strength criterion τ = c + σn tanφ is represented by a straight line. the stresses developed on the failure plane are on the strength envelope. Applying the stress transformation equations or from the Mohr’s circle. a constant cohesion (c) and a normal stress-dependent frictional component. it gives:
Coulomb suggested that shear strengths of rock are made up of two parts. with an intercept c on the τ axis and an angle of φ with
. When failure occurs.6.1a.1a Stresses on failure plane a-b and representation of Mohr’s circle.6 Failure Criteria of Rock Materials 3.
and θ=¼π+½φ Then
Figure 3. the stress condition on the a-b plane meets the strength envelope. Any stress condition below the strength envelope is safe.the σn axis. If the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope shown in Figure 4.
.1b is extrapolated. the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope straight line touches (makes a tangent) to the Mohr’s circles. As seen from the Mohr’s circle. σt′. Therefore.6. the stress condition on the a-b plane satisfies the shear strength condition. the uniaxial compressive strength is related to c and φ by:
An apparent value of uniaxial tensile strength of the material is given by:
However.6. At each tangent point. For most rocks.1b Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope in terms of normal and shear stresses and principal stresses.6. and once the stress condition meet the envelope.1b. with tensile cut-off. as shown in Figure 4. As assumed. the failure plane is defined by θ. In another word. For this reason. σt′ is about 1/10 σc. failure will occur. the measured values of tensile strength are generally lower than those predicted by the above equation. a tensile cut-off is usually applied at a selected value of uniaxial tensile stress. rock failure starts with the formation of the shear failure plane a-b. This straight line is often called the strength envelope.
2a Griffith crack model for plane compression.2 Griffith strength criterion Based on the energy instability concept. so the criterion is widely used.1b.The Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope can also be shown in σ1–σ3 plots.6. 3.2a). Then. At h i h σ3.
. Assuming that the elliptical crack will propagate from the points of maximum tensile stress concentration (P in Figure 4. rock engineering deals with shallow problems and low σ3. as seen in Figure 4. it overestimates the strength. Griffith extended the theory to the case of applied compressive stresses. In most cases. due to its simplicity and popularity.6.6. Griffith obtained the following criterion for crack extension in plane compression:
Figure 3. and
g The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is only suitable for the low range of σ3. It also overestimates tensile strength.6.
6.2b Griffith envelope for crack extension in compression. This criterion can also be expressed in terms of the shear stress (τ) and normal stress (σn) acting on the plane containing the major axis of the crack: When σn = 0.3 Hoek-Brown criterion Because the classic strength theories used for other engineering materials have been found not to apply to rock over a wide range of applied compressive stress conditions. The strength envelopes given by the above equations in principal stresses and in normal and shear stresses are shown in Figure 3.6. Hoek and Brown (1980) found that the peak triaxial compressive strengths of a wide range of isotropic rock materials could be described by the following equation:
or Where m is a parameter that changes with rock type in the following general way:
. 3. When σ3 = 0. τ = 2σt. which represents the cohesion. One of the most widely used criteria is Hoek-Brown criterion for isotropic rock materials and rock masses.2b. the above equation becomes
It in fact suggests that the uniaxial compressive stress at crack extension is always eight times the uniaxial tensile strength
Figure 3.where σt is the uniaxial tensile strength of the material. a number of empirical strength criteria have been introduced for practical use.6.
7 Effects of Rock Microstructures on Mechanical Properties 3. to be discussed here.
Figure 3. such as shale and slate. with respect to the principal stress directions. transverse isotropy. are not isotropic. It is evident that the Hoek-Brown strength envelope is not a straight line. At high stress level. The peak strengths developed by transversely isotropic rocks in triaxial compression vary with the orientation of the plane of isotropy. the behaviour of those rocks is anisotropic.7.7.1a shows some measured variations in peak principal stress difference with the angle of inclination of the major principal stress to the plane of weakness.Figure 3. so it gives low strength estimate than the MohrCoulomb envelope.3a Normalized peak strength envelope for (i) granites and (ii) sandstones (after Hoek & Brown 1980).6.6. plane of weakness or foliation plane.1 Strength of rock material with Anisotropy Rocks. There are several forms of anisotropy with various degrees of complexity. or the presence of bedding or cleavage planes. but a curve. The Hoek-Brown peak strength criterion is an empirical criterion based on substantial test results on various rocks. It is however very easy to use and select parameters. Because of some preferred orientation of fabric or microstructure. the envelope curves down. 3.
. It is also extended to rock masses with the same equation.3a shows normalized Hoek-Brown peak strength envelope for some rocks. It is therefore only the simplest form of anisotropy. hence makes it is so far the only acceptable criterion for both material and mass. Figure 3.
β = inclination of the plane.7.Figure 3.1a Variation of differential stresses with the inclination angle of the plane of weakness (see Brady & Brown 1985) Analytical solution shows that principal stress difference (σ1–σ3) of a transversely isotropic specimen under triaxial compression shown in Figure 3.1a can be given by the equation below (Brady & Brown 1985):
Where: c w = cohesion of the plane of weakness.
. The minimum strength occurs when
The corresponding value of principal stress difference is. ϕ w = angle of friction of the plane.7.
plotted using the above equation. Load.3 Failure Mechanism of Rock Material under Impact and Shock Loading 3.1 Rheologic Properties of Rock Materials 3.8 Time Dependent Characteristics of Rock Materials 3.7. This in fact shows that when the rock containing an existing weakness plane that is about to become a failure plane. The load is measured by a load transducer. Uniaxial compressive strength. two axial deformations and one circumferential deformation measurements are recorded at every 25 KN interval until failure. intact rock specimens generally fail to form a shear plane at an angle about 60° to 70°. The specimen is then compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating. When the weakness plane is at an angle of 45° + ½ φw.1b Variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β. Two axial and one circumferential deformation measurement devices (LVDTs) are attached to each of the specimen.9 Laboratory Testing of Rock Materials 3. the strength is the lowest.
Figure 3.1b shows variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β. In compression tests.Figure 3.
.8.8.7. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate around 1 μm/s such that failure occurs within 5-10 minutes of loading.8. stress and strain relationship.2 Effect of Loading Rate on Rock Strength 3. the rock has the lowest strength. Fo r rock s. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the failure load. 3.1 Compression Tests (a) Uniaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. φw is about 30° to 50°. hence β is about 60° to 70°.9.
. specimen anisotropy. density and water content at time of test. modulus of elasticity. is calculated as:
slope of axial stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c slope of lateral stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c
Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Two axial and two lateral deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used). specimen dimension. mode of failure. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate arou nd 1 μm/s su ch that failu re occu rs with in 5-15 minutes of loading.
(b) Triaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding.Uniaxial compressive strength. measurement devices are attached to each of the specimen. Poisson's ratio. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress .
Figure 3.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. ν50%.3a
A typical uniaxial compression test set-up with load and strain measurements. Hoek-Franklin cell) and a desired confining stress is applied and maintained by a hydraulic pump. uniaxial compressive strength. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength.9. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. The specimen is placed in a triaxial cell (e.g. Poisson's ratio at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength. σ c is calculated as the failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. The
. The specimen is then further compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating.
is calculated as the axial failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen. Poisson's ratio. specimen anisotropy. mode of failure. Mohr's stress circle are plotted using confining stress as σ 3 and axial stress as σ 1 .9. Coulomb or Hoek and Brown) and parameters of specified failure criterion are determined. Triaxial compressive strength. 2 axial strain or deformation and 2 lateral strains or deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used) are recorded at a fixed interval until failure. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. For a group of triaxial compression tests at different confining stress level.
Figure 3. Triaxial compressive strength. modulus of elasticity. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . triaxial compressive strength.3b Triaxial compression test using Hoek cell.
. Reporting of results includes description of the rock. specimen dimension. σ 1 . Mohr's circles and failure envelope. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of triaxial compressive strength. Poisson's ratio at 50% of triaxial compressive strength is calculated with the same methods as for the uniaxial compression test. Failure envelopes (Mohr. Load. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the axial failure load. density and water content at time of test.load is measured by a load transducer. stress and strain relationship.
636 P Dt
Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Ten specimens of the same sample shall be tested. The specimen is wrapped around its periphery with one layer of the masking tape and loaded into the Brazil tensile test apparatus across its diameter.
Figure 3. The cylindrical surfaces should be free from obvious tool marks and any irregularities across the thickness. mode of failure.3. For direct tension test.9. (b) Brazilian Tensile Strength Test Cylindrical specimen of diameter approximately equals to 50 mm and thickness approximately equal to the radius is prepared. rock specimen is to be prepared in dog-bone shape with a thin middle.25°. calculation and the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio is similar to that for the uniaxial compression test. The specimen is then loaded in tension by pulling from the two ends. Deformation modulus can be measured by having strain gauges attached to the specimen.25 mm and square and parallel to within 0.5 Shear Strength Tests
. orientation of the axis of loading with respect to specimen anisotropy.9. specimen diameter (D) and specimen thickness (t) by the following formula:
σT = −
0.4 Tensile Tests (a) Direct Tension Test Direct tension tests on rock materials are not common. 3.9. due to the difficulty in specimen preparation. Loading is applied continuously at a constant rate such that failure occurs within 15-30 seconds. The tensile strength of the rock is calculated from failure load (P). End faces shall be flat to within 0. water content and degree of saturation. test duration and loading rate.4b Brazilian tensile test.
cohesion (c) and international friction angle (φ) can be determined from triaxial compression test data. De2 = D 2 for axial. a series equation can be formed for sets of σ 1 and σ 1 . For De ≠ 50 mm. The point load strength is corrected to the point load strength at equivalent core diameter of 50 mm. and the intercept at τ axis is the cohesion c. Alternatively. The line represents the shear strength envelope. 3. forming a series circles.I s
0. the size correction factor is: Is = P
D F = e 50 The corrected point load strength index I s (50 ) is calculated as:
I s (50 ) = F .45
. rock core specimen of diameter D is loaded between the point load apparatus across its diameter. Load at failure is recorded as P. In diametrical test. block and lump tests.9. The Mohr’s circle can be plotted for a series of triaxial tests results with σ 1 at different σ 3 . A straight line is draw to fit best by tangent to all the Mohr’s circles. For axial test.(a) Direct Punch Shear (b) Shear Strength Determination by Triaxial Compression Results Shear strength parameters.
Cohesion c and friction angle ‘φ’ can be computed by solving the equations. Is. is given by: for diametrical test. based on the MohrCoulomb criterion. The length/diameter ratio for the diametrical test should be greater than 1. the "equivalent core diameter".5 D to D and is loaded between the point load apparatus axially.6 Point Load Strength Index Test Point load test of rock cores can be conducted diametrically and axially. is calculated as: De where De .0. = 4A / π A = H D = minimum cross sectional area of a plane through the loading points. rock core is cut to a height between 0. as typically shown in the figure below. The angle of the line to the horizontal is the internal friction angle φ. Uncorrected point load strength.
9. The Schmidt hammer is point perpendicularly and touch the surface of rock.7 Ultrasonic wave velocity Cylindrical rock sample is prepared by cutting and lapping the ends. 3. transmitter and receiver transducers are used for sonic pulse velocity measurement.9. The reading gives directly the Schmidt hammer hardness value.9.
Figure 3. At least 20 tests should be conducted on any one rock specimen. The transmitter and the receiver are positioned at the ends of specimen and the pulse wave travel time is measured. An ultrasonic digital indicator consist a pulse generator unit. The standard Schmidt hardness number is taken when the hammer is point vertically down. If the hammer is point to horizontal and upward.7a Measuring P and S wave velocity in a rock specimen. The length is measured. Both P-wave and S-wave velocities can be measured. The hammer is released and reading on the hammer is taken.Figure 3. and to use the remaining reading for calculating the average hardness value. 3. It is suggest to omit 2 lowest and 2 highest reading.
. The velocity is calculated from dividing the length of rock sample by wave travel time.6a Point load test. correction is needed to add to the number from the hammer.9.8 Hardness (a) Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness A Schmidt hammer with rebound measurement is used for this test.
CAI = 10 −2 d
where ‘d’ is the wear flat diameter of the stylus tip in μm. The CAI value is calculated as. fitting into a holder (5). 3. which can be moved across the base of the apparatus by a hand wheel (2) that drives a screwthread of pitch 1 mm /revolution turning. It was proposed by the Laboratoire du Centre d’Etudes et Recherches des Charbonnages (Cerchar) in France. It consists of a vice for holding rock sample (1).8a Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test. The sample is placed in the test drum of 2 mm standard mesh cylinder of 100 mm long and 140 mm in diameter with
Figure 3. A steel stylus (4). loaded on the surface of the rock sample.Figure 3. To determine the CAI value the rock is slowly displaced by 10 mm with a velocity of approximately 1 mm/s.9.10 Abrasivity (a) Cerchar Abrasivity Test The Cerchar abrasivity test is an abrasive wear with pressure test . A dead weight (6) of 70 N is applied on the stylus. The abrasiveness of the rock is then obtained by measuring the resulting wear flat on the tip of the steel stylus. roughly spherical in shape with corners rounded during preparation.12 Slake Durability Test Select representative rock sample consisting of 10 lumps each of 40-60g.10a Cerchar abrasivity test West apparatus (West 1989).9.10a. Displacement of the vice (1) is measured by a scale (3). The testing apparatus is featured in Figure 3.9.
The slaking and drying process is repeated and the mass of the drum and sample is recorded (Mass C).9. to a level 20 mm below the drum axis. and is dried to a constant mass at 105°C. The drum and sample are removed from trough and oven dried to a constant mass at 105°C without the lid.9. The sample and drum is placed in trough which is filled with slaking fluid.12a Slake Durability Classification =
.12a). usually tap water at 20°C.9. B−D × 100% A− D Table 3. The mass of drum and sample is recorded (Mass A).12a Slake durability test. Slake-durability index. The drum is brushed clean and its mass is recorded (Mass D).
Figure 3. I d 2 = × 100% A− D The first cycle slake-durability index should be calculated when I d 2 is 0-10%. The slake-durability index is taken as the percentage ratio of final to initial dry sample masses after to cycles.solid removable lid and fixed base. C−D Slake-durability index. and the drum is rotated at 20 rpm for 10 minutes (Figure 3. The mass of the drum and sample is recorded after cooling (Mass B).
AE occurs when a small surface displacement of a material is produced. process monitoring and others. of practical interest. quality control. typically takes place between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. generate sources of elastic waves.
Figure Two fundamental cases of stress application (a) and (b). or. The wave generated by the AE source. The application of AE to nondestructive testing of materials in the ultrasonic regime. and temporal variations of strain ( ε ) and the frequency (n) of AE events in these cases
. or on its surface. such as mechanical loading. This occurs due to stress waves generated when there is a rapid release of energy in a material.Special Note AE Activity in rocks under compression
The term acoustic emission (AE) is widely used to denote the phenomenon in which a material or structure emits elastic waves of shock type and sometimes of continuous type caused by the sudden occurrence of fractures or frictional sliding along discontinuous surfaces. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a naturally occurring phenomenon whereby external stimuli. in methods used to stimulate and capture AE in a controlled fashion for study and/or use in inspection. system feedback.
Figure Temporal variations of number of AE events and axial strain ( ε 1 ), lateral strain ∆V ( ε θ ) and non-elastic volumetric strain ( V ne
CHAPTER 6 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION
Rock mass property is governed by the properties of intact rock materials and of the discontinuities in the rock. The behaviour if rock mass is also influenced by the conditions the rock mass is subjected to, primarily the in situ stress and groundwater. The quality of a rock mass quality can be quantified by means of rock mass classifications. This Chapter addresses rock mass properties and rock mass classifications. 6.1 Rock Mass Properties and Quality 6.1.1 Properties Governing Rock Mass Behaviour Rock mass is a matrix consisting of rock material and rock discontinuities. As discussed early, rock discontinuity that distributed extensively in a rock mass is predominantly joints. Faults, bedding planes and dyke intrusions are localised features and therefore are dealt individually. Properties of rock mass therefore are governed by the parameters of rock joints and rock material, as well as boundary conditions, as listed in Table 6.1.1a. Table 6.1.1a Prime parameters governing rock mass property
The behaviour of rock changes from continuous elastic of intact rock materials to discontinues running of highly fractured rock masses. The existence of rock joints and other discontinuities plays important role in governing the behaviour and properties of the rock mass, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.1a. Chapter 4 has covered the properties of intact rock materials, and Chapter 5 has dealt with rocks contains 1 or 2 localised joints with emphasis on the properties of joints. When a rock mass contains several joints, the rock mass can be treated a jointed rock mass, and sometimes also termed a Hoek-Brown rock mass, that can be described by the Hoek-Brown criterion (discussed later). 6.1.2 Classification by Rock Load Factor (Terzaghi 1946) Based in extensive experiences in steel arch supported rail tunnels in the Alps, Terzaghi (1946) classified rock mass by mean of Rock Load Factor. The rock mass is classified into 9 classes from hard and intact rock to blocky, and to squeezing rock. The concept used in this classification system is to estimate the rock load to be carried by the steel arches installed to support a tunnel, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.2a. The classification is presented by Table 6.1.2a.
Figure 6.1.2a Terzaghi’s rock load concept. For obtaining the support pressure (p) from the rock load factor (Hp), Terzaghi suggested the equation below, p = Hp γ H where γ is the unit weight of the rock mass, H is the tunnel depth or thickness of the overburden. Attempts have been made to link Rock Load Factor classification to RQD. As suggested by Deere (1970), Class I is corresponding to RQD 95-100%, Class II to RQD 90-99%, Class III to RQD 85-95%, and Class IV to RQD 75-85%. Singh and Goel (1999) gave the following comments to the Rock Load Factor classification: (a) It provides reasonable support pressure estimates for small tunnels with diameter up to 6 metres. It gives over-estimates for large tunnels with diameter above 6 metres. The estimated support pressure has a wide range for squeezing and swelling rock conditions for a meaningful application.
6.1.3 Classification by Active Span and Stand-Up Time (Stini 1950, Lauffer 1958) The concept of active span and stand-up time is illustrated in Figure 6.1.3a and Figure 6.1.3b. Active span is in fact the largest dimension of the unsupported tunnel section. Stand-up time is the length of time which an excavated opening with a given active span can stand without any mean of support or reinforcement. Rock classes from A to G are assigned according to the stand-up time for a given active span. Use of active span and stand-up time will be further discussed in later sections.
1.1.2a Rock class and rock load factor classification by Terzaghi for steel arch supported tunnels
Figure 6.Figure 6.3a Definition of active span.3b Relationship between active span and stand-up time and rock mass classes (Class A is very good and Class G is very poor) Table 6.
4 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) (Deere 1964)
as an attempt to quantify rock mass quality. this geomechanics classification system incorporated eight parameters. RQD only represents the degree of fracturing of the rock mass.2 Rock Mass Rating – RMR System 6. Originally. Table 6. His parameter has been used in the rock mass classification systems. point load index is acceptable.1 Concept of RMR System (1973.1.1a is the RMR classification updated in 1989. roughness. For rock of moderate to high strength. Spacing of joints: Average spacing of all rock discontinuities is used. Table 6.2a Rock mass quality classification according to RQD
RQD has been widely accepted as a measure of fracturing degree of the rock mass. RQD: RQD is used as described before. 1989) The rock mass rating (RMR) system is a rock mass quality classification developed by South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). RQD partially reflects on the rock mass quality. Individual rate for each parameter is
. As discussed earlier. It does not account for the strength of the rock or mechanical and other geometrical properties of the joints. and presence of infilling. persistence.Rock quality designation (RQD) was introduced in 1960s. Condition of joints: Condition includes joint aperture.2. The RMR system in use now incorporates five basic parameters below. including the RMR and the Q systems. Groundwater conditions: It is to account for groundwater inflow in excavation stability. joint surface weathering and alteration. (a) Strength of intact rock material: Uniaxial compressive strength is preferred. Part A of the table shows the RMR classification with the above 5 parameters.2. Therefore.2a reproduces the proposed expression of rock mass quality classification according to RQD. 6. close associated with excavation for the mining industry (Bieniawski 1973).1.
(b) (c) (d)
a final RMR rating is obtained.1b Rock mass classes determined from total ratings and meaning
. Influence of joint orientation on the stability of excavation is considered in Part B of the same table.obtained from the property of each parameter.2. The weight of each parameter has already considered in the rating. With adjustment made to account for joint orientation. as shown in Figure 6.2. Explanation of the descriptive terms used is given table Part C. RMR was applied to correlate with excavated active span and stand-up time. The overall basic RMR rate is the sum of individual rates. equivalent rock mass cohesion and friction angle. maximum rating for joint condition is 30 while for rock strength is 15.1b. as shown in Table 6. for example. This correlation allow engineer to estimate the stand-up time for a given span and a given rock mass.2. it can be also expresses in rock mass class.1a.
Table 6. The table also gives the meaning of rock mass classes in terms of stand-up time.
average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough.24 m. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected.2.1a Stand-up time and RMR quality
6.Figure 6.2. average joint spacing is 0. average RQD is 88%. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed.2 Examples of using RMR System (a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below:
. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping.
However. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. joint surfaces are slightly rough. filled with clay. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel.
. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. Since there is no indication of in situ stress ratio. average joint spacing is 0. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. groundwater parameter is not directly given. It falls in rock class B which indicates the rock mass is of good quality. overburden stress is taken as the major in situ stress as an approximation. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. joint spacing is not provided.32
Joint water pressure / In situ stress
Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below:
The calculated basic RMR is 52.The calculated basic RMR is 76. but given in terms of groundwater pressure of 70 m water head and overburden pressure of 80 m ground. (b) A sandstone rock mass. with the equation below. In the above information. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. RQD is given and from the relationship between RQD and joint frequency. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. and are highly weathered. Here.7) 0. It falls in rock class C which indicates the rock mass is of fair quality. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. average RQD is 41%. Joint water pressure = In situ stress = groundwater pressure = Overburden pressure = = = 70 m × γw 80 m × γ (70 × 1)/(80× 2. average RQD is 70%.11 m. it is possible to calculate average joint spacing. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass.
2. For topping. which gives average joint spacing 0. F2 = 1.αs|.RQD = 100 e–0.0 Value of F1. Table 6. Details on rock slope analysis and engineering including excavation methods and support and stabilisation will be covered in a later chapter dealing slope engineering.1λ +1) (where λ is the mean number of discontinuities per meter) Joint frequency is estimated to be 20. F2 and F3 are given in Table 6. Judgement often is needed to interpret the information given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the RMR table.1λ (0.2..e. SMR = RMR + (F1⋅F2⋅F3) + F4 where F1 = (1 . 6.2. F2 = (tan βj)2 B = joint dip angle = βj.sin A)2 and A = angle between the strikes of the slope and the joint = |αj . It falls in rock class D which indicates the rock mass is of poor quality. i. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the RMR parameter rating.
.3a.05 m Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below:
The calculated basic RMR is 34. SMR value is obtained by adjust RMR value with orientation and excavation adjustments for slopes.3 Extension of RMR – Slope Mass Rating (SMR) The slope mass rating (SMR) is an extension of the RMR system applied to rock slope engineering.3b gives the classification category of rock mass slope.
3a Classification of Rock Slope according to SMT
6. Jr is the joint roughness number
.2. Jn is the joint set number accounting for the number of joint sets.Table 6.3. The system was based on evaluation of a large number of case histories of underground excavation stability. F3 and F4 for joints
Table 6. The numerical value of this index Q is defined by:
RQD is the Rock Quality Designation measuring the fracturing degree.3 Rock Tunnel Quality Q-System 6.2.1 Concept of the Q-System The Q-system was developed as a rock tunnelling quality index by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) (Barton et al 1974). F2. and is an index for the determination of the tunnelling quality of a rock mass.3a Adjustment rating of F1.
3.accounting for the joint surface roughness.1c. and SRF is the stress reduction factor indicating the influence of in situ stress. as shown in Figure 6. Ja is the joint alteration number indicating the degree of weathering.3.
Table 6. Jw is the joint water reduction factor accounting for the problem from groundwater pressure.1a.1a. alteration and filling.1b.3. Q value is considered as a function of only three parameters which are crude measures of: (a) (b) (c) Block size: Inter-block shear strength Active stress RQD / Jn Jr / Ja Jw / SRF
Parameters and rating of the Q system is given in Table 6. Equivalent dimension is used in the figure and ESR is given in Table 6. shown in Table 6.3.1a Rock mass classification Q system
. Q value is applied to estimate the support measure for a tunnel of a given dimension and usage.3. The classification system gives a Q value which indicates the rock mass quality.
quantities of swelling clays
Table 6.1b Rock mass quality rating according to Q values
2 Examples of Using the Q-System
.Figure 6.3.1c Excavation Support Ratio (ESR) for various tunnel categories
6.1a Support design based on Q value
joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. average RQD is 70%. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures.11 m. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa.(a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. and the rock mass is classified as good quality. and are highly weathered. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65
. and the rock mass is classified as fair quality.
(c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. average joint spacing is 0. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. average joint spacing is 0. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. joint surfaces are slightly rough. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below:
The calculated Q-value is 29. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. filled with clay.24 m. average RQD is 41%. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa.4. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below:
The calculated Q-value is 4. (b) A sandstone rock mass. average RQD is 88%.
inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. and the rock mass is classified as very poor quality.3 Extension of Q-System – QTBM for Mechanised Tunnelling Q-system was extended to a new QTBM system for predicting penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR) for tunnelling using tunnel boring machine (TBM) in 1999 (Barton 1999). Jr. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the Q parameter rating. and SRF ratings are the same parameters in the original Q-system. q is the quartz content (%) in rock mineralogy. Rock stress level is also considered. 6. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. together with the rock material strength. Ja. Orientation of joint structure is accounted for. judgement is frequently needed to interpret the descriptions given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the Q table.
. Jw. The new parameter QTBM is to estimate TBM performance during tunnelling. σm is the rock mass strength (MPa) estimated from a complicated equation including the Q-value measured in the tunnel direction. The constants 20 in the σm term. F is the average cutter load (ton) through the same zone.MPa. CLI is the cutter life index. The abrasive or nonabrasive nature of the rock is incorporated via the cutter life index (CLI). and σθ is the induced biaxial stress (MPa) on tunnel face in the same zone.85. Jn. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. The method is based on the Q-system and average cutter force in relations to the appropriate rock mass strength.3. The components of the QTBM are as follows:
where RQD0= RQD (%) measured in the tunnelling direction. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below:
The calculated Q-value is 0. 20 in the CLI term and 5 in the σθ term are normalising constants. Again.
GSI system has been modified and updated in the recent years. 6. the following equivalent between rock mass structural descriptions of blocky to the block size description is suggested below.The experiences on the application of QTBM vary between projects.1 GSI System The Geological Strength Index (GSI) was introduced by Hoek in 1994. The direct application of GSI value is to estimate the parameters in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion for rock masses. Although it was not aimed at to be a rock mass classification. with increasing of rock mass quality.3a.4 Geological Strength Index GSI System and Others 6. However. they were not selected to describe rock mass boreability. penetration decreases. Rock mass classification systems. very poor rock mass does not facilitate penetration. including RMR and Q. simple block size description does not include geological structural features. Example of using the QTBM is given in Figure 6. Rock mass structure given in the chart is general description and there may be many cases that does not directly match the description. when developed. such as folds and shear zones. Parameters in those rock mass classifications were related to support design.2. the emphasis is obviously not be justified. while penetration however is a result of interaction between rock mass properties and TBM machine parameters (Zhao 2006). were intended to classify rock mass quality to arrive a suitable support design. as GSI was initiated to be a tool to estimate rock mass strength with the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. The systems were not meant for the design of excavation methodology. The use of GSI requires careful examination and understanding of engineering geological features of the rock mass. In general. In the Hoek-Brown
. It was aimed to estimate the reduction in rock mass strength for different geological conditions. such as sheared zones. Although QTBM has added a number of parameters to reflect cutting force and wear.
GSI does not include the parameter of rock strength.1a. mainly to cover more complex geological features. In general. The system gives a GSI value estimated from rock mass structure and rock discontinuity surface condition. However. the GSI value does in fact reflect the rock mass quality. The original rock mass classifications are independent of TBM characteristics.4. This system is presented in Tables 6. It appears that the correlation between QTBM and Advanced Rate is not consistent and varies with a large margin.4.
1b.4. it is suggested that GSI can be related to RMR (GSI = RMR – 5). The use of GSI to estimate rock mass strength is given later in the section dealing with rock mass strength. GSI system did not suggest a direct correlation between rock mass quality and GSI value. for reasonable good quality rock mass. However.criterion.1a Geological Strength Index (GSI)
. rock material uniaxial strength is used as a base parameter to estimate rock mass uniaxial strength as well as triaxial strengths of rock material and rock mass. based on the correlation between RMR and GSI Table 6.4. An approximate classification of rock mass quality and GSI is suggested in Table 6.
24 m. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. average RQD is 70%. The rock mass is classified as fair quality.4. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. Therefore GSI is 75±5.11 m. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. Refer to the GSI chart. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. Rock Mass Structure for the above siltstone is blocky /folded/ faulted. and Joint Surface Condition is very poor. filled with clay.Table 6. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. average RQD is 41%.2 Examples of Using the GSI System Examples of estimating GSI is given below. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. Refer to the GSI chart. and are highly weathered. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. and Joint Surface Condition is fair to poor. joint surfaces are slightly rough. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. The rock mass is classified as good to very good quality. with the same rock masses used previously to estimate RMR and Q. Therefore GSI is 40±5. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. and Joint Surface Condition is very good. Rock Mass Structure for the above granite is blocky.1b Rock mass classes determined from GSI
. (a) Granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. Rock Mass Structure for the above sandstone is very blocky. average joint spacing is 0.4. average RQD is 88%. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. (b) A sandstone rock mass. Therefore GSI is 20±5. average joint spacing is 0. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. The rock mass is classified as very poor to poor quality. Refer to the GSI chart.
Summary of RMR. RMR and GSI Correlation between Q and RMR are found to be.4.3a shows the comparison and correlation between RMR and Q. Figure 6.4.3 Correlation and Comparison between Q. RMR = 9 lnQ + A A varies between 26 and 62. it is perhaps better to select a range of the GSI value for that rock mass. and average of A is 44. Q and GSI from the above three examples are given below.It is advised that while selecting an average value of GSI.3a Correlation between RMR and Q values.
normal condition. SRF = 1 for σc/σ1 = 10~200. For generally competent rock masses with GSI > 25.3 Other Classification Systems Several other classification approaches have been proposed.e. N can be computed as.5 logQ +43. estimate the value of one classification from another is not advisable. The use of N in squeezing rock mass classification will be presented in a later section in this chapter. RMR classification should not be used for estimating the GSI values for poor quality rock masses.4. It should be noted that each classification uses a set of parameters that are different from other classifications. the value of GSI can be related to Rock Mass Rating RMR value as. They are all in the general form of semi-log equation. GSI = RMR – 5 RMR is the basic RMR value by setting the Groundwater rating at 15 (dry). It has been noticed that SRF in the Q-system is not sensitive in rock engineering design.Several other correlation equations have been proposed. Another application of N number is to the rock squeezing condition. i. stress reduction is not considered). one of which is: RMR = 13. and without adjustment for joint orientation. The importance of in situ stress on the stability of underground excavation is insufficiently represented in the Q-system. the value assign to SRF cover too great range. For example. 6. in situ stresses of 0.
. the value of RMR is very difficult to estimate and the correlation between RMR and GSI is no longer reliable. Consequently.. In section.25 to 5 MPa yield the same SRF value. (a) Rock Mass Number. for a rock with σc = 50 MPa. Squeezing has been noted in the Q-system but is not sufficiently dealt. a few will be briefly discussed due to their unique application in certain aspect.e. N Rock Mass Number (N) is the rock mass quality Q value when SRF is set at 1 (i. For that reason. N = (RQD/Jn) (Jr/Ja) (Jw) This system is used because the difficult in obtaining SRF in the Q-system. For very poor quality rock masses. due to the special behaviour and nature of the squeezing ground..
the mechanical properties of a rock mass are also related to the quality of the rock mass. RMi = σc Jp where σc is the uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock material. It is calculated by the following equation. The Hoek-Brown criterion for rock mass is described by the following equation:
. joint density (or block size). Jp is in fact a reduction factor representing the effects of jointing on the strength of rock mass.1 Strength of Rock Mass As discussed earlier.5. a rock mass of good quality (strong rock.5. Jp = 1 for a intact rock. strength and deformation properties of a rock mass are much governed by the existence of joints.(b) Rock Mass Index. RMi Rock Mass Index is proposed as an index characterising rock mass strength as a construction material.2 Hoek-Brown Strength Criterion of Rock Mass Hoek and Brown criterion discussed in Chapter 4 is not only for rock materials.5. namely. 6.5 Rock Mass Strength and Rock Mass Quality 6. In another word. It is also applicable to rock masses (Figure 6.2a). joint roughness. Jp = 0 for a crushed rock masses. few joints and good joint surface quality) will have a higher strength and high deformation modulus than that of a poor rock mass. In general. joint alteration and joint size. and Jp is the jointing parameter accounting for 4 joint characteristics. 6.
For intact rock.2a Applicability of Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and rock masses. The HoekBrown criterion for intact rock material is a special form of the generalised equation when s =1 and a = 0. The equation above is the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion of rock mass. In the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion.Figure 6. σ1 is the strength of the rock mass at a confining pressure σ3.
Note in the Hoek-Brown criterion.e. Constants mb and s are parameters that changes with rock type and rock mass quality.2a gives an earlier suggestion of mb and s values. σci is the uniaxial strength of the intact rock in the rock mass. mb becomes mi. Table 6. i.5. σci is consistently referred to the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material in the Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and for rock mass..5.
.5. Parameter a is generally equal to 0.5.
Table 6. Table 6.2a Relation between rock mass quality and Hoek.Brown constants
Development and application of the Hoek-Brown criterion lead to better definition of the parameters mb and s.5.5.2b presents the latest definition of mi values for the intact rock materials.
. according to different rocks.
Value of a can be estimated from GSI by the following equation.e.
For GSI > 25.5. the value of mi should be calculated from the test results.5 For GSI < 25. i.2b Values of constant mi for intact rock in Hoek-Brown criterion
The values in the above table are suggestive. the parameters which describe the rock mass strength characteristics.
and a = 0. Once the Geological Strength Index has been estimated. If triaxial tests have been conducted. As seen from the table. and a in the Hoek-Brown criterion is no longer equal to 0.5. are calculated as follows. rock masses of very poor quality. s = 0.
.e.Table 6. the original Hoek-Brown criterion is applicable with. variation of mi value for each rock can be as great as 18. i. rock masses of good to reasonable quality.
although in practice. when σ3 = 0. Q and GSI.
The Hoek-Brown equation for the granite rock mass is.
Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is.
. with material uniaxial strength 85 MPa. it gives the uniaxial compressive strength as. Calculation in the example uses average values only. the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock masses equal to zero. mean GSI 40. From the Hoek-Brown criterion.
Clearly. (a) Granite rock mass. when σ3 = 0. Example of using the Hoek-Brown equation to determine rock mass strength is given below by the same three examples used for determining the rock mass qualities RMR. mean GSI 75. mi given for granite is approximately 32. mi given for sandstone is approximately 17. From the mi table.Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is the value of σ1 when σ3 is zero. From the mi table. for rock masses of very poor quality. range of values should be used to give upper and lower bounds.
(b) Sandstone rock mass. with material uniaxial strength 150 MPa.
in the equations below.
.5. In situ rock mass modulus (Em) can be estimated from the Q and the RMR systems. the rock mass strength is close to the strength of intact rock material. i. RMR < 23.Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is.1.4 Correlations between Rock Mass Quality and Mechanical Properties Correlations between rock mass strength and rock mass quality are reflected in Table 6.2a and the Hoek-Brown criterion relating GSI.
6.. Q < 0. the rock mass has very low uniaxial compressive strength close to zero.
(c) Siltstone rock mass. with material uniaxial strength 65 MPa. Attempts have also been made to correlated deformation modulus of the rock mass with rock mass quality.5. mi given for siltstone is approximately 7.
Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. When the rock mass is very poor. From the mi table. mean GSI 20. The better rock mass quality gives high rock mass strength.e. or GSI < 25. When the rock mass is solid and massive with few joints.
The suggested approach to obtain rock mass Mohr-Coulomb parameters c and φ is by generate a series σ1–σ3 results by the Hoek-Brown equation.
For rock mass with σci < 100 MPa. plotting the Mohr circle and fitting with the best strength envelope. If a series tests have been conducted on the rock mass. if the depth and stress range is known. 6. where c and φ can be readily calculated. obviously test results should be used directly to obtain parameters c and φ. Attempts have been made by Hoek and Brown to estimate c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. Then plotting the Mohr circle using the generated σ1–σ3 data and fitting with the best linear envelope. the equation below has been proposed. the input for a design software or numerical modelling required for rock masses are in terms of MohrCoulomb parameters c and φ. using for example. Often. the equation is obtained by substituting GSI for RMR in the original Em-RMR equation.5. the deformation of the intact rock pieces contributes to the overall deformation process. for poorer quality rock masses.The above Em-RMR equations are generally for competent rock mass with RMR greater than 20. they caution the user that is a major problem to obtain c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. Care must be taken when deciding the ‘best’ linear line in fitting the Mohr circles. It depends on the stress region of the engineering application.4 Relationship between Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb Criteria There is no direct correlation between the linear Mohr-Coulomb Criterion and the nonlinear Hoek-Brown Criterion defined by the two equations. For a tunnel problem. This reduction is based upon the reasoning that the deformation of better quality rock masses is controlled by the discontinuities while. The Em-GSI equation indicates that modulus Em is reduced progressively as the value of σci falls below 100. At the same time. where c and φ can be readily calculated Common problems were there is no or limited test results on rock mass. For poor rocks. the line should be fitting best for the
As shown in Figure 6.e. Deformation may terminate during construction or may continue over a long time period. Below the line.Mohr circles in that stress region.2a.. For a slope problem.6. moderate and high. Rate of squeezing depends on the degree of over-stress. Squeezing condition may occur above the line. pore pressure needs to be considered as this affects the effective stress level. several centimetres of tunnel closure per day for the first 1-2 weeks of excavation. which occurs around a tunnel and other underground openings. Squeezing may occur at shallow depths in weak and poor rock masses such as mudstone and shale. by the conditions below. i. where H is in metres. H < 350 Q1/3. 6. 6. i.6.
Behaviour of rock squeezing is typically represented by rock mass squeezes plastically into the tunnel and the phenomenon is time dependent.6. and the fitting a line at low stress level (where the curvature is the greatest for the non-linear Hoek-Brown strength envelope) is very sensitive to the stress level. Also.
. Closure rate reduces with time. (i) (ii) (iii) Mild squeezing: closure Moderate squeezing: closure High squeezing: closure 1-3% of tunnel diameter. 3-5% of tunnel diameter. the ground condition is generally non-squeezing. the division between squeezing and non-squeezing condition is by a line H = 350 Q1/3. say. the stress region may vary from 0 to some level of stress. squeezing may be identified from rock class classification Q-value and overburden thickness (H). Usually the rate is high at initial stage. The degree of squeezing often is classified to mild. and is essentially associated with creep caused by exceeding shear strength. > 5% of tunnel diameter.6 Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass 6.1 Squeezing Phenomenon ISRM (Barla 1995) defines that squeezing of rock is the time dependent large deformation.2 Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification Based on case studies.. H > 350 Q1/3.e. Squeezing may continue for years in exceptional cases. Rock masses of competent rock of poor rock mass quality at great depth (under high cover) may also suffer from squeezing.
. In situ stress.
Where H is the tunnel depth or overburden in metres and B is the tunnel span or diameter in metres. The parameters allow one to separate in situ stress effects from rock mass quality. which is the external cause of squeezing is dealt separated by considering the overburden depth.6. From Figure 6.6. As discussed in the previous section.2b. the line separating non-squeezing from squeezing condition is.2a Predicting squeezing ground using Q-value Another approach predicting squeezing is by using the Rock Mass Number (N).Figure 6. N is the Q-value when SRF is set to be 1.
with overburden stress P.2b Squeezing ground condition is presented by: H > (275 N1/3) B–0. Mild squeezing occurs when (275 N1/3) B–0.1 < H < (450 N1/3) B–0.1.
. Squeezing may not occur in hard rocks with high values of parameter A. σcm is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass. P=γH. It is also possible to characterise the degree of squeezing base on the same figure.1 < H < (630 N1/3) B–0.6. Px is the in situ stress in the tunnel axis direction. The above equation can be written in the form below for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic in situ stress field.Figure 6.1. σθ > Strength = σcm + Px A/2 where σθ is the tangential stress at the tunnel opening. Theoretically. squeezing conditions around a tunnel opening can occur when.1 High squeezing occurs when H > (630 N1/3) B–0.1 Moderate squeezing occurs when (450 N1/3) B–0. and A is a rock parameter proportion to friction.
6. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass can be estimated from the Hoek-Brown criterion with rock mass quality assessment (e.ISRM classifies squeezing rock mass and ground condition in Table 6.g. GSI).
.6..6. Studies carried out by Hoek (2000) indicate that squeezing can in fact start at rock mass strength / in situ stress ratio of 0.2a.6.
Figure 6. The prediction curve was compared with tunnel squeezing case histories. Table 6.2c Squeezing prediction curve and comparison with case histories. Overburden stress can be estimated from the overburden depth and rock unit weight. A prediction curve was proposed by Hoek and reproduced in Figure 6.2a Suggested predictions of squeezing conditions
The prediction equations for squeezing require the measurements of in situ stress and rock mass strength.2c. relating tunnel closure to rock mass strength/in situ stress ratio.3.
5. Change of vertical stress with depth is scattered about the tend line.027 z. σv = 0.
Depth.2a. Z (m)
. which represents the overburden pressure.CHAPTER 3
In situ Stress In situ stress measurements have been compiled and presented in Figure 2.2a In situ stress measurements at various (Brady and Brown 157).
The horizontal stress should not be estimated. For projects that maximum stress direction and magnitude may be important. Measurement of convergence movements of rock surfaces. Deformation and restoration of slots in the rock surfaces Measurements of strains and stresses include the following: 1. The magnitude and directions of induced (concentrated or re-aligned) stresses. Measurement of loads on structures for supporting ground and stresses in the supporting structures. Measuring strains in rock at exposed rock surface 2. Nature of sub-audible vibrations originating in rock 6. 2. Measuring pressures on mine filling materials 6. 3. Deformation of boreholes 7. In situ stress measurement Instrumentation For the development of information for the design of underground openings and their supporting structures.The horizontal stresses are presented in the figure by a ratio of average horizontal stress to vertical stress. Measuring stresses in supporting structures
. Closure of roof and floor or closure of sides 2. while the vertical stress or the other horizontal stress represents the minor principal stress. 2. four principal classes of measurements are of interest. Changes in velocity of sound waves passed through the ground 4.While vertical stress can be estimated with reasonable reliability. k. in situ stress measurements is required. Measurement of strains in the ground surrounding an opening. inherent) stresses in rock. The physical characteristics which may be measured are: Following physical features of a rock are modified when it is subjected to the stresses induced by creation of an opening: 1. The following stresses are important in influencing the behaviour of rock around subsurface openings: 1. It is very common in rock mechanics that one of the horizontal stresses represent the major principal stress. Measuring convergence of roof and floor( or HW and F 4. The magnitude and directions of natural (pre-existing. Tangential deformation of exposed surfaces 3. Measuring ground pressures in supporting structures 7. These are induced by creation of an opening. 4. Measurements of pressures on mine void filling material. Changes in the modulus of elasticity of the ground 5. Measuring absolute movements of roof and floor ( or HW and FW) 5. Measuring strains in rock remote from a free surface 3. These are: 1.
Methods for determining the actual magnitudes of stresses within the rock involve measurements of deformation of rock blocks which are freed from the main mass and allowed to expand.000 MPa). thus allowing the portion of rock to expand. large changes in stress values are produced by very small changes in dimensions (strain). A deep slot is then cut into the rock above the gauges and the rock in allowed to expand. For example in a rock with an elastic modulus of 7 0 × 10 6 KPa (70. A flat jack is cemented into the slot and expanded by application of hydraulic pressure until the strain gauges indicate that the rock has been restored to the state of strain existing prior to cutting of the slot. These are: 1. Thus. 2. The rock stresses are not measured directly. is the most conspicuous phenomenon associated with underground openings and the easiest to measure. freeing the rock surface to expand. The strain relief method. the deformation in the rock is 0.0005 mm.
. There are two general methods for determining absolute rock strain. However. The modulii of elasticity of rocks ranges from 20 to 70 × 10 6 KPa.Measuring Strain (deformation) in rock The closure of roof and floor. In an elastic material a stress concentration is created near the boundary of the opening. and The strain restoration method
In the Strain relief method strain gauges are fixed to the opening walls at selected locations. The deformation in rocks is very small and therefore the determination of stresses depends on the measurement of extremely small deformations. or of walls and ribs. The pressure in the jack is then assumed to be equal to the original pressure in the rock normal to the slot surface. such measurements do not yield information as to the stresses existing in the rock. A groove is then cut around the location of the strain gauge. Strain relief method Method 1: The strain gauge is cemented on the surface of the wall rock and a standard diamond drill is used to cut an annular slot in the rock around the gauges. but the measuring techniques are designed to measure strains and the stresses are then computed by using the values of the rock modulus of elasticity. In the Strain restoration method strain gauges are fixed to the rock surface and readings are taken. In order to measure these minute changes in dimensions of the openings it is necessary to employ instruments capable of measuring to within a few ten-thousands of a cm. The amount of the expansion is a function of the initial stress within the rock and of the modulus of elasticity of the rock.
Borehole deformation gauge
Theory and Equations Uni-axial stress
. When the vertical and horizontal stress in the rock is equal there will be no differential deformation along the two axes of the borehole. Strain gauges are sealed with waterproof mastic to protect them against moisture.The surface on which the gauges are mounted required careful selection and preparation. Method 2 Measurement of Diametral Borehole Deformation for Stress Determination Another method for determining rock stresses is the accurate measurement of borehole horizontal and vertical axes to determine the relative deformation produced in the crosssection of the borehole by stresses in the rock. The surface is ground smooth with a hand grinding wheel. Maximum deformation is caused to the vertical axis of a horizontal borehole due to the vertical stress (assuming the horizontal stress is in effective). The rock surface is thoroughly dried before the gauges are cemented to the rock and dried with a hear lamp after gauges are cemented in place.
The deformation versus the angle θ for one quadrant of the hole ( θ = 00 to θ = 900) is plotted in the figure below
. and equation 1 reduces to
3dS E 0 When θ = 90 . T
Figure Schematic representation of biaxial stress acting across a borehole When θ = 00. as the stress increases.The deformation of the hole in a uni-axial stress and in plan stress is given by
U= dS (1) (1 + 2 cos 2θ ) E = deformation of hole (change in length of a diameter) = radius of hole = diameter of hole = 2a = perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) = angle (counterclockwise) from S to r = modulus of elasticity
U a d S. the hole (at the point) is expanding. the deformation is in the direction of the applied uniaxial stress. the deformation is U= U =− dS E
And the minus sign signifies that.
Figure Borehole deformation gauge
Deformation (arbitrary units)
2 1 0 -1 15 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Angle ( in degrees)
Figure Sectional View of a borehole deformation gauge
If the deformation is measured across three different diameters and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are known. the deformation is related to the biaxial stresses S and T by
U= d [( S + T ) + 2( S − T ) cos 2θ ] E d (3S − T ) E d (3T − S ) E
When θ = 00. the magnitude and direction of the stresses S and T can be computed. The equations for these conditions will be
When θ = 900.Bi-axial stress For bi-axial stress field and plane stress.
The measuring points A-Bare established prior to cutting slot and the distance between the points is accurately determined. U is +ve for increase in the diameter radius of hole diameter of hole = 2a perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) angle (counterclockwise) from S to U1 modulus of elasticity
= = = = =
Strain restoration methods
In this method a slot is cut. to accommodate a flat jack. The flat jack is then placed in the slot and cemented tightly in place with quick-setting cement mortar. . The pressure in the flat jack is then a function of the original pressure in the rock before the slot was cut. U3 a d S. Hydraulic pressure is applied to the flat jack until measurements show that the distance between points A and B has been restored to its original dimension.In this investigation rock stress was determined by measuring the deformation (change in diameter) of a borehole before and after the hole was stress-relieved.
. as shown in the figure. U2. It has been shown that the borehole deformation in a biaxial stress field is related to the magnitude and direction of the applied stresses in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the hole by the following equations:
S +T = E (U 1 + U 2 + U 3 ) 3d
1 2E [(U 1 − U 2 ) 2 + (U 2 − U 3 ) 2 + (U 3 − U 1 ) 2 ] 2 6d
S −T =
tan 2θ =
3 (U 3 − U 2 ) 2U 1 − U 2 − U 3
Where U1. T = borehole deformation at a 600 separation (600 deformation rosette) in cm. It has been reported from extensive experimentation with this system that the pressure required to restore the original strain with the locations of the measuring points relative to the slot. In practice when a flat jack 70cm long and 70cm wide was used the distance A-B was made about 30cm. And best results were obtained when the measuring points were placed within a distance equal to about two-thirds the length of the flat-jack.
Stress measurement using a flatjack
Modified Flakjack method
.Flat jack method does not require any knowledge of the elastic properties of the rock and hence it is considered to be a true stress measuring method. Because of the difficulty in cutting deep flatjack slots the method is restricted to near-surface measurements.
consisting of a top and bottom anchor. Mechanical extensometers. such as a vernier scale. This class of instruments consists of a length-sensing device. of which convergence gagues are special types. have been used for decades in metal mines Figure.
Figure roof sag measuring station
. micrometer. dial gauge.Measurement of Rock Movement/deformation Convergence Measurement The mechanically simplest deformation measuring devices are deformeters. steel wire or rigid tubing. also called extensometers. Multipoint extensometers installed in boreholes have been used to detect roof movements. and some kind of micrometer or dial gauge.
Figure Axial deformation gauges
Figure dial gauge deformeter
Telltale extensometer is a very simple and general design to measure deformation in the roof of coal mines at 4 or 6 different points up to 6 meter height. Measurement of convergence may be useful in predicting the imminence of failure of roof or floor rock. position and rate of movement of rock surrounding an excavation. After installation of all the anchors the reference head will be installed leaving all the scales hanging freely. In mining a simple extensometer such as this is known as a “telltale” because it gives a visual indication of roof movement. Extensometers are used to determine the magnitude. When the bed/roof separation is taking place the reading will change in the respective scale. or between HW and FW. is an indication of the magnitude of the pressure on the rock above the opening. The relative movement of the anchor points is measured with either mechanical or electromechanical devices. Convergence Measurement Monitoring technology and techniques to provide early warning of hazardous roof fall conditions have been a longstanding goal for safety engineers and practitioners working in the mining sector. which are progressively covered as movement develops. The steel wire will be brought to the down surface of roof.The relative amount of closure between roof and floor. Model SME 248.
. the amount and quality of filling material. The amount of strain depends upon several factors. These anchors will be installed in a 42 mm hole at four different heights with the help of installation tool. characteristics of the country rock. such as the amount of ground which is open. Extensometers are installed into boreholes.has four/six spider type strong leaf spring anchors (Above figure). Movement is indicated by coloured reflective bands on the indicator. The essential features of an extensometer installation are a stable reference anchor position at the far end of the borehole. The steel wire will be attached with each anchor before pushing of anchors. Roof-to-floor convergence monitors are perhaps the oldest and most common method of measuring roof deflection as a means to detect roof rock instabilities. Each wire will be attached with steel scale of different colour for identification of the anchor height.
The simplest form of extensometer makes use of a stainless steel spring reference anchor with a tube indicator attached to it by stainless steel wire and visible at the hole mouth. This type of instrument consist of an anchor device mounted on the mine roof and floor and connected by a ridged bar or a metal wire. etc. a borehole mouth anchor at the tunnel wall and a means of indicating or measuring change in distance between them.
Figure Evolution of Dual height Telltale
and for the detection of voids behind tunnel linings. supplied to mine and tunnel projects in seven countries. They typically have pairs of diametrically opposed resistance strain gauges. Examples of recent civil engineering use of the instrument include a steel lined water tunnel in the UK where voids behind the 45mm thick lining were detected. This was developed and patented by British Coal in 1992 as a safety device for coal mine tunnels where rockbolts were being introduced as support. Instruments installed in two coal mine shaft linings were found to be still returning consistent readings twenty five years later. Loads in support systems and linings The load distribution in rockbolts and cablebolts is an important support design parameter. allowing calculation and display of mean and bending strains. Support system and lining condition Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) is a simple nondestructive testing device for checking the ‘looseness’ of exposed rock surfaces in tunnels. which are encapsulated multi-wire steel strands.
Figure Strain gauged rock bolts
. It measures the reverberation decay rate of a surface when struck with a hammer. The technology has recently been extended to include flexible bolts. an underground wastewater plant in Finland and the Joskin tunnel in the UK. The most common form of telltale is the dual-height version. but one which is difficult to measure. To date RMT have manufactured around 4000 strain gauged rockbolts. where areas of detached shotcrete lining were delineated. The AEM is a hand held device comprising an integral geophone and readout unit. The device is installed at the same time as the rockbolts into a 5m long roof hole of 27mm-35mm diameter.Here roof movement is converted to rotation of a pointer around a dial. British Coal began producing strain gauged bolts for this purpose in 1990. This has the advantage that small roof movements can be easily read even when the tunnel height approaches 5m (Figure above).
It is commonly observed in deep boreholes. it is unlikely that it will be successful in the adequate quantification of stress magnitudes. Zoback et al 1986. 1985. Whilst this approach may have some potential for estimating indicative values of stress. They can therefore often provide a reliable indication of the orientations of in situ stress fields. the orientations of in situ stresses. 1993). temperature. Haimson and Song. and extents of breakout will vary depending on rock properties and in situ conditions (water. This is due to the fact that breakout mechanisms will be different for different types of rock.
. Attempts have been made to use breakout data to estimate the magnitudes of in situ stresses (Zoback et al. drilling.Observational methods of in situ stress determination or estimation Observations of the behaviour of openings or holes made in stressed rock can provide very valuable indications of the magnitudes and. 1993. Lee and Haimson. In these attempts. Haimson and Herrick (1986) found that the depth and circumferential extent of the completed breakout were directly proportional to the state of stress normal to the borehole axis. and relative or comparative values of stress. Borehole breakouts (dog earing) “Borehole breakout” is the more widely used term for what is known in South African mining as “dog earing”. This phenomenon refers to the stress induced failure that occurs on the walls of a borehole resulting in spalling or sloughing of material from the borehole wall as shown in Figure 7. more particularly.
Figure 7 Example of stress induced sloughing of material from a borehole wall The locations of the breakouts on diagonally opposite sides of the borehole are usually aligned with the orientations of the secondary principal stresses acting in the plane normal to the borehole axis. etc). the width and depth of the breakout have been measured as a basis for estimating the stresses.
Core discing Core discing appears to be closely associated with the formation of borehole breakouts. 1989). In addition. For unequal stresses normal to the core axis. as shown in Figure 10. the shape and symmetry of the discs can give a good indication of in situ stress orientations (Dyke. A measure of the inclination of a principal stress to the borehole axis can be gauged from the relative asymmetry of the disc. In brittle rocks it has been observed that discing and breakouts usually occur over the corresponding lengths of core and borehole. The thinner are the discs the higher is the stress level. the core circumference will peak and trough as shown in Figure 9. Nevertheless. indicates that there is a shear stress acting the borehole axis that the axis is not in a principal stress direction. Lack of symmetry of the discing. the type and technique of drilling. The direction defined by a line drawn between the peaks of the disc surfaces facing in the original drilling direction indicates the orientation of the minor secondary principal stress. as shown in Figure 8. including the drill thrust.
Figure 8 Core discs symmetrical with respect to the core axis
. the two secondary principal stresses normal to the core axis will be approximately equal. 1991). can significantly affect the occurrence of discing (Kutter. If the discs are uniform in thickness as shown in Figure 8. However. then it is probable that the hole has been drilled approximately along the orientation of one of the principal stresses. 1982). the formation of discs depends significantly on the properties of the rock and the magnitude of the stress in the borehole axial direction (Stacey. It is therefore unlikely that observation and measurements of discing will be successful in quantifying the magnitudes of in situ stresses. If the discs are symmetrical about the core axis.
indicating that the core axis is not a principal stress direction
Observations of failures in excavations Excavations can be considered as large boreholes. Figure 11 shows a classic dog ear in the sidewall of a 5 m diameter tunnel.
Orientation of the minor secondary principal stress
Figure 9 Core discs resulting with unequal stresses normal to the core axis
Non-symmetrical cores discing. the dog earring in the tunnel in Figure 12 shows that the major secondary principal stress is inclined at about 120 to the horizontal. Similarly.e. Dog earring in bored excavations can be equally pronounced as in boreholes. and observations of the behaviour of the walls of the excavations in response to the in situ stresses can provide very valuable indications of the in situ stress field. This shows that the major secondary principal stress normal to the tunnel axis (i. the maximum stress in the plane perpendicular to the tunnel axis) is vertical at this location.
Rummel (Rummel.Figure 11 Dog earing (photograph provided by Dr C D Martin) Hydraulic Fracturing for In situ Stress measurement Hydraulic fracturing is now a well established method for determining in situ stress magnitudes. 1977. 4. Zoback et al. The orientation of the induced fracture is measured using a borehole television camera or a special impression packer to obtain a physical record of the surface of the borehole. isolated using hydraulic packers on either side of it. Haimson (1968. The application of the method is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 14. The method involves the pressurization of a length of borehole and the measurement of the pressure required to fracture the rock or reopen existing fractures. 1977. Zoback et al.3. It has been widely used in the oil well industry. 1983) and Zoback (Zoback et al. Although hydraulic fracturing had been used previously for other purposes such as borehole stimulation for increasing the yield of water supply or dewatering boreholes. 1986) played a major role in developing and promoting the use of the hydraulic fracturing technique. until the hydraulic pressure causes the rock to fracture. 1980. The characteristics of the pressure induced breakdown and the subsequent reopening of the fracture under repressurisation are monitored carefully.1 Hydraulic fracturing Conventional hydraulic fracturing involves the pressurizing of a short length of borehole.
. Vertical boreholes are usually used and it is assumed that the in situ principal stresses are vertical and horizontal. Rummel et al. Cornet (1993a). From all these data the orientations of the secondary principal stresses normal to the axis of the borehole can be interpreted. Scheidegger (1962) and Fairhurst (1964) were the first to suggest its use for the determination of in situ stresses. 1983. 1987. 1993).
to determine the orientation of the induced fracture. the borehole has to be inspected using a television camera. The classical stress determination from hydraulic fracturing tests is generally based on a few assumption and they are: 1. the straightness and wall quality of the borehole are important. A system for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in deep boreholes is illustrated in Figure 15. A simpler set-up would be applicable for in mine tests. it is illustrative of the sort of requirements that would be necessary for quality measurements at greenfields sites. the shut-in pressure is equal to the stress component perpendicular to the fracture plane.
. or a special impression of its surface taken using an impression packer. the borehole axis is parallel to the direction of one of the principal stress components 2. the pressurization occurs sufficiently fast to avoid fluid permeating into the rock and thus alter the pore pressure within the rock matrix
3.Figure 14 Hydraulic fracture applications The method requires special equipment. Since packers are inserted in the borehole to seal off the test sections. Fracture generation occurs at the location of the least tangential stress at the borehole wall and the fracture propagates perpendicular to the direction of the least principal stress 4. The borehole must be diamond drilled. Although this represents the full sophistication of the method. to carry out a measurement. After hydrofracturing. and associated services and personnel.
System for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (after Tunbridge et al. 1989)
The schematic arrangements of hydro-fracturing technique is as shown below in the figure 16
Figure 16 Schematic arrangement of hydro-frac technique
In non-porous rocks the minimum principal stress is given by the shut-in pressure. If a borehole is drilled in the vertical direction, and it is assumed that this is a principal stress direction, and that the minimum principal stress is horizontal, the major horizontal principal stress SH can be determined from the following equation: Testing Procedure A single or double straddle packers system is set (inflated) at the required depth so as to isolate a test cavity. A liquid is injected into the test cavity and its pressure raised while monitoring the quantity injected. A sudden surge of fluid accompanied by sudden drop in pressure indicates that hydrofracture of rock formation (fracture inititation or break down) has occurred. The hydrofracture continues to propagate away from the hole as fluid is injected, and is oriented normal to the least principal stress direction (Fig.17) Once the hydro-fracturing has traveled about 10 drillhole diameters, injection is stopped by shutting a valve, and the instantaneous shut-in pressure is measured. The process is repeated several times to ensure a consistent measurement of this pressure, which is equal to the minimum principal stress.
SV = γ .Z S h = PSi S H = T + 3.S h − PC T = PC − PR Where T is the tensile strength of the rock Sh and SV are the minor and major horizontal principal stress Pc is the breakdown pressure at fracture generation PR is the pressure necessary to re-open the induced fracture (T=0) PSi is the shut-in pressure to merely keep the fracture open against the normal stress acting in the fracture plane Z is the depth of the over burden and γ is the unit weight of the rock. Interpretation of hydrofracture records can require expert input if the shut-in pressure is not distinct. Interpretation of test results is not a straightforward activity, and the experience of the interpreter has some effect on the in situ stress values ultimately determined. Different interpreters may derive somewhat different results from the same set of field data. In porous rocks in particular, interpretation of hydraulic fracturing tests may be very difficult and, owing to the pore pressure, definition of the major principal stress may be doubtful. In sedimentary rocks, beds with a thickness of at least 2 to 3m are necessary for satisfactory testing to be carried out. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements have been carried out at depths in the 6km to 9km range (Amadei and Stephannson, 1997) and therefore the method is, in theory, suitable for the high stress conditions encountered in deep mines. At such high pressures, valves, tubing and packers must be of special design to be able to perform as required. In boreholes in which spalling or breakouts are occurring, there may be a risk of not being able to insert (or recover) the packers, and it may also not be possible to seal off the borehole satisfactorily. Borehole breakouts due to high stress levels may also interfere with the location of the fracture on the borehole wall, and this may lead to inaccuracy in determining stress directions.
Table 1 Test No Depth (m)
Hydrofracture Field Data Shut-in Pressure-PR MPa 15.0 19.0 12.0 15.0 27.2 42.5 33.0 T=PC-PR MPa PSi MPa
BreakDown Pressure-PC MPa Underground Borehole –Sub-level 40 1 23.5 17.2 2 21.5 28.0 3 18.5 18.2 4 12.5 18.4 5 9.5 32.4 6 4.15 45.5 7 1.95 40.6
2.2 9.0 6.2 3.4 5.2 3.0 7.6
11.5 13.0 10.0 12.0 20.5 33.5 32.0
It is clear from the above that the application of the hydraulic fracturing method is theoretically possible, but would be expensive, and demanding on services. Perhaps the most severe restriction, however, is the requirement that the borehole be drilled in the direction of one of the principal stresses. In mining situations this is usually not known and is one of the in situ stress parameters to be determined. Bibliography Dyke, C G (1989) Core discing: its potential as an indicator of principal in situ stress directions, Rock at Great depth, ed Maury & Fourmaintraux, Balkema, pp 1057-1064. Fairhurst, C (1964) Measurement of in situ rock stresses with particular reference to hydraulic fracturing, Rock Mech. & Engng Geol., Vol 2, pp 129-147. Haimson, B C and Herrick, C G (1986) Borehole breakouts – a new tool for estimating in situ stress? Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 271-280. Haimson, B C, Lee, C F and Huang, J H S (1986) High horizontal stresses at Niagara Falls, their measurement and the design of a new hydroelectric plant, Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 615-624. Haimson, B C, Lee, M, Chandler, N and Martin, D (1993) Estimating the state of stress for subhorizontal hydraulic fractures at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol 30, No 7, pp 959-964. Haimson, B and Song, I (1993) Laboratory studies of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp1047- 1056. Kutter, H (1991) Influence of drilling method on borehole breakouts and core disking, Proc. 7th Int. Cong. Int. Soc. Rock Mech., Aachen, Balkema, Vol 3, pp 1659-1664. Martin, C D and Chandler, N A (1993) Stress heterogeneity and geological structures, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp 993-999. Rummel, F (1987) Fracture mechanics approach to hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, in Fracture Mechanics of Rocks, Academic Press, London, pp 217-239. Scheidegger, A E (1962) Stress in earth’s crust as determined from hydraulic fracturing data, Geol. Bauwesen, Vol 27, pp 45-53.
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