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Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant

At Saganoseki Smelter

Pan Pacific Copper Co. Ltd.

Original: June 4, 2010


Rev.1: July 18, 2010
Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

Table of Contents
1. Process Outline............................................................................................2
2. Process Flow...............................................................................................3
2.1 Flow Sheet..............................................................................................3
2.1.1 H2S Absorbing Tower.........................................................................3
2.1.2 Sulfurizing Reactor.............................................................................4
2.1.3 H2S Scrubber.....................................................................................4
2.1.4 Thickener..........................................................................................4
2.1.5 Filter Press........................................................................................4
3. Mass Balance and Analysis...........................................................................5
3.1 Material Balance......................................................................................5
3.1.1 As.....................................................................................................6
3.1.2 Cu.....................................................................................................6
3.1.3 Zn.....................................................................................................6
3.1.4 Pb , Bi...............................................................................................6
3.1.5 Cl , F.................................................................................................7
3.2 Properties................................................................................................7
4. Equipment Description.................................................................................8
4.1 Equipment List.........................................................................................8
5. Utilities......................................................................................................10
5.1 Electricity...............................................................................................10
5.2 Water....................................................................................................10
5.3 Pneumatic Air........................................................................................11
6. Consumables.............................................................................................12
6.1 Agents..................................................................................................12
6.2 Other....................................................................................................12
7. Operation Guidance...................................................................................13
7.1 Operation..............................................................................................13
7.2 Processing Settings................................................................................13
7.2.1 ORP at No.1 and 2 Sulfurizing Reactors..............................................13
7.2.2 Arsenic Concentration in Liquid Overflow from Thickener...................15
7.2.3 Pressure in Sulfurizing Reactors........................................................15
7.2.4 Sulfide Filtration Rate.......................................................................15
7.3 Other....................................................................................................16
7.3.1 SO2 in Effluent.................................................................................16
7.3.2 H2S Absorbing Tower........................................................................16
7.3.3 Poor Sedimentation in Thickener.......................................................16
7.3.4 Recovery of Cu From Effluent............................................................16
8. Recommendation.......................................................................................17
8.1 H2S Absorbing Tower..............................................................................17
8.2 Acid Content in Sulfides..........................................................................17
8.3 Equipment Specifications........................................................................17
8.4 Flocculant in Thickener...........................................................................17
8.5 ORP Settings in Sulfurizing Reactors........................................................17
8.6 Recovery of Cu from Effluent..................................................................18

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

1. Process Outline

Saganoseki Smelter uses a sulfurization process to treat effluent from sulfuric acid production.
The effluent contains As, Cu and F, and is produced at a rate of 331 m3/day on average. The
composition of the effluent is as follows.

H2SO4100300g/L
As13g/L
Cu0.010.1g/L
F0.55g/L

The sulfurization process consists of the H2S absorbing tower, sulfurizing reactors and H2S
scrubber. The sulfurization reaction is caused by the addition of NaHS (sodium hydrosulfide),
which is regulated via ORP control. As and Cu present in the effluent are sulfurized as follows:

H2SO4 + 2NaHS Na2SO4 + 2H2S


CuO + H2S CuS + H2O
As2O3 + 3H2S As2S3 + 3H2O

NaHS must be added within the liquid rather than on the liquid surface. If NaHS is added at the
liquid surface, most of the H2S generated in the sulfurizing reactor will migrate directly to the gas
phase, significantly reducing the reaction efficiency. To boost reaction efficiency and minimize
the required consumption of NaHS, the additive tube is extended beneath the surface so that the
NaHS enters the liquid. The appended diagram shows the structure of the additive tube.
Unreacted excess H2S gas in the sulfurizing reactor is extracted at the H2S scrubber and sent to
the H2S absorbing tower together with any H2S gas that has migrated directly to the gas phase
in the sulfurizing reaction. In the absorbing tower, H2S in the gas is captured in effluent pumped
up from the AT pump tank and utilized for As sulfurization. This approach helps to minimize
consumption of NaHS.
H2S is a poisonous gas that can cause death even at concentrations less than 100 ppm. When
the pressure in the sulfurizing reactor rises above -30 mm H2O , an interlock system
automatically shuts off the supply of effluent and NaHS not to leak gas containing H2S from the
sulfurizing reactor at Saganoseki Smelter.

As and Cu sulfides (As = 30 - 40%, Cu = 0.5 - 1.0%) are removed through filtration and
returned to the flash smelting furnace at Saganoseki Smelter.

The As and Cu sulfide free filtrate, meanwhile, is neutralized with calcium carbonate and lime
and used to manufacture gypsum.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

2. Process Flow
2.1 Flow Sheet

Figure 1 De-As treatment process at Saganoseki Smelter

2.1.1 H2S Absorbing Tower

Effluent is delivered to the AT pump tank. The circulation pump in the pump tank feeds the
liquid to the top of the absorbing tower, where it is sprayed into the tower. Meanwhile, a fan
draws gas mixture containing H2S from the sulfurizing reactor and absorbing tower hood. Excess
H2S gas in the gas mixture reacts with As and Cu in the effluent. After passing through the
absorbing tower, the off-gases are discharged from the main stack.

When you design a new process , where there is a high concentration of suspended solids
(SS) in the effluent, the SS can adhere to the packing, causing unacceptable pressure loss in the

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

absorbing tower. In this case, an NaOH absorbing tower may be used instead, provided that the
off-gases are discharged from the main stack in the same way.

2.1.2 Sulfurizing Reactor

Three sulfurizing reactors are used to sulfurize the As and Cu in the effluent with H2S. The No.
1 and No. 2 reactors generate H2S via a reaction between NaHS and sulfuric acid. NaHS must be
added within the liquid rather than on the liquid surface. If NaHS is added to the liquid surface,
the bulk of the H2S generated in the sulfurizing reactor migrates directly to the gas phase,
significantly reducing reaction efficiency. In order to maximize reaction efficiency and minimize
the NaHS consumption used, the additive tube is extended beneath the surface so that the NaHS
enters the liquid.
The No. 3 reactor is a holding tank used to ensure that the reaction proceeds to completion.

2.1.3 H2S Scrubber

Liquid overflow from the No. 3 sulfurizing reactor is sent to the H2S scrubber pump tank. The
circulation pump feeds liquid from the pump tank to the top of the scrubber tower, where it is
sprayed into the tower. Any excess H2S remaining after the sulfurization reaction is captured via
contact with the air in the tower. Gas containing the captured H2S is then delivered to the
absorbing tower where it is used to sulfurize As and Cu, thereby reducing overall consumption of
NaHS.

2.1.4 Thickener

Liquid overflow from the scrubber pump tank is sent to the thickener, which concentrates the
sulfides generated during the sulfurization process. The liquid overflow is then delivered to the
next process, which at Saganoseki Smelter is gypsum production via neutralization. The As
concentration in liquid overflow averaged 0.08 g/l in the period April 2009 to March 2010.

2.1.5 Filter Press

Slurry is taken from the bottom of the thickener and filtered in the filter press to recover
sulfides. The sulfides have high attached acid content, and must be repulped with extra water in
the repulping tank, then re-filtered in the second filter press. This reduces the amount of acid
attached to the sulfides.
At Saganoseki Smelter, the filtrate is fed back to the thickener while the sulfides are sent to the
flash smelting furnace.

When you design a new process , if the attached acids do not pose any particular issue, then a
single filtration process is sufficient.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

3. Material Balance and Analysis

3.1 Material Balance

The table below shows the material balance in the sulfurization process at the effluent
treatment plant for the period April 2009 to March 2010. Concentrations are yearly averages.

Table 1 Material balance in As extraction process at Saganoseki Smelter

The following table gives the monthly breakdown, clearly illustrating the month-by-month
variation in the figures.

Table 2 Chemical analysis of As extraction process at Saganoseki Smelter by month


(April 2009 to March 2010)

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

3.1.1 As

As is sulfurized in the sulfurizing reactor. The ORP settings used at Saganoseki Smelter are
designed to achieve approximately 90% sulfurization, leaving up to 10% of As remaining in the
effluent.

3.1.2 Cu

Copper sulfurizes more readily than As. Accordingly, 100% of Cu is sulfurized.

3.1.3 Zn

Virtually no Zn is sulfurized under the ORP settings used at Saganoseki Smelter.

3.1.4 Pb , Bi

Lead and bismuth are present in effluent in the form of suspended solids (SS). These are
filtered out with sulfides during the filtration process.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

3.1.5 Cl , F

Chlorine and fluorine are not removed during sulfurization and remain in the filtrate.

3.2 Properties

The table below summarizes the properties of the effluent, sulfurization slurry, sulfides and
post-reaction liquid.

Table 3 Properties

Temperature Specific gravity Slurry concentration


Effluent 10 30 1.1 1.2 kg/l
Sulfurization slurry 10 40 1.1 1.2 kg/l 10 40 g/l
Post-reaction liquid 10 40 1.1 1.2 kg/l

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

4. Equipment Description
4.1 Equipment List
Table 4 Equipment list

Tag No. Equipment Type Design Capacity Dimension Specification


(SO2 Scrubber) Tower DI 580H4,000 C-FRP
(SO2 Scrubber Pump Tank) Tank 10m3 10m3 C-FRP
TK-2a No.1 Effluent Tank Tank 500m3 DI 8,710H9,140 CS+R/L
TK-2b No.2 Effluent Tank Tank 500m3 DI 8,710H9,140 CS+R/L
3
Effluent Pump Pump 24m /h25m Magnet
Abt-1 H2S-Absorbing Tower Tower 21m 3
DI 20007100
VE-1 H2S-AT Pump Tank Tank 6m 3
CS6t + 3mmH R/L
PU-2ab H2S-AT Circulation Pump Pump 30m3/h30m
H2S-AT Pump Tank Agitator Agitator 120rpm 3.7kWDI 8002,700L CS+R/L
FN-2ab De-As Reactor Ventilation FAN Fan 3
4,800Nm /h -3kPa
VE-2 No.1 Sulfurizing Reactor Reactor 6m3 6m3 CS6t + 3mmH R/L
No.1 Sulfurizing Reactor Agitator Agitator 120rpm 3.7kWDI 8503,000L CS+R/L
VE-3 No.2 Sulfurizing Reactor Reactor 6m 3
CS6t + 3mmH R/L
No.2 Sulfurizing Reactor Agitator Agitator 120rpm 3.7kWDI 8002,700L CS+R/L
VE-4 No.3 Sulfurizing Reactor Reactor 6m3 CS6t + 3mmH R/L
No.3 Sulfurizing Reactor Agitator Agitator 120rpm 3.7kWDI 8002,700L CS+R/L
ST-1ab H2S Scrubber Tower DI 7002,780, PVC
VE-5 H2S Scrubber Pump Tank Tank 6m3 PVC
H2S Scrubber Pump Tank Agitator Agitator 120rpm 3.7kWDI 8002,700L CS+R/L
PU-4ab H2S Scrubber Circulation Pump Pump 12m3/h32m
TH-1 As-Sulfide Thickener Thickener 150m3 DI 8,0003,000H
PU-6abc 1st F/P Feed Pump Pump 3
36m /h43m
FP-1a 1st As-Sulfide Filter press Filter Press 1,025L, 74m2 Including compressor
BC-1a 1st FP Belt Conveyor Belt Conveyor 600W700L 20m/min
TK-7 Repulping Tank Tank 7m3 FRP
Repulping Tank Agitator Agitator 120rpm 7.5kWDI 8402,000L FRP
PU-13a Repulped Slurry Pump Pump 3
90m /h18m
TK-3 Buffer Tank Tank 30m3 CS+R/L
Buffer Tank Agitator Agitator 50rpm
PU-7abc 2nd F/P Feed Pump Pump 36m3/h42m
FP-1b 2nd As-Sulfide Filter press Filter Press 1,025L, 74m2 Including compressor
HP-2 As-Sulfide Hopper Hopper 30m 3
CS+R/L
TK-1 25%NaHS Tank Tank 13m3 SS
PU-1ab 25%NaHS Feed Pump Pump 3
6m /h15m
TK-3 Sulfurizing Filtrate Tank Tank 30m3 FRP
CM-1a No.1 Instrument Compressor Compressor 0.93MPa ; 0.63m3/min
CM-1b No.2 Instrument Compressor Compressor 0.93MPa ; 0.63m3/min
CSCarbon Steel SSStainless Steel
R/LRubber Lining C-FRPCarbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

See drawings for further details.

Internal cylinders in the sulfurizing reactor are used to ensure sufficient reaction time. Along
with the NaHS insertion tube described in the preceding section, these help to improve reaction
efficiency, as shown in the drawings.

When you design a new process ,


CS+R/L tanks may be made from FRP.
Normally three sulfurizing reactors are used; however by increasing the size of the No. 1 and 2
reactors it is possible to omit the No. 3 reactor. Saganoseki Smelter uses a reaction time of just
under two hours. In the case of higher As and Cu concentrations (compared to Saganoseki
Smelter), larger sulfurizing reactors may be required.
Saganoseki Smelter uses a slurry thickener to concentrate the slurry and minimize the F/P
operating time. Where the effluent has high As and Cu content, resulting in a high slurry
concentration in the sulfurized liquid , the thickener may be replaced by a storage tank with
agitator. The storage tank should ideally be made from FRP.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

5. Utilities

5.1 Electricity

Power consumption in the sulfurization process is approximately 850 MWh per year (April 2009
- March 2010 figures). This includes pumps, agitators and filter presses.

Table 4 Power usage breakdown (April 2009 - March 2010)


Machine Power Operating Operating Annual power
(kW) time (hr) days consumption
(MWh/y)
Effluent Pump 37 24 335 297
H2S-AT Circulation Pump 11 24 335 88
H2S-AT Pump Tank Agitator 3.7 24 335 30
De-As Reactor Ventilation FAN 11 24 335 88
No.1 Sulfurizing Reactor Agitator 3.7 24 335 30
No.2 Sulfurizing Reactor Agitator 3.7 24 335 30
No.3 Sulfurizing Reactor Agitator 3.7 24 335 30
H2S Scrubber Pump Tank Agitator 3.7 24 335 30
H2S Scrubber Circulation Pump 11 24 335 88
1st F/P Feed Pump 18.5 1.5 335 9
1st FP Belt Conveyor 0.6 1.5 335 0.3
Repulping Tank Agitator 7.5 24 335 60
Repulped Slurry Pump 1.5 4.5 335 2
2nd F/P Feed Pump 18.5 1.5 335 9
25%NaHS Feed Pump 2.2 24 335 18
Compressor2 5.5 10 335 18
F/P operation (including pumps) 335 23
Total 850 MWh/y

5.2 Water

Water consumption in the sulfurization process is approximately 28,500 m3/year (April 2009 -
March 2010). The water is used mainly for F/P washing and repulping after initial filtration.

Table 5 Water usage breakdown (April 2009 - March 2010)


Use Consumption Operating Annual
(m3/d) days consumption
(m3/y)
As sulfide repulping 69 335 23,115
Flocculant solution 7.2 335 2,412
Cleaning of filter press filter cloths 9 335 3,015
Total 28,542 m3/y

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

5.3 Pneumatic Air

Figures are not available on consumption of compressed air in the sulfurization process. The
compressor used for instrumentation has a discharge pressure of 0.93 MPa and discharge rate of
0.63 m3/min.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

6. Consumables
6.1 Agents

25% NaHS solution : 1,208 tons per year (unit consumption: 4,307 kg/t-As)
(April 2009 - March 2010)
(Unit consumption depends on the concentration of substances
such as Cu and SO2 in the effluent.)

Flocculant (weakly anionic) : 300 kg per year (unit consumption: 2.94 g/m3 - liquid effluent)
Accofloc A-97 (MT AquaPolymer)

6.2 Other

Consumable materials for filter presses and pumps\3,840,000 per year


(April 2009 - March 2010)

F/P parts : \2,784,000 per year


Pump consumables : \456,000 per year
Other : \600,000 per year
Total : \3,840,000 per year (April 2009 - March 2010)

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

7. Operation Guidance
7.1 Operation

Saganoseki Smelter has a processing throughput of 230 l/min or 331 m3/day. Retention time in
the sulfurization reactors is just under two hours, while the total retention time in the No. 1 to
No. 3 sulfurizing reactors and the scrubber pump tank is approximately two hours. The
sulfurization reaction is regulated by an ORP controller as described in Section 7.2.1 below. Once
the reaction is complete, the liquid is sent to the thickener, where flocculant additive causes the
sulfides to precipitate at the bottom of the tank. At Saganoseki Smelter, flocculant is added at a
rate of 3 ppm relative to effluent volume.

Liquid overflow from the thickener represents the target liquid after extraction of As.
Precipitated sulfides on the bottom of the tank are filtered at the filter press and sent to the flash
smelting furnace.

This figure may be varied depending on the type of flocculant. When you design a new
process , the choice of flocculant will depend on the constituent components as well as the
composition of the effluent. It is advisable to test a range of flocculant agents using actual
effluent.
If a thickener is not used in the treatment process or the sulfide filtration rate is sufficient ,
then flocculant is not required.

7.2 Processing Settings


7.2.1 ORP at No. 1 and 2 Sulfurizing Reactors

ORP is used to control the sulfurization reaction to ensure the proper rate of sulfurization of As
in the effluent. Adding too much NaHS to the sulfurizing reactor causes excessive quantities of
H2S gas to be produced, and these could potentially escape into the atmosphere. NaHS must be
added to the No. 1 sulfurizing reactor at an appropriate rate to prevent excessive gas production.
Although ORP control is used in both reactors, more precise control over NaHS additive is
required in the No. 2 sulfurizing reactor.
At Saganoseki Smelter, the sulfurization reaction is divided into two stages. The first stage
involves addition of NaHS to the No. 1 sulfurizing reactor at a rate of approximately ORP 150 -
250 mV (vs. SCE). The ORP value depends on the composition of the effluent, and is adjusted
constantly in accordance with the sulfurization reaction conditions.
The OPR setting for the second stage in the No. 2 sulfurizing reactor is particularly important in
terms of ensuring the correct NaHS consumption for the reaction. An overly high setting will
cause too much As to remain in the effluent, while an overly low setting will lead to excessive
NaHS consumption and higher costs. Saganoseki Smelter uses a setting in the range 0 - 150 mV
(vs. SCE) for the No. 2 sulfurizing reactor. The ORP value is adjusted within this range based on
simple arsenic level testing conducted three times per day as outlined below. Proper optimization
of ORP settings in the No. 2 sulfurizing reactor can eliminate over 90% of As in the effluent.

An ORP meter is used to remove deposits once every eight hours. Calibration with reference
solution should be performed once per week. Effluent with high fluorine levels can destroy the

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

ORP meter; in this case, the meter must be replaced regularly. The basic specifications of the
ORP meters used at Saganoseki Smelter are shown below.

Figure 2 The basic specifications of the ORP meters

Figure 3 shows the correlation between ORP and the elimination rate for As. Note that the
ORP value will vary depending on the sulfuric acid concentration and level of impurities. For this
reason, it is important to test the ORP control settings using samples of the actual liquid.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

7.2.2 Arsenic Concentration in Liquid Overflow from Thickener

Liquid overflow from the thickener is tested to determine the efficacy of arsenic removal in the
sulfurization reaction. The simple testing procedure used at Saganoseki Smelter is outlined below.
This test is conducted every eight hours to provide feedback on operational settings.
Liquid overflow is sampled from the thickener.
NaHS is added to the sample.
White precipitate 1 (i.e. zinc sulfide or equivalent) indicates sufficient additive.
Yellow precipitate 2 (arsenic sulfide) indicates insufficient additive, meaning the
ORP value needs to be lower. The ideal precipitate3 color is white with a yellow
tinge, or pale yellow, as shown in the photograph.

1 White Precipitate 2 Yellow Precipitate 3 Ideal Precipitate

The testing process generates trace quantities of H2S gas and should ideally be conducted in a
glove box, although it may also be performed outdoors wearing an H2S gas proof mask and
protective goggles. Note that effluent with high Cd content may produce a precipitate with
yellow hue even when As has been successfully removed. Since precipitate color is influenced by
the composition of the effluent, due care should be taken in interpreting the test results.

When you design a new process , an ICP or other suitable testing device can also be used to
measure arsenic levels in the liquid overflow. At Saganoseki Smelter, however, we use the
simple testing method described above because it allows us to alter the ORP settings promptly to
suit the reaction speed.

7.2.3 Pressure in Sulfurizing Reactors

The sulfurizing reactors must be maintained at negative pressure, since positive pressure can
cause eruption of toxic H2S gas. When the pressure in the sulfurizing reactor rises above -30 mm
H2O , an interlock system automatically shuts off the supply of effluent and NaHS not to leak gas
containing H2S from the sulfurizing reactor at Saganoseki Smelter.

7.2.4 Sulfide Filtration Rate

The sulfide filtration rate at Saganoseki Smelter is 35.4kg/ m3/ hr. Note that the rate of
filtration is governed by effluent composition, so it is important to confirm the filtration rate
using the actual effluent. The relatively high water content of 65% does not affect filtration
performance.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

7.3 Other
7.3.1 SO2 In Effluent

Effluent generated by washing and cooling equipment in sulfuric acid production has a high
content of dissolved SO2. If the SO2 is not removed, H2S will be consumed via the chemical
reaction shown below. A separate SO2 scrubber should be installed to extract SO2 from the
effluent before it is sent to the AT pump tank. At Saganoseki Smelter, the initial concentration of
SO2 in effluent is 2 - 3 g/l, and this is reduced to 0.05 g/l by the scrubber.

H2SO4 + 2NaHS Na2SO4 + 2H2S


SO2 + 2H2S 3S + 2H2O

7.3.2 H2S Absorbing Tower

Abnormal pressure loss in the H2S absorbing tower affects suction in the sulfurizing reactors
and scrubbers and can lead to H2S gas leakage. In the event of a pressure loss, an immediate
response is required as follows:

Check for build-up of sludge in the absorbing tower packing and remove if necessary
Check the flow of circulating fluid from the upper spray outlets and clean/repair the outlets
if necessary.

7.3.3 Poor Sedimentation in Thickener

If the precipitate fails to settle on the bottom of the thickener and sulfides are present in the
liquid overflow, this generally indicates insufficient flocculant. Check that addition of flocculant is
indeed taking place, and increase the dosage if necessary. In some cases, excessive addition of
flocculant can also prevent sedimentation, with the sulfides floating on the surface of the liquid.
Check the dosage and adjust as necessary.

7.3.4 Recovery of Cu From Effluent

At Saganoseki Smelter, Cu in the effluent is recovered together with As in sulfide when both
are sent to the flash smelting furnace.

When you design a new process , if a flash smelting furnace is not used, Cu can be recovered
by dividing the sulfurization process into two stages. Since Cu sulfurizes more readily than As,
the first sulfurization process uses ORP settings designed to sulfurize all the Cu, which is
removed through filtration. The remaining filtrate is then subject to a second sulfurization
process to sulfurize the As.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

8. Recommendation
This text is described about the process that is operating at Saganoseki Smelter now. But , it is
a process matched to the operation of Saganoseki Smelter. So , when a new process is designed
at Chagres Smelter , it must be matched to the operation of Chagres Smelter.
Recommendation for Chagres Smelter is described as follows.

8.1 H2S Absorbing Tower

When you design a new process , where there is a high concentration of suspended solids
(SS) in the effluent, the SS can adhere to the packing, causing unacceptable pressure loss in the
absorbing tower. In this case, an NaOH absorbing tower may be used instead, provided that the
off-gases are discharged from the main stack in the same way.

8.2 Acid Content in Sulfides

When you design a new process , if the attached acids do not pose any particular issue, then a
single filtration process is sufficient.

8.3 Equipment Specifications

When you design a new process ,


CS+R/L tanks may be made from FRP.
Normally three sulfurizing reactors are used; however by increasing the size of the No. 1 and 2
reactors it is possible to omit the No. 3 reactor. Saganoseki Smelter uses a reaction time of just
under two hours. In the case of higher As and Cu concentrations (compared to Saganoseki
Smelter), larger sulfurizing reactors may be required.
Saganoseki Smelter uses a slurry thickener to concentrate the slurry and minimize the F/P
operating time. Where the effluent has high As and Cu content, resulting in a high slurry
concentration in the sulfurized liquid , the thickener may be replaced by a storage tank with
agitator. The storage tank should ideally be made from FRP.

8.4 Flocculant to Thickener

When you design a new process , the choice of flocculant will depend on the constituent
components as well as the composition of the effluent. It is advisable to test a range of
flocculant agents using actual effluent.
If a thickener is not used in the treatment process, then flocculant is not required.

8.5 ORP Settings in Sulfurizing Reactors

When you design a new process , an ICP or other suitable testing device can also be used to
measure arsenic levels in the liquid overflow. At Saganoseki Smelter, however, we use the
simple testing method described in section 7.2.2 because it allows us to alter the ORP settings
promptly to suit the reaction speed.

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Pan Pacific Copper Co Ltd
Sulfurizing Process of Effluent Treatment Plant at Saganoseki

8.6 Recovery of Cu from Effluent

When you design a new process , if a flash smelting furnace is not used, Cu can be recovered
by dividing the sulfurization process into two stages. Since Cu sulfurizes more readily than As,
the first sulfurization process uses ORP settings designed to sulfurize all the Cu, which is
removed through filtration. The remaining filtrate is then subject to a second sulfurization
process to sulfurize the As.

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