Rock Mechanics and Ground control

Course Material For Singareni Collieries Limited (SCCLtd) Ramagundem AP

By Dr.K.U.M.Rao Professor Department of Mining Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur 721302

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Rock Mechanics as a Discipline

Rock mechanics is a discipline that uses the principles of mechanics to describe the behaviour of rocks. Here, the term of rock is in the scale of engineering. The scale is generally in the order of between a few metres to a few thousand metres. Therefore, the rock considered in rock mechanics is in fact the rock mass, which composes intact rock materials and rock discontinuities. What is so special of rock mechanics? For normal construction materials, e.g., steel and concrete, the mechanical behaviours are continuous, homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic (CHILE). Properties of the manmade materials are known and can often be controlled. For rocks, due to the existence of discontinuities, the behaviours are discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and non-linearly elastic (DIANE). Properties of the natural geomaterials are unknown and often can not be controlled. It is important to be award that in rock mechanics, rock discontinuities dominate the mechanical and engineering behaviours. The existence of discontinuity depends on the scale. The discontinuous nature and scale dependence feature is not common in other man-made materials. Rock mechanics is applied to various engineering disciplines: civil, mining, hydropower, petroleum. In civil engineering, it involves foundation, slope and tunnel. In structural engineering, the design process generally is as following: Calculate external loading imposed on the structure; Design the structure and analyse loading in structure elements; Design the structure element and select materials. In rock engineering, or geotechnical engineering, the whole process is different. Loading condition is not easily calculateable, rock engineering, being sloping cutting or underground excavation, does not impose loading, but disturbs the existing stress field of the ground and redistribute the load. Therefore, the key process in rock engineering is to understand the how the stress field is disturbed by engineering activities and how the rock is behaving (responding) to the change of boundary conditions, and yet the material does not has a characteristics controlled by man. The objectives of learning rock mechanics are: • • To understand of the mechanical behaviour of rock materials, rock discontinuities and rock masses. To be able to analyse and to determine mechanical and engineering properties of rocks for engineering applications.

CHAPTER 2 ROCK FORMATION AND ROCK MASS 2.1 Rock Formations and Types Rock is a natural geo-material. In geological term, rock is a solid substance composed of minerals, of which can consist in particulate form (soil particles) or in large form (mountains, tectonic plates, planetary cores, planets). In common term, rock is an aggregate of minerals. Rocks are formed by three main origins: igneous rocks from magma, sedimentary rock from sediments lithfication and metamorphic rocks through metamorphism. Figure 2.1.1a shows the geological process involved in the formations of various rocks. It should be noted that the processes are dynamic and continuous.

Figure 2.1.1a Rock cycle illustrating the role of various geological processes in rock formation. 2.1.3 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization. They can be formed below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks, or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. This magma can be derived from either the Earth's mantle or pre-existing rocks made molten by extreme temperature and pressure changes. Figure 2.1.1a shows the origin of magma and igneous rock through the rock cycle. As magma cools, minerals crystallize from the melt at different temperatures. The magma from which the minerals crystallize is rich in only silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium,

Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust and are classified by texture and by mineral assembly. In the process atoms are exchanged between the minerals.1. chalk and limestone. Sedimentary rocks include common types such as sandstone. Igneous rocks make up approximately 95% of the upper part of the Earth's crust. but count for only 5% of the rock in the earth crust. through metamorphism. and by precipitation from solution. The combined effects of recrystallisation and re-orientation usually lead to foliation. deposition and compaction. which account for over 90% of all igneous rocks. heat causes minerals to recrystallise. and magnesium minerals. known as contact metamorphism. iron. All rocks disintegrate slowly as a result of mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. These are the elements which combine to form the silicate minerals.1. igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock (Figure 2. When an existing rock is subjected to heat and extreme pressure.1a). shale. clay. Another important mechanism of metamorphism is that of chemical reactions that occur between minerals without them melting. known as regional metamorphism. Heat and pressure are the causes of metamorphism. They are formed deep beneath the Earth's surface by great stresses from rocks above and high pressures and temperatures.5 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rock is a new rock type transformed from an existing rock type. Four basic processes are involved in the formation of a clastic sedimentary rock: weathering (erosion). the rock undergoes profound physical and/or chemical change. and each mineral assemblage produced provides us with a clue as to the temperatures and pressures at the time of metamorphism. The high temperatures and pressures in the depths of the Earth are the cause of the changes.potassium. Metamorphic rocks are also formed by the intrusion of molten rock (magma) into solid rock and form particularly at the place of contact between the magma and solid rock where the temperatures are high. Pressure forces some crystals to re-orient. and thus new minerals are formed.4 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is formed in three main ways – by the deposition of the weathered remains of other rocks (known as 'clastic' sedimentary rocks). 2. calcium.1. The existing rock may be sedimentary rock. but their great abundance is hidden on the Earth's surface by a relatively thin but widespread layer of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by chemical reaction. transportation. Many complex high-temperature reactions may take place. When above 200°C. conglomerate. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface. Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock into particles without producing changes in the chemical composition of the minerals in the rock. 2. which is a unique feature . by the deposition of the results of biogenic activity.

as the spacing of joints usually is between a few centimetres and a few metres. or foliated. They are generally considered as part of the rock mass. Joints are always in sets. the term fault zone is used when referring to the zone of complex deformation associated with the fault plane. Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along faults. (ii) three sets. Since faults usually do not consist of a single. Figure 2.1a). rock. Joints can also be caused by cooling of hot rock masses. Large faults within the Earth's crust are the result of shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most earthquakes.2 Rock Discontinuities 2. such as mica and chlorite.2. a rock mass can have between one to a few joint sets. It occurs when a strong compressive force is applied from one direction to a recrystallizing rock.1a Typical joints seen (i) one dominant set. Columnar jointing or columnar basalts are typical joint features by cooling.2. which form cooling joints.2 Faults Geologic faults are planar rock fractures which show evidence of relative movement. 2. Joints are also formed by tectonic movement. Joints are the most common type of rock discontinuities.1 Joints A geological joint is a generally planar fracture formed in a rock as a result of extensional stress. with the bands showing the colours of the minerals that formed them. Joints do not have any significant offset of strata either vertically or horizontally (Figure 2. The largest examples are at tectonic plate boundaries. Joints are often in sets.2a. but many faults occur far from active plate boundaries. . Joints can be formed due to erosion of the overlying strata exposed at the surface.2. to grow with their long axes perpendicular to the direction of the force. and hence leads to the fracturing of underlying rock. Figure 2.of metamorphic rocks. clean fracture. 2. This causes the platy or elongated crystals of minerals. This result in a banded. A joint set is a group of parallel joints.2. Typically.2. The removal of overlying rock results in change of stresses.

are often associated with high degree of fracturing and relatively weak and soft rocks.2. are large scale geological features.4 Bedding Planes As sedimentary rocks are formed in layers. if a project is to be constructed over or close such zones.Figure 2.3 Folds The term fold is used in geology when originally flat and planar rock strata are bent as a result of tectonic force or movement.4a). 2.2a Faults. They are often dealt separately from the rock mass. It should be noted that fold has huge variation of features.2. 2. However. A shear zone is a wide zone of distributed shearing in rock. or up to several kilometres wide. fault zone and shear zone. but the results of folding is often reflected in the rock mass consideration. Although the folding feature may not be directly taking into account of rock mass. Shear zones can be only inches wide. particularly intense folds.2.2. Small scale single faults often have the similar effects as a joint. Folds. . As faults. Folds form under very varied conditions of stress. Bedding plane often can be fully closed and cemented.2. The behaviour large scale fault and shear zones require specific investigation and analysis. Folds can be commonly observed in sedimentary formation and as well as in metamorphic rocks (Figure 2. Typically this is a type of fault but it may be difficult to place a distinct fault plane into the shear zone.3a). the interfaces between layers are termed as bedding planes. folds can be of the similar scale as the engineering project and hence the significance of folds on the behaviour of the rock mass must be taken into consideration. particularly fault zone and shear zone. Bedding plane therefore is a discontinuity separating different rocks (Figure 2. Folds are usually not considered as part of the rock mass.

2. often termed as rock mass.1 Engineering Scale and Rock Engineering in and on rock has different scales. an interface between porous sandstone and limestone may lead to extensive weathering of the limestone.3 Rock Material and Rock Masses 2. then rock in such scale is generally a mass of rock at the site. typically seen in Figure 2.3.g. which leads to cavities along the interface. e. It mainly creates an interface of two rock materials..1b. Bedding planes are isolated geological features to engineering activities. some bedding planes could also become potential weathered zones and pocket of groundwater. This mass of rock. is the whole body of the rock in situ. For civil engineering works. However. foundations.2.3. slopes and tunnels. For example. When such engineering scale is considered.Figure 2. Figure 2. A borehole can be typically around 8 cm while a mine can spread up to a few km. consists of rock blocks and fractures.3b Folds in a sedimentary formation. varying from a few centimetres to a few kilometres. the scale of projects is usually a few ten metres to a few hundreds metres.3a Folds in a sedimentary formation. . 2.

4b Some typical bedding planes. Figure 2. Figure 2.4a Some typical bedding planes. .2.1b Typical rock masses.2.Figure 2.3.

3 Role of Joints in Rock Mass Behaviour Rock joints change the properties and behaviour of rock mass in the following terms: (i) Cuts rock into slabs. in the form of intact rock plates.4 Inhomogeneity and Anisotropy 2. in the forms of fractures. In addition. . 2.2 Composition of Rock Mass A rock mass contains (a) rock material. (iii)Alters stress distribution and orientation. rock mass may also include filling materials in the discontinuities and dyke and sill igneous intrusions (Figure 2. It is therefore obvious that rock mass behaviour by large is governed by rock joints. blocks and wedges.1 Inhomogeneity of Rock Materials Inhomogeneity represents property varying with locations.3.3.4. varying from extremely soft clay and fractured and crushed rocks.2a). Figure 2. Rocks are formed by nature and exhibits great inhomogeneity.3. and (b) rock discontinuities that cuts through the rock. they have relative small deformation and low permeability. (ii) Gives large deformation. 2. and faults. interbedding and intrusion. blocks and wedges. Rock materials and discontinuities together form rockmass. Because the rock materials between rock joints are intact and solid.3. 2.2.4.2 Inhomogeneity of Rock Masses Inhomogeneity of a rock mass is primarily due to the existence of discontinuities. Most of the engineering materials have varying degrees of inhomogeneity. (ii) Acts as weak planes for sliding and moving. to be free to fall and move (Figure 2.3. Rock masses are also inhomogeneous due to the mix of rock types. Faults are often filled with weathered materials.3a). (i) Provides water flow channel and creates flow networks.2a A dyke intrusion. of various sizes. joints.

. as seen in Figure 2.4.3b A Limestone rock mass with one dominating joint set. (i) slate and (ii) sandstone. Rock with most obvious anisotropy is slate.3a. have noticeable anisotropic characteristics.3a Some common anisotropic rocks.4.3 Anisotropy Anisotropy is defined as properties are different in different direction.g.Anisotropy occurs in both rock materials and rock mass. Rock mass anisotropy is controlled by (i) joint set (Figure 2.4. Figure 2. small degree of anisotropy is possible. shale. under the influence of formation process and pressure.4.2. Some sedimentary rocks. and (ii) sedimentary layer (Figure 2.4. Phyllite and schist are the other foliated metamorphic rocks that exhibit anisotropy. Figure 2. . Other sedimentary may not have clear anisotropy. However. e.2a).4.3b).

only about nine of them partake decisively in forming the composition of rocks. calcites. . 2. The term “rock texture” refers to the arrangement of its grains. seen on a smooth surface of a mineral aggregate. One distinguishes between coarse-texture (coarse-grained) and fine-textures rock. They are: • Quartz • Feldspar • Mica • Hornblende(Amphiboles) • Pyroxenes • Olivine • Calcite • Kaolinite. Mineralogical composition . A coarse-grained rock is one in which the large crystals are seen easily while the fine grained rocks need to be seen under a microscope. 3. Rock structure and texture affect the strength properties of the rock. The Rocks containing quartz as the binder are known as siliceous rocks and are the strongest while the rocks with calcium and magnesium carbonates are the weakest. argillaceous and ferrous minerals. 6. and texture. 8. and • Dolomite These minerals are glued together by four types of materials such as silicates. Specific gravity G Unit weight γ Porosity n Void ratio e Moisture content w Degree of saturation. showing the geometrical aspects of the rock including shape. 5. S Permeability to water k Mineralogical composition is the intrinsic property controlling the strength of the rock Although there exist more than 2000 kinds of known minerals. 3. 4. structure.CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF ROCK MATERIALS Rock material is the intact rock portion. 7. megascopic or microscopic. This Chapter addresses properties of rock material. and arrangement. size. Thus the texture is the appearance.1 Physical Properties of Rock Material The physical properties of rocks affecting design and construction in rocks are: 1.

V V − (WS / Gγ W ) e = n= V = V 1+ e V V 1 = S 1+ e V γ Dry = (The unit weight of water = 1 g/cm3 = 1 t/m3 = 9.1 Specific Gravity. Void ratio (e) is the ratio of the volume of voids (VV) to the volume of solids (VS) e= VV VS Wd γ G = ⋅γW = V 1+ e 1+ w Porosity (n) describes how densely the material is packed. Density.81 kN/m3 = 62. Density of rock material various. Most rocks have density between 2. It is sometimes defined by unit weight and specific gravity. It is the ratio of the non-solid volume (VV) to the total volume (V) of material. Porosity therefore is a fraction between 0 and 1.3. Porosity and Water Content Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of solids to the density of water.800 kg/m3.1. and often related to the porosity of the rock. M 1 G= S ⋅ VS ρ W (where M S = mass of solids and VS -volume of solids) Unit weight ( γ ) W V ( W is the total weight of the sample and V the total volume of the sample) γ = Density is a measure of mass per unit of volume.81 kN/m3 w = moisture content of the sample .500nd 2.4 lb/ft3) Where Wd = dry weight of the sample WS = weight of solids VV and VS = volume of voids and volume of solids V = total volume of the sample G = specific gravity e = Void ratio of the sample γ w = Unit weight of water = 9.

Water content is a measure indicating the amount of water the rock material contains. It is influenced by the specific gravity of the composition minerals and the compaction of the minerals. Figure Phase diagram illustrating the weights and volume relationship .5 for porous sandstone. It may also be represented in percent terms by multiplying the fraction by 100%. A low density and high porosity rock usually has low strength. Density is used to estimate overburden stress. Density and porosity often related to the strength of rock material.01 for solid granite to up to 0. However. most rocks are well compacted and then have specific gravity between 2. It is simply the ratio of the weight of water (Ww) to the weight (WS) of the rock material.8. Porosity is one of the governing factors for the permeability. High porosity therefore naturally leads to high permeability.5 to 2.The value is typically ranging from less than 0. Porosity provides the void for water to flow through in a rock material. w= Ww W − WS × 100 = × 100 WS WS Degree of saturation S is S= Vw × 100 VV Density is common physical properties.

2 Hardness Hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation.4 Permeability Permeability is a measure of the ability of a material to transmit fluids.1.1a gives common physical properties.1.g. 3.1. including density and porosity of rock materials. The higher quartz content gives higher abrasivity.Abrasivity measures are given by several tests. A typical measure is the Schmidt rebound hardness number.1. including igneous. As discussed earlier. 3. e. permeability of rock material is governed by porosity. generally have very low permeability. metamorphic and chemical sedimentary rocks.Table 3. Abrasivity is highly influenced by the amount of quartz mineral in the rock material. Most rocks. Table 3. Porous rocks such as sandstones usually have high permeability while granites . It is an important measure for estimate wear of rock drilling and boring equipment.. steel.1a Physical properties of fresh rock materials 3.3 Abrasivity Abrasivity measures the abrasiveness of a rock materials against other materials. Hardness of rock materials depends on several factors. including mineral composition and density. Cerchar and other abrasivity tests are described later.1.

used in design. has limited interests as in the rock mass.1a.1.1. Wave velocities are also commonly used to assess the degree of rock mass fracturing at large scale. while S-wave velocity measures the travel speed of shear (secondary) wave in the material. the grains are not in good contact. except for those porous one. represent 6 stages that the rock material is undergoing.5 Wave Velocity Measurements of wave are often done by using P wave and sometimes.2 Mechanical Properties of Rock Material 3. Typical values of P and S wave velocities of some rocks are given in Table 3. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock material. Usually compressive strength of rock is defined by the ultimate stress.2. and it will be discussed in a later chapter.2. Permeability of rock materials. A well compacted rock has generally high velocity as the grains are all in good contact and wave are traveling through the solid.1 Compressive Strength Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed compressive forces. Figure 3. The complete stressstrain curve can be divided into 6 sections. The velocity measurements provide correlation to physical properties in terms of compaction degree of the material. analysis and modeling. flow is concentrated in fractures in the rock mass.1a presents a typical stress-strain curve of a rock under uniaxial compression. Permeability of rock fractures is discussed later. 3. S waves.1c show the states of rock in those stages of compression.2. The most common measure of compressive strength is the uniaxial compressive strength or unconfined compressive strength. 3. For a poorly compact rock material.have low permeability.1b and Figure 3. P wave velocity measures the travel speed of longitudinal (primary) wave in the material.2. using the same principle. so the wave will partially travel through void (air or water) and the velocity will be reduced (P-wave velocities in air and in water are 340 and 1500 m/s respectively and are much lower than that in solid). Figure 4. .

Stage I – The rock is initially stressed. the stress-strain is largely recoverable. Figure 3. as the there is little permanent damage of the micro-structure of the rock material. The rock is primarily undergoing elastic deformation with minimum cracking inside the material. There is a slight increase in lateral strain due to dilation. particularly in stiffer unconfined rocks. both axially and laterally. This initial non-linearity is more obvious in weaker and more porous rocks. In this stage the crack arrays fork and coalesce into macrocracks or fractures. Micro-cracks are likely initiated at the later portion of this stage. of about 35-40% peak strength. The Poisson's ratio. Stage IV – The rock is undergone a rapid acceleration of microcracking events and volume increase. even though the internal structure is highly disrupt.Figure 3. Stage V – The rock has passed peak stress. Stage II – The rock basically has a linearly elastic behaviour with linear stress-strain curves. Stage III – The rock behaves near-linear elastic. At this stage.1c Samples of rock material under uniaxial compression test and failure.2. This causes an initial non-linearity of the axial stress-strain curve. The axial stress-strain curve is nearlinear and is nearly recoverable.2.1a Typical uniaxial compression stress-strain curve of rock material. The upper boundary of the stage is the point of maximum compaction and zero volume change and occurs at about 80% peak strength.depending on the strength of the rock. The spreading of microcracks is no longer independent and clusters of cracks in the zones of highest stress tend to coalesce and start to form tensile fractures or shear planes . pre-existing microcracks or pore orientated at large angles to the applied stress is closing. but is still intact. tends to be low. Microcrack propagation occurs in a stable manner during this stage and that microcracking events occur independently of each other and are distributed throughout the specimen. The specimen is undergone strain softening (failure) . in addition to deformation.

Compressive strength with lateral pressures is higher than that without.2. Discussion on the influence of confining pressure to the mechanical characteristics is given in a later section. In addition to the significant increase of strength with confining pressure.. and is subjected to lateral stresses.1d shows the results of a series triaxial compression tests.2. Stage VI – The rock has essentially parted to form a series of blocks rather than an intact structure. we often are interested in the rock at depth. of the rate of change of stress with strain. i. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve obtained during compressional or tensile tests conducted on a rock sample. . Secondary fractures may occur due to differential shearing. The rock is covered by overburden materials. at peak stress the test specimen starts to become weaker with increasing strain. Thus further strain will be concentrated on weaker elements of the rock which have already been subjected to strain. equivalent to the frictional resistance of the sliding blocks.1d Triaxial compression test and failure 3. This in turn will lead to zones of concentrated strain or shear planes. for small strains.e. Typical strengths and modulus of common rocks are given in Table 3.2. It is defined as the ratio.1a. The compressive strength with lateral pressures is called triaxial compressive strength.2. Figure 3.2 Young's Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio Young's Modulus is modulus of elasticity measuring of the stiffness of a rock material. the stress-strain characteristics also changed. These blocks slide across each other and the predominant deformation mechanism is friction between the sliding blocks. In underground excavation. The axial stress or force acting on the specimen tends to fall to a constant residual strength value.deformation. Figure 3.

A few soft rocks. have low strain at failure. For most rocks.2. .4. 3. the Poisson’s ratio is between 0.3a. mainly of sedimentary origin. Strain at failure increases with increasing confining pressure under triaxial compression conditions. such as shale and mudstone. Brittle rocks. while soft rock. Rocks can have brittle or ductile behaviour after peak. Strain at failure is the strain measured at ultimate stress.15 and 0. as shown in Figure 3. Most rocks. including all crystalline igneous. behave ductile.2 to 0. Young’s Modulus of rock materials varies widely with rock type. Poisson’s ratio measures the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain. typically crystalline rocks. at linearly-elastic region. As seen from the tests that at later stage of loading beyond.2.1a Mechanical properties of rock materials. For extremely hard and strong rocks. metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Young’s Modulus can be as high as 100 GPa. typically around 0. beyond the linearly elastic region the increase in lateral strain is faster than the axial strain and hence indicates a higher ratio. Similar to strength. could have relatively high strain at failure. Rocks generally fail at a small strain.4% under uniaxial compression. behave brittle under uniaxial compression.2.3 Stress-Strain at and after Peak A complete stress-strain curve for a rock specimen in uniaxial compression test can be obtained.Table 3. that is. Strain at failure sometimes is used as a measure of brittleness of the rock.

2.2. Different rocks have different cohesions and different friction angles. Internal friction is caused by contact between particles.2. The existence of microcracks may also be the cause of rock failing suddenly in tension with a small strain. Figure 3. Rock material generally has a low tensile strength. Figure 3.Figure 3.4a Stress and failure of Brazilian tensile tests by RFPA simulation. and is defined by the internal friction angle. Cohesion is a measure of internal bonding of the rock material. maximum tensile stress the rock material can withstand. i. cohesion and internal friction. φ. Tensile strength of rock materials can be obtained from several types of tensile tests: direct tensile test.2.5 Shear Strength Shear strength is used to describe the strength of rock materials. The most common tensile strength determination is by the Brazilian tests. 3.3a Complete stress-strain curves of several rocks showing post peak behaviour (Brady and Brown).4 Tensile Strength Tensile strength of rock material is normally defined by the ultimate strength in tension. to resist deformation due to shear stress. Direct test is not commonly performed due to the difficulty in sample preparation. The low tensile strength is due to the existence of microcracks in the rock. 3.. Rock resists shear stress by two internal mechanisms.4a illustrates the failure mechanism of the Brazilian tensile tests.e. Brazilian test and flexure test. .2.

(c) (d) The confining pressure that causes the post-peak reduction in strength disappears and the behaviour becomes fully ductile (48.5a.3 Effects of Confining and Pore Water Pressures on Strength and Deformation 3. In general.1 Effects of Confining Pressure Figure 4.3. igneous and high grade metamorphic rocks. even the loading may appears to be compression.g. .Shear strength of rock material can be determined by direct shear test and by triaxial compression tests. Rocks generally have high compressive strength so failure in pure compression is not common. granite and quartzite.3. the later methods is widely used and accepted. is known as the brittle-ductile transition pressure.5a Determination of shear strength by triaxial tests. the region incorporating the peak of the axial stress-axial strain curve flattens and widens. there is a transition from typically brittle to fully ductile behaviour with the introduction of plastic mechanism of deformation. the post-peak drop in stress to the residual strength reduces and disappears at high confining stress. Figure 3.3 MPa in the figure). as shown in Figure 3. the shear envelope is defined which gives the cohesion and internal friction angle. e..2. By plotting Mohr circles. Tensile and shear strengths are important as rock fails mostly in tension and in shearing. It shows that with increasing confining pressure. In practice. (a) (b) the peak strength increases. remain brittle at room temperature at confining pressures of up to 1000 MPa or more.1a illustrates a number of important features of the behaviour of rock in triaxial compression.2. With a series of triaxial tests conducted at different confining pressures. 3. This brittle-ductile transition pressure varies with rock type. peak stresses (σ1) are obtained at various lateral stresses (σ3).

There is a transition from ductile to brittle behaviour as pore pressure is increased from 0 to 69 MPa.2 Effects of Pore Water Pressure The influence of pore-water pressure on the behaviour of porous rock in the triaxial compression tests is illustrated by Figure 4.3. but with various level of pore pressure (0-69 MPa). mechanical response is controlled by the effective confining stress (σ3' = σ3 – u). the classical effective stress law does not hold. Figure 3.3. Effect of pore water pressure is only applicable for porous rocks where sufficient pore pressure can be developed within the materials.2a.3. For low porosity rocks. In this case. .3.Figure 3.2a Effect of pore pressure on the stress-strain behaviour of rock materials. A series of triaxial compression tests was carried out on a limestone with a constant confining pressure of 69 MPa.1a Complete axial stress-axial strain curves obtained in triaxial compression tests on Marble at various confining pressures (after Wawersik & Fairhurst 1970). 3.

From the theory of elasticity. and Strength Schmidt hammer rebound hardness is often measured during early part of field investigation. At the same time.5.3.4 Other Engineering Properties of Rock Materials 3. with size correction to an equivalent core diameter of 50 mm.5. compared to the strength in dry condition.1a.5.4.5. 3. Young’s Modulus and Strength. the hardness index can be used to estimate uniaxial compressive strength of the rock material. 4. Is(50). Figure 3. It gives the standard point load index. calculated from the point load at failure and the size of the specimen. The correlation between hardness and strength is shown in Figure 3. . 3. It is a measure of the hardness of the rock material by count the rebound degree.5 Relationships between Physical and Mechanical Properties 3. it is also used to estimate the elastic modulus of the rock material. the uniaxial compressive strength is reduced.3 Velocity and Modulus While seismic wave velocity gives a physical measurement of the rock material. compressional (or longitudinal) P-wave velocity (vp) is related to the elastic modulus E s and the density (ρ) of the material as. The correlation is also influenced by the density of the material.5. Density.2 Effect of Water Content on Strength Many tests showed that the when rock materials are saturated or in wet condition.1 Rock Hardness.1 Point Load Strength Index Point load test is another simple index test for rock material.1a Correlation between hardness.

5.4 Compressive Strength and Modulus It is a general trend that a stronger rock material is also stiffer. The correlations are presented in Figure 3.If ρ in g/cm3.4a Correlation between strength and modulus. It is different from the modules obtained by the uniaxial compression tests.5. Seismic Poisson’s ration νs can be determined from. or perhaps on the texture of the rocks. The value of the seismic modulus is generally slightly higher than the modulus determined from static compression tests. Es = 2 Gs (1 + νs) 3.5. then Es in GPa (109 N/m2). Similarly. seismic Young’s modulus Es can be determined from shear modulus (Gs) and Poisson’s ratio (νs). There is reasonable correlation between compressive strength and elastic modulus.4a. Figure 3. Alternatively. seismic shear modulus Gs may be determined from shear S-wave velocity vs. The elastic modulus estimated by this method is the sometime termed as seismic modulus (also called dynamic modulus. and vp in km/s. but should not be mistaken as the modulus under dynamic compression). It should be noted that the correlation is not precisely linear and also depends on the rock type. Gs is in GPa.. when density ρ is in g/cm3. higher elastic modulus is often associated with higher strength.e. and S-wave velocity vs is in km/s. i. .

e. or In a shear stress-normal stress plot.6. Therefore.3. i.6. a constant cohesion (c) and a normal stress-dependent frictional component. When failure occurs. with an intercept c on the τ axis and an angle of φ with .1a Stresses on failure plane a-b and representation of Mohr’s circle. the stresses on the failure plane a-b are the normal stress σn and shear stress τ. by combining the above three equations. the stresses developed on the failure plane are on the strength envelope. where c = cohesion and φ = angle of internal friction. it gives: Coulomb suggested that shear strengths of rock are made up of two parts.6. Refer to Figure 3.1a.1 Mohr-Coulomb criterion Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion assumes that a shear failure plane is developed in the rock material.. the Coulomb shear strength criterion τ = c + σn tanφ is represented by a straight line. Applying the stress transformation equations or from the Mohr’s circle.6 Failure Criteria of Rock Materials 3. Figure 3.

For most rocks. rock failure starts with the formation of the shear failure plane a-b. a tensile cut-off is usually applied at a selected value of uniaxial tensile stress. As assumed. σt′ is about 1/10 σc. the failure plane is defined by θ. the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope straight line touches (makes a tangent) to the Mohr’s circles. and θ=¼π+½φ Then Figure 3.1b Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope in terms of normal and shear stresses and principal stresses. the stress condition on the a-b plane meets the strength envelope.6. failure will occur. σt′. In another word. As seen from the Mohr’s circle. the stress condition on the a-b plane satisfies the shear strength condition. and once the stress condition meet the envelope. .the σn axis. Any stress condition below the strength envelope is safe.1b is extrapolated. the measured values of tensile strength are generally lower than those predicted by the above equation. For this reason. with tensile cut-off.6. This straight line is often called the strength envelope. as shown in Figure 4. If the Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope shown in Figure 4. Therefore.6.1b. At each tangent point. the uniaxial compressive strength is related to c and φ by: An apparent value of uniaxial tensile strength of the material is given by: However.

6. due to its simplicity and popularity.2 Griffith strength criterion Based on the energy instability concept.6.6.The Mohr-Coulomb strength envelope can also be shown in σ1–σ3 plots. Griffith obtained the following criterion for crack extension in plane compression: Figure 3. In most cases.2a Griffith crack model for plane compression. At h i h σ3. . Assuming that the elliptical crack will propagate from the points of maximum tensile stress concentration (P in Figure 4. 3.1b. Then. rock engineering deals with shallow problems and low σ3.2a). so the criterion is widely used.6. as seen in Figure 4. It also overestimates tensile strength. it overestimates the strength. and or g The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is only suitable for the low range of σ3. Griffith extended the theory to the case of applied compressive stresses.

a number of empirical strength criteria have been introduced for practical use.6. which represents the cohesion. When σ3 = 0. One of the most widely used criteria is Hoek-Brown criterion for isotropic rock materials and rock masses.2b.where σt is the uniaxial tensile strength of the material.6. the above equation becomes It in fact suggests that the uniaxial compressive stress at crack extension is always eight times the uniaxial tensile strength Figure 3. This criterion can also be expressed in terms of the shear stress (τ) and normal stress (σn) acting on the plane containing the major axis of the crack: When σn = 0.6. The strength envelopes given by the above equations in principal stresses and in normal and shear stresses are shown in Figure 3.2b Griffith envelope for crack extension in compression. Hoek and Brown (1980) found that the peak triaxial compressive strengths of a wide range of isotropic rock materials could be described by the following equation: or Where m is a parameter that changes with rock type in the following general way: . 3. τ = 2σt.3 Hoek-Brown criterion Because the classic strength theories used for other engineering materials have been found not to apply to rock over a wide range of applied compressive stress conditions.

. It is evident that the Hoek-Brown strength envelope is not a straight line. with respect to the principal stress directions. or the presence of bedding or cleavage planes. such as shale and slate.1a shows some measured variations in peak principal stress difference with the angle of inclination of the major principal stress to the plane of weakness. plane of weakness or foliation plane.7 Effects of Rock Microstructures on Mechanical Properties 3.1 Strength of rock material with Anisotropy Rocks. Figure 3. There are several forms of anisotropy with various degrees of complexity. It is also extended to rock masses with the same equation.3a shows normalized Hoek-Brown peak strength envelope for some rocks. Figure 3.Figure 3. to be discussed here. It is however very easy to use and select parameters.3a Normalized peak strength envelope for (i) granites and (ii) sandstones (after Hoek & Brown 1980). the envelope curves down. It is therefore only the simplest form of anisotropy. transverse isotropy.6. so it gives low strength estimate than the MohrCoulomb envelope. The peak strengths developed by transversely isotropic rocks in triaxial compression vary with the orientation of the plane of isotropy. but a curve. The Hoek-Brown peak strength criterion is an empirical criterion based on substantial test results on various rocks. are not isotropic. the behaviour of those rocks is anisotropic.7. At high stress level. hence makes it is so far the only acceptable criterion for both material and mass. 3.6.7. Because of some preferred orientation of fabric or microstructure.

ϕ w = angle of friction of the plane.7.7.1a can be given by the equation below (Brady & Brown 1985): Where: c w = cohesion of the plane of weakness.Figure 3. The minimum strength occurs when The corresponding value of principal stress difference is.1a Variation of differential stresses with the inclination angle of the plane of weakness (see Brady & Brown 1985) Analytical solution shows that principal stress difference (σ1–σ3) of a transversely isotropic specimen under triaxial compression shown in Figure 3. . β = inclination of the plane.

the rock has the lowest strength. Figure 3.2 Effect of Loading Rate on Rock Strength 3. Fo r rock s.3 Failure Mechanism of Rock Material under Impact and Shock Loading 3. 3. stress and strain relationship. φw is about 30° to 50°. When the weakness plane is at an angle of 45° + ½ φw.9. The load is measured by a load transducer. plotted using the above equation. . hence β is about 60° to 70°. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate around 1 μm/s such that failure occurs within 5-10 minutes of loading. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the failure load.1 Rheologic Properties of Rock Materials 3.Figure 3.1b shows variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.8. the strength is the lowest.8. Load.8 Time Dependent Characteristics of Rock Materials 3. two axial deformations and one circumferential deformation measurements are recorded at every 25 KN interval until failure. This in fact shows that when the rock containing an existing weakness plane that is about to become a failure plane. Two axial and one circumferential deformation measurement devices (LVDTs) are attached to each of the specimen.7. The specimen is then compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating.1b Variation of σ1 at constant σ3 with angle β.1 Compression Tests (a) Uniaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. intact rock specimens generally fail to form a shear plane at an angle about 60° to 70°. Uniaxial compressive strength.8. In compression tests.9 Laboratory Testing of Rock Materials 3.7.

The specimen is then further compressed under a stiff compression machine with a spherical seating. uniaxial compressive strength.. Figure 3. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress .Uniaxial compressive strength. (b) Triaxial Compression Strength Test Specimens of right circular cylinders having a height to diameter ratio of 2 or higher are prepared by cutting and grinding. measurement devices are attached to each of the specimen. Poisson's ratio at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength. Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of uniaxial compressive strength.3a A typical uniaxial compression test set-up with load and strain measurements. specimen anisotropy. Hoek-Franklin cell) and a desired confining stress is applied and maintained by a hydraulic pump. density and water content at time of test.9. specimen dimension. mode of failure. The specimen is placed in a triaxial cell (e. ν50%. The . σ c is calculated as the failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen.g. is calculated as: v50% = slope of axial stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c slope of lateral stress − strain curve at 50% of σ c Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Two axial and two lateral deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used). stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. The axial stress is applied with a constant strain rate arou nd 1 μm/s su ch that failu re occu rs with in 5-15 minutes of loading. modulus of elasticity. Poisson's ratio.

Axial tangential Young's modulus at 50% of triaxial compressive strength. stress and strain relationship. is calculated as the axial failure load divided by the initial cross sectional area of the specimen.3b Triaxial compression test using Hoek cell. Mohr's stress circle are plotted using confining stress as σ 3 and axial stress as σ 1 . σ 1 . Triaxial compressive strength. specimen dimension. 2 axial strain or deformation and 2 lateral strains or deformation (or a circumferential deformation if a circumferential chain LVDT device is used) are recorded at a fixed interval until failure. triaxial compressive strength. Reporting of results includes description of the rock. Et50% is calculated as the slope of tangent line of axial stress . Figure 3. Poisson's ratio. .9. specimen anisotropy. Poisson's ratio at 50% of triaxial compressive strength is calculated with the same methods as for the uniaxial compression test. mode of failure. Failure envelopes (Mohr. Young's modules (at 50% of failure stress) and Poisson's ratio (at 50% of failure stress) can be calculated from the axial failure load.axial strain curve at a stress level equals to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength.load is measured by a load transducer. For a group of triaxial compression tests at different confining stress level. Triaxial compressive strength. Load. density and water content at time of test. stress-strain (axial and lateral) curves to failure. Mohr's circles and failure envelope. Coulomb or Hoek and Brown) and parameters of specified failure criterion are determined. modulus of elasticity.

636 P Dt Reporting of results includes description of the rock. The specimen is wrapped around its periphery with one layer of the masking tape and loaded into the Brazil tensile test apparatus across its diameter. End faces shall be flat to within 0.5 Shear Strength Tests . calculation and the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio is similar to that for the uniaxial compression test. 3. Ten specimens of the same sample shall be tested. The specimen is then loaded in tension by pulling from the two ends.4 Tensile Tests (a) Direct Tension Test Direct tension tests on rock materials are not common. The tensile strength of the rock is calculated from failure load (P). Deformation modulus can be measured by having strain gauges attached to the specimen.9. The cylindrical surfaces should be free from obvious tool marks and any irregularities across the thickness. rock specimen is to be prepared in dog-bone shape with a thin middle.9. orientation of the axis of loading with respect to specimen anisotropy.25°. due to the difficulty in specimen preparation. (b) Brazilian Tensile Strength Test Cylindrical specimen of diameter approximately equals to 50 mm and thickness approximately equal to the radius is prepared.25 mm and square and parallel to within 0. specimen diameter (D) and specimen thickness (t) by the following formula: σT = − 0.3. Loading is applied continuously at a constant rate such that failure occurs within 15-30 seconds. Figure 3. test duration and loading rate.4b Brazilian tensile test. water content and degree of saturation.9. For direct tension test. mode of failure.

In diametrical test. the size correction factor is: Is = P 2 D F = e   50    The corrected point load strength index I s (50 ) is calculated as: I s (50 ) = F . The line represents the shear strength envelope.6 Point Load Strength Index Test Point load test of rock cores can be conducted diametrically and axially. is given by: for diametrical test. The point load strength is corrected to the point load strength at equivalent core diameter of 50 mm. a series equation can be formed for sets of σ 1 and σ 1 . Cohesion c and friction angle ‘φ’ can be computed by solving the equations. The angle of the line to the horizontal is the internal friction angle φ.(a) Direct Punch Shear (b) Shear Strength Determination by Triaxial Compression Results Shear strength parameters. and the intercept at τ axis is the cohesion c. 3. Load at failure is recorded as P.0.5 D to D and is loaded between the point load apparatus axially. For De ≠ 50 mm. rock core is cut to a height between 0. The Mohr’s circle can be plotted for a series of triaxial tests results with σ 1 at different σ 3 . based on the MohrCoulomb criterion.45 . as typically shown in the figure below. rock core specimen of diameter D is loaded between the point load apparatus across its diameter.I s 0. forming a series circles. Uncorrected point load strength. block and lump tests. cohesion (c) and international friction angle (φ) can be determined from triaxial compression test data. The length/diameter ratio for the diametrical test should be greater than 1. is calculated as: De where De . Is. = 4A / π A = H D = minimum cross sectional area of a plane through the loading points. A straight line is draw to fit best by tangent to all the Mohr’s circles. Alternatively. the "equivalent core diameter".9. De2 = D 2 for axial. For axial test.

The Schmidt hammer is point perpendicularly and touch the surface of rock. 3.8 Hardness (a) Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness A Schmidt hammer with rebound measurement is used for this test. The length is measured. The hammer is released and reading on the hammer is taken. An ultrasonic digital indicator consist a pulse generator unit.7a Measuring P and S wave velocity in a rock specimen.9. The reading gives directly the Schmidt hammer hardness value. Both P-wave and S-wave velocities can be measured. It is suggest to omit 2 lowest and 2 highest reading. correction is needed to add to the number from the hammer.9. At least 20 tests should be conducted on any one rock specimen.6a Point load test. If the hammer is point to horizontal and upward.Figure 3. The transmitter and the receiver are positioned at the ends of specimen and the pulse wave travel time is measured. The velocity is calculated from dividing the length of rock sample by wave travel time.9.7 Ultrasonic wave velocity Cylindrical rock sample is prepared by cutting and lapping the ends. 3. transmitter and receiver transducers are used for sonic pulse velocity measurement. The standard Schmidt hardness number is taken when the hammer is point vertically down. Figure 3.9. . and to use the remaining reading for calculating the average hardness value.

The testing apparatus is featured in Figure 3.9. It was proposed by the Laboratoire du Centre d’Etudes et Recherches des Charbonnages (Cerchar) in France.10a Cerchar abrasivity test West apparatus (West 1989). loaded on the surface of the rock sample. roughly spherical in shape with corners rounded during preparation. The sample is placed in the test drum of 2 mm standard mesh cylinder of 100 mm long and 140 mm in diameter with .Figure 3. The CAI value is calculated as. A steel stylus (4). 3. The abrasiveness of the rock is then obtained by measuring the resulting wear flat on the tip of the steel stylus.9. CAI = 10 −2 d where ‘d’ is the wear flat diameter of the stylus tip in μm. Figure 3. It consists of a vice for holding rock sample (1). To determine the CAI value the rock is slowly displaced by 10 mm with a velocity of approximately 1 mm/s.12 Slake Durability Test Select representative rock sample consisting of 10 lumps each of 40-60g.9. A dead weight (6) of 70 N is applied on the stylus. 3.9. fitting into a holder (5).10 Abrasivity (a) Cerchar Abrasivity Test The Cerchar abrasivity test is an abrasive wear with pressure test . Displacement of the vice (1) is measured by a scale (3).8a Schmidt hammer rebound hardness test.9.10a. which can be moved across the base of the apparatus by a hand wheel (2) that drives a screwthread of pitch 1 mm /revolution turning.

C−D Slake-durability index.12a Slake durability test. and is dried to a constant mass at 105°C. I d 2 = × 100% A− D The first cycle slake-durability index should be calculated when I d 2 is 0-10%. The mass of the drum and sample is recorded after cooling (Mass B). The slake-durability index is taken as the percentage ratio of final to initial dry sample masses after to cycles. Slake-durability index. The sample and drum is placed in trough which is filled with slaking fluid. The drum and sample are removed from trough and oven dried to a constant mass at 105°C without the lid.12a).9. usually tap water at 20°C. The mass of drum and sample is recorded (Mass A).9. to a level 20 mm below the drum axis. B−D × 100% A− D Table 3.solid removable lid and fixed base. Figure 3. The drum is brushed clean and its mass is recorded (Mass D).9.12a Slake Durability Classification = . and the drum is rotated at 20 rpm for 10 minutes (Figure 3. The slaking and drying process is repeated and the mass of the drum and sample is recorded (Mass C).

Acoustic Emission (AE) is a naturally occurring phenomenon whereby external stimuli. Figure Two fundamental cases of stress application (a) and (b). The application of AE to nondestructive testing of materials in the ultrasonic regime. or. generate sources of elastic waves. of practical interest. quality control. such as mechanical loading. and temporal variations of strain ( ε ) and the frequency (n) of AE events in these cases . AE occurs when a small surface displacement of a material is produced. This occurs due to stress waves generated when there is a rapid release of energy in a material. in methods used to stimulate and capture AE in a controlled fashion for study and/or use in inspection. typically takes place between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The wave generated by the AE source. process monitoring and others. system feedback. or on its surface.Special Note AE Activity in rocks under compression The term acoustic emission (AE) is widely used to denote the phenomenon in which a material or structure emits elastic waves of shock type and sometimes of continuous type caused by the sudden occurrence of fractures or frictional sliding along discontinuous surfaces.

Figure Temporal variations of number of AE events and axial strain ( ε 1 ), lateral strain  ∆V  ( ε θ ) and non-elastic volumetric strain (    V  ne

CHAPTER 6 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION
Rock mass property is governed by the properties of intact rock materials and of the discontinuities in the rock. The behaviour if rock mass is also influenced by the conditions the rock mass is subjected to, primarily the in situ stress and groundwater. The quality of a rock mass quality can be quantified by means of rock mass classifications. This Chapter addresses rock mass properties and rock mass classifications. 6.1 Rock Mass Properties and Quality 6.1.1 Properties Governing Rock Mass Behaviour Rock mass is a matrix consisting of rock material and rock discontinuities. As discussed early, rock discontinuity that distributed extensively in a rock mass is predominantly joints. Faults, bedding planes and dyke intrusions are localised features and therefore are dealt individually. Properties of rock mass therefore are governed by the parameters of rock joints and rock material, as well as boundary conditions, as listed in Table 6.1.1a. Table 6.1.1a Prime parameters governing rock mass property

The behaviour of rock changes from continuous elastic of intact rock materials to discontinues running of highly fractured rock masses. The existence of rock joints and other discontinuities plays important role in governing the behaviour and properties of the rock mass, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.1a. Chapter 4 has covered the properties of intact rock materials, and Chapter 5 has dealt with rocks contains 1 or 2 localised joints with emphasis on the properties of joints. When a rock mass contains several joints, the rock mass can be treated a jointed rock mass, and sometimes also termed a Hoek-Brown rock mass, that can be described by the Hoek-Brown criterion (discussed later). 6.1.2 Classification by Rock Load Factor (Terzaghi 1946) Based in extensive experiences in steel arch supported rail tunnels in the Alps, Terzaghi (1946) classified rock mass by mean of Rock Load Factor. The rock mass is classified into 9 classes from hard and intact rock to blocky, and to squeezing rock. The concept used in this classification system is to estimate the rock load to be carried by the steel arches installed to support a tunnel, as illustrated in Figure 6.1.2a. The classification is presented by Table 6.1.2a.

Figure 6.1.2a Terzaghi’s rock load concept. For obtaining the support pressure (p) from the rock load factor (Hp), Terzaghi suggested the equation below, p = Hp γ H where γ is the unit weight of the rock mass, H is the tunnel depth or thickness of the overburden. Attempts have been made to link Rock Load Factor classification to RQD. As suggested by Deere (1970), Class I is corresponding to RQD 95-100%, Class II to RQD 90-99%, Class III to RQD 85-95%, and Class IV to RQD 75-85%. Singh and Goel (1999) gave the following comments to the Rock Load Factor classification: (a) It provides reasonable support pressure estimates for small tunnels with diameter up to 6 metres. It gives over-estimates for large tunnels with diameter above 6 metres. The estimated support pressure has a wide range for squeezing and swelling rock conditions for a meaningful application.

(b) (c)

6.1.3 Classification by Active Span and Stand-Up Time (Stini 1950, Lauffer 1958) The concept of active span and stand-up time is illustrated in Figure 6.1.3a and Figure 6.1.3b. Active span is in fact the largest dimension of the unsupported tunnel section. Stand-up time is the length of time which an excavated opening with a given active span can stand without any mean of support or reinforcement. Rock classes from A to G are assigned according to the stand-up time for a given active span. Use of active span and stand-up time will be further discussed in later sections.

Figure 6.2a Rock class and rock load factor classification by Terzaghi for steel arch supported tunnels .Figure 6.1.1.3a Definition of active span.1.3b Relationship between active span and stand-up time and rock mass classes (Class A is very good and Class G is very poor) Table 6.

6.4 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) (Deere 1964) .1.

Part A of the table shows the RMR classification with the above 5 parameters. It does not account for the strength of the rock or mechanical and other geometrical properties of the joints.2a Rock mass quality classification according to RQD RQD has been widely accepted as a measure of fracturing degree of the rock mass.2. Individual rate for each parameter is . Table 6. RQD partially reflects on the rock mass quality. Condition of joints: Condition includes joint aperture. RQD only represents the degree of fracturing of the rock mass. this geomechanics classification system incorporated eight parameters. point load index is acceptable. The RMR system in use now incorporates five basic parameters below. Therefore. (a) Strength of intact rock material: Uniaxial compressive strength is preferred. Groundwater conditions: It is to account for groundwater inflow in excavation stability. 1989) The rock mass rating (RMR) system is a rock mass quality classification developed by South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). as an attempt to quantify rock mass quality. Originally. 6.2a reproduces the proposed expression of rock mass quality classification according to RQD. persistence.Rock quality designation (RQD) was introduced in 1960s. including the RMR and the Q systems.1. joint surface weathering and alteration. RQD: RQD is used as described before.1.2 Rock Mass Rating – RMR System 6.1a is the RMR classification updated in 1989. His parameter has been used in the rock mass classification systems. Spacing of joints: Average spacing of all rock discontinuities is used. close associated with excavation for the mining industry (Bieniawski 1973). (b) (c) (d) (e) Table 6. For rock of moderate to high strength.1 Concept of RMR System (1973. roughness.2. and presence of infilling. Table 6. As discussed earlier.

2. a final RMR rating is obtained. as shown in Figure 6. The table also gives the meaning of rock mass classes in terms of stand-up time. it can be also expresses in rock mass class. maximum rating for joint condition is 30 while for rock strength is 15. Influence of joint orientation on the stability of excavation is considered in Part B of the same table.1b. for example. With adjustment made to account for joint orientation.2.1b Rock mass classes determined from total ratings and meaning . Table 6. equivalent rock mass cohesion and friction angle. This correlation allow engineer to estimate the stand-up time for a given span and a given rock mass.obtained from the property of each parameter. as shown in Table 6. Explanation of the descriptive terms used is given table Part C. RMR was applied to correlate with excavated active span and stand-up time. The weight of each parameter has already considered in the rating.2.1a. The overall basic RMR rate is the sum of individual rates.

.

the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: . average joint spacing is 0.24 m. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed.2 Examples of using RMR System (a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets.1a Stand-up time and RMR quality 6. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough.Figure 6. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping.2.2. average RQD is 88%. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa.

average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. overburden stress is taken as the major in situ stress as an approximation. RQD is given and from the relationship between RQD and joint frequency. In the above information. However. average RQD is 70%. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface.7) 0. average RQD is 41%. average joint spacing is 0. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. with the equation below. it is possible to calculate average joint spacing. Here. It falls in rock class C which indicates the rock mass is of fair quality. (b) A sandstone rock mass. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. . Joint water pressure = In situ stress = groundwater pressure = Overburden pressure = = = 70 m × γw 80 m × γ (70 × 1)/(80× 2. and are highly weathered. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. filled with clay. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. groundwater parameter is not directly given. but given in terms of groundwater pressure of 70 m water head and overburden pressure of 80 m ground. It falls in rock class B which indicates the rock mass is of good quality. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass.32 Joint water pressure / In situ stress Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 52. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. joint surfaces are slightly rough. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm.11 m.The calculated basic RMR is 76. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. joint spacing is not provided. Since there is no indication of in situ stress ratio. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground.

3b gives the classification category of rock mass slope.0 Value of F1.sin A)2 and A = angle between the strikes of the slope and the joint = |αj .1λ +1) (where λ is the mean number of discontinuities per meter) Joint frequency is estimated to be 20. Details on rock slope analysis and engineering including excavation methods and support and stabilisation will be covered in a later chapter dealing slope engineering. which gives average joint spacing 0.3a.1λ (0..2. . F2 and F3 are given in Table 6.2. SMR = RMR + (F1⋅F2⋅F3) + F4 where F1 = (1 . Table 6. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the RMR parameter rating.e. i. Judgement often is needed to interpret the information given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the RMR table. SMR value is obtained by adjust RMR value with orientation and excavation adjustments for slopes.2. 6.RQD = 100 e–0.αs|.05 m Selection of RMR parameters and calculation of RMR are shown below: The calculated basic RMR is 34.3 Extension of RMR – Slope Mass Rating (SMR) The slope mass rating (SMR) is an extension of the RMR system applied to rock slope engineering. For topping. F2 = 1. F2 = (tan βj)2 B = joint dip angle = βj. It falls in rock class D which indicates the rock mass is of poor quality.

The system was based on evaluation of a large number of case histories of underground excavation stability. The numerical value of this index Q is defined by: RQD is the Rock Quality Designation measuring the fracturing degree.1 Concept of the Q-System The Q-system was developed as a rock tunnelling quality index by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) (Barton et al 1974).Table 6.2. and is an index for the determination of the tunnelling quality of a rock mass.3 Rock Tunnel Quality Q-System 6.2. Jn is the joint set number accounting for the number of joint sets. F2.3a Adjustment rating of F1. F3 and F4 for joints Table 6. Jr is the joint roughness number .3a Classification of Rock Slope according to SMT 6.3.

1a. Ja is the joint alteration number indicating the degree of weathering. shown in Table 6.3.accounting for the joint surface roughness. alteration and filling.1c. as shown in Figure 6. Equivalent dimension is used in the figure and ESR is given in Table 6. Table 6.3.3.1b.1a Rock mass classification Q system . Jw is the joint water reduction factor accounting for the problem from groundwater pressure.3.3. The classification system gives a Q value which indicates the rock mass quality. and SRF is the stress reduction factor indicating the influence of in situ stress.1a. Q value is applied to estimate the support measure for a tunnel of a given dimension and usage. Q value is considered as a function of only three parameters which are crude measures of: (a) (b) (c) Block size: Inter-block shear strength Active stress RQD / Jn Jr / Ja Jw / SRF Parameters and rating of the Q system is given in Table 6.

quantities of swelling clays .

.

1b Rock mass quality rating according to Q values .Table 6.3.

3.1a Support design based on Q value Table 6.Figure 6.3.1c Excavation Support Ratio (ESR) for various tunnel categories 6.2 Examples of Using the Q-System .3.

fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures.4.24 m. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface. and the rock mass is classified as fair quality. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. filled with clay. (b) A sandstone rock mass. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. and the rock mass is classified as good quality. average joint spacing is 0. joint surfaces are slightly rough. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. average RQD is 70%. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. and are highly weathered. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 4. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 . tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. average RQD is 88%.(a) A granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 29.11 m. average RQD is 41%. average joint spacing is 0.

and the rock mass is classified as very poor quality. 20 in the CLI term and 5 in the σθ term are normalising constants. Jr. . Selection of Q parameters and calculation of Q-value are shown below: The calculated Q-value is 0. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. q is the quartz content (%) in rock mineralogy. judgement is frequently needed to interpret the descriptions given in the geological and hydrogeological investigation reports and in the borehole logs to match the descriptive terms in the Q table. 6. Again.3. The constants 20 in the σm term. Ja. and σθ is the induced biaxial stress (MPa) on tunnel face in the same zone. The components of the QTBM are as follows: where RQD0= RQD (%) measured in the tunnelling direction. Rock stress level is also considered. σm is the rock mass strength (MPa) estimated from a complicated equation including the Q-value measured in the tunnel direction.MPa. and SRF ratings are the same parameters in the original Q-system. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground. The method is based on the Q-system and average cutter force in relations to the appropriate rock mass strength. Jn. together with the rock material strength. CLI is the cutter life index. The abrasive or nonabrasive nature of the rock is incorporated via the cutter life index (CLI). Orientation of joint structure is accounted for. The new parameter QTBM is to estimate TBM performance during tunnelling. Closest match and approximation is to be used to determine each of the Q parameter rating.85. Jw. F is the average cutter load (ton) through the same zone.3 Extension of Q-System – QTBM for Mechanised Tunnelling Q-system was extended to a new QTBM system for predicting penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR) for tunnelling using tunnel boring machine (TBM) in 1999 (Barton 1999).

4.1a. with increasing of rock mass quality.2. The use of GSI requires careful examination and understanding of engineering geological features of the rock mass. were intended to classify rock mass quality to arrive a suitable support design. GSI system has been modified and updated in the recent years. GSI does not include the parameter of rock strength. It appears that the correlation between QTBM and Advanced Rate is not consistent and varies with a large margin.3a. mainly to cover more complex geological features. when developed. However. such as folds and shear zones. In the Hoek-Brown . as GSI was initiated to be a tool to estimate rock mass strength with the Hoek-Brown strength criterion.4. In general. the GSI value does in fact reflect the rock mass quality. The system gives a GSI value estimated from rock mass structure and rock discontinuity surface condition. such as sheared zones. very poor rock mass does not facilitate penetration. Although QTBM has added a number of parameters to reflect cutting force and wear. 6. while penetration however is a result of interaction between rock mass properties and TBM machine parameters (Zhao 2006). The systems were not meant for the design of excavation methodology. The direct application of GSI value is to estimate the parameters in the Hoek-Brown strength criterion for rock masses. It was aimed to estimate the reduction in rock mass strength for different geological conditions. Although it was not aimed at to be a rock mass classification. This system is presented in Tables 6. Parameters in those rock mass classifications were related to support design. including RMR and Q. Rock mass classification systems. Rock mass structure given in the chart is general description and there may be many cases that does not directly match the description. The original rock mass classifications are independent of TBM characteristics. penetration decreases. the following equivalent between rock mass structural descriptions of blocky to the block size description is suggested below.The experiences on the application of QTBM vary between projects. the emphasis is obviously not be justified. In general. Example of using the QTBM is given in Figure 6. However. they were not selected to describe rock mass boreability. simple block size description does not include geological structural features.1 GSI System The Geological Strength Index (GSI) was introduced by Hoek in 1994.4 Geological Strength Index GSI System and Others 6.

1b. However. An approximate classification of rock mass quality and GSI is suggested in Table 6. rock material uniaxial strength is used as a base parameter to estimate rock mass uniaxial strength as well as triaxial strengths of rock material and rock mass.4. it is suggested that GSI can be related to RMR (GSI = RMR – 5).4. The use of GSI to estimate rock mass strength is given later in the section dealing with rock mass strength. GSI system did not suggest a direct correlation between rock mass quality and GSI value. based on the correlation between RMR and GSI Table 6.1a Geological Strength Index (GSI) . for reasonable good quality rock mass.criterion.

joint surfaces are slightly rough. joint are separated by about 3-5 mm. The rock mass is classified as good to very good quality. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 65 MPa. filled with clay. (a) Granite rock mass containing 3 joint sets. joint surfaces are generally stepped and rough. tightly closed and unweathered with occasional stains observed. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 160 MPa. the tunnel is excavated to 150 m below the ground where no abnormal high in situ stress is expected. Therefore GSI is 20±5. Refer to the GSI chart. found to have 2 joint sets and many random fractures. fractured by 2 joint sets plus random fractures. Rock Mass Structure for the above siltstone is blocky /folded/ faulted. Refer to the GSI chart.2 Examples of Using the GSI System Examples of estimating GSI is given below. and Joint Surface Condition is very poor.4. with considerable outwash of joint fillings. Refer to the GSI chart.11 m. (b) A sandstone rock mass.1b Rock mass classes determined from GSI 6. highly weathered with stains and weathered surface but no clay found on surface.Table 6. and are highly weathered. The tunnel is at 220 m below ground.24 m. the tunnel is to be excavated at 80 m below ground level and the groundwater table is 10 m below the ground surface. average RQD is 41%. average joint spacing is 0. The rock mass is classified as very poor to poor quality. Therefore GSI is 75±5. and Joint Surface Condition is fair to poor.4. average joint spacing is 0. average RQD is 88%. (c) A highly fractured siltstone rock mass. The rock mass is classified as fair quality. joint surfaces are slickensided and undulating. average RQD is 70%. Therefore GSI is 40±5. the excavation surface is wet but not dripping. and Joint Surface Condition is very good. Rock Mass Structure for the above sandstone is very blocky. with the same rock masses used previously to estimate RMR and Q. average rock material uniaxial compressive strength is 85 MPa. joints appears continuous observed in tunnel. Rock Mass Structure for the above granite is blocky. inflow per 10 m tunnel length is observed at approximately 50 litre/minute. joints are generally in contact with apertures generally less than 1 mm. .

Figure 6. Summary of RMR. it is perhaps better to select a range of the GSI value for that rock mass.4. and average of A is 44.3 Correlation and Comparison between Q.3a Correlation between RMR and Q values.3a shows the comparison and correlation between RMR and Q. Figure 6. RMR = 9 lnQ + A A varies between 26 and 62.It is advised that while selecting an average value of GSI. .4. Q and GSI from the above three examples are given below. RMR and GSI Correlation between Q and RMR are found to be.4. 6.

(a) Rock Mass Number. For example.e. normal condition.25 to 5 MPa yield the same SRF value. N can be computed as.5 logQ +43. stress reduction is not considered). Consequently. The importance of in situ stress on the stability of underground excavation is insufficiently represented in the Q-system. Another application of N number is to the rock squeezing condition. In section..e. GSI = RMR – 5 RMR is the basic RMR value by setting the Groundwater rating at 15 (dry). Squeezing has been noted in the Q-system but is not sufficiently dealt. N = (RQD/Jn) (Jr/Ja) (Jw) This system is used because the difficult in obtaining SRF in the Q-system.Several other correlation equations have been proposed. SRF = 1 for σc/σ1 = 10~200. They are all in the general form of semi-log equation. the value assign to SRF cover too great range. the value of RMR is very difficult to estimate and the correlation between RMR and GSI is no longer reliable. It should be noted that each classification uses a set of parameters that are different from other classifications. For that reason. RMR classification should not be used for estimating the GSI values for poor quality rock masses. For generally competent rock masses with GSI > 25.. 6. and without adjustment for joint orientation. estimate the value of one classification from another is not advisable. for a rock with σc = 50 MPa. N Rock Mass Number (N) is the rock mass quality Q value when SRF is set at 1 (i. one of which is: RMR = 13. due to the special behaviour and nature of the squeezing ground. the value of GSI can be related to Rock Mass Rating RMR value as. . in situ stresses of 0.3 Other Classification Systems Several other classification approaches have been proposed. The use of N in squeezing rock mass classification will be presented in a later section in this chapter. For very poor quality rock masses. i. It has been noticed that SRF in the Q-system is not sensitive in rock engineering design. a few will be briefly discussed due to their unique application in certain aspect.4.

It is also applicable to rock masses (Figure 6. Jp is in fact a reduction factor representing the effects of jointing on the strength of rock mass.(b) Rock Mass Index. few joints and good joint surface quality) will have a higher strength and high deformation modulus than that of a poor rock mass. joint density (or block size). namely. 6. the mechanical properties of a rock mass are also related to the quality of the rock mass.2a). It is calculated by the following equation. RMi = σc Jp where σc is the uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock material. RMi Rock Mass Index is proposed as an index characterising rock mass strength as a construction material. a rock mass of good quality (strong rock. 6. In general.5. Jp = 0 for a crushed rock masses. joint roughness.1 Strength of Rock Mass As discussed earlier. In another word. strength and deformation properties of a rock mass are much governed by the existence of joints.5. Jp = 1 for a intact rock.5 Rock Mass Strength and Rock Mass Quality 6. and Jp is the jointing parameter accounting for 4 joint characteristics. The Hoek-Brown criterion for rock mass is described by the following equation: or . joint alteration and joint size.5.2 Hoek-Brown Strength Criterion of Rock Mass Hoek and Brown criterion discussed in Chapter 4 is not only for rock materials.

Constants mb and s are parameters that changes with rock type and rock mass quality. σci is the uniaxial strength of the intact rock in the rock mass. Table 6.5.2a Applicability of Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and rock masses. Parameter a is generally equal to 0. Note in the Hoek-Brown criterion.Figure 6.5..5. mb becomes mi. σci is consistently referred to the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock material in the Hoek-Brown criterion for rock material and for rock mass. The HoekBrown criterion for intact rock material is a special form of the generalised equation when s =1 and a = 0. i.5. . The equation above is the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion of rock mass. For intact rock. In the generalised Hoek-Brown criterion. σ1 is the strength of the rock mass at a confining pressure σ3.e.2a gives an earlier suggestion of mb and s values.

according to different rocks.2b presents the latest definition of mi values for the intact rock materials.Brown constants Development and application of the Hoek-Brown criterion lead to better definition of the parameters mb and s.5.Table 6.2a Relation between rock mass quality and Hoek. .5. Table 6.

rock masses of very poor quality. rock masses of good to reasonable quality. i.2b Values of constant mi for intact rock in Hoek-Brown criterion The values in the above table are suggestive. As seen from the table.5.e.5.Table 6. the original Hoek-Brown criterion is applicable with. the value of mi should be calculated from the test results. i. are calculated as follows. the parameters which describe the rock mass strength characteristics. and a in the Hoek-Brown criterion is no longer equal to 0. .e. For GSI > 25.5 For GSI < 25. If triaxial tests have been conducted. s = 0. Once the Geological Strength Index has been estimated. Value of a can be estimated from GSI by the following equation. variation of mi value for each rock can be as great as 18. and a = 0.

the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock masses equal to zero. although in practice. it gives the uniaxial compressive strength as. mi given for sandstone is approximately 17. (b) Sandstone rock mass. range of values should be used to give upper and lower bounds. Example of using the Hoek-Brown equation to determine rock mass strength is given below by the same three examples used for determining the rock mass qualities RMR. Calculation in the example uses average values only. when σ3 = 0. (a) Granite rock mass.Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is the value of σ1 when σ3 is zero. for rock masses of very poor quality. mean GSI 75. with material uniaxial strength 85 MPa. From the mi table. when σ3 = 0. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass is. with material uniaxial strength 150 MPa. From the Hoek-Brown criterion. Clearly. From the mi table. The Hoek-Brown equation for the granite rock mass is. Q and GSI. mi given for granite is approximately 32. mean GSI 40. .

in the equations below. Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. The better rock mass quality gives high rock mass strength. mi given for siltstone is approximately 7.1. 6. From the mi table. the rock mass has very low uniaxial compressive strength close to zero. the rock mass strength is close to the strength of intact rock material. Q < 0.5. or GSI < 25. i. mean GSI 20.5.4 Correlations between Rock Mass Quality and Mechanical Properties Correlations between rock mass strength and rock mass quality are reflected in Table 6. . When the rock mass is solid and massive with few joints.2a and the Hoek-Brown criterion relating GSI.. with material uniaxial strength 65 MPa.Similarly the uniaxial compressive strength is. When the rock mass is very poor.e. RMR < 23. Attempts have also been made to correlated deformation modulus of the rock mass with rock mass quality. (c) Siltstone rock mass. In situ rock mass modulus (Em) can be estimated from the Q and the RMR systems.

where c and φ can be readily calculated. the input for a design software or numerical modelling required for rock masses are in terms of MohrCoulomb parameters c and φ. Often. At the same time. The suggested approach to obtain rock mass Mohr-Coulomb parameters c and φ is by generate a series σ1–σ3 results by the Hoek-Brown equation. If a series tests have been conducted on the rock mass.4 Relationship between Hoek-Brown and Mohr-Coulomb Criteria There is no direct correlation between the linear Mohr-Coulomb Criterion and the nonlinear Hoek-Brown Criterion defined by the two equations. obviously test results should be used directly to obtain parameters c and φ.The above Em-RMR equations are generally for competent rock mass with RMR greater than 20. if the depth and stress range is known. the deformation of the intact rock pieces contributes to the overall deformation process. For poor rocks. the equation is obtained by substituting GSI for RMR in the original Em-RMR equation. Care must be taken when deciding the ‘best’ linear line in fitting the Mohr circles. This reduction is based upon the reasoning that the deformation of better quality rock masses is controlled by the discontinuities while. For rock mass with σci < 100 MPa. It depends on the stress region of the engineering application. they caution the user that is a major problem to obtain c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. For a tunnel problem. The Em-GSI equation indicates that modulus Em is reduced progressively as the value of σci falls below 100. plotting the Mohr circle and fitting with the best strength envelope. Attempts have been made by Hoek and Brown to estimate c and φ from the Hoek-Brown equation. using for example. 6. the line should be fitting best for the .5. where c and φ can be readily calculated Common problems were there is no or limited test results on rock mass. the equation below has been proposed. Then plotting the Mohr circle using the generated σ1–σ3 data and fitting with the best linear envelope. for poorer quality rock masses.

(i) (ii) (iii) Mild squeezing: closure Moderate squeezing: closure High squeezing: closure 1-3% of tunnel diameter. For a slope problem. Rate of squeezing depends on the degree of over-stress. moderate and high. Also. As shown in Figure 6. and is essentially associated with creep caused by exceeding shear strength.e. 3-5% of tunnel diameter. Squeezing may continue for years in exceptional cases. pore pressure needs to be considered as this affects the effective stress level.6. .1 Squeezing Phenomenon ISRM (Barla 1995) defines that squeezing of rock is the time dependent large deformation. by the conditions below. i. which occurs around a tunnel and other underground openings. H > 350 Q1/3. 6. the ground condition is generally non-squeezing. Closure rate reduces with time. where H is in metres. Squeezing may occur at shallow depths in weak and poor rock masses such as mudstone and shale.6 Squeezing Behaviour of Rock Mass 6.. say.Mohr circles in that stress region. Below the line. squeezing may be identified from rock class classification Q-value and overburden thickness (H).e.2 Squeezing Estimation by Rock Mass Classification Based on case studies. several centimetres of tunnel closure per day for the first 1-2 weeks of excavation.. Squeezing condition may occur above the line. H < 350 Q1/3. The degree of squeezing often is classified to mild.6. Behaviour of rock squeezing is typically represented by rock mass squeezes plastically into the tunnel and the phenomenon is time dependent.6. 6. i. the stress region may vary from 0 to some level of stress. > 5% of tunnel diameter.2a. the division between squeezing and non-squeezing condition is by a line H = 350 Q1/3. and the fitting a line at low stress level (where the curvature is the greatest for the non-linear Hoek-Brown strength envelope) is very sensitive to the stress level. Usually the rate is high at initial stage. Rock masses of competent rock of poor rock mass quality at great depth (under high cover) may also suffer from squeezing. Deformation may terminate during construction or may continue over a long time period.

In situ stress.2a Predicting squeezing ground using Q-value Another approach predicting squeezing is by using the Rock Mass Number (N). The parameters allow one to separate in situ stress effects from rock mass quality. From Figure 6. Where H is the tunnel depth or overburden in metres and B is the tunnel span or diameter in metres. As discussed in the previous section. .6.6. which is the external cause of squeezing is dealt separated by considering the overburden depth. N is the Q-value when SRF is set to be 1.Figure 6. the line separating non-squeezing from squeezing condition is.2b.

2b Squeezing ground condition is presented by: H > (275 N1/3) B–0. Squeezing may not occur in hard rocks with high values of parameter A.1. . σcm is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass. P=γH.1 Moderate squeezing occurs when (450 N1/3) B–0.Figure 6.1 < H < (450 N1/3) B–0. Theoretically.1 < H < (630 N1/3) B–0.6. squeezing conditions around a tunnel opening can occur when.1 High squeezing occurs when H > (630 N1/3) B–0. Px is the in situ stress in the tunnel axis direction. Mild squeezing occurs when (275 N1/3) B–0. σθ > Strength = σcm + Px A/2 where σθ is the tangential stress at the tunnel opening. It is also possible to characterise the degree of squeezing base on the same figure. The above equation can be written in the form below for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic in situ stress field.1. with overburden stress P. and A is a rock parameter proportion to friction.

.ISRM classifies squeezing rock mass and ground condition in Table 6. A prediction curve was proposed by Hoek and reproduced in Figure 6. Studies carried out by Hoek (2000) indicate that squeezing can in fact start at rock mass strength / in situ stress ratio of 0.. GSI).6.g. Figure 6. Overburden stress can be estimated from the overburden depth and rock unit weight.2a.3. relating tunnel closure to rock mass strength/in situ stress ratio. Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock mass can be estimated from the Hoek-Brown criterion with rock mass quality assessment (e.2c Squeezing prediction curve and comparison with case histories.6.6. Table 6. The prediction curve was compared with tunnel squeezing case histories.2a Suggested predictions of squeezing conditions The prediction equations for squeezing require the measurements of in situ stress and rock mass strength.6.2c.

Figure 3. Depth.2a In situ stress measurements at various (Brady and Brown 157). Z (m) .027 z.5. σv = 0. which represents the overburden pressure.2a.CHAPTER 3 In situ Stress In situ stress measurements have been compiled and presented in Figure 2. Change of vertical stress with depth is scattered about the tend line.

2. Measuring stresses in supporting structures . Closure of roof and floor or closure of sides 2. Deformation of boreholes 7. Nature of sub-audible vibrations originating in rock 6. Measurements of pressures on mine void filling material. 3. four principal classes of measurements are of interest. in situ stress measurements is required. These are: 1. The magnitude and directions of induced (concentrated or re-aligned) stresses. The magnitude and directions of natural (pre-existing. Measurement of convergence movements of rock surfaces.The horizontal stresses are presented in the figure by a ratio of average horizontal stress to vertical stress. Measuring ground pressures in supporting structures 7. It is very common in rock mechanics that one of the horizontal stresses represent the major principal stress. inherent) stresses in rock. The physical characteristics which may be measured are: Following physical features of a rock are modified when it is subjected to the stresses induced by creation of an opening: 1. Measuring strains in rock remote from a free surface 3. The horizontal stress should not be estimated. Changes in velocity of sound waves passed through the ground 4. Measuring convergence of roof and floor( or HW and F 4. These are induced by creation of an opening. 4. k.While vertical stress can be estimated with reasonable reliability. Measuring absolute movements of roof and floor ( or HW and FW) 5. 2. The following stresses are important in influencing the behaviour of rock around subsurface openings: 1. Measurement of loads on structures for supporting ground and stresses in the supporting structures. Measuring strains in rock at exposed rock surface 2. Measurement of strains in the ground surrounding an opening. In situ stress measurement Instrumentation For the development of information for the design of underground openings and their supporting structures. Changes in the modulus of elasticity of the ground 5. For projects that maximum stress direction and magnitude may be important. Deformation and restoration of slots in the rock surfaces Measurements of strains and stresses include the following: 1. while the vertical stress or the other horizontal stress represents the minor principal stress. Tangential deformation of exposed surfaces 3. Measuring pressures on mine filling materials 6.

is the most conspicuous phenomenon associated with underground openings and the easiest to measure. Methods for determining the actual magnitudes of stresses within the rock involve measurements of deformation of rock blocks which are freed from the main mass and allowed to expand. There are two general methods for determining absolute rock strain. The amount of the expansion is a function of the initial stress within the rock and of the modulus of elasticity of the rock. The strain relief method. A flat jack is cemented into the slot and expanded by application of hydraulic pressure until the strain gauges indicate that the rock has been restored to the state of strain existing prior to cutting of the slot. A deep slot is then cut into the rock above the gauges and the rock in allowed to expand. freeing the rock surface to expand.000 MPa). The deformation in rocks is very small and therefore the determination of stresses depends on the measurement of extremely small deformations. large changes in stress values are produced by very small changes in dimensions (strain). or of walls and ribs. The pressure in the jack is then assumed to be equal to the original pressure in the rock normal to the slot surface. Strain relief method Method 1: The strain gauge is cemented on the surface of the wall rock and a standard diamond drill is used to cut an annular slot in the rock around the gauges. thus allowing the portion of rock to expand. but the measuring techniques are designed to measure strains and the stresses are then computed by using the values of the rock modulus of elasticity. The modulii of elasticity of rocks ranges from 20 to 70 × 10 6 KPa. A groove is then cut around the location of the strain gauge. These are: 1.Measuring Strain (deformation) in rock The closure of roof and floor. Thus. . 2.0005 mm. However. such measurements do not yield information as to the stresses existing in the rock. The rock stresses are not measured directly. In an elastic material a stress concentration is created near the boundary of the opening. In order to measure these minute changes in dimensions of the openings it is necessary to employ instruments capable of measuring to within a few ten-thousands of a cm. In the Strain restoration method strain gauges are fixed to the rock surface and readings are taken. For example in a rock with an elastic modulus of 7 0 × 10 6 KPa (70. and The strain restoration method In the Strain relief method strain gauges are fixed to the opening walls at selected locations. the deformation in the rock is 0.

Method 2 Measurement of Diametral Borehole Deformation for Stress Determination Another method for determining rock stresses is the accurate measurement of borehole horizontal and vertical axes to determine the relative deformation produced in the crosssection of the borehole by stresses in the rock. Strain gauges are sealed with waterproof mastic to protect them against moisture. Maximum deformation is caused to the vertical axis of a horizontal borehole due to the vertical stress (assuming the horizontal stress is in effective). The rock surface is thoroughly dried before the gauges are cemented to the rock and dried with a hear lamp after gauges are cemented in place. Figure Borehole deformation gauge Theory and Equations Uni-axial stress . The surface is ground smooth with a hand grinding wheel.The surface on which the gauges are mounted required careful selection and preparation. When the vertical and horizontal stress in the rock is equal there will be no differential deformation along the two axes of the borehole.

T θ E r S θ S T Figure Schematic representation of biaxial stress acting across a borehole When θ = 00.The deformation of the hole in a uni-axial stress and in plan stress is given by U= dS (1) (1 + 2 cos 2θ ) E = deformation of hole (change in length of a diameter) = radius of hole = diameter of hole = 2a = perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) = angle (counterclockwise) from S to r = modulus of elasticity T Where U a d S. the deformation is in the direction of the applied uniaxial stress. and equation 1 reduces to 3dS E 0 When θ = 90 . the deformation is U= U =− dS E (2) (3) And the minus sign signifies that. The deformation versus the angle θ for one quadrant of the hole ( θ = 00 to θ = 900) is plotted in the figure below . the hole (at the point) is expanding. as the stress increases.

Figure Borehole deformation gauge 5 Deformation (arbitrary units) 4 3 2 1 0 -1 15 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Angle ( in degrees) Figure Sectional View of a borehole deformation gauge .

the magnitude and direction of the stresses S and T can be computed. U= (5) When θ = 900.Bi-axial stress For bi-axial stress field and plane stress. the deformation is related to the biaxial stresses S and T by U= d [( S + T ) + 2( S − T ) cos 2θ ] E d (3S − T ) E d (3T − S ) E (4) When θ = 00. The equations for these conditions will be S U2 2 U3 2 U1 2 600 600 600 θ d/2 U1 2 U3 2 U2 2 S . U= (6) If the deformation is measured across three different diameters and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio are known.

to accommodate a flat jack. U2. U3 a d S. U is +ve for increase in the diameter radius of hole diameter of hole = 2a perpendicularly applied stress (for a uniaxial stress field T = 0) angle (counterclockwise) from S to U1 modulus of elasticity = = = = = θ1 E Strain restoration methods In this method a slot is cut. It has been reported from extensive experimentation with this system that the pressure required to restore the original strain with the locations of the measuring points relative to the slot. Hydraulic pressure is applied to the flat jack until measurements show that the distance between points A and B has been restored to its original dimension. . as shown in the figure. The pressure in the flat jack is then a function of the original pressure in the rock before the slot was cut. It has been shown that the borehole deformation in a biaxial stress field is related to the magnitude and direction of the applied stresses in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the hole by the following equations: S +T = E (U 1 + U 2 + U 3 ) 3d 1 2E [(U 1 − U 2 ) 2 + (U 2 − U 3 ) 2 + (U 3 − U 1 ) 2 ] 2 6d S −T = tan 2θ = 3 (U 3 − U 2 ) 2U 1 − U 2 − U 3 Where U1. In practice when a flat jack 70cm long and 70cm wide was used the distance A-B was made about 30cm. The measuring points A-Bare established prior to cutting slot and the distance between the points is accurately determined. And best results were obtained when the measuring points were placed within a distance equal to about two-thirds the length of the flat-jack. . The flat jack is then placed in the slot and cemented tightly in place with quick-setting cement mortar. T = borehole deformation at a 600 separation (600 deformation rosette) in cm.In this investigation rock stress was determined by measuring the deformation (change in diameter) of a borehole before and after the hole was stress-relieved.

Figure Stress measurement using a flatjack Figure Modified Flakjack method .Flat jack method does not require any knowledge of the elastic properties of the rock and hence it is considered to be a true stress measuring method. Because of the difficulty in cutting deep flatjack slots the method is restricted to near-surface measurements.

have been used for decades in metal mines Figure. Multipoint extensometers installed in boreholes have been used to detect roof movements. steel wire or rigid tubing. and some kind of micrometer or dial gauge. micrometer. Mechanical extensometers. also called extensometers. such as a vernier scale. consisting of a top and bottom anchor. of which convergence gagues are special types. This class of instruments consists of a length-sensing device. Figure roof sag measuring station . dial gauge.Measurement of Rock Movement/deformation Convergence Measurement The mechanically simplest deformation measuring devices are deformeters.

Figure Axial deformation gauges Figure dial gauge deformeter .

Model SME 248.The relative amount of closure between roof and floor.has four/six spider type strong leaf spring anchors (Above figure). These anchors will be installed in a 42 mm hole at four different heights with the help of installation tool. The steel wire will be attached with each anchor before pushing of anchors. . Extensometers are installed into boreholes. Extensometers are used to determine the magnitude. The relative movement of the anchor points is measured with either mechanical or electromechanical devices. When the bed/roof separation is taking place the reading will change in the respective scale. Each wire will be attached with steel scale of different colour for identification of the anchor height. The amount of strain depends upon several factors. the amount and quality of filling material. such as the amount of ground which is open. Convergence Measurement Monitoring technology and techniques to provide early warning of hazardous roof fall conditions have been a longstanding goal for safety engineers and practitioners working in the mining sector. Movement is indicated by coloured reflective bands on the indicator. The simplest form of extensometer makes use of a stainless steel spring reference anchor with a tube indicator attached to it by stainless steel wire and visible at the hole mouth. The steel wire will be brought to the down surface of roof. The essential features of an extensometer installation are a stable reference anchor position at the far end of the borehole. position and rate of movement of rock surrounding an excavation. a borehole mouth anchor at the tunnel wall and a means of indicating or measuring change in distance between them. etc. which are progressively covered as movement develops. Telltale extensometer is a very simple and general design to measure deformation in the roof of coal mines at 4 or 6 different points up to 6 meter height. Roof-to-floor convergence monitors are perhaps the oldest and most common method of measuring roof deflection as a means to detect roof rock instabilities. is an indication of the magnitude of the pressure on the rock above the opening. or between HW and FW. After installation of all the anchors the reference head will be installed leaving all the scales hanging freely. Measurement of convergence may be useful in predicting the imminence of failure of roof or floor rock. characteristics of the country rock. This type of instrument consist of an anchor device mounted on the mine roof and floor and connected by a ridged bar or a metal wire. In mining a simple extensometer such as this is known as a “telltale” because it gives a visual indication of roof movement.

Figure Evolution of Dual height Telltale .

Here roof movement is converted to rotation of a pointer around a dial. The AEM is a hand held device comprising an integral geophone and readout unit. Loads in support systems and linings The load distribution in rockbolts and cablebolts is an important support design parameter. The most common form of telltale is the dual-height version. Examples of recent civil engineering use of the instrument include a steel lined water tunnel in the UK where voids behind the 45mm thick lining were detected. To date RMT have manufactured around 4000 strain gauged rockbolts. an underground wastewater plant in Finland and the Joskin tunnel in the UK. Instruments installed in two coal mine shaft linings were found to be still returning consistent readings twenty five years later. They typically have pairs of diametrically opposed resistance strain gauges. The technology has recently been extended to include flexible bolts. Figure Strain gauged rock bolts . Support system and lining condition Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) is a simple nondestructive testing device for checking the ‘looseness’ of exposed rock surfaces in tunnels. The device is installed at the same time as the rockbolts into a 5m long roof hole of 27mm-35mm diameter. British Coal began producing strain gauged bolts for this purpose in 1990. but one which is difficult to measure. allowing calculation and display of mean and bending strains. This was developed and patented by British Coal in 1992 as a safety device for coal mine tunnels where rockbolts were being introduced as support. It measures the reverberation decay rate of a surface when struck with a hammer. where areas of detached shotcrete lining were delineated. and for the detection of voids behind tunnel linings. supplied to mine and tunnel projects in seven countries. This has the advantage that small roof movements can be easily read even when the tunnel height approaches 5m (Figure above). which are encapsulated multi-wire steel strands.

Haimson and Song. In these attempts. . the orientations of in situ stresses. the width and depth of the breakout have been measured as a basis for estimating the stresses. 1993. It is commonly observed in deep boreholes. This phenomenon refers to the stress induced failure that occurs on the walls of a borehole resulting in spalling or sloughing of material from the borehole wall as shown in Figure 7. Haimson and Herrick (1986) found that the depth and circumferential extent of the completed breakout were directly proportional to the state of stress normal to the borehole axis. 1985. This is due to the fact that breakout mechanisms will be different for different types of rock. Figure 7 Example of stress induced sloughing of material from a borehole wall The locations of the breakouts on diagonally opposite sides of the borehole are usually aligned with the orientations of the secondary principal stresses acting in the plane normal to the borehole axis. drilling. etc). Zoback et al 1986. They can therefore often provide a reliable indication of the orientations of in situ stress fields. Lee and Haimson. 1993). Attempts have been made to use breakout data to estimate the magnitudes of in situ stresses (Zoback et al. more particularly. and relative or comparative values of stress. Whilst this approach may have some potential for estimating indicative values of stress.Observational methods of in situ stress determination or estimation Observations of the behaviour of openings or holes made in stressed rock can provide very valuable indications of the magnitudes and. temperature. Borehole breakouts (dog earing) “Borehole breakout” is the more widely used term for what is known in South African mining as “dog earing”. it is unlikely that it will be successful in the adequate quantification of stress magnitudes. and extents of breakout will vary depending on rock properties and in situ conditions (water.

the shape and symmetry of the discs can give a good indication of in situ stress orientations (Dyke. as shown in Figure 10. 1989). Lack of symmetry of the discing. the formation of discs depends significantly on the properties of the rock and the magnitude of the stress in the borehole axial direction (Stacey. Nevertheless. 1982). the two secondary principal stresses normal to the core axis will be approximately equal. The thinner are the discs the higher is the stress level. can significantly affect the occurrence of discing (Kutter. the core circumference will peak and trough as shown in Figure 9. In addition. A measure of the inclination of a principal stress to the borehole axis can be gauged from the relative asymmetry of the disc. It is therefore unlikely that observation and measurements of discing will be successful in quantifying the magnitudes of in situ stresses. If the discs are uniform in thickness as shown in Figure 8. For unequal stresses normal to the core axis. indicates that there is a shear stress acting the borehole axis that the axis is not in a principal stress direction. including the drill thrust. The direction defined by a line drawn between the peaks of the disc surfaces facing in the original drilling direction indicates the orientation of the minor secondary principal stress. then it is probable that the hole has been drilled approximately along the orientation of one of the principal stresses. In brittle rocks it has been observed that discing and breakouts usually occur over the corresponding lengths of core and borehole. If the discs are symmetrical about the core axis. as shown in Figure 8.Core discing Core discing appears to be closely associated with the formation of borehole breakouts. However. Figure 8 Core discs symmetrical with respect to the core axis . the type and technique of drilling. 1991).

indicating that the core axis is not a principal stress direction Observations of failures in excavations Excavations can be considered as large boreholes.e. Dog earring in bored excavations can be equally pronounced as in boreholes. the dog earring in the tunnel in Figure 12 shows that the major secondary principal stress is inclined at about 120 to the horizontal. . Similarly. Figure 11 shows a classic dog ear in the sidewall of a 5 m diameter tunnel. This shows that the major secondary principal stress normal to the tunnel axis (i. and observations of the behaviour of the walls of the excavations in response to the in situ stresses can provide very valuable indications of the in situ stress field.Disc peaks Orientation of the minor secondary principal stress Drilling direction Figure 9 Core discs resulting with unequal stresses normal to the core axis Figure 10 Non-symmetrical cores discing. the maximum stress in the plane perpendicular to the tunnel axis) is vertical at this location.

1980. 4. From all these data the orientations of the secondary principal stresses normal to the axis of the borehole can be interpreted.1 Hydraulic fracturing Conventional hydraulic fracturing involves the pressurizing of a short length of borehole. The application of the method is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 14. Although hydraulic fracturing had been used previously for other purposes such as borehole stimulation for increasing the yield of water supply or dewatering boreholes. 1987. Vertical boreholes are usually used and it is assumed that the in situ principal stresses are vertical and horizontal. Scheidegger (1962) and Fairhurst (1964) were the first to suggest its use for the determination of in situ stresses. 1993). Zoback et al. The orientation of the induced fracture is measured using a borehole television camera or a special impression packer to obtain a physical record of the surface of the borehole. The method involves the pressurization of a length of borehole and the measurement of the pressure required to fracture the rock or reopen existing fractures. 1977. The characteristics of the pressure induced breakdown and the subsequent reopening of the fracture under repressurisation are monitored carefully.3. 1986) played a major role in developing and promoting the use of the hydraulic fracturing technique. 1977. Zoback et al. It has been widely used in the oil well industry. 1983.Figure 11 Dog earing (photograph provided by Dr C D Martin) Hydraulic Fracturing for In situ Stress measurement Hydraulic fracturing is now a well established method for determining in situ stress magnitudes. Haimson (1968. . Rummel (Rummel. Rummel et al. 1983) and Zoback (Zoback et al. until the hydraulic pressure causes the rock to fracture. Cornet (1993a). isolated using hydraulic packers on either side of it.

to determine the orientation of the induced fracture. Although this represents the full sophistication of the method. the borehole has to be inspected using a television camera. the pressurization occurs sufficiently fast to avoid fluid permeating into the rock and thus alter the pore pressure within the rock matrix 3. Since packers are inserted in the borehole to seal off the test sections. and associated services and personnel. A simpler set-up would be applicable for in mine tests. The borehole must be diamond drilled. or a special impression of its surface taken using an impression packer. A system for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in deep boreholes is illustrated in Figure 15. it is illustrative of the sort of requirements that would be necessary for quality measurements at greenfields sites.Figure 14 Hydraulic fracture applications The method requires special equipment. . to carry out a measurement. the shut-in pressure is equal to the stress component perpendicular to the fracture plane. After hydrofracturing. Fracture generation occurs at the location of the least tangential stress at the borehole wall and the fracture propagates perpendicular to the direction of the least principal stress 4. the borehole axis is parallel to the direction of one of the principal stress components 2. the straightness and wall quality of the borehole are important. The classical stress determination from hydraulic fracturing tests is generally based on a few assumption and they are: 1.

1989) .Fig 15 System for hydraulic fracturing stress measurements (after Tunbridge et al.

The schematic arrangements of hydro-fracturing technique is as shown below in the figure 16

Figure 16 Schematic arrangement of hydro-frac technique

In non-porous rocks the minimum principal stress is given by the shut-in pressure. If a borehole is drilled in the vertical direction, and it is assumed that this is a principal stress direction, and that the minimum principal stress is horizontal, the major horizontal principal stress SH can be determined from the following equation: Testing Procedure A single or double straddle packers system is set (inflated) at the required depth so as to isolate a test cavity. A liquid is injected into the test cavity and its pressure raised while monitoring the quantity injected. A sudden surge of fluid accompanied by sudden drop in pressure indicates that hydrofracture of rock formation (fracture inititation or break down) has occurred. The hydrofracture continues to propagate away from the hole as fluid is injected, and is oriented normal to the least principal stress direction (Fig.17) Once the hydro-fracturing has traveled about 10 drillhole diameters, injection is stopped by shutting a valve, and the instantaneous shut-in pressure is measured. The process is repeated several times to ensure a consistent measurement of this pressure, which is equal to the minimum principal stress.

Figure

17

Fracture propagation

SV = γ .Z S h = PSi S H = T + 3.S h − PC T = PC − PR Where T is the tensile strength of the rock Sh and SV are the minor and major horizontal principal stress Pc is the breakdown pressure at fracture generation PR is the pressure necessary to re-open the induced fracture (T=0) PSi is the shut-in pressure to merely keep the fracture open against the normal stress acting in the fracture plane Z is the depth of the over burden and γ is the unit weight of the rock. Interpretation of hydrofracture records can require expert input if the shut-in pressure is not distinct. Interpretation of test results is not a straightforward activity, and the experience of the interpreter has some effect on the in situ stress values ultimately determined. Different interpreters may derive somewhat different results from the same set of field data. In porous rocks in particular, interpretation of hydraulic fracturing tests may be very difficult and, owing to the pore pressure, definition of the major principal stress may be doubtful. In sedimentary rocks, beds with a thickness of at least 2 to 3m are necessary for satisfactory testing to be carried out. Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements have been carried out at depths in the 6km to 9km range (Amadei and Stephannson, 1997) and therefore the method is, in theory, suitable for the high stress conditions encountered in deep mines. At such high pressures, valves, tubing and packers must be of special design to be able to perform as required. In boreholes in which spalling or breakouts are occurring, there may be a risk of not being able to insert (or recover) the packers, and it may also not be possible to seal off the borehole satisfactorily. Borehole breakouts due to high stress levels may also interfere with the location of the fracture on the borehole wall, and this may lead to inaccuracy in determining stress directions.

Table 1 Test No Depth (m)

Hydrofracture Field Data Shut-in Pressure-PR MPa 15.0 19.0 12.0 15.0 27.2 42.5 33.0 T=PC-PR MPa PSi MPa

BreakDown Pressure-PC MPa Underground Borehole –Sub-level 40 1 23.5 17.2 2 21.5 28.0 3 18.5 18.2 4 12.5 18.4 5 9.5 32.4 6 4.15 45.5 7 1.95 40.6

2.2 9.0 6.2 3.4 5.2 3.0 7.6

11.5 13.0 10.0 12.0 20.5 33.5 32.0

It is clear from the above that the application of the hydraulic fracturing method is theoretically possible, but would be expensive, and demanding on services. Perhaps the most severe restriction, however, is the requirement that the borehole be drilled in the direction of one of the principal stresses. In mining situations this is usually not known and is one of the in situ stress parameters to be determined. Bibliography Dyke, C G (1989) Core discing: its potential as an indicator of principal in situ stress directions, Rock at Great depth, ed Maury & Fourmaintraux, Balkema, pp 1057-1064. Fairhurst, C (1964) Measurement of in situ rock stresses with particular reference to hydraulic fracturing, Rock Mech. & Engng Geol., Vol 2, pp 129-147. Haimson, B C and Herrick, C G (1986) Borehole breakouts – a new tool for estimating in situ stress? Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 271-280. Haimson, B C, Lee, C F and Huang, J H S (1986) High horizontal stresses at Niagara Falls, their measurement and the design of a new hydroelectric plant, Proc. Int. Symp. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements, Stockholm, Centek Publishers, pp 615-624. Haimson, B C, Lee, M, Chandler, N and Martin, D (1993) Estimating the state of stress for subhorizontal hydraulic fractures at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., Vol 30, No 7, pp 959-964. Haimson, B and Song, I (1993) Laboratory studies of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp1047- 1056. Kutter, H (1991) Influence of drilling method on borehole breakouts and core disking, Proc. 7th Int. Cong. Int. Soc. Rock Mech., Aachen, Balkema, Vol 3, pp 1659-1664. Martin, C D and Chandler, N A (1993) Stress heterogeneity and geological structures, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol 30, No 7, pp 993-999. Rummel, F (1987) Fracture mechanics approach to hydraulic fracturing stress measurements, in Fracture Mechanics of Rocks, Academic Press, London, pp 217-239. Scheidegger, A E (1962) Stress in earth’s crust as determined from hydraulic fracturing data, Geol. Bauwesen, Vol 27, pp 45-53.

UK – Part I. Geophys. Rock Mech. Centek Publishers. pp 289.299. L W. pp 502-514. Proc. M D. J. Healy. Rock Mech. Stockholm. 1st Southern African Rock Engineering Symp. Pure Appl. Zoback. Abstr. Cooling. Vol 115. wellbore breakouts. Afr. Rock Stress and Rock Stress Measurements. Mastin. B (1989) Measurement of rock stress using the hydraulic fracturing method in Cornwall. Symp. Int. Zoback. pp 135-152. Proc. Soc. Int.. Sci & Geomech. S. Min. Tunbridge. and stonely wave polarization. J C (1977) Preliminary stress measurements in Central California using the hydraulic fracturing technique. J H and Rolles.. Vol 26. L and Barton. C (1986) In-situ stress measurements in deep boreholes using hydraulic fracturing. pp 351-360.. . C M and Haimson. M L.. SARES 97. T R (1997) Practical method of in situ stress measurement for deep level mines. National Group of Int.Stacey.

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