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Initial Environmental Examination (Final)

Project Number: 45905


November 2011

FOUNDATION WIND ENERGY I & II PROJECTS 1


(Pakistan)

Prepared by URS TEKCELLENT (PVT.) LIMITED for Foundation Wind Energy I & II Limited

The initial environmental examination is a document of the borrower. The views expressed
herein do not necessarily represent those of ADB's Board of Directors, Management, or staff,
and may be preliminary in nature. Your attention is directed to the Term of Use section of this
website.

1
Foundation Wind Energy Project I (formerly Beacon Energy); Foundation Wind Energy Project II (formerly Green
Power Energy).
Fauji Wind Energy-I Limited
Initial Environmental Examination
50 MW Wind Power Project
Gharo, Sindh

Report
TPL Reference: R11V01FW1PD October 27, 2011

Prepared for:
Fauji Foundation
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Acronyms

AC After construction
AEDB Alternative Energy Development Board
Amsl Above Mean Sea Level
BC Before construction
BEL Beacon Energy Limited
BHU Basic Health Unit
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
Cusecs Cubic feet per second
DC During construction
DCO District Coordination Officer
DO Dissolved Oxygen
ECA Employment of Child Act
EHS Environment, Health and Safety
EHSD Environment, Health and Safety Department
EHSS Environment, Health and Safety Supervisor
EHSM Environment, Health and Safety Monitor
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GoP Government of Pakistan
GRM Grievance Redress Mechanism
GWh Giga watt hour
Ha Hectare
HESCO Hyderabad Electric Supply Company
HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus / Acquired immune
deficiency syndrome
IEE Initial Environmental Examination
IPP Independent Power Producer
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
KM Kilometer
KWh Kilo watt hour

Acronyms
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TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

LAA Land Acquisition Act (of 1894)


LOS Laws of Seas
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LT Low Tension
MAF Million Acre Feet
MARPOL Marine Pollution (Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships)
MEA Multilateral Environmental Agreements
MHa Million Hectares
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
MVA Mega Volt Amperes
MW Mega Watts
M&E Monitoring and Evaluation
NEPRA National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
NEQS National Environmental Quality Standards
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NOx Oxides of Nitrogen
NTDC National Transmission and Dispatch Company
O&M Operation and Maintenance
PCB Poly Chlorinated Biphenyl
PEPC Pakistan Environmental Protection Council
PEPA Pakistan Environmental Protection Act
PM Project Manager
PMD Pakistan Meteorological Department
POP Persistent Organic Pollutants
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PS Performance Standard
P&DD Planning and Development Department
RH Relative Humidity
RHC Rural Health Center
SCR Social Complaint Register
TDS Total Dissolved Solids
TMA Tehsil Municipal Administration
ToR Terms of Reference
UA Union Administration
UC Union Council
UK United Kingdom
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

Acronyms
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TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Change
USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
WHO World Health Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature

Acronyms
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Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Executive Summary

Fauji Wind Energy I Ltd. (FWEL-I),a project of the Fauji Foundation (FF) plans to
develop, own and operate a 49.5 MW wind power plant near Gharo, about 54 km south-
east of Karachi. FWEL-I is seeking finances from the Asian Development Bank (ADB)
for this project. FWEL-I has bought the ownership rights from Beacon Energy Limited
(BEL). Previously an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) for the project has been
approved by the Sind Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) in 2009. This document
is an updated version of the IEE and incorporates ADB requirements and comments on
the original IEE for the project.
Study Methodology
The original study was conducted using a standard methodology prescribed by national
and international agencies. Various phases of the study included screening, scoping,
data collection and compilation, stakeholder consultation, impact assessment, and report
compilation. For the updated version, site visits were conducted to establish changes in
the baseline environment during the intervening years since the original study, ADB
requirements were addressed, conditions of the SEPA Decision on Initial Environmental
Examination (IEE) accorded to BEL were incorporated, the new access route was
assessed and the changes in project details were included.
Legislative Framework
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEPA 1997) requires the proponents
of every development project in the country to conduct an environmental assessment
and submit its report to the relevant environmental protection agency.
The ADB Policies and Guidelines also call for an environmental and social assessment
for projects such as the FWEL-I.
The IEE had been carried out in response to the above-mentioned Act and now
incorporates the conditions of the SEPA Decision on Initial Environmental Examination
(IEE) accorded to BEL
Project Overview
Fauji Wind Energy I Ltd. (FWEL-I) plans to develop, own and operate a 50 MW wind
farm IPP project in Sindh, Pakistan. The purchaser of the projects power will be the
National Transmission and Distribution Company (NTDC). The previous owners had
leased 1,210 acres (about 490 hectares) of land from Alternate Energy Development
Board (AEDB), who have acquired this land from the Government of Sindh. New lease
for FWEL-I is being updated by AEDB for correction in respect of land boundary
coordinates The wind resource study is based on the five-year (Aug 2006 through June
2010) site-specific wind data obtained from a meteorological mast that was set up by the
previous owner Beacon Energy Ltd. The project will consist of 20 pylons with Nordex
N100 2.5 MW turbines mounted at a hub height of 80 m and having a rotor diameter of
100 m, located around the periphery and down the center of the 490 hectare land
parcel..
The access to site will be via an approximately 3 km long and 30 m wide access road
from the Coastal Highway to the Fauji Wind Energy Limited II (FWEL-II), another Fauji

Executive Summary
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Foundation wind energy project. From FWEL-II a 7 km road interconnecting road to the
site will be constructed on FWEL-I owned right of way (ROW). An 8.2 km internal road to
service the towers will be constructed together with the service buildings within the
FWEL-I premises. FWEL-I has signed an Indicative Term sheet with Asian Development
Bank (ADB) and Islamic Development Bank for arrangement of debt for the foreign
component and the remainder will be funded through a local consortium lead by National
Bank of Pakistan.

Description of the Environment


The proposed power plant site is located in Thatta District, about 30 km southwest of
Gharo town, which is located on the National Highway between Karachi and Thatta. The
power plant site is located on inter-tidal mud flats, surrounded on its three sides by the
creek channels. The proposed site and its immediate surroundings are lying completely
vacant, with no habitation, cultivation or grazing activity.
Administratively, the area is located in Haji Girano, which is one of the union councils of
the Mirpur Sakro Taluka, District Thatta. However the proposed site is outside the
settled area of the union council. The nearby population is mostly rural, and depends
upon cultivation, fishing and associated activities for livelihood.
The climate in the project area can be characterized by dry, hot and humid conditions,
typical of sub-tropical coastal zones lying in monsoon region. There is a minor seasonal
intervention of a mild winter from mid-December to mid-February and then a long hot
and humid summer extending from April to October.
No anthropogenic sources of air pollution exist in the immediate vicinity of the site;
therefore the ambient air of the area is likely to be free from the key pollutants such as
carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Indus River
and the irrigation network emanating from it are the key freshwater resources of the
area. The nearest irrigation canal is located about 15 km from the proposed site.
The project site is located in the area which is classified as Indus Delta. However,
primarily as a result of the decreasing river water flows, the area is no longer included in
the active delta, which is now restricted between Shah Bunder and Keti Bunder. The
project site comprises of inter-tidal mudflats with marshes along the creeks. The area is
mostly plain having alluvial silt above the high tide mark. In the low-lying area, numerous
marshes have been formed. A sparse growth of mangroves was found in and around
the project site area during the previous site visits. However, no mangrove pockets were
found during the recent survey.
Stakeholder Consultation
Stakeholder consultations were carried out as part of the IEE study. These consultations
were conducted with the institutional as well as the grassroots stakeholders. The main
objectives of the consultations were to: apprise the stakeholders about the proposed
project activities; obtain their views, concerns and recommendations; and address /
incorporate them in the project design - thus enhancing the environmental and social
performance of the project.
Impact Assessment and Mitigation

Executive Summary
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TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

During the IEE, the projects potential social and environmental impacts were identified
and updated. Each identified impact was then characterized with respect to its nature,
reversibility, geographical extent, consequence-severity and likelihood. Based upon this
characterization, the impacts were then assessed to be of high, medium or low
significance.
The key potential environmental and social issues identified during the study included
contamination of soil and water, safety hazards, damage to infrastructure, air quality
deterioration, noise emissions, threat to wildlife and habitat modification. Similar impacts
during the plants operation were identified; these included soil and water contamination,
safety hazards, species mortality, habitat modification, noise and vibration. The IEE has
recommended appropriate mitigation measures to address the above concerns, and to
keep the residual impacts within acceptable limits.
Environmental Management Plan
An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) had been developed to provide an
implementation mechanism for the mitigation measures mentioned above and has been
updated in the light of the SEPA decision conditionalities. The EMP provides the
organization structure for the environmental and social management system during the
project, and defines the roles and responsibilities of various players. The EMP includes
a mitigation plan, a monitoring plan, the communication and documentation
requirements, and training needs, in the context of the environmental and social
management of the project.
Findings and Recommendations
On the basis of the overall impact assessment, more specifically, nature and magnitude
of the residual environmental and socioeconomic impacts identified during the original
and updated IEE, it is concluded that the proposed project is unlikely to cause any
significant, lasting impact on the social, physical and biological environment of the area,
provided that the proposed activities are carried out as mentioned in this report, and the
mitigation measures included in this report are completely and effectively implemented.
The key recommendations pertaining to the environmental and social performance of the
proposed project are as follows:
The EMP should be made a part of the contracts awarded by FWEL-I for the
proposed project.
In-house environmental and social management capacity should be developed
in FWEL-I. For this purpose, an EHS Department should be established within
the company.
FWEL-I should develop its Environmental and Social Policy, which should
demonstrate the companys commitment towards sound environmental and
social management practices throughout its operations.
The company should adhere to the environmental legislation and regulations,
particularly for conducting environmental and social assessments for all its future
projects.
FWEL-I and its contractors should employ local labor as much as possible.

Executive Summary
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TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
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Contents

Acronyms ......................................................................................................... ii

Executive Summary ......................................................................................... v

Contents ........................................................................................................viii

Exhibits ......................................................................................................... xiv

Appendices..................................................................................................... xvi

1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Project Proponent ............................................................................................ 1
1.2 Project Background and Justification .............................................................. 1
1.2.1 Wind Power Generation .................................................................................. 2
1.3 Project Overview ............................................................................................. 2
1.4 IEE Study ......................................................................................................... 2
1.4.1 Need of the Study ............................................................................................ 2
1.4.2 Study Objectives.............................................................................................. 3
1.4.3 Study Scope ..................................................................................................... 3
1.4.4 Study Methodology ......................................................................................... 3
1.5 Document Structure......................................................................................... 4

2. Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework ............................................ 1


2.1 National Environmental Laws and Regulations .............................................. 1
2.2 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 .................................................. 1
2.2.1 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA
Regulations, 2000 ............................................................................................. 2
2.2.2 National and International Environmental Standards .................................... 2
2.2.3 National Environmental Policy, 2005 .............................................................. 1
2.2.4 Land Acquisition Act, 1894 .............................................................................. 1
2.2.5 Telegraph Act, 1885.......................................................................................... 2
2.2.6 Sindh Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and Amendments 2001 ........................... 2
2.2.7 Forest Act, 1927 ................................................................................................ 2
2.2.8 The Ports Act, 1908 (the Ports Act) ............................................................... 2
2.2.9 Canal and Drainage Act, 1873 .......................................................................... 2

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2.2.10 Sindh Fisheries Ordinance, 1980.......................................................... 3


2.2.11 The Sindh Irrigation Act, 1879 ............................................................. 3
2.2.12 Provincial Local Government Ordinances, 2001 .................................. 3
2.2.13 Antiquity Act, 1975............................................................................... 3
2.2.14 Mines, Oil Fields and Mineral Development Act, 1948 ....................... 4
2.2.15 Factories Act, 1934 ................................................................................ 4
2.2.16 Pakistan Explosive Act, 1884 ................................................................ 4
2.2.17 Employment of Child Act, 1991 ........................................................... 4
2.2.18 Civil Aviation Rules (1994) .................................................................. 4
2.2.19 Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 .................................................................... 5
2.3 Asian Development Bank (ADB) Polices and Guidelines .............................. 1
2.3.1 2009 Safeguards Policy Statement ................................................................... 1
2.3.2 Policy on Gender and Development (1998) ..................................................... 1
2.3.3 2001 Social Protection Strategy ........................................................................ 2
2.3.4 2005 Public Communications Policy................................................................ 2
2.3.5 Core Labor Standards ...................................................................................... 3
2.4 Institutional Setup for Environmental Management ...................................... 3
2.5 Environmental and Social Guidelines ............................................................. 3
2.5.1 Environmental Protection Agencys Environmental and Social Guidelines ... 4
2.5.2 AEDB Guidelines for Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms in the
Gharo Wind Corridor ...................................................................................... 4
2.6 Obligations under International Treaties ........................................................ 4

3. Project Description...................................................................................... 3
3.1 Project Overview ............................................................................................. 3
3.2 Project Location ............................................................................................... 3
3.3 Site Layout ....................................................................................................... 4
3.4 Logistics ........................................................................................................... 4
3.4.1 Roads and Tracks ............................................................................................. 4
3.4.2 Vehicles and Traffic......................................................................................... 5
3.5 Work Schedule ................................................................................................ 5
3.6 Construction Activities .................................................................................... 5
3.6.1 Staff 6
3.6.2 Supplies ........................................................................................................... 6
3.6.3 Water 1

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TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
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3.6.4 Electricity ......................................................................................................... 1


3.6.5 Waste Management ......................................................................................... 1
3.6.6 Noise 1
3.7 Operational Activities...................................................................................... 1
3.7.1 Staff 1
3.7.2 Supplies ........................................................................................................... 1
3.7.3 Water 1
3.7.4 Waste Management ......................................................................................... 1
3.7.5 Noise 1
3.8 Decommissioning Activities............................................................................ 1

4. Analysis of Project Alternatives.................................................................. 1


4.1 Management Alternatives ............................................................................... 1
4.1.1 No Project Alternative ..................................................................................... 1
4.1.2 Siting Alternatives ........................................................................................... 1
4.2 Technology Alternatives.................................................................................. 1
4.2.1 Renewable Vs. Non-renewable Power Plants ................................................. 1
4.2.2 Transformer Oil ............................................................................................... 1

5. Description of Environment and Socioeconomic Conditions ....................... 1


5.1 Physical Environment ...................................................................................... 1
5.1.1 Physiography, Topography and Geology ........................................................ 1
5.1.2 Land Use .......................................................................................................... 1
5.1.3 Meteorology and Climate ................................................................................ 1
5.1.4 Freshwater Resources ...................................................................................... 1
5.2 Biological Environment ................................................................................... 1
5.2.1 Biological Resources of the Area ..................................................................... 1
5.2.2 Marine Ecosystem ............................................................................................ 2
5.2.3 Biological Resources of the Proposed Site....................................................... 2
5.2.4 Protected Areas ................................................................................................ 1
5.3 Socioeconomic Description ............................................................................. 1
5.3.1 Administrative Setup ...................................................................................... 1
5.3.2 Demographic Features of the Area .................................................................. 1
5.3.3 Culture, Ethnicity and Castes .......................................................................... 1
5.3.4 Physical Infrastructure..................................................................................... 2
5.3.5 Education and Literacy .................................................................................... 2

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5.3.6 Health and Diseases ........................................................................................ 3


5.3.7 Agriculture....................................................................................................... 3
5.3.8 Fishing ............................................................................................................. 4
5.3.9 Developmental Activities in the Area ............................................................. 5
5.3.10 Sites of Archeological, Historical, Cultural or Religious Significance 1

6. Stakeholder Consultations.......................................................................... 1
6.1 Objectives ........................................................................................................ 1
6.2 Participation Framework ................................................................................. 1
6.3 Stakeholder Identification and Analysis ......................................................... 1
6.4 Consultation Process ....................................................................................... 3

7. Environmental Impacts and Mitigation ..................................................... 1


7.1 Impact Assessment Process ............................................................................. 1
7.1.1 Screening of Environmental Impacts .............................................................. 1
7.1.2 Impact Characterization................................................................................... 1
7.1.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation ................................................................. 1
7.1.4 Determination of Mitigation Measures ........................................................... 1
7.1.5 Assessment of Residual Impacts ..................................................................... 1
7.2 Design Phase Considerations .......................................................................... 1
7.3 Construction Phase Impacts ............................................................................ 1
7.3.1 Soil Erosion and Degradation.......................................................................... 1
7.3.2 Air Quality Deterioration ................................................................................ 1
7.3.3 Water Contamination ...................................................................................... 1
7.3.4 Loss of Natural Vegetation .............................................................................. 1
7.3.5 Damage to Wildlife.......................................................................................... 1
7.3.6 Involuntary Resettlement and Damage to Crops ............................................ 1
7.3.7 Damage to infrastructure ................................................................................. 1
7.3.8 Blocked Access ................................................................................................ 2
7.3.9 Noise and Vibration ........................................................................................ 2
7.3.10 Safety Hazard ....................................................................................... 3
7.3.11 Public Health ....................................................................................... 4
7.3.12 Gender and Social Issues ..................................................................... 5
7.3.13 Child Labor .......................................................................................... 5
7.3.14 Impacts on Archeological, Cultural, Historical or Religious
Significance ..................................................................................................... 5

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7.4 Operation Phase Impacts ................................................................................. 6


7.4.1 Soil and Water Contamination ........................................................................ 6
7.4.2 Safety Hazard .................................................................................................. 7
7.4.3 Noise 8
7.4.4 Air Quality Deterioration ................................................................................ 1
7.4.5 Shadow Flicker and Blade Glint...................................................................... 1
7.4.6 Species Mortality ............................................................................................. 1
7.4.7 Habitat Modification ....................................................................................... 2
7.4.8 Threat to Marine Fauna ................................................................................... 3

8. Environmental Management Plan .............................................................. 1


8.1 Purpose and Objectives of EMP ...................................................................... 1
8.2 Components of the EMP .................................................................................. 1
8.3 Institutional Arrangements ............................................................................. 1
8.3.1 Management Approach ................................................................................... 1
8.3.2 Organizational Structure and Responsibilities ............................................... 1
8.4 Mitigation Plan ................................................................................................ 1
8.5 Monitoring Plan............................................................................................... 1
8.5.1 Compliance Monitoring .................................................................................. 1
8.5.2 Effects Monitoring ........................................................................................... 1
8.5.3 External Monitoring ........................................................................................ 1
8.6 Communication and Documentation .............................................................. 1
8.6.1 Data Recording and Maintenance ................................................................... 1
8.6.2 Meetings .......................................................................................................... 1
8.6.3 Grievance Redress Mechanism ....................................................................... 1
8.6.4 Reports ............................................................................................................. 1
8.7 Environmental and Social Training................................................................. 1
8.8 Change Management ....................................................................................... 1
8.8.1 Category A Change ........................................................................................ 1
8.8.2 Category B Change ........................................................................................ 1
8.8.3 Category C Change ........................................................................................ 1
8.9 Public Disclosure ............................................................................................. 1
8.10 Cost of Environmental and Social Management ............................................. 1

9. Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................ 1


9.1 Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 1

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9.2 Recommendations ........................................................................................... 1

10. References and Document Support ............................................................. 1

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Exhibits

Exhibit 1.1: Project Location.................................................................... 5


Exhibit 1.2: Projection of Power Demand Growth - Pakistan ................... 6
Exhibit 1.3: Population, Income and Electricity Consumption Sindh .... 6
Exhibit 1.4: Historical and Projected Electricity Demand- Sindh ............. 6
Exhibit 2.1: Selected NEQS for Waste Effluents ..................................... 1
Exhibit 2.2: NEQS for Industrial Gaseous Emissions .............................. 1
Exhibit 2.3: NEQS for Motor Vehicles Exhaust and Noise ....................... 1
Exhibit 2.4: National Environmental Quality Standards for Noise ............ 1
Exhibit 2.5: National Environmental Quality Standards for Ambient Air ... 1
Exhibit 2.6: National Environmental Quality Standards for Drinking Water
Quality................................................................................... 1
Exhibit 3.1: Power Plant Location............................................................ 2
Exhibit 3.2: Site Layout Plan ................................................................... 3
Exhibit 4.1: Health Effects of PCBs ......................................................... 2
Exhibit 5.1: Land Use in Sindh ................................................................ 1
Exhibit 5.2: Mean Monthly Maximum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi
(C) ....................................................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.3: Mean Monthly Minimum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi
(C) ....................................................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.4: Average Wind Speed Recorded at Karachi (meters per
seconds or m/s) .................................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.5: Precipitation Recorded at Karachi (mm) ............................... 1
Exhibit 5.8: Water Flow in Indus River .................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.9: Species Recorded in Creek Area .......................................... 1
Exhibit 5.10: Protected Areas in Gharo Wind Corridor ............................. 1
Exhibit 5.11: Demographic Data of Thatta District ................................... 2
Exhibit 5.12: Demographic Data of Mirpur Sakro Taluka ......................... 2
Exhibit 5.13: Educational Institutes in Thatta District ............................... 1
Exhibit 5.14: Literacy Ratio in Project Area % ......................................... 1
Exhibit 5.15: Literacy Ratio by Gender % ................................................ 1
Exhibit 5.16: Healthcare Facilities in Thatta District ................................. 1
Exhibit 5.17: Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan ..................................... 2
Exhibit 5.18: Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan ......... 3

Exhibits
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Exhibit 5.18 Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan (Contd.)


.............................................................................................. 4
Exhibit 5.19: Fishing Species and Catch-Size during 7-day Trip in the
Project Area .......................................................................... 4
Exhibit 5.20: Places of Archeological, Historical or Religious Significance
Falling in Sindh ..................................................................... 5
Exhibit 6.1: Participation Framework ....................................................... 4
Exhibit 6.2: Conceptual Framework ........................................................ 1
Exhibit 6.3: List of Participants during Grass Root Consultations ............ 1
Exhibit 7.1: Impact Characterization........................................................ 1
Exhibit 7.2: Impact Assessment .............................................................. 1
Exhibit 7.3: Environmental and Social Screening Matrix (Unmitigated) ... 2
Exhibit 7.4: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project Design
Phase (Unmitigated) ............................................................. 3
Exhibit 7.5: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project
Construction Phase (Unmitigated) ......................................... 4
Exhibit 7.6: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project Operation
Phase (Unmitigated) ............................................................. 5
Exhibit 7.7: Typical Noise Levels............................................................. 6
Exhibit 8.1: Organizational Structure for Environmental and Social
Management (Construction Phase) ....................................... 2
Exhibit 8.2: Roles and Responsibilities .................................................... 3
Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan ....................................................................... 4
Exhibit 8.4: Effects Monitoring Plan for Construction and O&M Phases . 16
Exhibit 8.4: Effects Monitoring Plan for Construction and O&M Phases
(Contd.) .............................................................................. 17
Exhibit 8.5: Grievance Redressal Mechanism ........................................ 18
Exhibit 8.5: Grievance Redressal Mechanism (Contd.) ......................... 19
Exhibit 8.6: Environmental and Social Trainings ................................... 20
Exhibit 8.7: Cost of Environmental and Social Management (During
Construction Phase)............................................................ 21
Exhibit 9.1: Environmental Screening Matrix (Mitigated) ......................... 2

Exhibits
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Appendices

Appendix A: Photographs .......................................................................... A-1

Appendix B: Public Consultation Details .................................................. B-1

Appendices
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1. Introduction

Fauji Wind Energy I Ltd. (FWEL-I),a project of the Fauji Foundation (FF) plans to
develop, own and operate a 50MW wind power plant near Gharo, about 54 km south-
east of Karachi (see Exhibit 1.1 for project location). FWEL-I is seeking finances from
the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Islamic Development Bank along with a
consortium of local Banks led by National Bank of Pakistan for this project. FWEL-I has
bought the ownership rights from Beacon Energy Limited (BEL). Previously an Initial
Environmental Examination (IEE) for the project has been approved by the Sind
Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) in 2009. This document is an updated version
of the IEE and incorporates ADB requirements and comments on the original IEE for the
project.
1.1 Project Proponent
Fauji Wind Energy-I- Ltd. (FWEL-I) is a project of the Fauji Foundation. They took over
the ownership from the previous owner Beacon Energy Limited of the Beacon House
Group. Fauji Foundation is one of the largest conglomerates in Pakistan and have
interest in fertilizers, cement, food, power generation, gas exploration, LPG marketing
and distribution, financial services and security services..
FWEL-I has applied for the generation license from the National Electric Power
Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) to engage in the generation of wind power for a term of
twenty (20) years. This application is pending approval.
1.2 Project Background and Justification
Pakistan as a whole is an energy-deficient country and per capita electricity generation
has traditionally been low (581 KWh as against the World average of 2,657 KWh1). The
electricity demand in the country has grown at a rapid pace since 1985. Consumption of
electricity increased from 17,608 GWh in 1985 to 55,507 GWh in 2004, representing an
annual average growth rate of 6.2%. The growth in the electricity demand has however
been uneven over the years. The consumption grew at a rate of 11% during 1985-99,
the growth rate slowed down to 6.9% during 1990-95 and 2.5% during 1996-2000.
Since the year 2000 however, the trend has reversed and electricity demand has picked
up, mirroring the overall economic growth in the country. During the period 2001-04, the
electricity demand grew at a rate of 3.3% (NEPRA 2005).
The electricity demand in the country is projected to grow at an annual compound growth
rate of 7.9% during the period 2005-10, and increase from 15,500 MW in 2005 to
21,500 MW in 2010, as shown in Exhibit 1.2. This growth has been projected on the
basis of increase both in population and per capita income; Exhibit 1.3 presents the
linkage between the increasing population, per capita income and electricity
consumption.
Much like rest of the country, the Sindh province is also experiencing growth in the
electricity demand, as shown in Exhibit 1.4. In order to meet this increasing demand,

1
Source: Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10, Government of Pakistan, 2005.

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the existing power generating capacity has to be increased. The FWEL-Is proposed
power plant is an endeavor towards this objective.
1.2.1 Wind Power Generation
In addition to relying upon conventional power generation technologies, the Government
of Pakistan has initiated efforts towards utilizing renewable energy resources, which are
abundant, environmentally clean and indigenous. The wind energy is one of such
renewable resources, which are abundantly available primarily in the coastal areas of
Sindh and Balochistan. Alternative Energy and Development Board (AEDB) carried out
studies in this regard, and a Wind Corridor referred to as Gharo Wind Corridor was
identified by Alternative Energy Development Board AEDB. The proposed FWEL-I wind
power plant lies in the identified wind corridor. It plans to harness the wind energy
potential that exists along the Sindh coast. Once operational, the proposed power plant
will not only help in meeting the growing energy demand in the country, but will also
contribute towards reducing reliance on the conventional fuels such as oil and gas,
which are expensive and often imported, while also generating considerable pollution
load.
1.3 Project Overview
Fauji Wind Energy I Ltd. (FWEL-I) plans to develop, own and operate a 50 MW wind
farm IPP project in Sindh, Pakistan. The purchaser of the projects power will be the
National Transmission and Distribution Company (NTDC). The previous owners had
leased 1,210 acres (about 490 hectares) of land from Alternate Energy Development
Board (AEDB), who have acquired this land from the Government of Sindh. New lease
for Fauji Wind Energy is being updated by AEDB for correction in respect of land
boundary coordinates. . A detailed wind resource and micrositing study has been
conducted by the technical consultants M/S SgurrEnergy UK, who are wind energy
experts and are involved in various wind projects. The wind resource study is based on
the five-year (Aug 06 through June 2010) site-specific wind data obtained from a
meteorological mast that was set up by BEL. A complete geotechnical study, topography
study, contour mapping and tidal study has been completed1. The project will consist of
20 pylons each with a Nordex N100 2.5 MW turbine at a hub height of 80 m and a rotor
diameter of 100 m. Nordex and Descon Engineering Services will be the main
contractors for the project. FWEL-I has signed an Indicative Term sheet with Asian
Development Bank (ADB) and Islamic Development Bank for arrangement of debt for the
foreign component and the remainder will be funded through a local consortium lead by
National Bank of Pakistan. The Power Purchase Agreement is currently being reviewed
by both FWEL-I and its lenders, and negotiations with NTDC will start shortly.
1.4 IEE Study
1.4.1 Need of the Study
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEPA 1997)2 requires the proponents
of every development project in the country to submit either an Initial Environmental
Examination (IEE) or where the project is likely to cause an adverse environmental
effect, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to the concerned environmental
2
Report on Subsoil Investigation for 50 MW Wind Plant near Gharo, Soilmat Engineers, February 2006
3
Act No. XXXIV of 1997. The Gazette of Pakistan, Islamabad, December 6, 1997.

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protection agency (EPA). The IEE/EIA Regulations 2000 issued under the PEPA 1997
provide separate lists for the projects requiring IEE and EIA.
ADB Policies and Guidelines (discussed in Chapter 2) also call for environmental and
social assessment of projects such as the proposed power plant. Since the proponents
are seeking the ADB finances for the proposed project, the ADBs policies and
guidelines will also be applicable to the project, in addition to the national legal
requirements mentioned above (and discussed in detail in Chapter 2).

1.4.2 Study Objectives


The objectives of the present IEE are to:
assess the existing environmental and socioeconomic conditions of the project
area,
identify likely impacts of the proposed project on the natural and human
environment of the area, to predict and evaluate these impacts, and determine
significance of these impacts, in light of the technical and regulatory concerns,
propose appropriate mitigation measures that should be incorporated in the
design of the project to minimize, if not eliminate, the adverse impacts,
assess the compliance status of the proposed activities with respect to the
environmental legislation and ADBs environmental and social standards,
formulate an environmental management plan (EMP) to provide an
implementation mechanism for the mitigation measures identified during the
study.
1.4.3 Study Scope
The present IEE study has been conducted for the FWEL-1 wind power project near
Gharo, Sindh Province. The study covers the potential environmental and social impacts
that may be encountered during the construction and operation phases of the proposed
project.
1.4.4 Study Methodology
The key steps that were followed while conducting the IEE are briefly described below.
Scoping
During this phase, key information on the project was collected and reviewed. A long
list of the potential environmental as well as social issues likely to arise as a result of the
project was developed. The stakeholder analysis was also carried out for the
consultation carried out subsequently.
Stakeholder Consultation
Stakeholder consultations were carried out during the IEE study. Meetings were held in
the vicinity of the site and in Karachi with the institutional stakeholders and key
environmental and social issues discussed. Extensive consultations with the grass root
stakeholders were carried out at the project site. Efforts were made to solicit the
concerns and views of rural women as well. The main objective of the consultations was
to apprise the key stakeholders about the project details, and to obtain their concerns,
apprehensions and recommendations regarding the proposed activities.

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Data Collection/Compilation
During this phase, data was collected and compiled, in order to develop a baseline of the
project areas physical, biological and human environment. For this purpose, both
review of secondary sources and field data collection were carried out. Field visits to the
site were also carried out.
The secondary resources that were consulted included reports of the studies carried out
earlier, published books and data, and relevant websites. With the help of these
resources a generic profile of the project area was developed. The extensive field visits
were then carried out in order to collect the primary data specific to the project sites.
During these field visits, key information on environmental and social parameters was
collected. The environmental and social hot spots falling at or near the project sites
were identified, and most importantly, the project affectees were determined.
Impact Assessment
During the impact assessment, the environmental, socioeconomic, and project
information collected in previous steps was used to determine the potential impacts of
the proposed project. Subsequently the potential impacts were characterized in order to
determine their significance. Mitigation measures were identified to minimize the
significant environmental impacts. A management framework was also developed in the
form of an EMP for the implementation of the mitigation measures identified during the
study.
1.5 Document Structure
Chapter 2 discusses the ADBs policies and guidelines as well as the regulatory,
legislative and institutional setup in the country, relevant to the environmental and social
assessment and the UNDP/GEF guidelines for the impact assessment for wind farms.
Chapter 3 provides a simplified description of the proposed project and its components.
The project alternatives are discussed in Chapter 4. The environmental and social
baseline conditions of the project area are presented in Chapter 5. The stakeholder
consultation has been covered in Chapter 6. The environmental and socioeconomic
impacts of the project are assessed and their respective mitigations recommended in
Chapter 7. Chapter 8 outlines the implementation mechanism for the mitigation
measures, in the form of an environmental management plan. Finally, Chapter 9
presents the findings and conclusion of the study.

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Exhibit 1.1: Project Location

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Exhibit 1.2: Projection of Power Demand Growth - Pakistan


Year Total Demand (MW)
2005-06 15,500
2006-07 16,600
2007-08 17,900
2008-09 19,600
2009-10 21,500

Table borrowed from NEPRAs State of the Industry Report 2005


(Source: Mid Term Development Framework).

Exhibit 1.3: Population, Income and Electricity Consumption Sindh 3


Year Population Per Capita Energy Sale Per Capita Energy
(Million) Income (Rs) (GWh) Consumption (kWh)
2000-01 24.40 18,000 3,722 151
2001-02 24.90 19,440 3,871 153
2002-03 25.42 20,995 4,026 156
2003-04 25.94 22,675 4,187 159
2004-05 26.47 24,489 4,354 162
2005-06 27.02 26,448 4,529 165
2006-07 27.58 28,564 4,710 169
2007-08 28.14 30,849 4,898 172
2008-09 28.72 33,317 5,094 175
2009-10 29.32 35,982 5,298 178
th
Source: Table-5. PC1 Proforma 6 STG Programme, Sub Transmission Lines and
Grid Stations, 2003-04 to 2007-08. HESCO September 2004.

Exhibit 1.4: Historical and Projected Electricity Demand- Sindh 4


Year Total Demand (MW) Growth Rate (%)
2005-06 1,084.80 4.62
2006-07 1,170.87 8.01
2007-08 1,244.07 6.25
2008-09 1,335.85 7.38
2009-10 1,429.84 7.04
2010-11 1,598.97 6.23

Source: Demand projections by HESCO.

4
Excluding the Karachi City.
5
Excluding the Karachi City.

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2. Policy, Legal and Administrative


Framework

This Chapter discusses the policy, legal and administrative framework as well as
institutional set-up relevant to the environmental and social assessment of the proposed
project. Also included in the Chapter are the environmental and social guidelines from
the national agencies as well as international donors and other organizations.
2.1 National Environmental Laws and Regulations
Pakistans statute books contain a number of laws concerned with the regulation and
control of the environmental and social aspects within the country. However, the
enactment of comprehensive legislation on the environment, in the form of an act of
parliament, is a relatively new phenomenon. Most of the existing laws on environmental
and social issues have been enforced over an extended period of time, and are context-
specific. The laws relevant to the developmental projects are briefly reviewed below.
2.2 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (the Act) is the basic legislative tool
empowering the government to frame regulations for the protection of the environment
(the environment has been defined in the Act as: (a) air, water and land; (b) all layers of
the atmosphere; (c) all organic and inorganic matter and living organisms; (d) the
ecosystem and ecological relationships; (e) buildings, structures, roads, facilities and
works; (f) all social and economic conditions affecting community life; and (g) the inter-
relationships between any of the factors specified in sub-clauses a to f).
The Act is applicable to a broad range of issues and extends to socioeconomic aspects,
land acquisition, air, water, soil, marine and noise pollution, as well as the handling of
hazardous waste. The discharge or emission of any effluent, waste, air pollutant or
noise in an amount, concentration or level in excess of the National Environmental
Quality Standards (NEQS) specified by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
(Pak-EPA) has been prohibited under the Act, and penalties have been prescribed for
those contravening the provisions of the Act. The powers of the federal and provincial
Environmental Protection Agencies (EPAs), established under the Pakistan
Environmental Protection Ordinance 19835, have also been considerably enhanced
under this legislation and they have been given the power to conduct inquiries into
possible breaches of environmental law either of their own accord, or upon the
registration of a complaint.
The requirement for environmental assessment is laid out in Section 12 (1) of the Act.
Under this section, no project involving construction activities or any change in the
physical environment can be undertaken unless an initial environmental examination
(IEE) or an environmental impact assessment (EIA) is conducted, and approval is
obtained from the federal or relevant provincial EPA. Section 12 (6) of the Act, states that

1
Superseded by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997.

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the provision is applicable only to the categories of projects as may be prescribed by the
agency. The categories are defined in the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
Review of IEE and EIA Regulations, 2000 and are discussed in Section 2.2.1 below.
The requirement of conducting an environmental assessment of the proposed wind
power project emanates from this Act.
2.2.1 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA
Regulations, 2000
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA Regulations,
20006 (the Regulations), developed by the Pak-EPA under the powers conferred upon it
by the Act, provide the necessary details on preparation, submission and review of the
IEE and the EIA. Categorization of projects for IEE and EIA is one of the main
components of the Regulations. Projects have been classified on the basis of expected
degree of adverse environmental impacts. Project types listed in Schedule I are
designated as potentially less damaging to the environment, and those listed in
Schedule II as having potentially serious adverse effects. Schedule I projects require an
IEE to be conducted, provided they are not located in environmentally sensitive areas.
For the Schedule II projects, conducting an EIA is necessary.
The proposed project falls under Schedule I of the Regulations; hence an IEE has to be
conducted for it.
2.2.2 National and International Environmental Standards
National Standards
The National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), promulgated under the PEPA
1997, specify the following standards:
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (16 parameters) in gaseous
emissions from industrial sources,
Maximum permissible limits for motor vehicle exhaust and noise,
For power plants operating on oil and coal:
Maximum allowable emission of sulfur dioxide,
Maximum allowable increment in concentration of sulfur dioxide in ambient
air,
Maximum allowable concentration of nitrogen oxides in ambient air, and
Maximum allowable emission of nitrogen oxide for steam generators as
function of heat input.
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (32 parameters) in municipal
and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland waters, sewage treatment
and sea (three separate set of numbers).
Selected NEQS for liquid effluents discharged to inland waters, gaseous emission
from industrial sources, emissions from motor vehicles, noise, ambient air quality
and water quality standards are provided in Exhibit 2.1, Exhibit 2.2, Exhibit 2.3,
Exhibit 2.4,

2
S.R.O. 339 (1)/2001. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Islamabad. 2000.

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Exhibit 2.5 and Exhibit 2.6 respectively. These standards will be applicable to the
gaseous emissions and liquid effluents discharged to the environment from the
proposed project.
2.2.3 National Environmental Policy, 2005
The National Environmental Policy (NEP) was approved by the PEPA in its 10th meeting
on 27th December 2004 under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister of Pakistan and
thereafter approved by the Cabinet on 29th June 2005. NEP is the primary policy of
Government of Pakistan that addresses the environmental issues of the country. The
broad Goal of NEP is, To protect, conserve and restore Pakistans environment in order
to improve the quality of life of the citizens through sustainable development. The NEP
identifies the following set of sectoral and cross-sectoral guidelines to achieve its Goal of
sustainable development.
a. Sectoral Guidelines:
Water and sanitation, air quality and noise, waste management, forestry, biodiversity and
protected areas, climate change and ozone depletion, energy efficiency and renewable,
agriculture and livestock, and multilateral environmental agreements.
b. Cross Sectoral Guidelines:
Poverty, population, gender, health, trade and environment, environment and local
governance, and natural disaster management The NEP suggests the following policy
instruments to overcome the environmental problems throughout the country:
Integration of environment into development planning;
Legislation and regulatory framework;
Capacity development;
Economic and market based instrument;
Public awareness and education; and
Public private civil society partnership.
NEP is a policy document and does not apply directly at the project level. However, the
development projects like power generation from wind energy should not add to the
aggravation of the environmental issues identified in NEP and mitigation measures
should be adopted to minimize or avoid any contribution of the projects and of course,
being the wind a renewable source of energy, wind energy production can be considered
as a means to integrate the environment into development planning
2.2.4 Land Acquisition Act, 1894
The Land Acquisition Act (LAA) of 1894, amended from time to time, has been the de-
facto policy governing land acquisition and compensation in the country. The LAA is the
most commonly used law for acquisition of land and other properties for development
projects. It comprises of 55 sections pertaining to area notifications and surveys,
acquisition, compensation and apportionment awards and disputes resolution, penalties
and exemptions.
For the proposed project, the proponents have leased the land from AEDB, who have
acquired the land from the Government of Sindh. Since the proposed site was a
government-owned land, and no settlement or any structure existed at the site, the LAA
is not applicable to the land acquisition for the proposed project.

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2.2.5 Telegraph Act, 1885


This law was enacted to define the authority and responsibility of the Telegraph
authority. The law covers, among other activities, installation and maintenance of
telegraph lines and posts (poles). The Act defines the mechanism to determine and
make payment of compensation associated with the installation of these lines and posts.
Under this Act, the land required for the poles is not acquired (or purchased) from the
owner, nor the title of the land transferred. Compensation is paid to the owner for any
structure, crop or tree that exists on the land; cost of the land is not paid to the owner.
2.2.6 Sindh Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and Amendments 2001
This law was enacted to protect the provinces wildlife resources directly and other
natural resources indirectly. It classifies wildlife by degree of protection i.e. animals that
may be hunted on a permit or special license, and species that are protected and cannot
be hunted under any circumstances. The Act specifies restrictions on hunting and trade
in animals, trophies, or meat. The Act also defines various categories of wildlife
protected areas i.e. National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Game Reserve.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as operation and maintenance
(O&M) activities of the proposed project.
Two amendments to the Ordinance were issued in January and June 2001 respectively
pertaining to oil and gas activities within national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The first
amendment allowed the Government to authorize the laying of an underground pipeline
through protected areas. The second amendment allowed exploration and production
activities within national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. However this amendment is not
applicable for other development projects including power generation with the use of
wind energy
2.2.7 Forest Act, 1927
The Act authorizes Provincial Forest Departments to establish forest reserves and
protected forests. The Act prohibits any person to set fire in the forest, quarry stone,
remove any forest-produce or cause any damage to the forest by cutting trees or
clearing up area for cultivation or any other purpose.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as O&M activities of the proposed
project.
2.2.8 The Ports Act, 1908 (the Ports Act)
Sub-section (1) of section 21 of the Ports Act states that no ballast or rubbish/oil / water
mixed with oil shall be discharged into any port to which the Ports Act applies. Rule 6 of
the Ports Act empowers the Government of Pakistan to make any rules for the
prevention of danger arising to the public health, by the introduction and spread of any
infectious or contagious disease. This is applicable to all vessels arriving at or sailing
from any port to which the Ports Act applies (this includes the Karachi port). This may
include hoisting of signals from vessels having any suspected case of any infectious or
contagious disease; medical inspection of such vessels; questions and information
required from the masters of the vessels; detention of such vessels; removal to the
hospital of the crew members, and the cleansing and disinfection of such vessel
2.2.9 Canal and Drainage Act, 1873
The Canal and Drainage Act (1873) prohibits corruption or fouling of water in canals
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drainage. This Act will be applicable to the construction and O&M works to be carried
out during the proposed project.
2.2.10 Sindh Fisheries Ordinance, 1980
The Ordinance provides for the issuing of a fishing license or permit that is mandatory for
fishing in public water, for the sale or trade or processing of fish in markets and factories,
for the declaration of sanctuary of any public water at any time and the related
restrictions, for the disposal of wastes and sewerage that must be treated to prevent
water pollution, for banning the use of explosives and toxic or poisonous agents in the
fishing activities and, for restricting to sport fishing the use of fishing craft. Fishery
Officers shall be appointed under this Ordinance and their powers extended to
inspecting persons, vessels, premises and licenses in order to verify compliance with the
ordinance. Offences are dealt with and penalties may be confiscation, fines or
imprisonment depending on the nature of the offence.
2.2.11 The Sindh Irrigation Act, 1879
This Act has relevance to the study due to the presence of the extensive irrigation
network in the vicinity of the project area. This Act covers the construction, maintenance
and regulation of canals for the supply of water and for the levy of rates of water supplied
in the Sindh. In this Act canal includes channels, pipes and reservoirs constructed and
maintained by the Government for the supply and storage of water. Under section 27 of
the Act a person desiring to have a supply of water from a canal for purposes other than
irrigation shall submit a written application to a Canal Officer who may, with the sanction
of the Provincial Government give permission under special conditions. The Act also
prohibits the damaging, altering, enlarging or obstructing the canals without proper
authority.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as O&M activities of the proposed
project.
2.2.12 Provincial Local Government Ordinances, 2001
These ordinances were issued under the devolution process and define the roles of the
local governments. Under this Ordinance, three tiers of the local governments have
been introduced at the district, tehsil and union levels. The topmost tier is the district
government, followed by the Tehsil (subdivision of a district) government, known as the
Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA). The lowest tier of the local government is the
Union Administration.
In addition to the local governance and municipal administration functions, the local
government ordinances also address the land use, conservation of natural vegetation,
air, water and land pollution, disposal of solid waste and wastewater effluents, as well as
matters relating to public health.
2.2.13 Antiquity Act, 1975
The Antiquities Act of 1975 ensures the protection of cultural resources in Pakistan. The
Act is designed to protect antiquities from destruction, theft, negligence, unlawful
excavation, trade and export. Antiquities have been defined in the Act as ancient
products of human activity, historical sites, or sites of anthropological or cultural interest,
national monuments, etc. The law prohibits new construction in the proximity of a
protected antiquity and empowers the Government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in
any area that may contain articles of archeological significance.

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Under this Act, the project proponents are obligated to:


Ensure that no activity is undertaken in the proximity of a protected antiquity, and
if during the course of the project an archeological discovery is made, it should be
protected and reported to the Department of Archeology, Government of
Pakistan, for further action.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as O&M activities of the proposed
project.
2.2.14 Mines, Oil Fields and Mineral Development Act, 1948
This legislation provides procedures for quarrying and mining of construction material
from state-owned as well as private land. These procedures will have to be followed
during the proposed project.
2.2.15 Factories Act, 1934
The clauses relevant to the proposed project are those that address the health, safety
and welfare of the workers, disposal of solid waste and effluents, and damage to private
and public property. The Act also provides regulations for handling and disposing toxic
and hazardous substances. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997
(discussed above), supersedes parts of this Act pertaining to environment and
environmental degradation.
2.2.16 Pakistan Explosive Act, 1884
This Act provides regulations for the handling, transportation and use of explosives
during quarrying, blasting and other purposes. The transmission line tower installation
sometimes needs blasting at rocky/mountainous areas. However, for the proposed
project, no such blasting is envisaged.
2.2.17 Employment of Child Act, 1991
Article 11(3) of the Constitution of Pakistan prohibits employment of children below the
age of 14 years in any factory, mines or any other hazardous employment. In
accordance with this Article, the Employment of Child Act (ECA) 1991 disallows the child
labor in the country. The ECA defines a child to mean a person who has not completed
his/her fourteenth years of age. The ECA states that no child shall be employed or
permitted to work in any of the occupation set forth in the ECA (such as transport sector,
railways, construction, and ports) or in any workshop wherein any of the processes
defined in the Act is carried out. The processes defined in the Act include carpet
weaving, bidi (kind of a cigarette) making, cement manufacturing, textile, construction
and others.
FWEL-I and its contractors will be bound by the ECA to disallow any child labor at the
project sites or campsites.
2.2.18 Civil Aviation Rules (1994)
These rules apply to flight operations within Pakistan by aircrafts other than military
aircrafts and, except where otherwise prescribed, to flight operations by aircrafts
registered, acquired or operating under these rules, wherever they may be. The rules
with relevant significance to the activities taking place in Gharo Wind Corridor are the
following:

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No person shall erect any temporary or permanent structure, nor position a


vehicle or other mobile object on or in the vicinity of an aerodrome (airport), that
will be within the clearance area, or will protrude through an obstacle limitation
surface, at that aerodrome.
No person shall operate a light in the vicinity of an aerodrome which because of
its glare is liable to dazzle pilots of aircraft taking off from or landing at that
aerodrome; or which can be mistaken for an aeronautical ground light. If such a
light is operated it shall be extinguished or satisfactorily screened immediately
upon notice being given to the person or persons operating the light, by the
Director-General or by the Manager or by a person authorized by him.
No person or persons shall operate a radio station or electrical equipment in the
vicinity of an aerodrome or of a radio aid to navigation serving an airway or an air
route in Pakistan which is liable to cause interference with radio communications
between aircraft and an Air Traffic Services Unit, or which is liable to disturb the
signal from a navigational radio aid.
A captive balloon or a kite shall not be flown at a height above 200ft within 6km of
an aerodrome, and a free balloon shall not be flown at any place, except with the
express permission of the Director-General and in compliance with the conditions
attached to such permission
An aircraft shall not be flown over congested areas of cities, towns, or
settlements or over an open air assembly of persons, except by permission of the
Director-General, unless it is at such height as will permit, in the event of an
emergency, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons on the
ground, and except when it is taking off or landing, shall not be flown closer than
500ft to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure.
However as the Wind Corridor is not used much by the domestic air traffic (except for a
proximity to one not frequently used route/airport in Nawabshah), it is highly unlikely that
wind farm construction and operation activities might be affected by any of the
aforementioned rules
2.2.19 Pakistan Penal Code, 1860
The Code deals with the offences where public or private property or human lives are
affected due to intentional or accidental misconduct of an individual or organization. The
Code also addresses control of noise, noxious emissions and disposal of effluents. Most
of the environmental aspects of the Code have been superseded by the Pakistan
Environmental Protection Act, 1997.

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2.3 Asian Development Bank (ADB) Polices and Guidelines


ADB policies and standards to manage social and environmental risks and impacts are
considered.
Safeguards Policy Statement
Policy on Gender and Development
Social Protection Strategy
Public Communications Policy
Labor Standards
2.3.1 2009 Safeguards Policy Statement
ADB operational policies include three basic safeguard policies mentioned below. This
safeguard policy statement applies to all ADB-financed and/or ADB-administered
sovereign and non-sovereign projects, and their components regardless of the source of
financing, including investment projects funded by a loan; and/or a grant; and/or other
means, such as equity and/or guarantees (hereafter broadly referred to as projects).

The Involuntary Resettlement Policy


Minimize, mitigate, and/or compensate for adverse projects impacts on the environment
and affected people when avoidance is not possible

Policy of Indigenous Peoples


Help borrowers /clients to strengthen their safeguard system and develop the capacity to
manage environmental and social risks

Environmental Policy
Avoid adverse impacts of projects on the environment and affected people where
possible.

2.3.2 Policy on Gender and Development (1998)


The Asian Development Bank (ADB) first adopted a Policy on the Role of Women in
Development (WID) in 1985 and over the passage of time has progressed from a WID to
a gender and development (GAD) approach that allows gender to be seen as a
crosscutting issue influencing all social and economic processes.

ADBs policy on GAD will adopt mainstreaming as a key strategy in promoting gender
equity. The key elements of ADBs policy will include the following.

Gender sensitivity: to observe how ADB operations affect women and men, and
to take into account womens needs and perspectives in planning its operations

Gender analysis: to assess systematically the impact of a project on men and


women, and on the economic and social relationship between them

Gender planning: to formulate specific strategies that aim to bring about equal
opportunities for men and women

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Mainstreaming: to consider gender issues in all aspects of ADB operations,


accompanied by efforts to encourage womens participation in the decision-
making process in development activities

Agenda setting: to assist developing member country (DMC) governments in


formulating strategies to reduce gender disparities and in developing plans and
targets for womens and girls education, health, legal rights, employment, and
income-earning opportunities

ADB will aim to operationalize its policy on GAD primarily by mainstreaming gender
considerations in its macroeconomic and sector work, including policy dialogue, lending,
and technical assistance (TA) operations. Increased attention will be given to addressing
directly gender disparities, by designing a larger number of projects with GAD either as a
primary or secondary objective in health, education, agriculture, natural resource
management, and financial services, especially microcredit, while also ensuring that
gender concerns are addressed in other ADB projects, including those in the
infrastructure sector.

2.3.3 2001 Social Protection Strategy


It is the set of policies and programs designed to reduce poverty and vulnerability by
promoting efficient labor markets, diminishing peoples exposure to risks and enhancing
their capacity to protect themselves against hazards and interruption/loss of income.
Social Protection consists of five major elements

Labor markets policies and programs designed to facilitate employment and


promote and efficient operation of labor markets;

Social insurance programs to cushion the risks associated with the


unemployment, health, disability, work injury, and old age;

Social assistance and welfare service programs for the most vulnerable
groups with no other means of adequate support;

Micro and area-based schemes to address vulnerability at the community level;


and

Child protection to ensure the healthy and productive development of the future
Asian workforce.

Social Protection System in Asia and Pacific Region


In considering the demands for social protection within Asian sub regions it is important
to identify the circumstances faced by their vulnerable groups. A common trait to all
countries in the region is the need to address child and youth priorities, extend coverage
to poorer communities, improve governance, and promote institutional development.

2.3.4 2005 Public Communications Policy


ADBs public communications policy provides a framework to enable ADB to
communicate more effectively. The policy aims to enhance stakeholders trust in and
ability to engage with ADB. The policy promotes

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Awareness and understanding of ADB activities, policies, strategies, objectives,


and results;
Sharing and exchange of development knowledge and lessons learned, so as to
provide fresh and innovative perspectives on development issues;

Greater two-way flow of information between ADB and its stakeholders, including
project affected people, in order to promote participatory development; and

Transparency and accountability of ADB operations

2.3.5 Core Labor Standards


ADB adopted a commitment to core labor standards (CLS) as part of its Social
Protection Strategy in 2001. Since then, ADB ensures that CLS are duly considered in
the design and implementation of its investment projects. In this regards a handbook for
CLS has been developed by ADB with cooperation of International Labor Organization
(ILO). The objective is to convince decision makers that the introduction of CLS and
labor standards in general will not impede development. The labor standards are simple
the rules that govern how people are treated in a working environment. Labor standards
cover a very wide variety of subjects, mainly concerning basic human rights at work,
respect for safety and health and ensuring that people are paid for their work.
CLS are a set of four internationally recognized basic rights and principles at work:

Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective


bargaining;

Elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor;

Effective abolition of child labor; and

Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

2.4 Institutional Setup for Environmental Management


The apex environmental body in the country is the Pakistan Environmental Protection
Council (PEPC), which is presided by the Chief Executive of the Country. Other bodies
include the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA), provincial EPAs (for
four provinces, AJK and Northern Areas), and environmental tribunals.
The EPAs were first established under the 1983 Environmental Protection Ordinance;
the PEPA 1997 further strengthened their powers. The EPAs have been empowered to
receive and review the environmental assessment reports (IEEs and EIAs) of the
proposed projects, and provide their approval (or otherwise).
The proposed projects would be located in the Sindh Province. Hence this ESA report
will be sent to the Sindh EPA for review.
2.5 Environmental and Social Guidelines
Two sets of guidelines, the Pak-EPAs guidelines and the AEDB Guidelines for the
Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms in the Gharo Wind Corridor are reviewed

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here. These guidelines address the environmental as well as social aspects relevant to
the proposed project.
2.5.1 Environmental Protection Agencys Environmental and Social
Guidelines
The Federal EPA has prepared a set of guidelines for conducting environmental
assessments. The guidelines derive from much of the existing work done by
international donor agencies and NGOs. The package of regulations, of which the
guidelines form a part, includes the PEPA 1997 and the NEQS. These guidelines are
listed below.
Guidelines for the Preparation and Review of Environmental Reports,
Guidelines for Public Consultation,
Guidelines for Sensitive and Critical Areas,
Sectoral Guidelines.
It is stated in the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA
Regulations, 2000 that the EIA or IEE must be prepared, to the extent practicable, in
accordance with the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Environmental
Guidelines.
2.5.2 AEDB Guidelines for Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms in the
Gharo Wind Corridor
These Guidelines are based on the IEE and EIA Review Regulations 2000 and the
Pakistan Environmental Assessment Procedures 1997 and provide a framework for the
relevant management of the environmental assessment submission. They incorporate
the main factors to be considered during the assessment, such as the physical,
biological and the socioeconomic impacts of the wind farms on the environment. The
main negative impacts that the proponents may encounter and their appropriate
mitigation measures have been elaborated.
The relevant impacts and mitigation measures suggested in the Guidelines will be
considered in the FWEL-I project
2.6 Obligations under International Treaties
Pakistan is signatory of several Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs),
including:
Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal,
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar),
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES),
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),
Kyoto Protocol,
Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer,
UN Convention to Combat Desertification,
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL),

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UN Convention on the Law of Seas (LOS),


Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs),
Cartina Protocol.
These MEAs impose requirements and restrictions of varying degrees upon the member
countries, in order to meet the objectives of these agreements. However, the
implementation mechanism for most of these MEAs is weak in Pakistan and institutional
setup nonexistent.
Although almost all of the above MEAs would apply to the projects such as FWEL-I in
one way or the other, the ones which have direct relevance for the proposed project
include the Basel Convention, Montreal Protocol, Stockholm Convention, UNFCCC and
Kyoto Protocol.

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Exhibit 2.1: Selected NEQS for Waste Effluents

Parameter Unit Standards (maximum


allowable limit)
Temperature increase C <3
pH value (acidity/basicity) pH 6-9
5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at 20 mg/l 80
C
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) mg/l 150
Total suspended solids mg/l 200
Total dissolved solids mg/l 3,500
Grease and oil mg/l 10
Phenolic compounds (as phenol) mg/l 0.1
Chloride (as Cl) mg/l 1,000
Fluoride (as F) mg/l 10
Sulfate (SO4) mg/l 600
Sulfide (S) mg/l 1.0
Ammonia (NH3) mg/l 40
Cadmium mg/l 0.1
Chromium (trivalent and hexavalent) mg/l 1.0
Copper mg/l 1.0
Lead mg/l 0.5
Mercury mg/l 0.01
Selenium mg/l 0.5
Nickel mg/l 1.0
Silver mg/l 1.0
Total toxic metals mg/l 2.0
Zinc mg/l 5
Arsenic mg/l 1.0
Barium mg/l 1.5
Iron mg/l 8.0
Manganese mg/l 1.5
Boron mg/l 6.0
Chlorine mg/l 1.0
Source: Government of Pakistan (2000).
Notes:
1. The standard assumes that dilution of 1:10 on discharge is available. That is, for each cubic meter of
3
treated effluent, the recipient water body should have 10 m of water for dilution of this effluent.
2. Toxic metals include cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, nickel and silver. The
effluent should meet the individual standards for these metals as well as the standard for total toxic
metal concentration.

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Exhibit 2.2: NEQS for Industrial Gaseous Emissions


3
mg/Nm unless otherwise stated
Standards
Parameter Source of Emission
(maximum allowable limit)
Smoke Smoke opacity not to exceed 40% or 2 Ringlemann Scale or
equivalent smoke number
1
Particulate matter (a) Boilers and furnaces:
i. Oil fired 300
ii. Coal fired 500
iii. Cement Kilns 300
(b) Grinding, crushing, clinker coolers 500
and related processes, metallurgical
processes, converters, blast furnaces
and cupolas
Hydrogen Chloride Any 400

Chlorine Any 150


Hydrogen fluoride Any 150

Hydrogen sulphide Any 10


2, 3
Sulphur Oxides Sulfuric acid/Sulphonic acid plants 5,000

Other Plants except power Plants 1,700


operating on oil and coal

Carbon Monoxide Any 800

Lead Any 50
Mercury Any 10
Cadmium Any 20
Arsenic Any 20
Copper Any 50
Antimony Any 20
Zinc Any 200
3
Oxides of Nitrogen Nitric acid manufacturing unit 3,000

Other plants except power plants


operating on oil or coal:
i. Gas fired 400
ii. Oil fired 600
iii. Coal fired 1,200

Source: Government of Pakistan (2000).


Explanations:
1. Based on the assumption that the size of the particulate is 10 micron or more.
2. Based on 1% sulphur content in fuel oil. Higher content of sulphur will cause standards to be pro-
rated.
3. In respect of emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power plants operating on oil
and coal as fuel shall in addition to NEQS specified above, comply with the standards provided
separately.

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Exhibit 2.3: NEQS for Motor Vehicles Exhaust and Noise


Standards
Parameter Measuring Method
(maximum permissible limit)

Smoke 40% or 2 on the Ringlemann Scale To be compared with Ringlemann


during engine acceleration mode. Chart at a distance of 6 meters or
more.

Carbon Monoxide. New Vehicle = 4.5% Under idling conditions: non-


Used Vehicle = 6% dispersive infrared detection through
gas analyzer.

Noise 85 db(A) Sound meter at 7.5 meter from the


source.

Source: Government of Pakistan (2000).

Exhibit 2.4: National Environmental Quality Standards for Noise


Effective from 1st July, Effective from
2010 1st July, 2012
S.
Category of Area/ Zone Limit in dB(A)
No
Night
Day time Time Day time Night Time
1 Residential Area (A) 65 50 55 45
2 Commercial Area (B) 70 60 65 55
3 Industrial Area (C) 80 75 75 65
4 Silence Zone (D) 55 45 50 45

Exhibit 2.5: National Environmental Quality Standards for Ambient Air

Pollutants Time-Weighted Concentration in Ambient Methods of


Average Air Measurements
Effective Effective
from 1st from 1st
July,2010 Jan, 2013
Sulphur Dioxide Annual Average 80 g/m3 80 g/m3 Ultraviolet
(SO2) 24 hours ** 120 g/m3 120 g/m3 Fluorescence
method
Oxides of Nitrogen Annual Average 40 g/m3 40 g/m3 Gas Phase
as (NO) 24 hours ** 40 g/m3 40 g/m3 Chemiluminescence

Oxides of Nitrogen Annual Average** 40 g/m3 Gas Phase


as (NO2) 24 hours. * 40 g/m3 40 g/m3 Chemiluminescence
40 g/m3
O3 1 hour 180 g/m3 130 g/m3 Non dispersive UV
absorption method

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Suspended Annual Average** 400 g/m3 360 g/m3 High Volume


Particulate Matter 24 hours** 550 g/m3 500 g/m3 Sampling, (Average
(SPM) flow rate not less
than 1.1
m3/minute).
Respirable Annual Average** 200 g/m3 120 g/m3 Ray abortion
Particulate Matter 24 hours * 250 g/m3 150 g/m3 method
PM10
Respirable Annual Average** 25 g/m3 15 g/m3 Ray abortion
Particulates Matter 24 hours * 40 g/m3 35 g/m3 method
PM2.5
1 hour 25 g/m3 15 g/m3
Lead Pb Annual Average** 1.5 g/m3 1 g/m3 ASS Method after
24 hours. * 2 g/m3 1.5 g/m3 sampling using
EPM 2060 or
equivalent Filter
paper
Carbon 8 hours** 5 g/m3 5 g/m3 Non Dispersive
Monoxide(CO) 1 hours 10 g/m3 10 g/m3 Infra Red (NDIR)
method
Notes:
* Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform
interval.
** 24 hourly / 8 hourly value should be met 98% of the in a year and 2% of the time, it may exceed nut not on
two consecutive days

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Exhibit 2.6: National Environmental Quality Standards for Drinking Water Quality

Standard Remarks
Properties/Parameters Values for WHO Standards
Pakistan
Bacterial
All water intended for
Must not be Must not be
drinking Most Asian countries also
detectable in any detectable in any 100
(e. Coli or thermo tolerant follow WHO standards.
100 ml sample. ml sample.
coliform bacteria)
Treated water entering the
distribution system Must not be Must not be
Most Asian countries also
(E.Coli or thermo tolerant detectable in any detectable in any 100
follow WHO standards.
coliform and total coliform 100 ml sample. ml sample.
bacteria)
Must not be
detectable in any
Must not be
100 ml sample.
detectable in any 100
ml sample.
In case of large
Treated water in the supplies, where
In case of large
distribution system sufficient
supplies, where Most Asian countries also
(e. Coli or thermo tolerant samples are
sufficient samples are follow WHO standards.
coliform and total coliform examined, must
examined, must not
bacteria bacteria) not be present in
be present in 95% of
95% of the
the samples taken
samples taken
throughout any 12-
throughout any
months period.
12-months
period.
Physical
Color 15 TCU 15 TCU
Non Non
Taste objectionable/ objectionable/
Acceptable Acceptable
Non Non
Odor bjectionable/ objectionable/
Acceptable Acceptable

Turbidity < 5 NTU < 5 NTU

Total hardness as CaCO3 < 500 mg/l --

TDS <1000 <1000

pH 6.5 - 8.5 6.5 - 8.5

Chemical
Essential Inorganic mg/Liter mg/Liter
Aluminum (Al) mg/l 0.2 0.2

Antimony (Sb) 0.005 (P) 0.02

Standard for Pakistan


Arsenic (As) 0.05 (P) 0.01 similar to most Asian
developing countries.

Barium (Ba) 0.7 0.7

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Boron (B) 0.3 0.3


Standard for Pakistan
Cadmium (Cd) 0.01 0.003 similar to most Asian
developing countries.
Chloride (Cl) < 250 250

Chromium (Cr) 0.05 0.05

Copper (Cu) 2 2
Toxic Inorganic mg/Liter mg/Liter
Standard for Pakistan
Cyanide (CN) 0.05 0.07 similar to Asian developing
countries.
Fluoride (F)* 1.5 1.5
Standard for Pakistan
Lead (Pb) 0.05 0.01 similar to most Asian
developing countries.
Manganese 0.5 0.5

Mercury (Hg) 0.001 0.001

Nickel (Ni) 0.02 0.02

Nitrate (NO3)* 50 50

Nitrite (NO2)* 3 (P) 3

Selenium (Se) 0.01 (P) 0.01


0.2-0.5 at
Residual Chlorine consumer end --
0.5-1.5 at source
Zinc (Zn) 5 3 Standard for Pakistan
similar to most Asian
developing countries.
Organic
PSQCA No. 4639-
2004. Page No 4 table
Pesticide mg/L Annex II
No. 3 Serial No. 20-58
may be consulted***
Phenolic compounds
0.002
(as Phenols) mg/ L

Polynuclear aromatic 0.01 ( By GC/MS


hydrocarbon ( as PAH) g/L method)
Radioactive
Alpha Emitter bq/L or pCi 0.1 0.1

Beta emitters 1 1

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3. Project Description

This Chapter provides a simplified description of various components of the proposed


project and their salient features, location, and phases with particular emphasis on
aspects related to the environment. Also provided in this section is detail of supplies,
emission and discharges as well as waste disposal arrangement during different project
phases.
3.1 Project Overview
The proposed project involves developing, owning and operating a 50 MW wind farm
IPP project in Sindh, Pakistan. The National Transmission and Dispatch Company
(NTDC), which is responsible for the country-wide transmission of the electricity, will
purchase the power generated by the proposed wind power plant Fauji Wind Energy-I-
Ltd. (FWEL-I). For this project, Fauji Wind Energy-I- Ltd. (FWEL-I) took over the
ownership from Beacon Energy Limited (BEL) who had previously leased around 1,210
acres of land for 33 years from Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB), who
acquired this land from the Government of Sindh (GOS). The land ownership lies solely
with Government of Sind and has leased land parcels to AEDB which in turn sub-leased
it to project company. Access road is owned partially by Government of Sind and
partially by private owners. Compensation will be provided to land owner when required
by respective authority (GOS or AEDB).
A detailed wind resource and micrositing study has been conducted by the technical
consultants M/s SgurrEnergy UK, who are wind energy experts and are involved in
various wind projects. The wind resource study has been based on the data from the
Meteorological Department, the site data from Green Power and the site specific wind
data (August 2006 to June 2010) from a meteorological mast that was set up by BEL
close to the site. In addition, the geotechnical study, topography study, contour mapping
and tidal study have also been completed for the project.
The project will consist of 20 pylons each with a Nordex N100 2.5 MW turbine at a hub
height of 80 m and with a rotor diameter of 100 m. Nordex and Descon Engineering
Services will be the main contractors for the project. FWEL-I has signed an Indicative
Term sheet with Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Islamic Development Bank for
arrangement of debt for the foreign component and the remainder will be funded through
a local consortium lead by National Bank of Pakistan.
3.2 Project Location
The proposed power plant site is located in Thatta District, about 30 km southwest of
Gharo town, which is located on the National Highway between Karachi and Thatta (see
Exhibit 3.1 for the location of the project). The site can be approached by using the
Coastal Highway linking N-5 (From Ghagar Phatak) to Keti Bunder. From the Deh
Sakran Bridge (over a saim nullah) about 3 km access road leads to the Fauji Wind
Energy II Ltd. (FWEL-II) another Fauji Foundation wind energy project. An approximately
7 km road interconnects both the wind projects. The power plant site is located on inter-
tidal mud flats, surrounded on its three sides by the creeks.. This land forms a part of the

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Khatti Kun un-surveyed government land which has been designated by Alternate
Energy Development Board (AEDB) for setting up of wind power projects
Major towns in the area include Gharo and Mirpur Sakro. Small villages are scattered
throughout the area, but lie predominantly to the east of the site.
3.3 Site Layout
The project area is generally very flat, and the most prominent natural feature is the
creeks that surround the area. The site layout is shown in Exhibit 3.2. The project
components are:
20 Wind turbines, each with a generating capacity of 2.5 MW and a rotor
diameter of 100 m. Each turbine will be mounted on a tower such that the hub
height is 80 m. The tower will be a prefabricated steel structure.
20 unit step up transformers mounted at the foot of each turbine tower
22 KV underground electrical collection system that leads to the project
substation.
Project operations and control building, which will also house the substation and
grid connection to NTDC 132 KV system.
8.2 km long project road network linked to all the wind turbines.
Two meteorological masts, 80m height, for collection of wind data.
Plant O&M facility.
3.4 Logistics
All equipment, supplies and personnel will be moved to and from the site using road
transport. Description of existing roads, additional roads required, and the vehicles to be
used are given below.
3.4.1 Roads and Tracks
The site is connected to Karachi via National Highway (N-5) and Coastal Highway which
links N-5 (From Ghagar Phatak) to Keti Bunder. The Coastal Highways new tarmac
road will be used by project vehicles as it is and no modifications for the haulage of
project equipment will be required up to the Deh Sakran Bridge. From the Deh Sakran
Bridge which is over a saim nullah (saline water drain) an approximately 3 km long and
30 m wide access road from the Coastal Highway to the Fauji Wind Energy Limited II
(FWEL-II), another Fauji Foundation wind energy project, will be constructed under
FWEL-II right of way (ROW). From FWEL-II a 7 km road interconnecting road to the site
will be constructed on FWEL-I owned ROW. An 8.2 km internal road to service the
towers will be constructed on the site premises.
Alternate route to the site is via the National Highway and the Gharo Keti Bunder
Highway, which continues to Keti Bunder while passing through the town of Mirpur Sakro
in the east of the project area. The Jam Sakro Canal road connects with the Gharo-Keti
Bunder Highway at Lette Village which is one of many small villages near the site. From
there a dirt road leads to the Coastal Highway. However, this route is not suitable for
long trailer trucks required for transportation of the turbine blades due to sharp turns and
narrow widths at several locations.

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3.4.2 Vehicles and Traffic


The movement of heavy vehicular traffic will primarily be during the turbines delivery
stage and during the movement of the batching plant and ancillaries. The batching plant
will require the use of 4 flatbed trailers of 40-feet size with a load carrying capacity of 30
35 tons. The movement of the turbines and towers will occur over a two month period
and will require 231 heavy haul truck / trailers, 60-feet size, with extended length and
multiple axles having a load carrying capacity of 40 -70 tons. Additionally, 66 trucks /
trailers of 20 25 ton capacity will also be used. A maximum of 6 vehicles (4 axles and
above) per hour will be used during the construction period. This includes the buses and
coasters required for movement of the site staff.
3.5 Work Schedule
It is expected that work on the project will commence during the the first quarter of 2012.
Work will commence with the construction of the access road and site preparation (civil
works). The construction phase is expected to take 15 months. The schedule of activities
is expected to be finalized during a kick of meeting between the contractors and project
companies scheduled in December 2011
3.6 Construction Activities
The contract for the construction and commissioning has been awarded to a consortium
of Nordex and DESCON Engineering, who will be responsible for carrying out the
installation of the turbines and all other electrical work which will be required for
commissioning of the wind farm.
Work will commence with construction of new road connecting site with the second Fauji
Wind Energy (FWEL-II). This road will have a width of approximately 30 m and lay-byes
to allow movement of large trucks. This road will have a compacted gravel and clay
surface. Soil will be compacted to give a road surface load bearing capacity of 300
KN/m2. The new upgraded / constructed roads will not have tarred surfaces.
The roads within the project area will be around 8.2 km long, and will also have a
compacted gravel and clay surface. The width of these roads will be 10m, except the
turning points which will be approximately 12 m wide, and will be constructed at an
elevation of 4.5m. This is particularly important as the high tide level is generally 3.5m
above natural ground. The road embankments will have side slopes at 1:2 (V:H) and will
be suitably compacted / strengthened to withstand the ebb and flow of tides. Each
turbine location will involve compaction of around 432 m2 (36m x 12m) area, raising to an
elevation of 4.5 m and covering with a compacted gravel and clay surface (moram type
material). This area will be the crane locating pad.
The turbine base is built on pile foundations, with 14 piles per location. Reverse rotary
drilling method shall be used for pile boring. If required, bentonite clay mixed with water
may be used during boring.
Civil works will also include the construction of the Sub-station and site camp
preparation. The steps taken in site preparation are expected to be as follows:
Clearing of vegetation from identified areas
Filling and compaction

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Construction of auxiliary facilities such as site camp, equipment and supplies


storage areas, water tank and water pits, fuel storage areas and waste pits.
Construction of the turbine foundations and the crane pad
The site construction camp will cover an area of 12,000 m2 and will have 4 construction
trailers and 4 equipment storage trailers. There will also be vehicle parking and
equipment staging areas.
The water pit will be lined with an impervious liner to prevent seepage and loss of water.
Sewage septic tanks will be lined. These will be periodically emptied into tankers for
transporting the sewage to the nearest treatment facility. Gray water (from kitchen and
washing areas) pits will not be lined, and water will be allowed to soak into the ground.
All fuel or oil storage areas will have an impervious base, with a containing dyke built
around them to contain spills should an accident occur.
The excavated earth, obtained during the piling procedure, will be used to construct the
embankment for the road. The remaining material required for the road embankments
will be from the site. The top layer of the road, morum type material or gravel and clay,
will be procured from the region.
The equipment installation phase will commence once the above activities have been
completed. No fabrication at site will take place as all components are prefabricated and
only assembly is required.
3.6.1 Staff
It is planned that, on an average, around 200 direct manpower will be required during the
construction phase. This will increase to 635 for five months of the construction period,
with a peak of 800. Additionally, around 110 support staff will also be present. No
expatriate workers are expected to be on site. Local people will be hired for unskilled
jobs, especially during the construction phase.
3.6.2 Supplies
All supplies, both for construction and for the camp, will be transported by trucks from
either Karachi or the adjoining areas, as required. This will include all fuels and oils,
drilling requirements, spare parts for the construction machinery and food and supplies
for the construction camp. Fuels and oils will be unloaded in designated areas.
Aggregate / sand will be procured from Hub. A catering company will be contracted to
supply the camps.

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The onsite storage capacity for fuel will be 50,000 liters, consisting of 2 steel tanks of
25,000 liters each. The total fuel requirement is estimated to be 2.198 ML.
3.6.3 Water
During the construction phase an estimated 186,300 m3 of water will be required for civil
works. The daily maximum will be around 40,000 liters of water for civil works. The onsite
storage capacity of water will be approximately 8,000 liters. This water will be obtained
from the Jam Sakro canal through water tankers.
The camp will require 8000 liters of water each day. Potable water from the Leete Village
will be used for the camps. This water will be stored in a plastic tank.
3.6.4 Electricity
The expected maximum requirement of electricity for construction and the camp is 1500
KVA. Diesel generators will be used for power generation to operate the construction
equipment and for the camp. It is expected that 5 generating sets of 50 KVA each, 4
generating sets of 90 KVA each and 3 generating sets of 200 KVA each will be sufficient
for the requirements. The welding generators will be in addition to the above generating
capacity. The daily fuel requirement will be around 6500 liters.
Emissions from the generators will be reduced by ensuring that the engines are always
properly tuned and maintained, and generators will be located so that emissions are
blown away from the camp and work areas.
3.6.5 Waste Management
All efforts will be made to minimize waste generated during the construction period. The
main types of waste that will be generated are:
Fuels and oils
Garage waste
Sewage
Camp waste
The piling operation is not likely to generate any waste as only water based bentonite
clay may be used during piling. As bulk concreting will be done using concrete pump
wastage of concrete will be minimal.
Fuels and oils will be stored in containers in areas with impervious floors and surrounded
by dyke walls. Recyclable materials will periodically be transported out of the site and
sold / given to contractors. Non-recyclable material will be collected and disposed of at
designated landfill sites.
Most garage waste, such as used spare parts, is recycled in Pakistan. All such waste will
be collected and sold / given to contractors for disposal off-site.
As part of the site preparation stage, a drainage and sewerage system will be
constructed for the camp. The sewerage system will consist of soak pits for the collection
of waste water from the camp kitchen and washing / ablution areas. Sewage from the
toilets will go into lined septic tanks. Sewage and solid waste disposal trucks will be used
to remove the sludge, sewage and solid waste from the site.
All combustible domestic waste will be collected and burned in a garbage pit, suitably
fenced to prevent it being blown away. Any non-combustible and non-biodegradable

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waste, such as glass, metal and plastic, will be separated and transported out of the site
area, where it will be sold / given to a contractor for recycling or disposal at designated
sites.
3.6.6 Noise
The generators and other heavy construction machinery will not produce excessive noise
which will exceed the limits at the boundary of the plant. Workers near these machines
will use appropriate PPE.

3.7 Operational Activities


O&M activities will not be very extensive. The normal greasing and cleaning activities will
be done, except for the annual shutdown of the turbine for maintenance. Even during
this time it is not expected that any major work will be required each year.
3.7.1 Staff
There will be no residential staff at site once the operation commences. It is planned that
a maximum of 5 people will be employed on three shifts, in addition to the security staff.
Security staff will not be resident on site.
On an average 4 pick up type vehicles per day will be moving in / out of the project site.
3.7.2 Supplies
All supplies, both for operations and for the site staff, will be transported by trucks from
either Karachi or the adjoining areas, as required. This will include all fuels and oils,
spare parts required for maintenance and food and supplies for the site staff. Fuels and
oils will be unloaded in designated areas, which will have above ground storage for 1800
liters of fuel. Propane will be used for cooking purposes.
3.7.3 Water
850 liters per day of potable water will be required. This will be obtained from Leete
Village and the site will have storage for 12,000 liters.
3.7.4 Waste Management
Fuels and oils will be stored in containers in areas with impervious floors and surrounded
by dyke walls. Recyclable materials, including garage waste, will periodically be
transported out of the site and sold / given to contractors. Non-recyclable material will be
collected and disposed of at designated landfill sites.
The drainage and sewerage system constructed during the construction phase will be
used during the operations phase of the project i.e. soak pits for the collection of waste
water from kitchen and washing / ablution areas and septic tanks for sewage from the
toilets. Sewage and solid waste disposal trucks will be used to remove the sludge,
sewage and solid waste from the site.
Storm water drainage will be managed by controlled flow into the tidal creeks.
3.7.5 Noise
A simulation study was conducted for similar turbines (Nordex, 1.5 MW capacity) to
determine the noise that will be generated by the turbines during operation. This study
shows that the noise level will reduce to below 40 dBA at a distance of 1000m from the
turbine location. The highest noise level being generated is below the concern level of 75
dBA.

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3.8 Decommissioning Activities


The design plant life is 25 years. Decommissioning will involve the dismantling of the
turbines, supporting towers and the Administration building / sub-station, and
transporting it out of the project area. It is expected that this activity will take
approximately 6 months and will require 300 heavy haul trucks (60-feet size) for the
turbine components in addition to 600 truck loads of other materials. The turbine
components will be sold as scrap, and all the concrete will be broken up and removed to
a landfill site. The stored fuel and oil, together with the containers, will be transported out
of the site for sale / disposal at suitable landfill sites. The site road embankments will be
leveled and the material spread evenly over the whole site. The site will be restored as
far as possible to its original condition. The access roads may be left intact, if local
people desire to use them. If not, they too will be dismantled and the land returned to its
original condition.

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Exhibit 3.1: Power Plant Location

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Exhibit 3.2: Site Layout Plan

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4. Analysis of Project Alternatives

This Chapter discusses various project alternatives that were considered during the
design phase. The alternatives in this Chapter have been organized in three broad
categories: management, siting and technical alternatives.
4.1 Management Alternatives
4.1.1 No Project Alternative
As described in Section 1.2, the electricity demand has been increasing during the past
several years, and this trend is expected to continue as a result of the on-going
economic uplift in the country. The key factors fueling the increasing power demand
include increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, improvement in per
capita income and village electrification.
In order to match the increasing trend in the power demand, regular investments in
various segments of the power network generation being of foremost importance is
vitally important. Otherwise, the gap between the supply and demand will keep on
increasing.
The proposed project seeks to increase the power generation capacity of the country, by
harnessing so far unutilized wind power potential in the coastal areas of Sindh. In case
the proposed project is not undertaken, the country will miss out on an invaluable
opportunity to utilize vast potential of wind energy, and as a result, the power generation
will be necessitated by other means such as by using fossil fuel which will not only be
more expensive, but will also be more polluting than the clean energy produced by the
wind power plants.
In view of the above, the no project option is not a preferred alternative.
4.1.2 Siting Alternatives
The wind farms are by their very nature located where the wind potential is significant
where high velocity winds are prevalent for most parts of the day, and most parts of the
year. In Pakistan, such conditions are found along the coastal areas of Sindh and
Balochistan. Between these two broad areas, the coastal belt in Sindh, particularly the
areas close to the major load center, i.e. Karachi, is a preferred location, compared to
the remote coastal areas of Balochistan, such as Pasni and Gwadar. These coastal
areas in Balochistan are far away from the major load centers in the country,
necessitating the need for installing long transmission lines, which would have their own
environmental and social impacts. Therefore, the selected location for the proposed
FWEL-I wind power plant is a preferred location with respect to the wind potential on one
hand, and vicinity of the electricity load center, on the other.
4.2 Technology Alternatives
4.2.1 Renewable Vs. Non-renewable Power Plants
The non-renewable power generation technologies, such as burning fossil fuels for
thermal power generation, have been the most common options throughout the world for
almost the entire 20th century. However, depleting fossil fuel resources and associated

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increasing prices, often dependent upon imported fuels are some of the problems
associated with the fossil fuel driven power plants. In addition, these power generation
technologies are a major contributor to the pollution load locally as well as regionally and
globally, particularly with respect to the green house gases, which is causing global
warming.
In order to address the above problems, extensive research and development has been
going on for some time in the renewable energy technology, which include solar thermal,
solar voltaic, wind energy, bio-mass, geothermal, tidal and many more. Of these, the
wind energy technology offers great potential, particularly in areas which experience
consistently high velocity winds. This technology offers clean energy without any air
pollution load, at a reasonable cost, which is likely to further reduce once the technology
matures and the scale of production increases, thus bringing the cost of power plant
production lower.
In light of the above, the establishment of the FWEL-I plant is a step in right direction,
providing electricity to an energy-deficit country through technology which does not
produce air pollution.
4.2.2 Transformer Oil
Traditionally, transformer oil meant for providing insulation and cooling of the
transformer windings used to contain poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB), a man-made
chemical known for its excellent dielectric properties. However, this chemical was then
found to be highly toxic, and more importantly, chemically very stable. Hence this
chemical would not decompose or disintegrate naturally. Due to this property of PCB, it
was included in a group of chemicals collectively known as persistent organic pollutants
(POPs). Exhibit 4.1 provides more information on PCBs.
Although, production and use of the PCB containing transformer oil is not allowed
anymore in the West, it is still being used locally. In view of their extremely harmful
effects however, use of this oil is not a preferred option for all applications, including the
proposed project.
FWEL-I through inclusion of the appropriate clauses in the transformer specifications will
have to ensure that the PCB-containing transformer oil is not use in the transformers
procured for the power plant.

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Exhibit 4.1: Health Effects of PCBs


What are PCBs?
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 synthetic chemical compounds
which are colorless and odorless. From 1929 to 1977 PCBs were manufactured in the
United States and widely used in electrical equipment and other industrial uses. Due to
the harm PCBs cause to humans and wildlife, their manufacture was banned in 1977.
How are people exposed to PCBs?
PCBs are found primarily in lake and river bottom sediments and fatty tissues in fish.
Eating contaminated fish remains the major route of exposure to PCBs. Other sources of
exposure remain very small.
How do PCBs affect human health?
PCBs are stored in the fat of animals and humans. PCBs and other contaminants can
accumulate in the body over time. It may take months or years of regularly eating
contaminated fish to build up amounts that are a health concern. However, PCBs may
eventually affect your health or that of your children.
Pregnant women and young children: Mothers who eat highly contaminated fish before
birth may have children who have slower mental development and difficulty learning. A
pregnant woman can pass these chemicals to her unborn child and to the new baby
through breast milk. However, the significant benefits of breastfeeding far outweigh the
associated risks. Young children may also experience developmental health effects.
Adults: Adults should also remain concerned about PCBs because they may cause liver
and immune system problems, including cancer.
How can I reduce my health risks to PCBs?
Most exposure to PCBs comes from eating contaminated fish1. The best way to reduce
the health risks is to eat only the safest fish. Some examples include:
Choose smaller and younger fish. Generally, panfish and fish just over the legal
size will have fewer PCBs.
Choose lean fish. Panfish, brook trout and brown trout that live in streams and
rivers tend to be low in fat. Small walleye, northern pike and bass, especially
those that are just legal size, also tend to have fewer chemicals.
Release predator fish that are very large, like walleye, northern pike, muskie,
and lake trout. These fish tend to have more PCBs. Bass have different
advisories. Carp and catfish also tend to accumulate more chemicals. Any size
of carp caught in the Lower Fox River should not be eaten
Advise women of childbearing age, pregnant women, nursing mothers and
young children to select their catch or meals carefully (follow the Wisconsin Fish
Consumption Advisory, Internet links can be found below)
Trim the skin and fatty areas off the fish where contaminates accumulate

1
Prepared by the Wisconsin Division of Public Health, with funds from the Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Public Health Service, USDHHS. (PPH 45014 6/2001)

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5. Description of Environment and


Socioeconomic Conditions

This chapter provides baseline, pre-project conditions of the physical, biological as well
as human environment of the project area.
5.1 Physical Environment
5.1.1 Physiography, Topography and Geology
On the basis of the physical environment and geology, the project area falls in the Indus
Basin, which is briefly described below.
The Indus Basin essentially forms the western extension of Indo-Gangetic Plain, and has
been made up of the silt brought by the Indus and its numerous tributaries, such as
Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej on the east bank, and Kabul, Kurram, Tochi, and
others on the west bank. The Indus Plain is known for its agricultural fertility and cultural
development throughout history.
On the basis of hydrology and land form, the Indus Plain can be divided into the Upper
and Lower Indus Plains. The Upper Indus Plain differs from the Lower Indus Plain
(where the project area is located) primarily because of the major tributaries (Jhelum,
Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej) divide the land surface into several interfluves or doabs. The
two plains are separated by a narrow corridor near Mithankot where the Sulaiman range
approaches the Indus River. The Lower Indus Plain is very flat, generally sloping to the
south with an average gradient of 95 mm per km (6 inches per mile).
The Lower Indus Plain can be divided in five distinct micro-relief land forms: active flood
plain; meander flood plain; cover flood plain; scalloped interfluves; and the Indus delta.
The proposed project site is located in the last of the micro-relief forms listed above.
Topographically, Sindh can be divided into four distinct parts with the dry and barren
Kirthar Range in the west, a central alluvial plain bisected by the Indus River, a desert
belt in the east, and the Indus delta in the south. On the basis of this classification, the
project area is located in the Indus delta.
Geological Setting: The prevailing geologic conditions in the region are the results of
extensive inundation, depositions, coastal movements, and erosions over a long period
of time in the geological ages. The geology of the region is closely related to the
formation process of Himalayan ranges resulting in intense deformation with complex
folding, high angle strike-slip faults and crust thickening expressed in a series of thrust
faults. The important tectonic changes which have had so much influence in the region
are feebly visible particularly in the Indus Plain, and it is only by considering the geology
on a broader regional scale, as well as in site specific detail, that the effects can be
appreciated.

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Most parts of Sindh are covered either by recent alluvium or wind-borne sand. The
principal features of geological significance are to be found in the hilly portions of the
province, towards the west of the Indus. Outlying extensions of this hilly tract occur east
of the Indus as well, near Sukkur, Hyderabad and Jerruck. The isolated hills of
Nagarparkar on the northern border of the Rann of Kutch belong to quite a different
system both geographically and geologically.
The geological studies of the proposed site have not been conducted in detail. However,
the studies carried out in the vicinity of Port Qasim area which is not far away from the
proposed site reveal that Port Qasim and its adjoining areas have been formed in the
middle and upper Tertiary and the soil formation found in the area are fresh and slightly
weathered with recent and sub-recent shoreline deposits. These formations are derived
from Gaj / Manchar formation of lower Miocene to middle Miocene to Pliocene age.
Similar deposits are found all along the coastal belt of Karachi and adjoining areas.
The earthquake hazard in the Indus Delta and the estuaries on the passive continental
margin is mainly from intra-plate active faults particularly Rann of Katch Fault also known
as the Karachi-Jati-Allah Bund Fault. It has three other segments namely Jhimpir Fault,
Pab Fault and Surjani Fault. The main faults between Karachi and Rann of Kutch are
generally oriented easterly and slightly concave to the north. Two severe earthquakes
occurred in the vicinity of Karachi, one in the year 1050 at Bhambore in which 0.15
million casualties were reported and the other in the year 1668 at Pipri near Steel Mill
which is only 60 km away from Karachi, however the details of this are not available.
5.1.2 Land Use
Agriculture, followed by forestry, is the main land use in most parts of Sindh. Although
more than 50 percent of the total geographical area is cultivable, only 26 percent of it is
actually located in the central plain. The land inside the Indus embankments is almost
equally employed by agriculture and forestry, while that outside the embankments is
more extensively utilized for agriculture in the form of sparsely distributed irrigated
plantations. The land use in Sindh is given in Exhibit 5.1.
The proposed site and its immediate surroundings are lying completely vacant, with no
habitation, cultivation or grazing activity (see Exhibit 3.1 for site location, and
Appendix A for photographs of the area).
5.1.3 Meteorology and Climate
Meteorology
The climate in the Sindh coastal area can be characterized by dry, hot and humid
conditions, typical of sub-tropical coastal zones lying in monsoon region. There is a
minor seasonal intervention of a mild winter from mid-December to mid-February and
then a long hot and humid summer extending from April to October. The nearest
meteorological station is located at the Karachi Airport. The data from this
meteorological station is discussed in the following sections.
Temperatures
The air temperature in the coastal zones in the vicinity of the proposed site is generally
moderate. Annual air temperature range is 6 to 42 C. The mean maximum
temperature during summer is 35 C whereas the mean minimum temperature during
winter is 10 C. However, there are occasions when the coastal belt including Karachi is

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in the grip of heat wave and the maximum temperature exceeds 40 C. This extremely
hot weather condition persists for 2-3 days and happens only three to four times during
the year. The average temperature data showing maximum and minimum temperatures
recorded by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) at Karachi Air Port is provided
in Exhibits 5.2 and 5.3, respectively.
Wind
In Karachi and adjoining deltaic areas, the wind blows throughout the year with highest
velocities during southwest monsoon (May to August). The average wind speed for the
last over 6 years are presented in Exhibit 5.4. The dominant wind direction during the
winter is east-northeast, while during summer the direction is west-southwest.
Rainfall
The rainfall in the coastal belt of Karachi and Indus Deltaic area in the vicinity of the
proposed site is extremely low. The rainfall data shows that 156.8 mm rainfall was
recorded during first six months of 2007. The records for the last over six years are
presented in Exhibit 5.5.
Climate
Pakistans latitudinal and longitudinal extents and its northern rim of lofty mountains are
the two factors, which have a great bearing not only on the temperature and rainfall
patterns, but also on the general circulation of the atmosphere on the southern Asia.
Climate of Pakistan according to Koppens classification7 falls under the following five
types:
Tropical Semi-arid with Dry Winter: This climate type prevails in Karachi, Hyderabad,
and southern Khairpur Division. The mean annual temperature is above 18 C.
Tropical Arid: This is characterized by average annual temperature of about 18 C with
dry winters. This includes southern Kalat and whole of the Indus Plain.
Cold Semi-arid With Dry Summer: This climate type covers central Kashmir,
Peshawar, D. I. Khan, Quetta and northern half of Kalat Division.
Snow Forest Climate: This climate type is characterized by average temperature of
coldest month below 0 C. Mean temperature of the warmest month is between 10 and
22 C. It includes northern mountainous areas and parts of Kashmir.
Extreme Cold: This climate type is characterized by average temperature of the
warmest months between 10 and 0 C. It comprises eastern and northern parts of
Kashmir, Chitral, Gilgit and Laddakh.
Based upon the above classification, the project area falls in the tropical semi-arid with
dry winter climate zone.
Ambient Air Quality
No sources of anthropogenic sources of air pollution exist in the immediate vicinity of the
site; therefore the ambient air of the area is likely to be free from the key pollutants such
as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate
matter (PM).

1
Climatic Regions of West Pakistan, Pakistan Geographical Review. Kazi, S. A., 1952.

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5.1.4 Freshwater Resources


Indus River: The Indus River is the main source of surface water in the project area
(and in the country). The Indus rises in Tibet, at an altitude of about 18,000 feet
(5,486 m) amsl, and has a total catchment area of 654,329 km2. Length of the Indus
River in the country is about 2,750 km. Five main rivers that join the Indus from the
eastern side are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Besides these, two minor
rivers - Soan and Harrow also drain into the Indus. On the western side, a number of
small rivers join Indus, the biggest of which is River Kabul with its main tributaries i.e.
Swat, Panjkora and Kunar. Several small streams such as Kurram, Gomal, Kohat, Tai
and Tank, also join the Indus on the right side. Exhibit 5.6 shows Indus River and its
tributaries; Exhibit 5.7 presents key facts about the river.
The Indus River exhibits great seasonal variations, with more than 80% of the total
annual flow occurring during the summer months, peaking in June, July and August.
Exhibit 5.8 presents flow data of the Indus.
The Indus River and its tributaries on an average bring about 154 million acre feet (MAF)
of water annually. This includes 144.9 MAF from the three western rivers and 9.14 MAF
from the eastern rivers. Most of this, about 104.7 MAF is diverted for irrigation, 39.4
MAF flows to the sea and about 9.9 MAF is consumed by the system losses which
include evaporation, seepage and spills during floods. The flows of the Indus and its
tributaries vary widely from year to year and within the year. As is the case with the
water availability there is significant variation in annual flows into sea.
Several irrigation canals originating from the Indus River exist in the area, including the
Baghar, Ladhya and Jam Sakro canals. The canal nearest to the proposed site is Jam
Sakro canal, as shown in Exhibit 3.1.
Lakes: Several fresh and brackish water lakes exist in the Thatta district. These include
the Kalri and Haleji lakes and Jhuddo lagoon. Kalri Lake (also called Keenjhar) is a
large freshwater lake providing drinking water to Karachi. It was declared a Ramsar site
in 1976 and later became a wildlife sanctuary under the Sindh Wildlife Protection
Ordinance. Haleji Lake is an artificial freshwater lake with marshes and a brackish
seepage lagoon. Considered a game reserve in 1971, this lake was declared a wildlife
sanctuary and in 1976, the lake proceeded to become a Ramsar site. Haleji serves as
an important source of water for Karachi besides being a popular recreational
destination. Jubho Lagoon is a shallow, small brackish water lagoon with mudflats and
marshes that support a large concentration of migratory birds including flamingos and
endangered Dalmation pelicans, a rare species in the world. This was declared a
Ramsar site in 2001 because of the efforts made by IUCN Pakistan.
None of the above water bodies are in the immediate vicinity of the proposed project
site. Names and distances of nearest Ramsar Sites are given in Exhibit 5.10.
River Water Quality: The water quality of Indus River is generally considered excellent
for irrigation purposes. The total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 60 mg/l in the upper
reaches to 375 mg/l in the lower reaches of the Indus, which are reasonable levels for
irrigated agriculture and also as raw water for domestic use. The disposal of saline
drainage from various irrigation projects has been a major factor in the increased TDS in
the lower reaches of the rivers in the Indus Plain. There is progressive deterioration
downstream and the salinity is at its maximum at the confluence of the Chenab and Ravi
rivers, where the TDS ranges from 207 to 907 mg/l. A slight improvement in water

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quality is noted further downstream at Panjnad due to dilution from the inflow from Sutlej
River. The quality of the Indus water at Guddu, however, is within acceptable limits for
agriculture; TDS being in the range of 164-270 mg/l.
In the upper reaches of the Indus River, the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) content remains
above 8.5 mg/l which is well above the acceptable levels of 4 mg/l. The Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD) downstream of Attock has been recorded as 2.9 mg/l. At Kotri,
it has a suspended solid (SS) content of 10 to 200 mg/l. Indus River water quality has
been studied at the Dadu - Moro Bridge and Kotri Barrage, with nitrate levels at 1.1 and
7.5 mg/l, phosphate at 0.02 and 0.3 mg/l, BOD at 2.4 and 4.1 mg/l, faecal coliforms at 50
and 400 per ml, and aluminum at 1.8 and 0.2 mg/l respectively. Due to industrial waste
discharges from Punjab and Sindh, a high content of heavy metals such as nickel, lead,
zinc and cadmium have also been found in Indus water.
5.2 Biological Environment
In this section, biological information of the area in general is provided, followed by the
site-specific description. While the information of the general area is based upon the
secondary literature, the site-specific description has been updated on the basis of the
recent field work carried out.
5.2.1 Biological Resources of the Area
Five types of habitats have been found in the project area/ study area viz.
creek area,
marshes,
saim nullah,
barren/ waste land
open plain area.
The Coastal Highway passes besides the Project area through Deh Sakran and
Makhyaro. Jam Sakro Outfall Drain passes quite close to the Project Area.
The Creek area forms a part of the Indus Delta which is also a Ramsar Site (Wetland of
International Importance). The main migratory route of the migratory water birds in the
area falls along the Korangi/Phitti Creek System, Waddi Khuddi Creek, Patiani Creek,
Gharo Creek, Dabbo Creek and the Keti Bunder Area. Patiani Creek is located in the
west of the project area while the other creeks of Thatta district are quite away from the
proposed site. The creeks support large concentrations of migratory waterbirds
particularly the Waders which feed on the shallow margins or at marshes along the water
line. The main concentrations of birds are found along Korangi/Phitti Creek System in
Karachi District and Keti Bunder area in Thatta District. The project area does not fall
along the main migratory bird path.
The feeding area of the water birds lies along the marshes of the creek area which is not
included in the project area and will not be affected due to the project. Different species
recorded in the creek area is present in Exhibit 5.9.

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5.2.2 Marine Ecosystem


Mangroves
Mangroves of Indus Deltaic creek system are of great ecological and economic
significance. Mangroves play a very important role in the local economy being a source
of timber, fuel wood, fodder, honey and fisheries. The Indus Delta mangrove ecosystem
is highly rich in biodiversity, and provides, natural breeding and nursery ground for
offshore and coastal fishery resources of shrimps and fish. The mangroves also provide
sanctuary for a wide variety of migratory birds and other wild life. In addition to this, the
mangrove ecosystem also plays an important role in protection from erosion as well as
cyclones and tidal bores.
Mangroves are one of the most outstanding ecosystems of coastal zone of Sindh. The
mangroves along Sindh coast are unusual in that they occur in an arid climate. The
mangrove ecosystem stretches along the entire Sindh coast from east of Karachi to Sir
Creek covering the whole of Indus River Delta past and present.
The present Indus Delta is spread over an area of 600,000 hectares (ha), of which as
much as 260,000 ha are covered with mangrove vegetation which has been estimated
through satellite imageries. The mangroves of the Sindh Coastal areas at present do not
receive fresh water continuously which is required for their healthy growth. Mangroves in
the vicinity of Karachi receive their fresh water supply from domestic and industrial
effluents through Lyari and Malir Rivers, while the mangroves in the delta depend on the
fresh water supply from River Indus.
Earlier eight species of mangroves were reported to occur in Indus Delta along Sindh
Coast. However, now only four species are found along Sindh Coast, which include
Aegiceras corniculatum Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata.
Avicennia marina is the most dominant species of the mangrove ecosystem along Sindh
coast covering 95-98% of the mangrove forest. Rhizhophora mucronata has been
reintroduced / planted in Port Qasim Area with the efforts of Sindh Forest Department
and IUCN and only the other three species grow naturally in Indus Deltaic area.
Aegiceras corniculatum and ceriops tagal have been reported at specific places like
Hajamro Creek, Keti Bunder and Shah Bunder area.
Most of the project area is a wasteland. It is not under the influence of normal high tide.
No mangrove plants have been observed in the project area. Avicenna marina
previously recorded from the area has already disappeared. It is presumed that
previously recorded mangroves would have been the result of mangrove seeds reaching
this area from nearby mangrove forest through seawater movement in the creeks
adjoining Port Qasim, but due to scarcity of fresh water and the resultant increase in
salinity in the intervening years the growth of the mangrove is affected. The area is now
mostly covered with halophytic plants.
5.2.3 Biological Resources of the Proposed Site
The project site is located in the area which is classified as Indus Delta, however,
primarily as a result of the decreasing river water flows, the area is no more included in
the active delta, which is now restricted between Shah Bunder and Keti Bunder.

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In the vicinity of the proposed site, flora/fauna observed also include the influenced area
of the Coastal Highway. The main findings are,
The four common species of the mammals in the project area include Indian
Jackal (Canis aureus), Roof Rat (Rattus rattus), House Mouse (Mus musculus)
and Desert Hedgehog (Hemiechinus collaris). No threatened mammalian
species has been reported from the area.
Fifty species of the birds have been recorded. The birds recently observed
include Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Little Egret
(Egretta garzetta), Reef Heron (Egretta gularis), Black Kita (Milvus migrans),
Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Lesser Sand Plover
(Charadrius mongolus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), Curlew (Numenius
arquata), Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa), Bartailed Godwit (Limosa
lapponica), Common Red Shank (Tringa totanus), Eurasian Marsh Harrier
(Circus aeruginosus), Little Stint (Calidris minutus), Dunlin (Calidris alpina),
Lesser Blackbacked Gull ( Larus fuscus), Brownheaded Gull (Larus
brunnicephalus), Blackheaded Gull (Larus ridibundus), Little Tern (Sterna
albifrons), Whitebreasted Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis), Crested Lark
(Galerida cristata), Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus), and White Wagtail
(Motacilla alba).
Two species of Reptiles viz. Saw-scaled Viper and Indian Cobra have been
reported from the area.
The dominant flora of the project area includes Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora
persica, Tamarix indica, Sueda fruticosa, Salsola imbricate and Aeluropus
lagopoides

The dislocation of wildlife of the project area seems to have already taken place during
the early phase of the construction of the Coastal Highway. Now the water birds which
form a major part of the wildlife of the area have already settled by finding refuge in the
marshes amongst the grassy patches in the creek area.

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5.2.4 Protected Areas


Several protected areas exist in the Gharo Wind Corridor generally and Thatta district
specially. Among these, Haleji Lake, Hadero Lake, Keti Bunder North, Keti Bunder
South, Bijoro Chach, Cut Munarki Chach, Gullel Kohri, Hilaya, Kahdi Lake and Kalri Lake
have been notified as the wildlife sanctuaries, while game reserves are located at Mirpur
Sakro, Deh Jangisar and Deh Khalifa.
Distance of the protected sites from the site is presented in Exhibit 5.10. None of these
protected areas are located in the immediate vicinity of the proposed site.
5.3 Socioeconomic Description
This section provides socioeconomic description of the project area and its surroundings.
5.3.1 Administrative Setup
Administratively, the proposed site is located in Thatta, which is one of the districts of the
Sindh Province. The Thatta District is further divided in nine talukas (sub-division of a
district, also called tehsil): Thatta, Sujawal, Mirpur Bathoro, Jati, Mirpur Sakro,
Ghorabari, Keti Bunder, Kharo Chann and Shah Bunder. These talukas include 55
union councils, 7,200 villages and 185,477 households with the average size of 6
individuals per household (See Exhibit 5.11). The proposed wind power plant site is
situated within the boundaries of Haji Girano, which is one of the union councils of the
Mirpur Sakro Taluka. However the site is outside the boundaries of the revenue village.
The nearest village located in the site vicinity is Ali Muhammad Jatt, having a population
of approximately 4000 people.
Much like rest of the country, the local government system has been established in
Sindh Province as well, which consists of the elected representatives as well as
government functionaries. Under the system, each district is governed by the district
government, which is headed by the District Nazim - an elected representative, and the
District Coordination Officer (DCO) - a government official. Each district comprises
several talukas (or tehsils), which are governed by their respective Taluka/Tehsil
Municipal Administration (TMA). In turn, each tehsil or taluka comprises several unions,
which is governed by the Union Administration (UA).
5.3.2 Demographic Features of the Area
The Thatta District covers an area of 17,355 square kilometers (about 4.3 million acres),
and according to the 1998 census, had a population of 1,113,194 individuals living in
185,477 households. This population constituted 589,343 males and 523,853 females,
with a growth rate of 2.26 percent, and having a density of 67 individuals per square
kilometer. The demographic details of the district are presented in Exhibit 5.11.
The Mirpur Sakro Taluka, where the proposed site is located, covers an area of about
2,982 square kilometers (736,541 acres). The taluka is distributed in 10 unions,
92 revenue villages, 1,526 villages and 32,099 households. The total population
according to the 1998 census was 198,852 individuals. The demographic data of the
Mirpur Sakro Taluka is presented in Exhibit 5.12.
5.3.3 Culture, Ethnicity and Castes
Much like rest of the province, the project area has rich culture, customs and traditions.
There is a significant influence of the Arabian culture on the local population, though the

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traces of ancient Sindhi culture as well as Hindu, Buddhism and other religious thoughts
are also present in the attitudes and approaches of the local communities. The Pirs and
Murshids (religious leaders, saints) are held in high esteem and confidence amongst the
Muslims particularly in the uneducated and poor class of the rural areas. Annual
festivals at the shrines of saints are regularly held in which people very enthusiastically
take part. Similarly, the Hindus also hold great confidence and reverence in Thakurs
and Brahmans (the higher castes). The Brahmans usually perform spiritual rites of
Hindus on special occasions.
The social setup in the rural areas exhibits a strong beraderi (communal) system, which
defines the inter- and intra-community hierarchy and allegiance, and also plays an
important role in conflict resolution at the local level. Every social group has its own
Sardar (Chief), who represents the entire community. Most of the disputes among the
community members are resolved at village level by the Sardar.
Sindhi is the common language in the project area whereas Urdu is also spoken in some
urban parts of the district.
Majority of the population in the project area is Muslim and Sindhis. Most of the
population in Thatta district belongs to Sayed, Samma, Jokhio, Palejo, Baloch, Rind,
Khaskheli, Khawaja, Memon, Mallah, Mirbahar, Jat and Lashari castes. The Mirpur
Sakro Taluka, particularly the area near the project site, is inhabited by Khaskhelis,
Rinds, Mallahs, Jats, Katiars, Hadyas, Sammas, Sathyas and Lasharis.
5.3.4 Physical Infrastructure
The area is connected to the rest of the country through the National Highway which
passes through Gharo (Mirpur Sakro Taluka). The main Karachi-Lahore-Peshawar
railway line also passes through the northern parts of the Thatta district. A road network
connects various parts of the Taluka - including the Haji Girano Union Council, with the
National Highway. The metalled road nearest to the site is Coastal Highway which is
about 10 km away as shown in Exhibit 1.1.
Generally, electricity is available in the area, though in the rural areas, its consumption is
quite low, where the electricity is primarily used for a few light bulbs and fans in a typical
household. In rural areas, houses without the electricity connections are not uncommon.
The water supply systems exist in most of the communities, however networked systems
are limited to the urban areas and larger villages/towns. Recently, the Government of
Pakistan has initiated the Clean Drinking Water Program, under which each UC will be
provided with water filtration system.
The telecommunication link is also available in the area. Moreover, the recent
development of mobile phones has expanded the service coverage to areas which were
not previously connected to the land lines.
Several industrial organizations exist in the Thatta District. These include sugar mills,
textile mills, a cement factory and rice and flour mills. However no major industry is
located near the project site.
5.3.5 Education and Literacy
A large number of educational institutes exist in the Thatta District, as shown in
Exhibit 5.13, however many of these institutes, particularly the schools in the rural
areas, are either partially functional, or altogether non-functional for a variety of reasons,

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most common being the absence of teachers. The Haji Girano Union Council is one of
such rural areas, and here several of the primary schools are non/semi functional.
Furthermore, the girls enrollment is very low in the few schools which are functional.
There is only one middle school in the Union Council, which makes it difficult for the
students to come to the school from far off locations. For higher education, the students
have to rely upon institutes in the urban areas such as Gharo and Mirpur Sakro town.
In line with the state of the educational institutes in the area described above, the literacy
in the area is also quite poor. The literacy in the Thatta district at 22.14% is far below the
overall literacy in the Sindh Province which is 45.29% (see Exhibit 5.14). The literacy in
Mirpur Sakro Taluka is slightly better than that of the Thatta District, apparently because
of the presence of a few urban centers in the Taluka, compared to the overall Thatta
District which includes several remote rural areas. However, as expected, the literacy
ratio of the Haji Giran Union Council is quite low (13.9%).
Further analysis the literacy data reveals that generally, the urban areas enjoy a better
literacy ratios compared to the rural areas. Similarly, male literacy is generally higher
than the female literacy. See Exhibit 5.15 for the gender and rural/urban dimensions of
the literacy at the province, district and taluka levels.
5.3.6 Health and Diseases
Several health care facilities exist in the Thatta district, including one district hospital,
four Taluka hospitals, 46 Basic Health Units (BHUs) and eight Rural Health Centers
(RHCs), as tabulated in Exhibit 5.16. Out of these, one Taluka hospital, nine BHUs and
one RHC are located within the Mirpur Sakro Taluka. In the Haji Girano Union Council,
only one BHU is located. However these facilities are not only quite inadequate to
provide medical care facility to the population of the area, but most of these are poorly
equipped and staffed as well. As a result, the local population is forced to go to the
larger towns and cities in case of serious diseases. The common diseases in the area
include malaria, tuberculosis, skin infections, eye infections, diarrhea, and hepatitis. The
majority of rural population in the area does not have access to safe drinking water,
hence the prevalence of the water borne diseases is quite high in the area.
5.3.7 Agriculture
Agro-ecological Zones
The use of land is governed by several interacting factors, which are physical, biological,
social and economic in nature. A clear vision of these factors is essential for increased
agricultural production in any given region. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
in 1980 divided Pakistan in ten agro-ecological zones, based on a survey carried out by
the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and review of the available literature on
physiography, climate, soils, land use and other factors affecting agriculture production.
These zones are shown in Exhibit 5.17 and defined in Exhibit 5.18. According to this
zonation, the project area falls under the Zone I, which is characterized by moderate
temperatures, low rainfall, saline soils and poor drainage. However as described earlier,
the proposed site does not support any agricultural activities such as cultivation or
grazing.
Cultivation: Cultivation is one of the main livelihood activities of the people of the
Thatta District in general and Mirpur Sakro Taluka in particular. Almost all the
households possess some piece of land which is used for cultivation. Rice, wheat,

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sugarcane and tomato are main crops of the area. During rabi (winter) season, mostly
wheat and vegetables are grown, whereas during kharif (summer) season, most of the
farmers grow rice, sugarcane, vegetables and by the end of this season tomato is also
cultivated. The cultivation methods are traditional in most of the area hence the crop
yields are also quite poor. The agricultural produce is usually sold out to the local whole-
sale dealers at the rate which is typically lower than the market rate. This is primarily
because the villagers do not have much exposure of and access to the open markets in
larger towns and cities, and they find it convenient to sell their produce to the whole sale
dealers at lower-than-market rates.
Irrigation: The Indus River is the main source of irrigation water for much of the Sindh
Province. In the Mirpur Sakro Taluka, the Baghar, Ladhya and Jam Sakro canals
originating from Indus and Keenjhar Lake provide the irrigation water. The canal nearest
to the proposed site is Jam Sakro canal, as shown in Exhibit 3.1. During the
consultations in the Haji Girano Union Council, the villagers informed that most of the
areas in the Union Council do not receive enough irrigation water, because of being
located at the tail of the canal. The availability of sweet groundwater in the area is quite
limited, and usually only a thin layer of sweet water exists over the brackish aquifer.
Hence the usage of groundwater for the irrigation purposes is quite limited.
Livestock: Much like rest of the province, livestock is also one of the key livelihood
means for the rural population of the area. The farmers in these areas traditionally keep
a few heads of livestock, ranging from bullocks for draught to cows and buffalos for milk,
and poultry for eggs and meat. There have been many traditional communities in the
area exclusively dependent on livestock for their livelihood, however, the importance of
livestock as a source of income has declined over the years.
Several commercial livestock and diary farms also exist in the Mirpur Sakro Taluka,
some of them along the road leading to the site. Produce from these farms is usually
transported to cities like Karachi, Hyderabad and Thatta.
5.3.8 Fishing
Fishing is also one of the important livelihood means of the local population in the Thatta
District, particularly along the coastal belt. In these areas, almost every household
possesses one to two fishing boats. In the Mirpur Sakro Taluka, the union councils
Bhuhara and Haji Girano are located in the coastal belt hence fishing is the key
occupation in these areas. In the west of project site, the Patiani creek is an important
fishing area for the people living in Bhuhara, Haji Girano and the surrounding villages.
The fishermen of the area generally remain within the creeks, and only occasionally do
they go beyond the creeks along the sea shore. The fishermen in the area generally go
for fishing on the seven-day trips, although some of them also go for the one-day fishing
trips. The fish catch from the area is mostly sold in Karachi, though a limited quantity is
also bought locally. The fish catch data for the seven-day fishing trip of a boat carrying
six fishermen from the project area is given in Exhibit 5.19. The nearest fishing
community lives in Village Ali Mohammad Jatt, approximately 8 km from the site. The
project does not affect fishing communities nor does it affect the access of the fishing
community to the coastline.

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5.3.9 Developmental Activities in the Area


No major development projects are under implementation in the area. The TMAs and
UAs routinely undertake small development works, such as street pavements and water
supply schemes. Under such development works in the Haji Girano Union Council, four
primary schools are being constructed. In addition, an NGO is providing smoke-free
stoves to the villagers in the area.

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5.3.10 Sites of Archeological, Historical, Cultural or Religious Significance


There exist a large number of sites of archeological, cultural, historical and religious
significance in Sindh. The major ones include the archeological remains at Moen-Jo-
Daro, which is one of the most important Indus Civilization sites, and the Makli Hills
graveyard in the Thatta District. A list of these places located in the Sindh is provided in
Exhibit 5.20. However, none of these places are at or near the proposed power plant
site.
However, remains of some ancient ruins were observed near the mast that has been
installed by FWEL-I for obtaining the wind data at site. The local people have indicated
that this area was habited in the past, around 250 300 years ago.

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Exhibit 5.1: Land Use in Sindh

Area
Land Use Percentage
(Million Ha)
Not Sown 3.022 21.446
Current Fallow 1.439 18.935
Cultivable Waste 2.688 10.212
Total Available for 7.149 50.593
Cultivation
Not Available for 5.830 41.374
Cultivation
Forest 1.125 7.984
Unreported 0.007 0.049
Total 14.091 100.000

Source: Sindh State of Environment and Development, IUCN, 2004.

Exhibit 5.2: Mean Monthly Maximum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi (C)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 27.2 27 27.6 26.6 24.9 26 26.9
Feb 29.6 28.2 28.5 29.9 26.3 31.3 29.4
Mar 33.1 33.3 32.4 36.2 31.5 31.8 31.4
Apr 34.6 35.4 36.6 35.4 35.3 34 37.7
May 35.1 35.6 35.7 36.8 35.4 34.6 36
June 34.9 35.1 34.9 35.6 36 35.3 36.4
July 32.2 32.2 34.1 33.8 33.2 33.8
Aug 32.3 31.6 32.6 32.7 32.2 31
Sep 33.1 31.4 32.5 32.8 34.2 34.2
Oct 36 36.5 37 33.7 35.2 35
Nov 33.5 32.7 32.2 33.1 33.1 33.4
Dec 30.4 28.1 28.3 29.4 28.4 26.3
Annual 32.7 32.3 32.7 33 32.1 32.2 33
Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

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Exhibit 5.3: Mean Monthly Minimum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi (C)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 11.5 12.8 12.7 12.9 12.3 11.7 13
Feb 14.9 13.8 16.9 14.5 11.3 18.1 17.3
Mar 19.6 19.5 19.8 19.1 20.3 19.6 19.7
Apr 23.8 23.9 24.2 24.8 23 24.5 24.7
May 28.1 27 26.5 27.3 26.4 27.5 27.6
June 29 28.2 28.2 28.8 28.3 28.5 28.6
July 27.1 29.6 23.6 27.5 27.2 28.3
Aug 26.5 25.6 27 26.3 26.6 26.3
Sep 25.9 24.8 25.3 25.3 26.6 26.8
Oct 24.4 22.5 20.9 22.4 22.9 25.7
Nov 18.6 17.7 15.2 18 18.9 19.4
Dec 15.8 14.9 12 15.4 13 14
Annual 22.1 21.7 21 21.9 21.4 22.5 21.8
Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

Exhibit 5.4: Average Wind Speed Recorded at Karachi (meters per seconds or
m/s)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 2.6 3.6 4.0 3.4 3.6 2.0 2.0
Feb 3.4 3.9 5.0 3.7 4.2 3.0 3.7
Mar 4.3 4.0 5.4 4.0 4.8 3.0 4.0
Apr 5.6 6.5 5.2 6.0 5.1 6.2 4.0
May 7.5 8.5 7.7 8.0 7.1 8.0 6.0
June 8.1 8.2 8.8 9.0 7.5 7.7 6.3
July 6.8 9.8 6.7 10.0 9.0 8.3
Aug 7.3 7.3 7.1 9.5 6.9 6.2
Sep 5.5 7.7 6.0 7.3 6.4 4.7
Oct 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.8 3.9 4.2
Nov 2.0 2.9 3.1 1.0 2.0 2.2
Dec 2.4 3.2 3.0 2.5 1.5 3.0
Annual 4.9 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.2 4.9 4.3
Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

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Exhibit 5.5: Precipitation Recorded at Karachi (mm)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 0 0 6.4 13.7 6.6 Trace 0
Feb 0 2.4 21.8 0 12.8 0 13.2
Mar 0 0 0 0 Trace Trace 33.4
Apr 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
June 10.6 Trace 16.3 Trace Trace 0 110.2
July 73.6 Trace 270.4 3 Trace 66.2
Aug 16.2 52.2 9.8 5.6 0.3 148.6
Sep Trace Trace Trace Trace 54.9 21.9
Oct 0 0 0 39.3 0 0
Nov 0 0.5 0.2 0 0 3.1
Dec 0 0.4 0 4.3 17.1 61.3
Annual 100.4 55.5 324.9 65.9 91.7 301.1 156.8

Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

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Exhibit 5.6: Indus River and its Tributaries a

Exhibit 5.7: Key Facts about Indus River a

Length of River Indus in Pakistan: 1,708 miles (2,767 km)

Important Engineering Tarbela Dam and Ghazi Barotha Hydro Power Project

Structures on the River: Jinnah Barrage (950,000 cusecs),

Chashma Barrage (1.1 million cusecs),

Taunsa Barrage (750,000 cusecs),

Guddu Barrage (1.2 million cusecs),

Sukkur Barrage (1.5 million cusecs) and

Kotri Barrage (750,000 cusecs)


2 2
Catchment Area: 252,638 miles (663,023 km )

Annual Average Flow: 48.0 MAF (41.41 Kharif and 6.61 Rabi)
a
Source: Pakistan Water Gateway.

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Exhibit 5.8: Water Flow in Indus River

Average Annual Average Annual Average Annual


Flow - 1922-61 Flow - 1985-95 Flow - 2001-02
(MAF) (MAF) (MAF)
93.00 62.70 48.00

Source: Pakistan Water Gateway.

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Exhibit 5.9: Species Recorded in Creek Area

Mammals 6 Species

Birds 100 Species

Reptiles 7 Species

Fishes 23 Species

Crustaceans 11 Species

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Exhibit 5.10: Protected Areas in Gharo Wind Corridor

Distance
Protected (km)
Name District
Areas
FWEL-I
Majiran Hyderabad 114
Khadi Hyderabad 119
Kinjhar Lake Hyderabad 76
Hadero Lake Hyderabad 54
Haleji Lake Hyderabad 45
Bijoro Chach Hyderabad 64
Wildlife Norang Hyderabad 59
Sanctuary Sadani Hyderabad 54
Monarki Hyderabad 49
Gullel Kohri Hyderabad 44
Cut Moraki Chach Hyderabad 54
Keti Bunder (North) Hyderabad 51
Keti Bunder (South) Hyderabad 89
Hillaya Thatta 79
Kinjhar Lake Thatta 76
Haleji Lake Thatta 45
Ramsar Sites Indus Delta Thatta -
Nurri Lagoon Badin 130
Jubhoo Lagoon Badin 130
Mirpur Sakro Thatta 24
Game Reserve
Deh Jangisar Thatta 40

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Exhibit 5.11: Demographic Data of Thatta District

Union Revenue Population


Taluka Villages Households
Councils Villages (1998 Census)

Thatta 13 61 1,107 41,408 253,748

Mirpur Sakro 10 92 1,526 32,099 198,852

Sujawal 06 72 687 22,665 127,299

Mirpur Bathoro 08 63 1,295 27,706 151,915

Shah Bunder 05 80 634 17,094 100,575

Jati 06 112 734 22,337 123,957

Kharo Chan 01 24 169 2,540 25,666

Ghorabari 05 59 851 15,700 105,482

Keti Bunder 01 21 197 3,928 25,700

Total 55 584 7,200 185,477 1,113,194

Exhibit 5.12: Demographic Data of Mirpur Sakro Taluka

Revenue Population
Unions Villages Households
Villages (1998 Census)

Sakro 07 98 3,436 23,489

Ghulamullah 11 198 3,605 18,441

Karmpur 10 153 2,807 18,459

Choubandi 12 222 3,588 17,510

Haji Girano 14 79 2,883 18,265

Sukhpur 7 210 3,533 18,671

Dhabeji 3 101 2,868 22,946

Gujjo 10 181 3,339 18,715

Bhuhara 14 196 3,278 20,630

Gharo 4 88 2,762 21,726

Total 92 1,526 32,099 198,852

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Exhibit 5.13: Educational Institutes in Thatta District


(1998 Census Data)
Schools 2,282

Colleges 4

Others 4

Source: District Census Report of Thatta, 1999.

Exhibit 5.14: Literacy Ratio in Project Area %


(1998 Census Data)

District Urban Rural Total


Sindh Province 63.72 25.73 45.29
Thatta District 45.92 18.99 22.14
Mirpur Sakro 42.54 21.97 24.47
Taluka
Haji Ghirano UC - 13.9 13.9
Sources: District Census Report of Thatta, and Provincial Census Report of Sindh.

Exhibit 5.15: Literacy Ratio by Gender %


(1998 Census Data)

Male Female Literacy Male Female Literacy


Urban Urban Gap Urban Rural Rural Gap Rural
Sindh 69.75 56.66 13.09 37.89 12.23 25.66
Province
Thatta 56.98 33.90 23.08 28.31 08.34 19.97
District
Mirpur Sakro 52.46 31.49 20.97 32.14 10.23 21.91
Taluka
Sources: District Census Report of Thatta, and Provincial Census Report of Sindh.

Exhibit 5.16: Healthcare Facilities in Thatta District


(1998 Census Data)
Taluka Basic Health Unit(s)/ Rural Health
Civil Hospital
Hospitals Public Health Centers Centers
1 4 46 8
Source: District Census Report of Thatta, 1999.

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Exhibit 5.17: Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan

Description of Environment and Socioeconomic Conditions


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Exhibit 5.18: Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan

Temperature Rain Other


Zone Region Soil Crops
( C) (mm) Features
I Indus Delta 34-40 125-250 Clayey Soil Rice, Salinity of
19-20 Silty Soil Sugarcane, Soil,
Pulses, Poor
Berseem, Drainage
Wheat
II Southern 38-45 125-250 Silt Loam, Rice, Wheat, 20% Salt
irrigated plain 8-12 Sandy Cotton, Affected
Loam, Silty Sorghum, Area
Clay Mustered,
Sugarcane,
Gram
III(a) Sandy Desert 39-41 125-250 Sandy Soils, Guar, Millets, Dust Storm
7 Moving Sand Wheat are Common
Dunes;
Clayey Soils

III(b) Sandy Desert 40 150-350 Stable Sand Gram, Wheat, Internal


5.5 Ridges Cotton, Drainage
(sand and Sugarcane
loamy fine
sand soils)

IV(a) Northern 39.5-42 200-500 Sandy Loam, Rice, Wheat, Canal


Irrigated 6-6.2 Clayey Loam Cotton, Irrigated
Plain Sugarcane, Cropping
Maize,
Oilseeds,
Melons

IV(b) Northern 38 500 Clayey Sugarcane, Intensively


Irrigated 5 Maize, Cultivated
Plain Tobacco, Area
Wheat,
Berseem

V Barani Land 38-38.5 200-1000 Silty Loam, Wheat, Millets, Shallow


3.7 Silty Clayey Rice, Maize, Soils
loam, Clay Oilseeds, Unsuitable
Loam Pulses, Fodder for Root
Growth

VI Wet 35 >1000 Silt Loams, Maize, Wheat, Steep


mountain 0-4 Silty Rice, Mountain
Clay Deciduous Slopes
Fruit

VII Northern Dry Varied 300-1000 Deep and Maize, Wheat, Glaciers and
Mountains Clayey formed Fodders, Fruit, Snow fields
of Colluvial Apricot
material and
alluvial
deposits

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Exhibit 5.18 Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan (Contd.)

Temperature Rain Other


Zone Region Soil Crops
( C) (mm) Features
VIII Western Dry 30-39 125-500 Strongly Fruit, Wheat, Numerous Hill
Mountain -3 7.7 Calcareous Vegetables, Torrents
Soils; fodder, Maize
Gravely soils

IX Dry Western 33-40.5 50-200 Strongly Tropical Fruits, Sailaba


Plateau 3 15 Calcareous Wheat agriculture
Silt Loams Summer system
Gravely soils Cereals

X Sulaiman 40-43.6 125-250 Loamy, Clayey Wheat, Gram, Sailaba


Piedmont 5.8 7.6 Lentils, agriculture
Oilseeds, Millet system
Sorghum

Exhibit 5.19: Fishing Species and Catch-Size during 7-day Trip in the Project Area

Total Average Catch Market Value


Fishing Specie Average Size
(Kilograms) (Rs per kilogram)
Shrimp (Jheenga) 4-inch length 100 100
Paphlet 1 kilograms 60 250
Dathi 5 kilograms 50 100
Khagha 5 kilograms 40 50
Surmai 2 kilograms 60 100
Suha 20 kilograms 60 90
Dhangri 15 kilograms 60 100
Kitchak 4-inch length 40 20
Looair 4-inch length 40 20
Source: Data collected during the previous fieldwork (in 2008)

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Exhibit 5.20: Places of Archeological, Historical or Religious Significance Falling


in Sindh

Distance
Site Name District (km)
FWEL-I
Bhambore Thatta 22
Makli Hills (Necropolis) Thatta 54
Kalankot Fort Thatta 50

Archeological Chaukandi Tomb Karachi 33


Sites Kot Diji Khairpur 328
Mohen-Jo-Darro Larkana 311
Ranikot Fort Jamshoro 152
UmerKot Fort Umerkot 246
Dargah Darya Peer Thatta 8
Shah Jehan Mosque Thatta 56
Mir Shadad Jo Quba Sanghar 192
Religious Sites Bhittshah (Shah Latif Bhittai's tomb) Matiari 174
Hala (Makhdom Noah's Tomb) Matiari 170
Sehwan Sharif (Lal Shabaz Qalandar's Tomb) Jamshoro 208
Daraza Sharif (Sachal Sarmast Mosque) Khairpur 323
*Archaeological and Religious sites are maintained by Culture Department, Govt. of Sindh

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6. Stakeholder Consultations

This Chapter provides the objectives, process and outcome of the stakeholder
consultations conducted as part of the IEE study. As a result of the access route to the site,
through the newly constructed Coastal Highway, the inhabitants of the village of Ali Muhammad
Jatt were identified as the only receptors in the site vicinity that had not been consulted earlier.
Consultations with village inhabitants during the update surveys are also recorded herein .

6.1 Objectives
The stakeholder consultation is an integral part of the environmental and social
assessment for a project such as the proposed power plant, and aims to provide a two-
way communication channel between the stakeholders and the project proponents. In
line with this aim, the objectives of the stakeholder consultations conducted as part of
the present IEE were to:
develop and maintain communication links between the project proponents and
stakeholders,
provide key project information to the stakeholders, and to solicit their views on
the project and its potential or perceived impacts, and
ensure that views and concerns of the stakeholders are incorporated into the
project design and implementation with the objectives of reducing or offsetting
negative impacts and enhancing benefits of the proposed project.
6.2 Participation Framework
The stakeholder consultation is a continued process, and should be maintained
throughout the project. The consultations carried out during the present IEE and
reported in this Chapter are essentially a first step in this process. During the
subsequent project phases as well, participation of the project stakeholders needs to be
ensured.
Exhibit 6.1 charts out the proposed participation framework during different project
phases, while Exhibit 6.2 provides the conceptual framework employed during the
stakeholder consultations carried out as part of the present IEE.
6.3 Stakeholder Identification and Analysis
The stakeholder analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the stakeholders interests
in and influence on a project. The first step for the analysis is to identify the
stakeholders, who are essentially not limited to those affected by the project. They also
include those who can affect or influence the project. They can be winners, losers or
indifferent. The stakeholder analysis aims to distinguish between the actual effects of
the project on different stakeholders, and those stake stakeholders perceptions about
the project and its effects.
The second step in the stakeholder analysis is to analyze the interests and influence of
the stakeholders, examining their assets and capabilities. The small landowners may

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have high stakes in a development project, but very little influence. As a contrast, the
regulatory agencies may have very high influence but low interest in a project.
The third step is to differentiate stakeholders by their attachment to the status quo, or
conversely, their desire/willingness to change. The stakeholders can be best analyzed
by comparing their commitment to the status quo against the influence they wield. The
diagram given below conceptually presents the interplay of stakeholders interest and
their influence.8

+ Influence

Quadrant A Quadrant B

(e.g. Big landowners) (e.g. Media)

- Interest + Interest

Quadrant C Quadrant D

(e.g. Small shopkeepers) (e.g. Share croppers)

- Influence

The stakeholders that have considerable influence and are determined to prevent
changes (Quadrant A in the above diagram), are the greatest challenges for many
projects. The groups that want change, whether or not they have much influence, are
the possible counterbalances (Quadrants B and D in the diagram). The project needs to
find ways to increase the influence of groups that favor change but lack influence and to
mediate between the influential groups that favor change and groups that oppose it.
During the present IEE, the stakeholder analysis was carried out to identify relevant
stakeholders on the basis of their ability to influence the project or their vulnerability to be
negatively impacted from it. This approach ensured that no relevant groups were
excluded from the consultations, and appropriate engagement strategies were
developed for each stakeholder.

1
Source: Social Analysis Sourcebook: Incorporating Social Dimensions into Bank-Supported Projects. The
World Bank. December 2003.

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6.4 Consultation Process


Consultations with the project stakeholders were carried out while conducting the IEE. A
participatory and consultative approach was employed for information dissemination and
data collection. The summary of consultations held with the stakeholders is provided
below.
During the stakeholder consultations carried out in the communities near the proposed
site, the participants were first provided the salient information about the proposed
project. Some of the villagers already knew about the project, but did not know the
specific details. The participants generally welcomed the plans to establish the
proposed power plant in the area. Since the project would not directly affect them, the
villagers generally did not have any apprehension or reservation about the project. On
the contrary, they expected that the project would bring employment and small
business/trade opportunities for the local population.
The fishermen community when contacted did not share any threat to their livelihood
activity caused by the proposed project. Much like the other villagers, they also expect
some employment and business opportunities generated by the project.
The NGO representatives contacted during the consultations also viewed the project
positively. Although they thought that there would be very little direct benefit of the
project for the local community, the area will gain in terms of increased business activity,
expanded infrastructure and improved quality of life.
Four closest tribes settled in the area are Rind Baloch, Jatts, Mallah and Khaskeli. A
separate visit was conducted for consultation with women from these tribes. Women
were informed of the project as most of them didnt have any idea regarding the project
previously. They were hopeful, that the project would bring prosperity in the area.
Womenfolk from these tribes do not undertake employment or engage in activities
outside their homes and their respective land areas. Opportunities for women
employment in project activities are therefore considered to be negligible. However, they
hope that project would bring employment/business opportunities for the men which they
could support. There is an expectation that the villages where electricity is not available,
will get connected and this will enable them the savings in time from daily chores of
fetching water, chopping fodder etc. and thus engage in handicrafts which can be sold to
augment their income.
Union Administrations View
The Naib Nazim of the Union Council Haji Girano confirmed that the proposed site was
not on the revenue record so it was deemed to be the government property. The Naib
Nazim welcomed the establishment of the proposed wind power plant in the jurisdiction
of the Union Council Haji Grano, and considered it a positive step towards the
development of the area in general. He was of the view that this project would provide
much-needed employment opportunities to the poor people of area. As a result, he
expected, the economic condition of the area was expected to improve.
Exhibit 6.3 presents list of the discussants and the key issues raised during the
consultations. The details of the consultations are provided in Appendix B.

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Exhibit 6.1: Participation Framework

Stakeholders
Project
Proposed Tool Consulted / to be Responsibility
Stage
Consulted
Project Formal and informal meetings, Institutional IEE consultant.
Design Phase focus group discussions stakeholders;
Grass root
stakeholders, including
the communities to be
affected during the
project implementation.
Project Formal and informal contact Institutional FWEL-Is EHS
Construction and liaison with the community stakeholders; Supervisor
Phase and other relevant Grass root
stakeholders (e.g. Sindh EPA) stakeholders, including
the communities to be
affected during the
project implementation.
Grievance Redress The affected FWEL-Is EHS
Mechanism and Social communities. Supervisor
Complaint Register (discussed
in Chapter 8).
Consultations with the Affected communities. FWEL-Is EHS
communities during Supervisor
Compliance Monitoring and
Effects Monitoring (discussed
in Section 8).
Fortnightly meetings at the FWEL-I site staff; FWEL-Is EHS
site. Contractors. Supervisor
Consultations with the project Affected communities. External monitoring
affectees / communities during consultant.
the external monitoring
(discussed in Chapter 8).
Consultations with the project FWEL-I site staff; ADB monitoring
affectees / communities during Contractors; missions.
the site visits by the ADB The affected
monitoring missions. communities.
Project Liaison with the nearby The communities near FWEL-Is EHS
Operation communities the power plant Supervisor
Phase

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Exhibit 6.2: Conceptual Framework

Identification of grass-root
and institutional
stakeholders

Individual Individual Group consultation


consultations with consultations with with the grass-root
the institutional the grass-root stakeholders
stakeholders stakeholders

Discussions on the likely


impacts of the project

Identification of the mitigation of


the projects impacts

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Exhibit 6.3: List of Participants during Grass Root Consultations

Location Number and Key Issue Discussed


Type of
Participants
Ratho Khan Rind Village, 3 Improved availability of electricity in the
Haji Girano UC, Mirpur area, as a result of the proposed project.
Sakro Taluka Job opportunities offered by the project.
Water shortage a key problem of the
area; improved electricity supply will help
alleviate this problem. The project may
bring further improvement, such as
improved roads.
Khariro Mallah Village, 3 The proposed project will help improve
Mirpur Sakro Taluka the living standard and economic
condition of the local people, who are
quite poor. There are very few
employment opportunities in the area.
The availability of electricity in the area
will be improved as a result of the
establishment of the new power plant.
RHC, Gharo 1 Contaminated drinking water is the main
problem for the poor health condition of
the local population.
Mirpur Sakro (NRSP) 1 The proposed project will provide
employment opportunities to the local
population. Due to the remote location of
the proposed site, the nearby
communities will not be adversely
affected by the project.
Thatta (WWF) 1 The project will help generate economic
activity in an under-developed and
economically poor area.
Mirpur Sakro 2 The project will not directly benefit the
community. However, the overall
economy of the area will improve.
Haji Girano 7 The villagers expect the project to provide
them employment and business
opportunities.
Ali Muhammad Jatt 3 The villagers did not know about the
FWEL-I project details, however they
expected that the project would provide
opportunities for employment and
business.
*Ali Muhammad Jatt, >25 Women were hopeful, that the project
Muhammad Hassan Jam would bring prosperity in the region.
Khan Village, Yaman
Mallah Village, Khaskeli
Goth

*Women from four local tribes viz. Rind Baloch, Jatts, Mallah and Khaskeli were consulted in
separate focus groups

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7. Environmental Impacts and Mitigation

This Chapter assesses the potential impacts of the proposed project on the physical and
biological environment of the project area. Also provided in the Chapter is the
significance of the potential impacts, the recommended mitigation measures to minimize,
if not eliminate, the potentially adverse impacts and the residual impacts.
7.1 Impact Assessment Process
This section describes the environmental and social impact assessment process that
was employed during the present IEE.
7.1.1 Screening of Environmental Impacts
As part of the environmental impact assessment process, a screening matrix was
developed - tailored specifically to the proposed project - focusing the potential
environmental impacts during the design, construction and operation phases. The
matrix examined the interaction of project activities with various components of the
environment. The impacts were broadly classified as physical, biological and social, and
then each of these broad categories further divided into different aspects. The potential
impacts thus predicted were characterized in the matrix as follows:
High negative (adverse) impact,
Low negative impact,
Insignificant impact,
High positive (beneficial) impact,
Low positive impact, and
No impact.
The negative impacts predicted in this manner were the unmitigated impacts.
Appropriate mitigation measures were recommended as part of this IEE, thus reducing
the occurrence possibility and severity of the potentially adverse impacts.
The negative impacts identified through this process are discussed later in the Chapter.
7.1.2 Impact Characterization
Once the potentially adverse impacts were identified as discussed above, these impacts
were characterized. Various aspects of the impact characterization included:
Nature (direct/indirect)
Duration of impact (short term, medium term, long term)
Geographical extent (local, regional)
Timing (project phase: before, during and after construction)
Reversibility of impact (reversible/irreversible)
Likelihood of the impact (certain, likely, unlikely, rare)
Impact consequence severity (severe, moderate, mild).
The above aspects of environmental and social impact characterization are defined in
Exhibit 7.1.

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7.1.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation


The impact assessment was carried out on the basis of impact characterization
discussed above. It uses all the attributes of an impact listed above (and defined in
Exhibit 7.1), particularly the likelihood of occurrence and consequence severity, in order
to assess the impact to be of high, medium or low significance, as shown in
Exhibit 7.2. Each environmental impact of the proposed project identified during the
screening stage (as given in Section 7.1.1) and then characterized (as defined in
Section 7.1.2), was assessed per the criteria given in Exhibit 7.2.
A project is not environmental (or socially) acceptable if it results in impacts with high
significance. Therefore, the impacts with high significance must be brought down to
medium or low significance through appropriate mitigation measures. An attempt is
also made to bring the impacts with medium significance to low significance;
environmental monitoring is necessary for such impacts to ensure that these do not
transform to high significance impacts. The impacts with low significance do not
usually need any mitigation.
7.1.4 Determination of Mitigation Measures
Subsequent to the impact characterization and assessment, appropriate mitigation
measures were identified, in order to minimize if not completely eliminate the adverse
impacts associated with project activities. The hierarchy of the mitigation measures is as
follows. First, an attempt is made to altogether avoid the adverse impact through change
in design, location or method of carrying out the proposed activity. If this is not possible,
the significance of the impact is reduced through appropriate mitigation measures. As a
last resort, compensatory measures are taken to minimize the adverse impacts of the
proposed activities.
7.1.5 Assessment of Residual Impacts
The mitigation measures discussed above cannot always completely eliminate the
adverse impacts of the project activities; often there are residual impacts even after the
implementation of these measures. The final step of the entire impact assessment
process is to determine the residual impact. These residual impacts are monitored
during the project execution, in order to ensure that these remain within acceptable
limits.
The environmental and social impact characterization, mitigation measures and residual
impacts are discussed in the following sections.
7.2 Design Phase Considerations
The decisions made at the design phase of any project can be quite far reaching. For
the proposed project, the aspects which can be significant with respect to the
environmental and social impacts include:
Site selection for wind power plant
Type of equipment
Design of the facilities and systems with respect to waste disposal.
The design phase impacts are screened in Exhibit 7.3 and characterized in Exhibit 7.4,
and can be readily preempted and avoided. These concerns and the measures to
avoid/minimize them are tabularized below.

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Likely Causes of
Measures to be Incorporated in FWEL-I Project
Impacts Environmental
Design to Avoid Environmental Impacts
Impacts

Soil erosion Poor site selection; The foundations of wind turbine towers will
unstable soils; be appropriately designed to avoid any soil
Inappropriate design of erosion.
foundations and roads. The site roads will be designed appropriately
to avoid any shoulder erosion.

Soil and Absence of appropriate Appropriate waste disposal systems


water waste (solid and liquid) (warehouse/workshop wastes, domestic
contamination disposal arrangements sewage, and domestic solid waste) will be
and systems included in the design of the power plant
and associated facilities.

Using transformers The transformer procured for the proposed


with PCB-containing project will be PCB-free.
oil. Leaked oil collection arrangement (such as
Leakage of transformer a channel and a drain pit below the
oil and other effluents. transformers) will be incorporated in the
design of the transformer foundations.

Loss of Poor site selection; The waste disposal systems mentioned


natural Release of above will ensure that no contaminated
vegetation contaminants in the effluents/solid wastes end up in the creek
and threat to creek water. channels.
wildlife Any plantation carried out at the site will be
carried out after obtaining expert advice;
generally, only indigenous species will be
planted.
Plantation of mangroves along the creek
channels will be done, after obtaining expert
advice.
Aesthetic Intrusion in the natural The turbine will be painted a uniform color,
value landscape while observing marine and air navigational
marking regulations;
Lettering, company insignia, advertising, or
graphics on the turbines will be avoided.
The plantation mentioned above will also
enhance the aesthetic value of the area.

7.3 Construction Phase Impacts


The construction phase will be by far the most significant part of the proposed project
with respect to environmental and social considerations, since most of the impacts are
likely to take place during this period.

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Various construction activities will invariably create environmental disturbances, which


may have impacts on the physical and biological resources as well as on the local
population of the area (see Exhibit 7.3). Such impacts include the following:
Physical Environment
Soil erosion, degradation
Air quality deterioration
Water contamination
Biological Environment
Loss of/damage to the floral resources (natural vegetation) of the area
Loss of/damage to faunal resources (wildlife) of the area.
Social Environment
Land acquisition and damage to crops
Damage to infrastructure
Blocked access
Noise and vibration
Safety hazard
Public health
Gender issues
Child labor
Impacts on archeological, cultural, historical or religious significance.
These impacts are characterized in Exhibit 7.5 and can be readily preempted and
mitigated. The mitigation measures recommended in this section will need to be
incorporated in the execution of the project.
These impacts and their respective mitigation measures are discussed below.
7.3.1 Soil Erosion and Degradation
The soil-related issues include soil erosion and soil contamination. Soil erosion is likely
to be caused by the vehicular traffic on unpaved roads, land clearing for construction
camps and wind turbine towers, construction of roads and excavation for tower
foundations.
Soil may be contaminated as a result of fuel/oils/chemicals spillage and leakage, and
inappropriate waste (solid as well as liquid) disposal.
The unmitigated impacts related to soil erosion and contamination are characterized
below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Mostly irreversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Major

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Impact significance: High.


Mitigation Measures
FWEL-I and its contractors will strictly adhere to the International recognized EHS
Guidelines. 9Particularly, the following mitigation measures will minimize the soil erosion
and contamination:
Soil Erosion
Cut and fill at the proposed site will be carefully designed, and ideally should
balance each other. The surplus soil, if any, will be disposed at places
approved by FWEL-I (the organizational arrangements for the environmental
management during the project construction phase are defined in Chapter 8
of this report). Such sites will be selected after surveying the area and
ensuring that soil deposition will not have any significant impacts, such as
loss of productive land, blocked access, natural vegetation or disturbance to
drainage.
If necessary, fill material will be obtained from appropriate locations
approved by FWEL-I. Such locations will be selected after surveying the
area and ensuring that soil extraction will not have any significant impacts,
such as soil erosion, loss of natural vegetation or disturbance to drainage.
It is unlikely that the fill material will need to be obtained from any cultivation
fields. However if this is unavoidable, the top 30 cm soil layer will be
removed and stockpiled for redressing the land after removal of the borrow
material. The excavation in such areas will be limited to 50 cm depth. The
fill material will not be obtained from any cultivation fields or orchards,
without the permission of the land owner/cultivator.
Areas from where the fill material is obtained or surplus soil deposited, will
be landscaped to minimize erosion and hazard for people and livestock.
Temporary embankments will be constructed where necessary to avoid any
soil eroding into the creek channels.
Operation of vehicles close to the creek banks will be minimized to the
extent possible, to minimize soil erosion.
Excavated soil will be protected against erosion caused by rain or wind.
Photographic record will be maintained for pre-project, during-construction
and post-construction condition of the site.
Soil Contamination
Vehicles and construction equipment will not be repaired in the field. If
unavoidable, impervious sheathing will be used to avoid soil and water
contamination.
For the domestic sewage from the construction camps, appropriate
treatment and disposal system, such as septic tanks and soaking pits, will be
constructed having adequate capacity, and after determining the soil

9
The World Bank Groups Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines is considered internationally
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percolation capacity. The contractor(s) will submit to the FWEL-I the plans
for the camp layout and waste disposal system, and obtain approval.
Waste oils will be collected in drums and sold to the recycling contractors.

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The inert recyclable waste from the site (such as card board, drums,
broken/used parts, etc.) will be sold to recycling contractors. The hazardous
waste will be kept separate and handled according to the nature of the
waste.
Domestic solid waste from the construction camp will be disposed in a
manner that does not cause soil contamination. The waste disposal plan
submitted by the contractor(s) will also address the solid waste.
The construction camp will not be established close to the creek channels
and will be located at least 1 km away from any settlements.
Residual Impacts
Appropriate construction practices and management actions as listed above will greatly
minimize the soil erosion and contamination. The significance of the residual impacts is
therefore expected to be low.
The environmental monitoring (discussed in Chapter 8) during the project execution will
ensure compliance to the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as
significance of the residual impacts.
7.3.2 Air Quality Deterioration
Construction machinery, diesel generators and project vehicles will release exhaust
emissions, containing carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen
(NOX), and particulate matter. These emissions can deteriorate the ambient air quality in
the immediate vicinity of the project site and along the road leading to it. Furthermore,
construction activities such as excavation, leveling, filling and vehicular movement on
unpaved tracks may also cause fugitive dust emissions.
The deteriorated air quality at the project site is unlikely to impact the communities, since
the nearest community/settled area is several kilometers away . However the
construction crew and other site staff can be impacted by this air quality deterioration. In
addition, the exhaust and dust emissions caused by project related vehicular traffic may
impact the communities living along the road leading to the site.
The unmitigated impacts related to air quality deterioration are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Minor
Impact significance: Medium
Mitigation Measures
As mentioned earlier, FWEL-I and its contractors will strictly adhere to the International
recognized EHS Guidelines. Particularly the following mitigation measures will minimize
the emissions and their impacts:

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Construction machinery, generators and vehicles will be kept in good working


condition and properly tuned, in order to minimize the exhaust emissions. The
exhaust emissions will comply with the NEQS (Exhibit 2.3).
Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as
spraying water on soil, where required and appropriate. The waste water from
kitchen and washing area of the construction camp may be used for water
spraying.
Project vehicles will follow safe driving practice while passing through/near the
communities, including reduced speed, which will minimize dust emissions as
well.
Residual Impacts
The above measures will reduce the magnitude of the adverse impacts of the project on
the ambient air quality. The significance of the residual impacts on the air quality is
expected to be low.
The environmental monitoring (discussed in Chapter 8) during the project execution will
ensure compliance to the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as
significance of the residual impacts.
7.3.3 Water Contamination
The project activities that can contaminate soil may also contaminate the surface water.
These include:
Disposal of construction waste
Warehouse and workshop waste disposal
Domestic solid waste disposal from construction camp
Waste effluents disposal
Equipment/vehicle maintenance
Spillage/leakage of fuels, oils and chemicals.
In addition, vehicles and construction machinery operation near the creek channels can
potentially contaminate the creek water.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed construction activities on the water quality of
the area are characterized below.
Nature: Direct and indirect
Duration: Short to medium term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: mostly reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Major
Impact significance: High
Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.

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No wastes or effluents will be released directly in the creek channels.


Appropriate waste disposal systems, as described in Section 7.3.1 will be
implemented.
Operation of project vehicles and construction machinery close to the channel
banks will be minimized.
Residual Measures
If the recommended mitigation measures are effectively employed, the project activities
are unlikely to contaminate the water resources of the area in any significant manner.
The residual impacts of the project on the water quality will therefore be negligible.
The environmental monitoring (discussed in Chapter 8) during the project execution will
ensure compliance to the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as
significance of the residual impacts.
7.3.4 Loss of Natural Vegetation
Land will have to be cleared for constructing the roads, turbine tower foundation and
other buildings, as well as establishing the construction camp. The major portion of the
site is devoid of any significant vegetation. Some small bushes do exist in this area of
the site, but these have very little ecological significance, and most of this vegetation at
the site will not be disturbed (see Exhibit 3.2 for the footprint of the entire facility during
construction and operation phases). However, some area of the site has a sparse growth
of mangroves, which will be affected / destroyed by the construction activity (see
Section 5.2.3 for the description of biological resources of the proposed site, and
Appendix A for site photographs). As indicated these plants are being adversely
affected by shortage of fresh water in the area.
No protected areas exist at or in the immediate vicinity of the project site.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the floral resources of the area are
characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Medium to long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Irreversible (reversible in medium to long term)
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Major
Impact significance: High
Mitigation Measures
In view of the high impact significance on the natural vegetation, as described above,
mitigation measures are required for the floral resources of the area. The following
measures are recommended to improve the natural vegetation of the area:
The mangroves (if any pockets are encountered) will be protected as far as
possible during the construction of the roads and installation of the turbines and
other equipment.

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The flow of the tide will not be affected by the roads, which will have culverts to
allow free flow of water. This will help in preserving the existing mangroves in
the project area.
Tree plantation plan will be developed and implemented for the project site.
Expert advice will be obtained for this purpose.
Indigenous tree species will be selected for plantation; Eucalyptus trees will not
be used in any case.
Plantation of mangroves along the channel banks will be carried out, after
obtaining expert advice. This will increase the biological value of the area on the
one hand, and forestall any channel erosion, on the other.
7.3.5 Damage to Wildlife
The water birds mainly the Waders have already shifted and were found mainly in the
marshy area of the creek which is about 2 km - 3 km away from the Project Site, and the
project site does not serve as a feeding ground as of yet.
The environmental impacts with reference to biological environment include loss and
fragmentation of habitat and disturbance to the birds.
As regards the project site, the fauna and flora habitats have been identified which do
not contain any significant number of birds, moreover, the plant species are also very
few therein with the dominance of halophytes along with the invasive and more common
and widespread plant species.
Regarding the chances of avian collision with turbines, no such instances have been
reported so far. There is a need to study bird behavior and characteristic in these areas
which makes it necessary to undertake periodic bird counting and maintaining of records.
Regarding the disturbance to the marine animals, birds and the mangroves, there are no
significant impacts over the species as the creek area is away from the project site.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the faunal resources of the area
are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Medium to long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Low
Consequence: Moderate to Severe
Impact significance: Medium to High

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Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.
Measures to rehabilitate the floral resources of the area discussed in
Section 7.3.4 above will also positively impact the wildlife resources of the area.
Overall environmental effects need to be monitored. This practice is not followed
for the Non-Protected Areas due to the non-existence of any Threatened or
Key Species in such areas.
Monitoring to gather data for mitigation measures regarding the birds, marine
fauna and the mangroves.
No wastes or effluents will be released directly in the creek channels.
Appropriate waste disposal systems, as described in Section 7.3.1 will be
implemented.
Garbage will not be left in the open.
Operation of project vehicles and construction machinery close to the channel
banks will be minimized.
The project staff will not be allowed to indulge in any hunting, trapping or fishing
activities.
Residual Impact
The potential impacts of the proposed project on the wildlife of the area are expected to
be moderate in nature. With the help of the above mentioned mitigation measures,
these impacts are expected to reduce further. However, the significance of the residual
impacts on the faunal resources of the area is therefore expected to be low.
7.3.6 Involuntary Resettlement and Damage to Crops
As described in Section 5.1.2, no settlement exists nor is any economic activity such as
cultivation carried out at the proposed site and its immediate vicinity. Hence the
proposed activities will not cause any involuntary resettlement or crop damage.
7.3.7 Damage to infrastructure
No physical infrastructure exists at the site. As per the original IEE, the project related
vehicular traffic was to use Gharo-Keti Bunder route which was the only existing road network
leading close to the site. These roads and their culverts were already in poor condition.
During the construction phase, the heavy vehicular traffic transporting FWEL-I plant and
equipment, contractors machinery, camp equipment and construction material would
have likely to further deteriorated the condition of these roads, bridges and culverts,
beside requiring straighting and widening in several locations. However, due to the
construction of the Coastal Highway leading up to the close proximity of the site this will
become the primary route for site access and no significant impact to the infrastructure
as result of site construction is envisaged.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the infrastructure of the area are
characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Medium term

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Geo extent: Local


Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Low
Consequence: Moderate
Impact significance: Low
Mitigation Measures
Any damaged infrastructure will be repaired to original or better condition.

Residual Impact
Following the implementation of the above-recommended measure, there will be
negligible level of residual impact.
The environmental monitoring during the project execution will ensure compliance to the
above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as significance of the residual
impacts.
7.3.8 Blocked Access
As mentioned earlier, there are no settlements at or in the immediate vicinity of the
proposed site. Hence the construction activities at the site will not cause any
inconvenience to the nearby population by blocking their access routes. The movement
of extra heavy plant equipment along the roads leading to the site may however block
the local traffic for short periods of time.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the access routes of the area are
characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Possible
Consequence: Moderate
Impact significance: Low to Medium
Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.
Movement of extra heavy loads will be carefully planned, in consultation with the
affected communities and relevant authorities.
7.3.9 Noise and Vibration
The construction activities and generator operation at the site will generate noise,
however, the nearest community/settled area is about 8 km away from the site (see
Exhibit 3.1), hence the local population will not be impacted by this noise. Previously
the project vehicular traffic, when using the Gharo-Keti Bunder Road was to pass
through/near the communities and potentially cause noise and vibration related nuisance

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for the local population. However, as the access route is now available through the
Coastal Highway where no communities are in the close vicinity right up to the site area,
the potential for noise and vibration related impacts is no more present..

Residual Impact
The environmental monitoring during the project execution will ensure noise and
vibration impacts are indeed absent.
7.3.10 Safety Hazard
The construction activities will involve operation of heavy construction machinery,
vehicular traffic, excavation and filling operations. In particular, the project traffic on the
local roads leading to the site poses safety risks to the passersby from the nearby
communities.
The unmitigated health risks caused by the construction activities are characterized
below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Severe
Impact significance: High
Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described earlier.
The construction sites will have protective fencing to avoid any unauthorized
entry.
Road signage will be fixed at appropriate locations to reduce safety hazard
associated with project-related vehicular traffic.
The project drivers will be trained for defensive driving skills (environmental and
social trainings are described in Chapter 8).
Vehicular speeds near/within communities will be kept low to minimize safety
hazards.
Firefighting equipment will be made available at the site and camps; fire
extinguishers will be provided in the project vehicles.
The camp staff will be provided fire fighting training.
All safety precautions will be taken to transport, handle and store hazardous
substances, such as fuel.
Liaison with the community will be maintained. In particular, the nearby
communities will be informed before commencing the site activities.

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Residual Impact
There will be a low level of residual impact of safety hazards associated with the
vehicular traffic. The safety hazard issue with the construction activities will be
negligible.
The environmental monitoring during the project execution will ensure compliance to the
above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as significance of the residual
impacts.
7.3.11 Public Health
The public health concerns to be addressed during the design phase of the proposed
project have been discussed in Section 7.2 above. There will be some similar concerns
during the construction phase as well, primarily associated with the operation of the
construction camps.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the public health are characterized
below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Moderate to Severe
Impact significance: Medium to High
Mitigation Measures
The following mitigation measures will minimize the public health concerns during the
construction phase of the project:
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.
The construction camps will have appropriate sewage treatment and disposal
system of adequate size.
The construction camps will have appropriate solid waste disposal mechanism
(see Section 7.3.1).
The construction camps and site offices will have first-aid kits.
The construction crew will be provided awareness for the transmissible diseases
(such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C).

Residual Impacts
With the help of the above measures, the public health concerns during the project
construction phase can be reasonably addressed. The significance of the residual
impacts is therefore expected to be negligible.
The environmental monitoring during the project execution will ensure compliance to the
above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as significance of the residual
impacts.

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7.3.12 Gender and Social Issues


The construction site and construction camp will be located well outside the community,
thus eliminating any impact on the women of the area. The vehicular traffic on the local
roads can potentially pose low level of adverse impact on the women of the area.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the public health are characterized
below.

Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Possibly
Consequence: Mild to Moderate
Impact significance: Low to Medium
Mitigation Measures
Construction crew will avoid entering villages and settlements.
Communities will be informed and consulted before commencing the site works.
Strict code of conduct will be maintained by the construction crew. Local norms
will be respected.
Residual Impact
With the help of the mitigation measures recommended above, the projects impacts on
the women of the area will be negligible.
The environmental monitoring during the project execution will ensure compliance to the
above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as significance of the residual
impacts.
7.3.13 Child Labor
Although the use of child labor is not prevalent in the construction works such as those
involved in the proposed project, however, the provisions of the Child Labor Act (see
Section 2.2.17) will still be made part of the construction contracts, in order to ensure
that no child labor is employed at the project sites or campsites.
7.3.14 Impacts on Archeological, Cultural, Historical or Religious Significance
As mentioned in Section 5.3.10, no sites of historical, cultural, archeological or religious
significance are known to exist at or in the immediate vicinity of the project components
that are known at this stage. However, some remains were observed in one location. It is
a possibility that during the construction works of the project, particularly, excavation,
such sites or artifacts may be discovered.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the sites of archeological, cultural,
historical or religious significance are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term

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Geo extent: Local


Reversibility: Irreversible
Likelihood: Unlikely
Consequence: Severe
Impact significance: Medium
Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.
In case of discovery of any sites or artifacts of historical, cultural, archeological
or religious significance, the work will be stopped at that site.
The provincial and federal archeological departments will be notified
immediately, and their advice will be sought before resumption of the
construction activities at such sites.
7.4 Operation Phase Impacts
The operation and maintenance (O&M) activities of the wind power plants are
environmentally benign by nature, and result in very few impacts, as shown in
Exhibit 7.3 and listed below.
Contamination of soil and water.
Safety hazards
Noise generated by the wind turbines
Air quality deterioration
Shadow flicker and blade glint
Impacts on wildlife including species mortality
Habitat alteration
Threat to marine fauna
These negative impacts are characterized in Exhibit 7.6, and discussed below.
7.4.1 Soil and Water Contamination
The O&M activities of the power plant may generate several types of wastes, which can
cause soil as well as water contamination. These are listed below.
Domestic solid waste from the offices and residences at the power plant
Sewage from the offices and residences at the power plant
Wastes from the repair and maintenance activities and warehouse (discarded
equipment and parts, packing materials, cardboards, used oils and chemicals,
cotton rags and the likes).

In addition, leakage and spillage of transformer oil can contaminate soil and ultimately
water. Of particular concern is the possible soil contamination with PCB (see
Section 4.2.2).
These unmitigated impacts are characterized below.

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Nature: Direct and indirect


Duration: Short to medium term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Major
Impact significance: High

Mitigation Measures
The following mitigation measures will greatly minimize if not prevent the impacts of the
proposed projects O&M activities on the soil and water quality of the area:
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described earlier.
The power plant and associated facilities will have appropriate solid waste
collection and disposal arrangements. No waste effluents will be released into
the creek water directly. No solid waste will be thrown into the creek water or
left in the open.
The power plant and associated facilities will have appropriate sewage handling,
treatment and safe disposal system.
Waste oils and chemicals will be disposed in accordance with their respective
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). MSDS will be made available at the power
plant.
Non-toxic recyclable waste (such as cardboard) will be given away for recycling.
Toxic waste will be stored separately, and incinerated at an appropriate double
chamber incinerator.
The power plant will have channels and drainage pits to collect any leaked oil
from the transformers. This oil will be sent back to the workshop for recycling.
Any soil contaminated by the oil/chemical spillage will be removed and disposed
off appropriately in accordance with the MSDS of the spilled oil/chemical.
Residual Impact
With the help of the mitigation measures described above, the O&M activities will not
have any significant impact on the soils and ambient water of the area.
7.4.2 Safety Hazard
The power plant operation and maintenance activities pose a low level of safety hazards
to the nearby population, in view of the remoteness of the proposed site. However, the
project traffic on the local roads leading to the site poses safety risks to the nearby
communities.
The unmitigated health risks caused by the construction activities are characterized
below.
Nature: Direct and indirect
Duration: Long term

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Geo extent: Local


Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Severe
Impact significance: High

Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described earlier.
The plant sites will have protective fencing to avoid any unauthorized entry.
The project drivers will be trained for defensive driving skills (environmental and
social trainings are described in Chapter 8).
Vehicular speeds near/within communities will be kept low to minimize safety
hazards.
Firefighting equipment will be made available at the site; fire extinguishers will
be provided in the project vehicles.
The plant staff will be provided fire fighting training.
All safety precautions will be taken to transport, handle and store hazardous
substances, such as fuel.
Liaison with the community will be maintained.

Residual Impact
There will be a low level of residual impact of safety hazards associated with the
vehicular traffic. The safety hazard issue with the plant operation and maintenance
activities will be negligible.
The environmental monitoring during the project O&M phase will ensure compliance to
the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as significance of the
residual impacts.
7.4.3 Noise
As discussed in Section 3.7.5, the wind turbines are the main source of noise during the
operation phase of the wind power plants. The study of noise data for a power plant of
similar size and using the same turbines shows that the noise levels generated by the
wind farm drop down to 35-40 dBA range within a distance of about one kilometer from
the power plant. This noise level is much lower than the background noise that exists in
a typical residential area, which is provided in Exhibit 7.7. Furthermore, the nearest
community/developed area exists about 8 km away from the power plant, at which
distance the noise impact from the wind farm will be negligible.
The emergency generator, if installed at the site, will also generate some noise.
However, much like the noise generated by the wind farm, its impact on the communities
will be negligible, in view of the large distance.
The unmitigated impact of the noise generated by the wind farm is characterized below.

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Nature: Direct
Duration: Long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Unlikely
Consequence: Moderate
Impact significance: Low
Mitigation Measures
In view of the low significance of the noise impacts as shown above, not mitigation
measures are needed. The power plant staff will be provided with the personnel
protective equipment (PPE).
7.4.4 Air Quality Deterioration
The emergency diesel generator and project vehicles will release exhaust emissions,
containing carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and
particulate matter. These emissions can deteriorate the ambient air quality in the
immediate vicinity of the project site and along the road leading to it.
The deteriorated air quality at the project site is unlikely to impact the communities, since
the nearest community/settled area is several kilometers away. However the plant crew
and other site staff can be impacted by this air quality deterioration. In addition, the
exhaust and dust emissions caused by project related vehicular traffic may impact the
communities living along the road leading to the site
The unmitigated impacts related to air quality deterioration are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Minor
Impact significance: Medium
Mitigation Measures
As mentioned earlier, FWEL-I will strictly adhere to the International recognized EHS
Guidelines. Particularly the following mitigation measures will minimize the emissions
and their impacts:
The generator and vehicles will be kept in good working condition and properly
tuned, in order to minimize the exhaust emissions. The exhaust emissions will
comply with the NEQS (Exhibit 2.3).
The project vehicles will follow safe driving practice while passing through/near
the communities, including reduced speed, which will minimize dust emissions
as well.

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Residual Impacts
The above measures will reduce the magnitude of the adverse impacts of the project on
the ambient air quality. The significance of the residual impacts on the air quality is
expected to be low.
The environmental monitoring (discussed in Chapter 8) during the project execution will
ensure compliance to the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as
significance of the residual impacts.
7.4.5 Shadow Flicker and Blade Glint
Shadow flicker may occur when the sun passes behind the wind turbine and casts a
shadow. As the rotor blades rotate, shadows pass over the same point causing an effect
termed shadow flicker. Shadow flicker may become a problem when residences are
located near, or have a specific orientation to, the wind farm. Similar to shadow flicker,
blade or tower glint occurs when the sun strikes a rotor blade or the tower at a particular
orientation. This can impact a community, as the reflection of sunlight off the rotor blade
may be angled toward nearby residences. Blade glint is not a concern for new turbines
as matt finish paint is now being used which does not produce the glint effect10.
However, as stated earlier, the nearest community is about 8 km away from the power
plant site. Hence the flicker or glint from the proposed power plant will not cause any
adverse impact.
The unmitigated impact of the noise generated by the wind farm is characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Unlikely
Consequence: Low to Moderate
Impact significance: Low
Mitigation Measures
In view of the low significance of the flicker/glint impacts as shown above, not mitigation
measures are needed.
7.4.6 Species Mortality
The operation of wind turbines may result in collisions of birds and bats with wind turbine
rotor blades and / or towers, potentially causing bird and bat mortality or injury.
However, no such instances have been reported so far. The noise of the turbine blades
is likely to keep the birds away from the wind farm.
The unmitigated impacts are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Long term
Geo extent: Local

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Reversibility: Reversible (in the long run)
Likelihood: Low
Consequence: Moderate
Impact significance: Medium
Mitigation Measures
The following measures will reduce the impacts of the power plant operation on birds
mortality:
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.
Appropriate storm water management measures will be implemented to avoid
creating attractions such as small ponds which can attract birds and bats for
feeding or nesting near the wind farm.
The towers and turbines will be made visible by using appropriate colors.
The towers will have light beacons to make them visible for the nighttime flying
birds.
Residual Impacts
Despite the above measures, there will still be certain level of residual impact of the
power plant operation on the avian species. The significance of these residual impacts
has been characterized as low to medium. The environmental monitoring discussed in
Chapter 8 will address this aspect, to ascertain the actual impacts of the wind farm
operation on the birds.
7.4.7 Habitat Modification
The establishment and operation of the wind power plant can potentially modify the
natural habitat. The site is not located in an area which is known for high bird
concentration, or bird migration route. Hence the loss of the site as the feeding ground
for the wild birds is unlikely to be significant.
The unmitigated impacts associated with the habitat modification are characterized
below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible (in the long run)
Likelihood: Low
Consequence: Low to Moderate
Impact significance: Low to Medium
Mitigation Measures
The following measures will further reduce the impacts of the power plant on the natural
habitat:

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The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as


described earlier.
The habitat alteration will be limited to the footprint of the towers and buildings,
and the site roads.
The expert advice will be obtained for any plantation carried out at the site. No
exotic plant species will be introduced; only indigenous species will be planted.
Habitat improvement measures, such as planting mangroves at the outer
boundary (facing the creek channels), will be taken, after obtaining expert
advice.
Residual Impacts
Despite the above measures, there will still be certain level of residual impact of the
power plant operation in terms of the habitat modification. The significance of these
residual impacts has been characterized as low to medium, since similar habitat is
available in the nearby creeks and channels. The environmental monitoring discussed in
Chapter 8 will address this aspect, to ascertain the actual impacts of the wind farm
operation on the habitat.
7.4.8 Threat to Marine Fauna
The disposal of contaminated effluents and solid waste into the creek channels can
potentially impact the marine/benthic fauna. As described in Sections 5.2.3, the creeks
support a wide variety of fauna, including fish and shrimps, which have ecological value,
in addition to being extremely important for the livelihood of the nearby population. The
release of contaminated effluents into the creek water during the plants O&M activities
can potentially harm the marine fauna.
The unmitigated impacts associated with the marine are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible (in the medium to long run)
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Severe
Impact significance: High
Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.
As described in Section 7.4.1, no waste effluents will be released directly in the
creek channels. Appropriate waste disposal systems will be implemented.
Garbage will not be left in the open, nor thrown in the creek water.
Off-road operation of project vehicles close to the channel banks will be
minimized.
The project staff will not be allowed to indulge in any hunting, trapping or fishing
activities.

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Residual Impact
With the help of the mitigation measures described above, the O&M activities will not
have any significant impact on the marine fauna of the area.

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Exhibit 7.1: Impact Characterization

Categories Characteristics
Nature Direct: The environmental parameter is directly changed by the project.
Indirect: The environmental parameter changes as a result of change in
another parameter
Duration of impact Short-term: lasting only for the duration of the project such as noise from the
construction activities.
Medium-term: lasting for a period of few months to a year after the project
before naturally reverting to the original condition such as loss of vegetation due
to clearing of campsite, contamination of soil or water by fuels or oil.
Long-term: lasting for a period much greater than medium term impact before
naturally reverting to the original condition such as loss of soil due to soil
erosion.
Geographical extent Local, regional (spatial dimension)
Timing Construction and Operation
Reversibility of Reversible: when a receptor resumes its pre-project condition
impact Irreversible: when a receptor does not or cannot resume its pre-project
condition
Likelihood of the Almost Certain: Impact expected to occur under most circumstances
impact Likely: Impact will probably occur under most circumstances
Possibly: Impact may possibly occur at some time
Unlikely: Impact could occur at some time
Rare: Impact may occur but only under exceptional circumstances
Impact Major: When an activity causes irreversible damage to a unique environmental
consequence feature; causes a decline in abundance or change in distribution over more than
severity one generation of an entire population of species of flora or fauna; has long-term
effects (period of years) on socioeconomic activities of significance on regional
level.
Moderate: When an activity causes long-term (period of years), reversible
damage to a unique environmental feature; causes reversible damage or
change in abundance or distribution over one generation of a population of flora
or fauna; has short-term effects (period of months) on socioeconomic activities
of significance on regional level.
Minor: When an activity causes short-term (period of a few months) reversible
damage to an environmental feature; slight reversible damage to a few species
of flora or fauna within a population over a short period; has short term (period of
months) effects on socioeconomic activities of local significance.
Negligible: When no measurable damage to physical, socioeconomic, or
biological environment above the existing level of impact occurs.
Significance of Categorized as High, Medium, or Low
impact Based on the consequence, likelihood, reversibility, geographical extent, and
duration; level of public concern; and conformance with legislative of statutory
requirements.

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Exhibit 7.2: Impact Assessment

Probability of Impact Severity


Occurrence of
Impact Severe Moderate Mild

High High
Certain Medium Significance
Significance Significance
High Medium Low
Likely
Significance Significance Significance
Medium Low Low
Unlikely
Significance Significance Significance

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Exhibit 7.3: Environmental and Social Screening Matrix (Unmitigated)

Physical Biological Social and Socioeconomic

Impacts on Agriculture
Surface Water Quality

Water Availability and

Compensation Issues
Groundwater Quality

Impacts on Irrigation
Noise and Vibration
Natural Vegetation

Livestock Grazing

Public Health and


Blocked Access

Aesthetic Value

Cultural Issues

Gender Issues
Contamination

Safety Hazard
Soil Erosion /

Consumption

Infrastructure
Air Quality

Nuisance
Network
Wildlife

Routes
Design Phase
Site Selection for Power Plant -1 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 0 N -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0
Design of Power Plant (waste
-2 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N 0 0 -1 -1 0 0
disposal systems)
Equipment Selection -2 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 N 0 N -1 0 0 0
Construction Phase
Land Acquisition N N N N N N N -1 N 0 0 -1 0 N N N N N N
Mobilization of Contractors -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 -2 -1 -1 0 0 -1
Construction Camps -1 -1 -2 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 0 -2 -1 -1 0 -1 -1
Transportation of Construction
-1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -2 -1 -1 0 0 -1
Materials and Supplies
Excavation for Foundations -2 -1 -2 0 0 -2 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -2 0 -1 0 0 0
Construction Works -2 -1 -2 0 0 -2 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -2 0 -1 0 0 0
Equipment Installation 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0
Testing and Commissioning 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0
Operation and Maintenance Phase
Power Plant O&M 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -2 0 -2 0 0 0
Waste Disposal -2 0 -2 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -1 0 0
Vehicular Traffic -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0
Key: -2: High negative impact; -1: Low negative impact; 0: insignificant/negligible impact; +1: low positive impact; +2: High positive impact, N: no impact.

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Exhibit 7.4: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project Design Phase (Unmitigated)

Impact Nature Duration Geo Reversibility Likelihood Consequence Impact


Extent Severity Significance
Soil Erosion, Direct Long term Local Reversible in Likely Major High
Degradation medium to long
term
Surface Water Indirect Short term Local Reversible Likely Major High
Contamination
Loss of/Damage to Direct Medium to Local Irreversible Possible Moderate Medium
Natural Vegetation Long term
Loss of/Damage to Direct Medium Local Reversible Low to Moderate Medium
Wildlife term Medium
Aesthetic value Direct Long term local Reversible Possible Moderate Medium

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Exhibit 7.5: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project Construction Phase (Unmitigated)

Impact Nature Duration Geo Reversibility Likelihood Consequence Impact


Extent Severity Significance
Physical Environment

Soil Erosion, Degradation Direct Long term Local Irreversible Likely Major High
Air Quality Deterioration Direct Short term Local Reversible Likely Minor Medium
Surface water Direct Short term Local Reversible Likely Major High
Contamination
Biological Resources

Loss of/Damage to Direct Medium to Local Irreversible Unlikely to Mild to Low to Medium
Natural Vegetation Long term Possibly Moderate
Loss of/Damage to Direct and Medium term Local Reversible Low to Moderate to Medium to High
Wildlife indirect Medium Severe
Social Aspects
Damage to infrastructure Direct Medium term Local Reversible Low Moderate Low
Blocked access Direct Short term Local Reversible Possibly Moderate Low to Medium
Noise and vibration Direct Short term Local Reversible Low Moderate Low
Safety hazard Direct Short term Local Reversible Likely Severe High
Public health Direct Short term Local Reversible Likely Severe Medium to High
Gender issues Direct Short term Local Reversible Possibly Mild to Low to Medium
Moderate
Impacts on sites of Direct Short term Local Ireversible Unlikely Severe Medium
archeological, cultural,
historical or religious
significance

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Exhibit 7.6: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project Operation Phase (Unmitigated)

Impact Nature Duration Geo Reversibility Likelihood Consequence Impact


Extent Severity Significance
Soil and Water Indirect Long term Local Reversible Likely Severe High
Contamination
Safety Hazards Direct and Long term Local Reversible Likely Severe High
indirect
Noise Direct Long term Local Reversible Unlikely Moderate Low
Air quality direct Short term Local Reversible Likely Modertae Medium
deterioration
Shadow Flicker and Direct Long term local Reversible Unlikely Low to Moderate Low
Glint
Species Mortality Direct Long term local Reversible Low Moderate Medium
Threat to marine Direct Long term local Reversible Likely Severe High
fauna
Habitat Modification Direct Long term local Reversible Low Moderate Low to
Medium

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Exhibit 7.7: Typical Noise Levels

Device dBA

Quiet basement with out mechanical equipment 20


Quiet Room 28-33
Computer 37-45
Refrigerator 40-43
Typical Living Room 40
Radio Playing in Background 45-50
Background Music 50
Normal Conversation 55-65
Printer 58-65
Alarm Clock 60-80
Phone 66-75
Push Reel Mower 68-72
Inside Car, Windows Closed, 30 MPH 68-73
Inside Car, Windows Open, 30 MPH 72-76
Air Compressor 90-93
1/4" Drill Machine 92-95
Maximum Output of Stereo 100-110
Source: http://www.nonoise.org/library/household/index.htm.

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8. Environmental Management Plan

This Chapter presents the implementation mechanism in the form of an environmental


and management plan (EMP) - for the environmental and social mitigation measures
identified during the present IEE, and reported in Chapter 7 of this document.
8.1 Purpose and Objectives of EMP
This EMP provides the delivery mechanism to address the adverse environmental as
well as social impacts of the proposed project during its execution, to enhance project
benefits, and to introduce standards of good practice to be adopted for all project works.
The specific objectives of the EMP are to:
Define the responsibilities of the project proponents, contractors, and
environmental monitors, and provide a means of effectively communicating
environmental and social issues among them,
Define the implementation mechanism for the mitigation measures identified
during the present study.
Define the monitoring mechanism and identify monitoring parameters in order
to:
Ensure the complete implementation of all mitigation measures, and
Ensure the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.
Provide the mechanism for taking timely action in the face of unanticipated
environmental or social situations,
Identify environmental as well as social training requirements at various levels.
8.2 Components of the EMP
The EMP consists of the following:
Institutional Arrangements
Mitigation plan
Monitoring plan
Change management plan
Communication and documentation
Environmental and social trainings,
Public disclosure requirements
Budgetary estimates for EMP implementation.
These are discussed in Sections 8.3 to 8.10 below.
8.3 Institutional Arrangements
This section describes the organizational structure required for managing the
environmental as well as social aspects of the proposed project. Also defined in this
section are the roles and responsibilities of the various role players during the project.

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8.3.1 Management Approach


FWEL-I will appoint an Environment, Health and Safety Officer within the Organization,
in order to handle the environmental, social, occupational health and safety aspects
during different phases of the proposed project.
Other essential features proposed for the project are:
The incumbent will be responsible for overseeing and monitoring the entire
implementation of the EMP and IEE.
The EMP as well as environmental management requirements and
specifications will be included in all contracts FWEL-I executes.
The contractor(s) will be required to appoint a dedicated field EHS Monitor
(EHSM) at the project site.
FWEL-I, through the EHS officer, will cooperate with regulatory agencies (such
as the Sindh EPA) and other stakeholders who may want to send their own
teams to monitor the project activities.
During the O&M phase of the project, the EHS officer will be responsible for the
environmental, social, safety and occupational health aspects of the site
activities.

8.3.2 Organizational Structure and Responsibilities


Construction Phase
The organizational structure for the construction phase EMP is shown in Exhibit 8.1, and
its salient features described below.
Primary responsibilities:
The FWEL-I through its Chief Executive Officer will be responsible for the
projects compliance with the IEE and EMP throughout the project. The
EHSD will assist the Chief Executive and will provide policy support in all
environment and socioeconomic, occupational health and safety matters.
The Supervision Consultant (if FWEL-I chooses to employ one) through its
Resident Engineer (RE) will be responsible for ensuring that the
contractor(s) adhere to the quality requirements and other commitments
including implementation of the EMP and IEE.
The contractors Chief Executive Officers or Country Managers will assume
the main responsibility for all EHS and social matters pertaining to their
works.
FWEL-I will coordinate with relevant government departments (Sindh EPA)
and other stakeholders through the EHSD.

Field management and quality control:


Carrying out construction activities in an environmentally and socially sound
manner during the construction phase will be the responsibility of the site
managers of the contractor(s).

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The FWEL-Is site in-charge (or RE, if the Supervision Consultant is


employed) will be responsible for the EHS and social soundness of all
construction activities.
On-the-job supervision and monitoring:
The EHSM of the contractor(s) will be responsible for the implementation of
the EMP during construction works. He will also be responsible for
communication with and the training of their respective construction and
camp crews in all aspects of the EMP.
The FWEL-Is EHSS will ensure implementation of the EMP in the field.
S/He will also coordinate with the FWEL-Is site in-charge, the contractors
project management and EHSM of each contractor. The EHSS will be part
of FWEL-Is site organization if no Supervision Consultant is employed.
Otherwise, S/he will be part of the Supervision Consultants site staff.
If any monitoring teams from government departments or from NGOs visit
the field during the field activities, the EHSS will be responsible for
coordinating their visits.
The roles and responsibilities of FWEL-Is and contractors personnel are summarized in
Exhibit 8.2.
Operation Phase
During the operation phase of the proposed project, EHS and socioeconomic
management will become a routine function, as an integral part of the O&M activities.
The EHSD will be the focal point for all matters relating to EHS and socioeconomic
aspects during the routine operations of the power plant. The EHSD will advise various
departments within FWEL-I on the EHS and socioeconomic matters. In addition, the
EHSD will develop and implement the EHS and socioeconomic management system for
the Company, defining roles and responsibilities of various departments and their
respective staff.
8.4 Mitigation Plan
The mitigation plan is a key component of the EMP. It lists all the potential effects of
each activity of the project and their associated mitigation measures identified in the IEE.
For each project activity, the following information is presented in the plan:
A listing of the potential impact associated with that project activity,
A comprehensive listing of mitigation measures (actions),
The person(s) responsible for ensuring the full implementation of the action,
The person(s) responsible for monitoring the action,
The timing of the implementation of the action to ensure that the objectives of
mitigation are fully met.
The mitigation plan for the construction phase of the proposed project is presented in
Exhibit 8.3.
It should be emphasized that the mitigation measures will have to be translated into
environmental as well as social requirements and specifications to be made part of the
contracts for the construction activities, with legal binding.

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8.5 Monitoring Plan


The objective of environmental and social monitoring during the various phases of the
proposed project will be as follows:
Ensuring that the mitigation measures included in the IEE are being
implemented completely.
Ensuring the effectiveness of the mitigation measures in minimizing the projects
impacts on social and environmental resources.
To achieve these objectives the following monitoring program will be implemented.
8.5.1 Compliance Monitoring
The compliance monitoring of the project activities is principally a tool to ensure that the
environmental and social control measures identified in the IEE are strictly adhered to
during the project activities.
Various aspects of the IEE compliance monitoring will be to:
Systematically observe the activities undertaken by the contractors (and sub-
contractors) or any other person associated with the project.
Verify that the activities are undertaken in compliance with the IEE and EMP.
Document and communicate the observations to the concerned person(s) of the
contractors and FWEL-Is EHSD, so that any corrective measures, if required,
can be taken in a timely fashion.
Maintain a record of all incidents of environmental and social significance,
related actions and corrective measures.
Maintain contact with the communities, solicit their views and concerns, and
discuss them during the fortnightly meetings.
Prepare periodic reports of the environmental and social performance of project.
The mitigation plan discussed in Section 8.4 will be used as a management and
monitoring tool for compliance monitoring. Inspection will be done using checklists
prepared by the respective contractors, on the basis of the Exhibit 8.3, during the
construction phase.
Compliance monitoring will be the responsibility of all organizations involved in the field
activities, i.e., FWEL-I and the contractors. It will be carried out by the following:
EHS Supervisor
EHS Monitor.
8.5.2 Effects Monitoring
The IEE predicts the impacts of the proposed project on the basis of information
available at the time of conducting the assessment and the natural processes that link
various environmental and social parameters. Based on this prediction, mitigation
measures are introduced such that the predicted residual effects do not exceed
acceptable levels. However, there is always an element of uncertainty in such
predictions due to an insufficient grasp of the processes, limitations in prediction
techniques, or inadequate data on the environment/social aspects. Consequently, it is

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possible that even if the mitigation measures are implemented fully, the negative impacts
of the project will exceed acceptable limits.
In order to address the above concerns, effects monitoring will be undertaken during the
project activities, with the overall objective of proper management of environmental and
social risks and uncertainties. Broadly, effects monitoring has the following objectives:
To verify that the impacts of the proposed project are within acceptable limits,
thus establishing credibility (public assurance).
To immediately warn the project proponents (and the regulatory agencies, if
required) of unanticipated adverse impact or sudden changes in impact trends
so that corrective actions can be undertaken, which may include modifications in
the proposed activities, or the inclusion of modified or additional mitigation
measures.
To provide information to plan and control the timing, location, and level of
certain project activities so that the effects are minimized.
To facilitate research and development by documenting the effects of the
proposed project that can be used to validate impact-prediction techniques and
provide a basis for more accurate predictions of future projects.
The effects monitoring plan is provided in Exhibit 8.4. The detailed methodologies will
be developed during the detailed design phase of the project, when the specific
information on field activities will be known. The effects monitoring will be carried out for
the following parameters:
Soil erosion
Water quality
Species mortality and loss of habitat
Noise
Damage to infrastructure
Socioeconomic aspects
Grievances redress system.
In addition, contact will be maintained with the communities, their views and concerns
solicited. The outcome of these consultations will be discussed during the fortnightly
meetings at the site.

8.5.3 External Monitoring


In addition to the compliance and effects monitoring discussed above, FWEL-I will
engage an independent consultants to carry out external monitoring on periodical basis.
The objectives of this external monitoring will be to ensure that:
the EMP is being adequately implemented,
mitigation measures are being implemented,
the compliance and effects monitoring are being conducted,
environmental and social trainings are being conducted, and
complete documentation is being maintained.

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The external monitoring consultants will periodically visit the project site, examine the
compliance monitoring activities, review the documentation maintained at the site,
interview key site staff, make spot checks, take photographs where necessary, and meet
with the communities. After each external monitoring visit, the consultant will prepare a
monitoring report and submit to FWEL-I. The report will include the observations made
during the visits, highlight non-compliances observed, if any, salient information obtained
from communities, and make recommendations.
8.6 Communication and Documentation
An effective mechanism for recording, storing and communicating environmental and
social information during the project is an essential requirement of an EMP. The key
features of such a mechanism are:
Recording and maintaining all information generated during the monitoring in a
predetermined format.
Communicating the information to a central location.
Storing raw information in a central database.
Processing the information to produce periodic reports.
Annual environmental monitoring reports will be submitted to ADB for review
and posting on ADB website.
Compliance with ADB Core Labor Standards (CLS) will also be monitored and
reported as part of the environmental monitoring and reporting.
Implementation Report of all mitigation measures mentioned in the IEE report
will be submitted to the SEPA on quarterly basis.
A description of the various components of the communication and documentation
system is given below.
8.6.1 Data Recording and Maintenance
The forms to be used for recording information during the environmental and social
monitoring will be developed by the EHSD. These forms will follow a standard format,
which will correspond to the database into which all the information gathered will be
placed. All common fields will have identical formats in the database and on the forms.
Check boxes will be used as much as possible for ease in filling out the forms and to
facilitate data entry.
All forms will be numbered and a tracking system will be developed for each. Whenever
a form is released for use in the field, its number will be recorded. The field staff will be
required to account for each form after completion. In this manner, it will be ensured that
all forms are returned to the office.
8.6.2 Meetings
The following environmental meetings will take place during the project:
Project initiation meetings (once for each of the contractors).
Fortnightly meetings.11

1
Frequency of meetings may be adjusted per the situation.

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The purpose of the project initiation meetings will be to discuss the EMP, and ensure full
understanding and commitment from concerned parties for its implementation.
The periodic meetings will be held at site during the construction phase. The purpose of
the meetings will be to discuss the conduct of the operation, non-compliances noted by
the EHSS or Contractors EHSMs, and any EHS / social issues identified in the field.
The remedial measures will also be discussed and agreed during these meetings. The
meeting will be recorded in the form of an EHS report prepared by the EHSS.

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8.6.3 Grievance Redress Mechanism


An attempt has been made during the present IEE to identify all potential impacts of the
proposed project, to provide mitigation measures to address the potential impacts, and
to chart out a mechanism to implement these mitigation measures.
However during the project implementation, the stakeholders (mostly the communities in
the vicinity of the project site) may still have some grievances with respect to the project
activities, their impacts, compensation and other mitigation measures.
In order to address the above eventualities, the Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM)
has been devised. The main objective of the GRM will be to provide a mechanism to
mediate conflict and cut down on lengthy litigation, which often delays the projects such
as the FWEL-I wind power plant. It will also facilitate people who might have objections
or concerns regarding the project activities, provide a public forum to raise their
objections and through conflict resolution, address these issues adequately. The main
functions of the GRM will be as follows:
Provide a mechanism to the communities/other stakeholders to address the
problems arising as a result of project activities,
Record the grievance of the communities/other stakeholders, categorize and
prioritize the grievances that need to be resolved,
Determine and implement the mitigation actions to address the grievances,
Report to the aggrieved parties about the developments regarding their
grievances and the decision of the project authorities.
Under the GRM, the EHSS will maintain the Social Complaint Register (SCR) at the sites
to document all complaints received from the local communities or any other
stakeholder. The information recorded in the Register will include date of the complaint,
particulars of the complainant, description of the grievance, actions to be taken, the
person responsible to take the action, follow up requirements and the target date for the
implementation of the mitigation measure. The register will also record the actual
measures taken to mitigate these concerns.
As soon as a complaint is received, the EHSS will discuss it with the EHSM, and
determine the remedial action. If required, consultations will also be undertaken with the
contractors site managers and FWEL-Is site in-charge. Once the remedial action is
decided, implementation responsibility as well as schedule will be determined.
The proposed remedial action will be documented in the SCR, with complete details (by
whom and by when). The proposed remedial action will be shared with the complainant.
Similarly, the actual action taken will also be documented in the Register and shared with
the complainant. The complainants views on the remedial action taken will also be
documented in the Register.
The SCR will be reviewed during the fortnightly meetings at the site during the project,
and the action items discussed. The progress on the remedial actions will also be
reviewed during the meetings.
The Register will also be shared with the EHSD, on regular basis, for information and
further action, if any.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

The GRMs roles, responsibilities and implementation mechanism are explained in


Exhibit 8.5.
8.6.4 Reports
The EHSS will produce periodic reports based on the information collected. These will
include reports for:
Project initiation meetings with each contractor,
Fortnightly meetings,
Non-compliances,
Effects monitoring.
These reports will be shared with the contractors, FWEL-Is site in-charge and FWEL-Is
EHSD. The reports will also be made available for review, to the external monitoring
teams, and to any other stakeholders who visit the site.
In addition, the external monitoring consultant will prepare report for each monitoring
visit.
At the end of the construction phase, a final report will also be prepared.
8.7 Environmental and Social Training
Environmental and social trainings will help to ensure that the requirements of the IEE
and EMP are clearly understood and followed by all project personnel throughout the
project period. The primary responsibility for providing training to all project personnel
will be that of the EHSS. The environmental and social training program will be finalized
before the commencement of the project, during the detailed design phase. The training
will be provided to the FWEL-I staff, the construction contractors, and other staff
engaged for the project. Training will cover all staff levels, ranging from the management
and supervisory to the skilled and unskilled personnel. The scope of the trainings will
cover general environmental awareness and the requirements of the IEE and the EMP,
with special emphasis on sensitizing the project staff to the environmental and social
aspects of the area. Exhibit 8.6 provides a summary of various aspects of the
environmental and social trainings.
During the O&M phase of the project, these trainings will continue to be conducted by
EHSD for all relevant staff of the Company.
8.8 Change Management
The present IEE has been carried out on the basis of the project information available at
this stage. This is however possible that the changes are made in some components of
the project, during the design and construction phases. In order to address the
environmental and social implications of these changes, a simple framework has been
devised, which is described in this section.
The change management framework recognizes the following three broad categories of
the changes in the project:
Category A changes,
Category B changes, and
Category C changes.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

These categories are defined below.


8.8.1 Category A Change
The Category A change is one that will lead to a significant departure from the project
described in the IEE and consequently requires a reassessment of the environmental
and socioeconomic impacts associated with the change. In such an instance, FWEL-I
will be required to conduct a fresh IEE (or EIA) of the changed portion of the project, and
send the report of this assessment to the relevant agencies for approval (Pak-EPA).
Examples of such changes are provided below.
Any works inside protected areas (see Section 5.2.4 for the protected areas in
Thatta district).
Change in the power house site by more than 2 km of the location studied
during the IEE. Or change in the site by less than 2 km but the new location has
a higher environmental and/or social sensitivity.
8.8.2 Category B Change
The category B change is one that will entail project activities not significantly different
from those described in the IEE, and may result in project effects with overall magnitude
to be similar to the assessment made in this report. In case of such changes, the EHSS
(with assistance from the EHSD) will be required to reassess the environmental and
socioeconomic impacts of the activity, specify additional mitigation measures, if
necessary, and report the changes to the relevant agencies (Contractors, Sindh EPA).
Examples of such changes are provided below.
Change in the power plant site by more than 500 m of the location studied
during the IEE, but not exceeding 2 km, provided that the new location does not
have environmental or social sensitivity more than the original area.
Changing the construction camp location.
Such changes will necessitate site surveys for the revised power plant site or camp site,
by the environmental and socioeconomic experts. A site specific assessment for any
additional environmental as well as socioeconomic issues will need to be carried out.
Complete record of the surveys and assessment will be maintained.
8.8.3 Category C Change
A Category-C change is one that is of little consequence to the IEE findings. This type of
change does not result in effects beyond those already assessed in the IEE. The only
action required for such changes will be to record the change in the Change Record
Register.
8.9 Public Disclosure
FWEL-I will disclose this IEE and EMP to all the stakeholders before the commencement
of the proposed project. The IEE report will be made available to the stakeholders at the
sites designated by the EPA, in accordance with the national legislation (PEPA 1997). In
addition, the executive summary of the IEE will be translated into Urdu language (and
Sindhi language if necessary), and made available to the affected communities (and also
kept at the project sites). This will ensure that the local communities are aware of the
project, its key impacts, the mitigation measures and the implementation mechanism. In
addition, the Executive Summary will be disclosed through the FWEL-Is official website.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

8.10 Cost of Environmental and Social Management


The primary component of the environmental and social management cost pertains to
the personnel dedicated for EMP implementation. The other component relates to the
environmental effects monitoring as discussed in Section 8.5.2 and tabulated in
Exhibit 8.4. The cost of mitigation measures detailed in Exhibit 8.3 is completely
integrated with the construction costs, and cannot be separated. The mitigation
measures should be made part of the project design and hence included in the overall
project cost. Exhibit 8.7 provides the cost estimates for the environmental and social
management of the proposed project.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
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TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.1: Organizational Structure for Environmental and Social Management (Construction Phase)

FWEL-I
Project Management

FWEL-I Site Representative


& EHS Supervisor

Contractor

Construction Department

Contractor EHS Supervisor

Construction Crew

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.2: Roles and Responsibilities

Organization Designation Responsibilities


FWEL-I EHS Department Advise various FWEL-I departments on matters relating to EHS and social aspects of the project.
Advise and support EHS Supervisor for the implementation of IEE and EMP.
Site Incharge Fulfill FWEL-Is obligations as laid out various project documents.
Ensure that the construction is carried out within the agreed timeframe according to satisfactory EHS and
technical standards.
EHS Supervisor Ensure that the entire project is conducted in an environmentally friendly and socially sound manner.
Ensure compliance with all relevant environmental laws.
Facilitate full implementation of EMP and IEE requirements during the project.
Assist the Site In-charge in fulfilling FWEL-Is environmental and social responsibilities, and keep them updated
on environmental and social matters relating to the construction.
Review environmental and social reports, and ensure implementation of corrective measures, if any.
Coordinate with other stakeholders, including relevant EPAs.
Contractors Site Manager Manage construction activities, manage construction crew, camp crew and other site personnel, in an
environmentally and socially responsible manner;
Liaise with FWEL-Is Site In-charge.
EHS Monitors Manage implementation of entire EMP, including the mitigation plan;
Report regularly to Site Manager;
Liaise with FWEL-Is EHS Supervisor;
Provide environmental and social training to construction crew.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

1 Design 1.1 Soil Erosion The foundations of wind turbine tower will be appropriately designed to avoid any soil erosion. FWEL-I EHSD BC
Considerations The site roads will be designed appropriately to avoid any shoulder erosion.

1.2 Soil and water Appropriate waste disposal systems (warehouse/workshop wastes, domestic sewage, and FWEL-I EHSD BC
contamination domestic solid waste) will be included in the design of the power plant and associated facilities.
The transformer procured for the proposed project will be PCB-free.
Leaked oil collection arrangement (such as a channel and a drain pit below the transformers)
will be incorporated in the design of the transformer foundations.

1.3 Loss of natural The waste disposal systems mentioned above will ensure that no contaminated effluents/solid FWEL-I EHSD
vegetation and wastes end up in the creek channels.
threat to Any plantation carried out at the site will be carried out after obtaining expert advice; generally,
wildlife only indigenous species will be planted.
Plantation of mangroves along the creek channels is recommended.

1.4 Aesthetic The turbine will be painted a uniform color, while observing marine and air navigational FWEL-I EHSD
value marking regulations;
Lettering, company insignia, advertising, or graphics on the turbines will be avoided.
The plantation mentioned above will also enhance the aesthetic value of the area.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

2 Contractor 2.1 Soil Erosion and The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractors EHS BC
Mobilization Contamination; Operation of vehicles and machinery close to the creek channels will be minimized. Monitor AC
and Water Vehicles and equipment will not be repaired in the field. If unavoidable, impervious
Demobilization Contamination sheathing will be used to avoid soil and water contamination.

2.2 Air Quality The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractors EHS BC
Deterioration Construction machinery and vehicles will be kept in good working condition and properly Monitor AC
tuned, in order to minimize the exhaust emissions. The vehicle exhaust will comply with the
NEQS (Exhibit 2.3).
Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as spraying water
on soil, where required and appropriate.

2.3 Noise The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractors EHS BC
Vehicles will have exhaust mufflers (silencers) to minimize noise generation. Vehicle noise Monitor AC
will comply with NEQS (Exhibit 2.3).
Nighttime traffic will be avoided near the communities. Local population will be taken in
confidence if such work is unavoidable.
Vehicle speeds will be kept low, and horns will not be used while passing through or near
the communities.

2.4 Safety Hazards The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS BC
Road signage will be fixed at appropriate locations to reduce safety hazard associated with Monitor AC
project-related vehicular traffic.
Project drivers will be trained on defensive driving.
Vehicle speeds near / within the communities will be kept low, to avoid safety hazard and
dust emissions.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

2.5 Damage to The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractor EHS BC
Infrastructure All damaged infrastructure will be restored to original or better condition. Monitor DC

2.6 Gender Issues The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed FWEL-I EHS DC
Strict code of conduct will be maintained. Local norms will be respected. Monitor AC

3 Construction 3.1 Soil Erosion / The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractor EHS BC
Camp Contamination; The construction camps site will be selected after obtaining FWEL-Is approval. Monitor DC
Establishment Water Camps will not be established close to the creek channels.
and Operation contamination Photographs will be taken to record the site conditions prior to the establishment of the
camp.
Land clearing, leveling and grading will be minimized, and carried out in a manner to
minimize soil erosion.
Vehicular traffic on unpaved roads will be avoided as far as possible.
Operation of vehicles close to the creek channels will be minimized.
Contractors will prepare a waste disposal plan and submit to EHS Supervisor for his
approval.
The camp will have appropriate treatment and disposal system with adequate capacity for
domestic sewage.
Waste oils will be collected in drums and sold to the recycling contractors.
The inert recyclable waste from the site (such as card board, drums, broken/used parts, etc.)
will be sold to recycling contractors. The hazardous waste will be kept separate and
handled according to the nature of the waste.
Domestic solid waste from the construction camp will be disposed in a manner that does not
cause soil or water contamination.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

No wastes will be released into the creek channel.


The camp sites will be completely restored after the completion of the construction works. All
temporary structures will be demolished, land leveled and re-contoured to the original
condition or better. All debris and any other material will be removed from the site. The
photographs taken prior to the camp establishment will be used to restore the area.

3.2 Air Quality The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS BC
Deterioration Generators and vehicles will be kept in good working condition and properly tuned, in order to Monitor DC
minimize the exhaust emissions.
Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as spraying water on
soil, where required and appropriate. Waste water from kitchen and washing area of the
construction camp may be used for water spraying.
Project vehicles will avoid passing through communities, farms and orchards. If unavoidable,
max speed of 15 km/h will be observed to avoid excessive dust emissions.

3.3 Water Water will be obtained from the source approved by the EHS Supervisor. Contractors EHS DC
Consumption Astute planning will be employed to conserve water at the construction sites and camp. Monitor;
Water will be procured in a manner that least affects the local communities. Waste water EHS
recycling will be carried out for sprinkling and gardening purposes. Supervisor

3.4 Loss of The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS BC
Vegetation Clearing natural vegetation will be avoided as far as possible. Monitor DC

3.5 Noise The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractors EHS BC
Generators and vehicles will have exhaust mufflers (silencers) to minimize noise generation. Monitor DC
The noise levels measured at the camp periphery will meet the ADB standards.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

3.6 Safety Hazards The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS Monitor BC
Protective fencing to be installed around the Camp to avoid any accidents. DC
Firefighting equipment will be made available at the camps.
The camp staff will be provided fire fighting training.
All safety precautions will be taken to transport, handle and store hazardous substances, such
as fuel.

3.7 Public Health The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS Monitor BC
The construction camps and site offices will have first-aid kits. DC
The construction crew will be provided awareness for the transmissible diseases (such as
HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C).

3.8 Social and The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed EHS Monitor EHS BC
Gender Issues Construction crew will avoid entering the villages and settlements. Supervisor DC
No child labor will be employed.

4 Transportatio 4.1 Soil Erosion and The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS Monitor DC
n of Contamination; Vehicles and equipment will not be repaired in the field. If unavoidable, impervious sheathing
Equipment Water will be used to avoid soil and water contamination.
and Contamination
Construction
Materials
4.2 Air Quality The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS Monitor BC;
Deterioration The project vehicles will be kept in good working condition and properly tunned, in order to DC
minimize the exhaust emissions. The vehicle exhaust will comply with the NEQS (Exhibit 2.3).
Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as spraying water on
soil, where required and appropriate.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

hibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

4.3 Noise The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS Monitor BC;
Vehicles will have exhaust mufflers (silencers) to minimize noise generation. The vehicle DC
noise will comply with the relevant NEQS.
Nighttime traffic will be avoided near the communities. Local population will be taken in
confidence if such work is unavoidable.
Vehicular traffic through the communities will be avoided as far as possible. Vehicle speeds
will be kept low, and horns will not be used while passing through or near the communities.

4.4 Safety Hazards The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed Contractors EHS Monitor DC
Road signage will be fixed at appropriate locations to reduce safety hazard associated with
project-related vehicular traffic.
Project drivers will be trained on defensive driving.
Vehicle speeds near / within the communities will be kept low, to avoid safety hazard and dust
emissions.

4.5 Damage to All damaged infrastructure will be restored to original or better condition. Contractors EHS Monitor BC
Infrastructure DC

4.6 Blocked Movement of extra heavy loads will be carefully planned, in consultation with the affected Contractor EHS Monitor BC
Access communities and relevant authorities. DC

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

5 Construction 5.1 Land The entire land acquisition process will be properly documented. FWEL-I EHS BC
Activities Acquisition Grievance redress mechanism will be put in place to address the community Supervisor
complaints.
5.2 Noise and The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractor EHS DC
Vibration Liaison with the community will be maintained. Grievance redress mechanism will Monitor
be put in place to address the community complaints, as stated earlier.
5.3 Safety The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractor EHS DC
Hazards The construction sites will have protective fencing to avoid any unauthorized entry. Monitor
Before commencing the testing commissioning of the system, the nearby
communities will be informed. Protective fencing will be used where
appropriate/possible.
The project vehicles will have fire extinguishers.
The site staff will be provided fire fighting training.
5.4 Social Issues The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractor EHS DC
Construction crew will avoid entering villages and settlements. Monitor
Local social norms and practices will be respected.
No child labor will be employed at sites.
5.5 Sites of The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. EHS Monitor EHS BC
Historical, In case of discovery of any sites or artifacts of historical, cultural, archeological or Supervisor DC
Cultural, religious significance, the work will be stopped at that site. The provincial and
Archeological federal archeological departments will be notified immediately, and their advice will
or Religious be sought before resumption of the construction activities at such sites.
Significance

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

5.6 Soil Erosion Cut and fill at the proposed site will be carefully designed, and ideally should balance each Contractors EHS DC
other. The surplus soil, if any, will be disposed at places approved by FWEL-I. Such sites will Monitor
be selected after surveying the area and ensuring that soil deposition will not have any EHS
significant impacts, such as loss of productive land, blocked access, natural vegetation or Supervisor
disturbance to drainage.
If necessary, fill material will be obtained from appropriate locations approved by FWEL-I.
Such locations will be selected after surveying the area and ensuring that soil extraction will
not have any significant impacts, such as soil erosion, loss of natural vegetation or
disturbance to drainage.
If necessary, fill material will be obtained from appropriate locations approved by FWEL-I.
Such locations will be selected after surveying the area and ensuring that soil extraction will
not have any significant impacts, such as soil erosion, loss of natural vegetation or
disturbance to drainage.
Areas from where the fill material is obtained or surplus soil deposited, will be landscaped to
minimize erosion and hazard for people and livestock.
Temporary embankments will be constructed where necessary to avoid any soil eroding into
the creek channels.
Operation of vehicles and machinery close to the creek banks will be minimized to the extent
possible, to minimize soil erosion.
Excavated soil will be protected against erosion caused by rain or wind.
Photographic record will be maintained for pre-project, during-construction and post-
construction condition of the site.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

5.7 Soil Vehicles and construction equipment will not be repaired in the field. If unavoidable, Contractors EHS DC
Contamination impervious sheathing will be used to avoid soil and water contamination. Monitor
; Waste oils will be collected in drums and sold to the recycling contractors. EHS
Water The inert recyclable waste from the site (such as card board, drums, broken/used parts, etc.) Supervisor
Contamination will be sold to recycling contractors. The hazardous waste will be kept separate and handled
according to the nature of the waste.
No waste effluents will be released into the creek channels without appropriate and adequate
treatment. No solid waste will be thrown on the ground or in the creek water.

5.8 Air Quality Construction machinery, generators and vehicles will be kept in good working condition and Contractors EHS DC
Deterioration properly tuned, in order to minimize the exhaust emissions. Monitor
Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as spraying water on
soil, where required and appropriate.

5.9 Damage to Tree plantation plan will be developed and implemented for the project site. Expert advice will FWEL-I EHS BC
natural be obtained for this purpose. Monitor DC
vegetation Indigenous tree species will be selected for plantation; Eucalyptus trees will not be used in any
AC
case.
Plantation of mangroves along the channel banks will be carried out, after obtaining expert
advice. This will increase the biological value of the area on the one hand, and forestall any
channel erosion, on the other.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

5.10 Threat to The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed. Contractor EHS BC
wildlife Measures to rehabilitate the floral resources of the area discussed above will also positively Supervisor DC
impact the wildlife resources of the area. No wastes or effluents will be released directly in the
creek channels. Appropriate waste disposal systems, as described earlier will be
implemented.
Garbage will not be left in the open.
Operation of project vehicles and construction machinery close to the channel banks will be
minimized. The project staff will not be allowed to indulge in any hunting, trapping or fishing
activities.

6 Operation and 6.1 Safety The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as described earlier. Power plant EHS During
Maintenance hazards The plant sites will have protective fencing to avoid any unauthorized entry. staff Supervisor Operation
Activities The project drivers will be trained for defensive driving skills. and

Vehicular speeds near/within communities will be kept low to minimize safety hazards.
Maintenan

Firefighting equipment will be made available at the site. The project vehicles will have fire
ce (O&M)

extinguishers.
The plant staff will be provided fire fighting training.
All safety precautions will be taken to transport, handle and store hazardous substances, such
as fuel.
Liaison with the community will be maintained.

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

6.2 Species The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as described above. Power plant EHS During
Mortality Appropriate storm water management measures will be implemented to avoid creating staff Supervisor O&M
attractions such as small ponds which can attract birds and bats for feeding or nesting near
the wind farm.
The towers and turbines will be made visible by using appropriate colors.
The towers will have light beacons to make them visible for the nighttime flying birds.

6.3 Habitat The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as described earlier. Power plant EHS During
modification The habitat alteration will be limited to the footprint of the towers and buildings, and the site staff Supervisor O&M
roads.
The expert advice will be obtained for any plantation carried out at the site. No exotic plant
species will be introduced; only indigenous species will be planted.
Habitat improvement measures, such as planting mangroves at the outer boundary (facing the
creek channels), will be taken, after obtaining expert advice.

6.4 Threat to The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as described above. Power plant EHS During
marine fauna No waste effluents will be released directly in the creek channels. staff Supervisor O&M
Appropriate waste disposal systems will be implemented.
Garbage will not be left in the open, nor thrown in the creek water.
Off-road operation of project vehicles close to the channel banks will be minimized.
The project staff will not be allowed to indulge in any hunting, trapping or fishing activities.

6.5 Noise Personnel protective equipment will provided to the site personnel. Power plant EHS During
emissions Liaison with the nearby communities will be maintained in this regard. staff Supervisor O&M

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan (Contd.)

Project Responsibility
Impact Action Timing
Activities Execution Monitoring

6.6 Air quality The generator and vehicles will be kept in good working condition and properly tuned, in order Power plant EHS During
deterioration to minimize the exhaust emissions. The exhaust emissions will comply with the NEQS. staff Supervisor O&M
The project vehicles will follow safe driving practice while passing through/near the
communities, including reduced speed, which will minimize dust emissions as well.

6.7 Soil and water The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as described earlier. Power plant EHS During
contamination No waste effluents will be released to the environment without appropriate treatment. staff Supervisor O&M
The solid waste will not be thrown in the open or in the creek water.
The power plant and associated facilities will have appropriate solid waste collection and
disposal arrangements.
The power plant and associated facilities will have appropriate sewage handling, treatment
and safe disposal system.
Waste oils and chemicals will be disposed in accordance with their respective Material Safety
Data Sheet (MSDS). MSDS will be made available at the power plant.
Non-toxic recyclable waste (such as cardboard) will be given away for recycling.
Toxic waste will be stored separately, and incinerated at an appropriate double chamber
incinerator.
The power plant will have channels and drainage pits to collect any leaked oil from the
transformers. This oil will be sent back to the workshop for recycling.
Any soil contaminated by the oil/chemical spillage will be removed and disposed off
appropriately in accordance with the MSDS of the spilled oil/chemical.

EHSD: Environmental Safety and Health Department BC: Before Construction


EHSS: Environmental Safety and Health Supervisor DC: During Construction
O & M: Operation and maintenance AC: After Construction

Environmental Management Plan


Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Exhibit 8.4: Effects Monitoring Plan for Construction and O&M Phases

a Resource
No. Monitoring Parameter Monitoring Locations Frequency Responsibility Documentation
Requirement
1 Visual observation of soil Construction sites, During routine EHS Supervisor - Record of observations;
erosion campsites monitoring Photographs.
2 Water quality At the creek channels Before mobilization Contractor/EHS Sampling Complete record of
near the site Monitor bottles sampling and analyses.
3 Water quality At the creek channels Monthly (construction Contractor/EHS Sampling Complete record of
near the site phase) Monitor bottles sampling and analyses.
4 Water quality At the creek channels Once in two months EHS Supervisor Sampling Complete record of
near the site (O&M phase) bottles sampling and analyses.
5 Water consumption Construction sites, Daily Contractor/EHS - Complete record
campsite Monitor
6 Visual checks for any damage Construction sites During routine EHS Supervisor - Record of observations;
to local infrastructure monitoring Photographs.
7 Visual checks for exhaust Construction sites, camp During routine Contractor/EHS - Record of observations;
emissions site monitoring Monitor Photographs.
8 Visual checks for dust Construction sites, camp During routine Contractor/EHS - Record of observations;
emissions site, project roads monitoring Monitor Photographs.
9 Noise At nearby communities Fortnightly or during Contractor/EHS Noise meter Complete record of noise
the construction Monitor measurements, locations,
activities causing etc.
noise.

10 Noise At nearby communities Once in two months EHS Supervisor Noise meter Complete record of noise
during O&M phase. measurements, locations,
etc.

Environmental Management Plan


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Exhibit 8.4: Effects Monitoring Plan for Construction and O&M Phases (Contd.)

a Resource
No. Monitoring Parameter Monitoring Locations Frequency Responsibility Documentation
Requirement
11 Public Grievances At nearby communities Throughout the field EHS Supervisor Social Complete record to be
activities. Complaint maintained in the form of
Register the Social Complaint
Register.
12 Visual observation of species At the site Daily EHS Supervisor - Complete record of any
Mortality speciers (eg, birds)
mortality.
a
Frequency may be adjusted in the field according to the situation and results of the monitoring.

Environmental Management Plan


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Exhibit 8.5: Grievance Redressal Mechanism

Monitoring
Stage Action Action By By When Notes
By
Mobilization at site Placement of Social Complaint EHS Monitor At the time EHS The SCR will have separate columns for: i) date of
Register (SCR) at the site office of site Supervisor complaint; ii) description of complaint; iii) particulars
mobilization. of complainant; iv) details of action required/decided;
v) person(s) responsible to take action; vi) person(s)
responsible to monitor the action; vii) details of action
taken (when, by whom, where); viii) comments of the
complainant after the action taken.
Complaint raised The complaint is recorded in EHS Monitor - EHS The relevant columns of the SCR are filled.
by any the SCR. Supervisor
complainant
Identification of A meeting is held between EHS Monitor Within 2 EHS The relevant columns of the SCR are filled.
remedial action EHSM and EHSS, and if days of the Supervisor
required with Site Incharge. new
The redial action is identified. complaint.
The Site Incharge and EHSD
are informed regarding the
grievance and the remedial
action identified.
Implementation of The remedial action is Contractors or To be EHS The relevant columns of the SCR are filled.
remedial action implemented FWEL-I, decided for Supervisor
depending upon each
the nature of the remedial
remedial action.
measure

Environmental Management Plan


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Exhibit 8.5: Grievance Redressal Mechanism (Contd.)

Monitoring
Stage Action Action By By When Notes
By
Feed back to the Information is provided to the EHS Monitor Within 1 EHS The relevant columns of the SCR are filled.
complainant complainant regarding the week of the Supervisor
remedial action taken. action taken.
The comments/observations of
the complainant are obtained
and documented.
Fortnightly site The SCR will be discussed. EHS Supervisor Fortnightly. Site The discussion will be documented in the minutes of
meetings Incharge meeting.
On monthly basis The summary of SCR will be EHS Supervisor Monthly. EHS -
sent to EHS Department. Department

Environmental Management Plan


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Exhibit 8.6: Environmental and Social Trainings

Contents Participants Responsibility Schedule


General environmental and socioeconomic awareness; Design team; EHS Department Prior to the start of the project
Environmental and social sensitivity of the project area; Selected FWEL-I activities.
Key findings of the IEE; management staff (To be repeated as needed.)
Mitigation measures;
EMP;
Social and cultural values of the area.
General environmental and socioeconomic awareness; All site personnel EHS Supervisor; Prior to the start of the field
Environmental and social sensitivity of the project area; EHS Monitors activities.
Mitigation measures; (To be repeated as needed.)
Community issues;
Safety issues;
Awareness of transmissible diseases
Social and cultural values.
EMP; Construction crew EHS Monitors Prior to the start of the
Safety issues; construction activities.
Waste disposal (To be repeated as needed.)
Road safety; Drivers EHS Monitors Before and during the field
Defensive driving; operations.
Waste disposal; (To be repeated as needed.)
Cultural values and social sensitivity.
Camp operation; Camp staff EHS Monitors Before and during the field
Waste disposal; operations.
Natural resource conservation; (To be repeated as needed.)
Safety
Housekeeping.
Restoration requirements; Restoration teams EHS Monitors Before the start of the restoration
Waste disposal activities.

Environmental Management Plan


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Exhibit 8.7: Cost of Environmental and Social Management


(During Construction Phase)

Description Cost Basis


(Pak Rs.)
1 Environmental and Social
Personnel
a
EHS Supervisor 900,000 18 months 50,000 per month
EHS Monirtors 0 To be included in the Contractors
cost
2 Environmental and Social 450,000 18 samples; 5 locations; 5,000 per
b
Monitoring sample
3 External Monitoring 240,000 4 2-day visits: (8 days).
8 days 15,000 per day 2
experts
4 Environmental and Social 440,000 11 training sessions one-day
c
Trainings duration; Rs 40,000 per training.
8 Cost of land for power plant The cost of land is included in the
0
proejct cost.
9 Miscellaneous Expenses 500,000 Lump sum
10 Contingencies 76,000 About 3 % of the above
Total 2,606,000
a
The duration of the proposed project has been assumed as 18 months.
b
Frequency of analysis may be adjusted by EHS Supervisor on the basis of the previous results or
sensitivity of area.
c
Frequency of the trainings may be altered per the requirements.

Environmental Management Plan


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9. Conclusions and Recommendations

This IEE has been revised and updated in line with the relevant guidelines of the GoP
and ADB. The objective of the IEE is to identify and assess the potential environmental
and social impacts of the FWEL-Is proposed wind power plant near Gharo. The IEE
also includes public consultation with the institutional as well as grass root stakeholders,
in order to apprise them of the project activities and to obtain their views and concerns.
This Chapter presents the conclusions of the key findings and recommendations for
further actions.
9.1 Conclusions
The major conclusions of the IEE are:
For the wind power plant such as the proposed project, environmental and
social impacts are experienced primarily during the construction phase. The
operation phase will have mostly insignificant impacts on the social, physical and
biological environment of the area. This has been confirmed during the
environmental and social assessment as part of this IEE. Furthermore, some of
the impacts can be forestalled at the design stage as well.
The key potential impacts during the construction phase of the proposed project
include soil erosion and contamination, water contamination, deterioration of
ambient air quality caused by exhaust emissions and kicked-up dust, noise
pollution, damaged infrastructure, safety hazards and public health concerns for
the nearby communities, loss of natural vegetation, habitat modification and
threat to wildlife.
The key potential environmental and social management issues during the
operation phase of the proposed project include soil and water contamination,
air quality deterioration, noise generation, species mortality, loss of habitat,
threat to marine fauna, safety hazards, and shadow flicker and blade glint.
The IEE includes appropriate mitigation measures to address the environmental
and social impacts identified and assessed during the study. These mitigation
measures are provided in the EMP, which will need to be made part of the
construction contract(s). The EMP also provides the organization structure for
the environmental and social management system during the project
implementation, and defines roles and responsibilities of various role players.
The EMP includes a mitigation plan, which precisely defines the mitigation
actions, executing persons, monitoring persons and timing of these actions. An
environmental and social monitoring plan is also included in the EMP, in addition
to communication and documentation requirements, and training needs, in the
context of environmental and social management.
Based on the recommended mitigation measures provided in Chapter 7, the
impacts identified in Exhibit 7.3 will be sufficiently mitigated, and the residual
impacts are expected to be within the acceptable limits. Exhibit 9.1 presents
the assessment of the residual impacts.

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On the basis of the overall impact assessment, more specifically, nature and
magnitude of the residual environmental and socioeconomic impacts identified
during the present IEE, it is concluded that the proposed project is unlikely to
cause any significant, lasting impact on the social, physical and biological
environment of the area, provided that the proposed activities are carried out as
mentioned in this report, and the mitigation measures included in this report are
completely and effectively implemented.
9.2 Recommendations
On the basis of the environmental and social impact assessment discussed in
Chapter 7, and the conclusions provided in Section 9.1 above, it is recommended that:
The EMP should be made a part of the contracts awarded by FWEL-I for the
proposed project.
In-house environmental and social management capacity should be developed
in FWEL-I. For this purpose, an EHS Department should be established within
the company.
FWEL-I should develop its Environmental and Social Policy, which should
demonstrate the companys commitment towards sound environmental and
social management practices throughout its operations.
The company should adhere to the environmental legislation and regulations,
particularly for conducting environmental and social assessments for all its future
projects.
FWEL-I and its contractors should employ local labor as much as possible.

Conclusions and Recommendations


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Exhibit 9.1: Environmental Screening Matrix (Mitigated)

Physical Biological Social and Socioeconomic

Impacts on Agriculture
Surface Water Quality

Water Availability and

Compensation Issues
Groundwater Quality

Impacts on Irrigation
Noise and Vibration
Natural Vegetation

Livestock Grazing

Public Health and


Blocked Access

Aesthetic Value

Cultural Issues

Gender Issues
Contamination

Safety Hazard
Soil Erosion /

Consumption

Infrastructure
Air Quality

Nuisance
Network
Wildlife

Routes
Design Phase
Site Selection for Power Plant -1 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 N -1 0 -1 0 0 0
Design of Power Plant (waste
-1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 N 0 0 -1 0 0 0
disposal systems)
Equipment Selection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 N 0 N -1 0 0 0
Construction Phase-
Land Acquisition N N N N N N N -1 N 0 0 0 0 N N N N N N
Mobilization of Contractors 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 -1
Construction Camps -1 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 -1 -1
Transportation of Construction
0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 -1
Materials and Supplies
Excavation for Foundations -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0
Construction Works 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0
Equipment Installation 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
Testing and Commissioning 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
Operation and Maintenance Phase
Power Plant O&M 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0
Waste Disposal -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 0
Vehicular Traffic 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
Key: -2: High negative impact; -1: Low negative impact; 0: insignificant/negligible impact; +1: low positive impact; +2: High positive impact, N: no impact.

Conclusions and Recommendations


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Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan, Haq, BU. and Milliman J.D (eds) Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company, Inc. USA.
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Appendix A: Photographs

Appendix A
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Approach to the Site (2007) Approach to the Site (2011)

North East View of the Site South East View of the Site

Appendix A
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East View of the Site


East View of the Site

Fishing boats in the creek near site (2011)


Creek on Site

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Consultation with women in Khaskeli Tribe (2011) Consultation with women in Jatt Tribe (2011)

Consultation with locals (2011) Consultation with women in Mallah tribe (2011)

Appendix A
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One of the turns on the Coastal Highway (2011) School located in the site vicinity (2011)

Cattle movement on the Coastal Highway (2011) Camels grazing in site surrounding (2011)

Appendix A
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Small Mangrove Plant along the Creek (2007)


Flora found during the 2011 visit

Shells found at Site (2007)

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Appendix B: Public Consultation Details

This appendix provides the details of the stakeholder consultations carried out during the
previous IEE and update surveys.
Interview with Women Community Members
Date: 26-10-2011
Names: Hurmat, Sukhi, Samul, Rakhul Cast: Khaskheli Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Housewives
Names: Saima, Hawul, Razia, Sakina Cast: Khaskheli Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Housewives
Names: Naseema, Rozina, Zarina, Cast: Khaskheli Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Peeral Housewives
Village: Mulla Isa Khaskheli
Union Council:

01 Number of Households in village: 50


Castes of Social Groups living in village: Khaskheli, Samo, Rajera Baroch
Number of Schools at village: one
Enrollment of Students in School: 60
Number of Teachers at School: one ( local from Rajars village)
Health Facility in village (If any): dispensary in nearby village Kakran

Common Diseases: Malaria, Cough, Cold, Cholera, Water borne diseases, Scabies

Source of Drinking water: One sweet water hand pump and two
Electricity to village: No
brackish water hand pumps
Women Involvement

Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
Wheat, rice and seasonal vegetables
Livestock:
They have livestock but there is no involvement of females in this regard.
02 Fishing
Only males are involved
Laboring: No

Other Occupations/ jobs: Sewing, embroidery, household chores, wood collection, two midwives

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Marriages: Within family.


03 Birth of Child: Most of the females have 3 -4 children. No contraception
Shrines of the area: Darya peer

Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project: (any reservations)


They appreciate the project in general.
They are expecting that they will get electricity at the completion of the project.
04 Females are neither allowed nor willing to work as labor during the project construction.
Females expect that their males will get employment opportunities in the project.
They are expecting community development program by the client including electricity , female
vocational center, sewing machines etc.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Women Community Members


Date: 26-10-2011
Names: Rahila, Amina, Najma Cast: Rind Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Baroch ( Baloch) Housewives
Names: Yasmeen, Kubra, Cast: Rind Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Baroch ( Baloch) Housewives
Names: Rukhsana,Zakia Cast: Rind Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Baroch ( Baloch) Housewives
Village: Muhammad Hassan Rind
Union Council:
01 Number of Households in village: 15
Castes of Social Groups living in village: Rind Baroch
Number of Schools at village: one govt. primary school
Enrollment of Students in School: 50- 60
Number of Teachers at School: Two(from the same village)
Health Facility in village (If any): yes dispensary. For emergencies or major diseases they also visit Sakro,
Main stop, Thatta and Karachi.
Common Diseases: Malaria, Cough, Cold, Cholera, Water borne diseases, Scabies

Electricity to village: Yes Source of Drinking water: One sweet water hand pump
Women Involvement

Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
Yes. Wheat, rice and seasonal vegetables

Livestock:
They have cows, buffalos, goats, sheep and poultry. Females look after livestock. They do feeding, watering,
02 bathing and milking of animals.
Fishing
Neither females nor males are involved in fishing
Laboring: No

Other Occupations/ jobs: Sewing, embroidery, household chores

Marriages: Within family


03 Birth of Child: Most of the females have 3 -4 children. No contraception
Shrines of the area: Darya peer
Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project: (any reservations)
They were unaware about the project
They appreciate the project in general.
Females are neither allowed nor willing to work as labor during the project construction.
04
Females expect that their males will get employment opportunities in the project. The males are
relatively educated in this village. So they expect that they can get job in management, and
administration.
They are expecting community development program by the client

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Women Community Members


Date: 26-10-2011
Names: Fatima, Zarina, Rozan Cast: Mallah Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Housewives
Names: Asiat, Noor Khatoon, Razia Cast: Mallah Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Housewives
Names: Jameela, Haseena, Bachai, Cast: Mallah Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Khatoo, Zulekhan Housewives
Village: jaman Mallah
Union Council:

01 Number of Households in village: 16


Castes of Social Groups living in village: mallah
Number of Schools at village: one govt. primary school about 1.5 kilometers away
Enrollment of Students in School: 25 from this village
Number of Teachers at School: Five female teachers (from Sakro- nearby city centre)
Health Facility in village (If any): No. They visit to Sakro or main stop

Common Diseases: Malaria, Cough, Cold, Cholera, Water borne diseases, Scabies, gastro

Electricity to village: NO Source of Drinking water: One handpump which is brackish. They
collect sweet water for drinking purpose at about 1 - 2 kms
Women Involvement

Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
They have not their own agri lands but they do labor in the fields. Wheat, rice and seasonal vegetables
Livestock:
No. This is the poorest of the communities.
02
Fishing
Only males are doing fishing through nets. They do not have boats.
Laboring: No
Other Occupations/ jobs: Sewing, embroidery, household chores

Marriages: Within family


03 Birth of Child: Most of the females have 3 -4 children. No contraception
Shrines of the area: Darya peer
Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project: (any reservations)
They were unaware about the project.
They appreciate the project in general.
Females are neither allowed nor willing to work as labor during the project construction.
04
Females can give their other services during project activities like making tea, cook food, washing
clothes etc.
Females expect that their males will get employment opportunities in the project.
They are expecting community development program by the client.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Women Community Members


Date: 26-10-2011
Names: Khatan, Nazoo, Razia Cast: Jatt Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Housewives
Names: Asiat, Noor Khatoon, Cast: Jatt Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Housewives
Names: Khatoo, Zulekhan Cast: Jatt Marital Status/Occupation: Married/
Housewives
Village: Ali Muhammad Jatt
Union Council:

01 Number of Households in village: 40


Castes of Social Groups living in village: Jatt
Number of Schools at village: one govt. primary school
Enrollment of Students in School: 100 from this village
Number of Teachers at School: One (from Sakro- nearby city centre)
Health Facility in village (If any): No. They visit to Sakro or main stop

Common Diseases: Malaria, Cough, Cold, Cholera, Water borne diseases, Scabies, gastro
Electricity to village: Yes ( Wind Source of Drinking water: They collect water from nearby nullah
turbine) but now out of order which is far away. Most of the time of females snatched by this activity.

Women Involvement

Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
No
Livestock:
Yes. They have a good number of camels. Their young boys look after them and graze them.
02 Fishing
Few males are involved
Laboring: Only males can do

Other Occupations/ jobs: Sewing, embroidery, household chores

Marriages: within family


03 Birth of Child: most of the females have 3 -4 children. No contraception
Shrines of the area: Darya peer

Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project: (any reservations)


They were unaware about the project.
They appreciate the project in general.
04
Females are neither allowed nor willing to work as labor during the project construction.
Females expect that their males will get employment opportunities in the project.
They are expecting community development program by the client.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Community Members


Date: 15-10-2011

Name: M Ahsan Caste:Khaskeli Occupation: Fisherman,


Village:Ali Muhammad Jatt
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka:MirpurSakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 60 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village:Mallah
th
Number of Schools at village:Till 5 class.
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- - Girls- --
01
Number of Teachers at School: --
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit BHU
Matheno Rind or Taluka Hospital MirpurSakro
Common Diseases: Malaria, Fever.
Electricity to village:Privately Source of Drinking water:Scarcity (Almost one and half
owned wind turbine provided by hour distance from village).
NGOs.
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
We have no personal agricultural land but do farming as tenants on others land.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out in
local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
02 In the village, most of the people are involved in fishing. The fishing is done in Petani creek and
adjoining areas. The boat having size of 25ft length and 10ft width are used. The most common
fishes found are Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet and Maroairi. The quantity of fishes depends on the level
of tide. If the tide comes at higher level in creek, the greater quantity of fishes is caught. The sell
point is fishery Karachi and sometimes we sell it locally.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations:Couple of people are working in as watchmen.
Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common.
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in the
03
south of our village at about 22 kilometers on the shore. The Urs at the shrine is held annually and
thousands people visit.
04 Views/ Comments on Power Wind Projects
The villagers dont have much information regarding the wind power plants. However, they thought
that with prospect construction work and electricity generation they have high hopes for the
prosperity of the community,

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Community Members

Date: 15-11-2011
Name: Ali Caste: Jatt Occupation: Fisherman

Name:Naseem Caste: Jatt Occupation: Fisherman


Village:Ali Muhammad Jatt
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka:MirpurSakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 20 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village:Mallah
th
01 Number of Schools at village:Till 5 class
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- - Girls- --
Number of Teachers at School: --
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit BHU
Matheno Rind or Taluka Hospital MirpurSakro
Common Diseases: Malaria, Fever.
Electricity to village: Privately Source of Drinking water:Scarcity (Almost one and half
owned wind turbine hour distance from village.
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
We have no personal agricultural land but do farming as tenants on others land.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out in
local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
02 Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, most of the people are involved in fishing. The fishing is done in the creek regions
and sometimes in open sea as well. The boat having size of 25ft length and 10ft width are used.
The most common fishes found are Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet, Maroairi and Kodio.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations:
Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common.
Shrines of the area:There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in the
03
south of our village at about 22 kilometers on the shore. The Urs at the shrine is held annually and
thousands people visit.
04 Views/ Comments on Power Wind Projects
The villagers dont have much information regarding the wind power plants. However, they thought
that with prospect construction work and electricity generation they have high hopes for the
prosperity of the community,

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Community Members

Date: 24-10-2007

Name: Noor Ali Caste: Rind Baloch Occupation: Schoolteacher


Name: Muhammad Moosa Caste: Rind Baloch Occupation: Schoolteacher
Name: Shahid Ali Caste: Rind Baloch Occupation: Beldar SIDA
Village: Ratho Khan Rind located at 15 kilometers in the east of project site
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 200 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village: Rind Baloch
01 Number of Schools at village: One Boys Primary School is available at village.
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- 60 Girls- 20
Number of Teachers at School: 01
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit BHU
Matheno Rind or Taluka Hospital Mirpur Sakro
Common Diseases: Malaria, Diarrhea, TB, Skin and eye problems.
Electricity to village: Yes Source of Drinking water: Ground water through hand
pumps
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
In village seasonal crops are cultivated. One season is Rabbi in which wheat and vegetables are
cultivated, another season is Kharif in which Rice and tomato are cultivated in plenty amount.
Almost every household has some piece of land for agriculture. Few households having no land
cultivate land of others under tenancy. In irrigation, branch canals named Jam and Ladhya pass the
village but there is shortage of water so all land of village could not be irrigated with this water.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out in
02 local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, majority of people are involved in fishing. The fishing is done in Petani creek. The
boat having size of 25ft length and 10ft width are used. The most common fishes found are
Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet, and Kodio. The quantity of fishes depends on the level of tide. If the tide
comes at higher level in creek, the greater quantity of fishes is caught. The sell point is fishery
Karachi.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations: Schoolteacher, Peon, watchman, Beldar.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common. Only one case of exogamy
available in village. Mostly, the marriage is held at the age of 20 to 24 years.
Birth of Child: Birth of son is celebrated. Naming ceremony of both son and daughter is held after
seven days of birth.
03
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in the
south west of our village at about 30 kilometers on the shore. Another is Saeed Mohammad
Sheerazi located in north west of village at about 32 kilometers on the creek. The Uris at both
shrines is held annually and thousands people visit these shrines.
Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project
Mr. Noor Ali Rind: Actually, I had no idea about the wind project to be built in Deh Khati Kun. But
now I think this development should be made in the area. We people of this area are very poor.
Due to shortage of water agriculture does not meet our basic needs and unemployment is at high
degree. This project will bring employment opportunities and electricity for the people living around.
Another development will be the infrastructure of roads. In Deh Khati Kun villages are very
scattered and have no metallic roads so we villagers welcome this project in the area.
04
Mr. Muhammad Moosa Rind: I had heard about the power house to be built in Deh Khati kun but
was not aware about wind project. We welcome the project because this will bring jobs for villagers
and electricity. In surrounding villages, there is no electricity at all and villagers are living in
darkness. So this very good project must be started.
Mr. Shahid Ali Rind: We the people of this area are very poor so need employment. This project
will certainly bring laboring opportunities for us. Presently we have no option for laboring because in
this area there is no usual construction work so we welcome this project in the area.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Community Members


Date: 24-10-2007
Name: Paroo Caste: Mallah Occupation: Fisherman, a
notable
Name: Ashraf Caste: Mallah Occupation: Fisherman
Village: Khariro Mallah located at 07 kilometers in the east of project site
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 20 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village: Mallah
01 Number of Schools at village: No primary school so no any single child is having education.
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- - Girls- --
Number of Teachers at School: --
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit BHU
Matheno Rind or Taluka Hospital Mirpur Sakro
Common Diseases: Malaria, Diarrhea, TB, Asthma, Skin and eye problems.
Electricity to village: No Source of Drinking water: Ground water through hand
pumps
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
We have no personal agricultural land but do farming as tenants on others land. We cultivate
seasonal crops. One season is Rabbi in which wheat and vegetables are cultivated, another
season is Kharif in which Rice and tomato are cultivated in plenty amount. We get 50% of the share
of total production of crop. In irrigation, branch canals named Jam and Ladhya pass the village but
there is shortage of water so all land of village could not be irrigated with this water.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out in
02 local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, most of the people are involved in fishing. The fishing is done in Petani creek. The
boat having size of 25ft length and 10ft width are used. The most common fishes found are
Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet, Maroairi and Kodio. The quantity of fishes depends on the level of tide. If
the tide comes at higher level in creek, the greater quantity of fishes is caught. The sell point is
fishery Karachi and sometimes we sell it locally.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations: Only one person is appointed as watchman by private company at tower
Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common. No any case of exogamy
available in village. Mostly, the marriage is held at the age of 20 to 24 years.
Birth of Child: Birth of son is celebrated. Naming ceremony of both son and daughter is held after
seven days of birth.
03
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in the
south of our village at about 22 kilometers on the shore. Another is Saeed Mohammad Sheerazi
located in north west of village at about 24 kilometers on the creek. The Uris at both shrines is held
annually and thousands people visit these shrines.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project


Mr. Paroo Mallah: In this village, no body knows about the wind project to be built in Deh Khati
Kun. But now when we heard we are happy with this project. We villagers of this area are very poor
and have no proper source of income. Fishing is very risky occupation so we are always on the
risk. Sometimes we catch very small amount of fish that does not meet our needs. This project will
04 bring employment opportunities and electricity for us. Another benefit for us is infrastructure of
roads. In Deh khati kun villages are very scattered and have no metallic roads so we villagers
welcome this project in the area.
Mr. Ashraf Mallah: We are very poor people; we request authority for the employment in this
project. We are not technical but we can work as labor in this project. In our village we have no
electricity so we request for electricity for the village.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with community Members


Date: 24-10-2007
Name: Aari Caste: Khaskheli Occupation:
Shopkeeper
Village: Essa Mula Khaskheli located at 11 kilometers in the north of project site
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 60 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village: Khaskheli
Number of Schools at village: One Boys Primary School is available at village.
01 Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- 60 Girls- 08
Number of Teachers at School: 01
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit BHU
Matheno Rind or Taluka Hospital Mirpur Sakro
Common Diseases: Malaria, Diarrhea, TB, Skin and eye problems.
Source of Drinking water: Overall ground water is not
Electricity to village: NO potable but at certain place it is potable so whole village
obtain through hand pump
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
In village seasonal crops are cultivated. One season is Rabbi in which wheat and vegetables are
cultivated, another season is Kharif in which Rice and tomato are cultivated in plenty amount.
Almost every household has some piece of land for agriculture. Few households having no land
cultivate land of others under tenancy. In irrigation, branch canals named Jam and Ladhya pass the
village but there is shortage of water so all land of village could not be irrigated with this water.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out in
02 local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, majority of people are involved in fishing. The fishing is done in Petani creek. The
boat having size of 25ft length and 10ft width are used. The most common fishes found are
Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet, Kodio, Maroairi and star Kodio. The quantity of fishes depends on the
level of tide. If the tide comes at higher level in creek, the greater quantity of fishes is caught. The
sell point is fishery Karachi.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations: Schoolteacher, Peon, watchman, Beldar.
Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common. Only one case of exogamy
available in village. Mostly, the marriage is held at the age of 20 to 24 years.
Birth of Child: Birth of son is celebrated. Naming ceremony of both son and daughter is held after
seven days of birth.
03
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in the
south of our village at about 25 kilometers on the shore. Another is Saeed Mohammad Sheerazi
located in north of village at about 30 kilometers on the creek. The Uris at both shrines is held
annually and thousands people visit these shrines.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project


Mr. Aari Khaskheli: Few months ago we had heard about the power station to be built in Khati Kun
but had no details. The plot demarcated for the wind project comes under water of tide specifically
in the month of June and July when heavy tide comes so authority will have to make necessary
arrangements for this like to build the stone block. We welcome this project as it will bring
04
employment opportunities for the villagers and electricity in the village. The people of this area are
very poor have no proper source of income except fishing and little bit agriculture. Another
advantage of the project will be exposure of new technology and new people to the villagers. This
area has been deprived from developmental activities so we all villagers welcome this project in the
area.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Community Members


Date: 24-10-2007
Name: Muhammad Sadiq Caste: Jatt Baloch Occupation:
Councilor/Fisherman
Name: Ghulam Qadir Jatt Caste: Jatt Baloch Occupation: Fisherman
Village: Ali Muhammad Jatt located at 15 kilometers in the east of project site
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 120 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village: Jatt Baloch
Number of Schools at village: One Boys Primary School is available at village.
01
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- 60 Girls- 20
Number of Teachers at School: 01 attends school off and on
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit BHU
Matheno Rind or Taluka Hospital Mirpur Sakro
Common Diseases: Malaria, Diarrhea, TB, Asthma, Skin and eye problems.
Source of Drinking water: Overall ground water is not potable
Electricity to village: No but at certain place it is potable so whole village obtain
through hand pump
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
In village seasonal crops are cultivated. One season is Rabbi in which wheat and vegetables are
cultivated, another season is Kharif in which Rice and tomato are cultivated in plenty amount.
Almost every household has some piece of land for agriculture. Few households having no land
cultivate land of others under tenancy. In irrigation, branch canals named Jam and Ladhya pass the
village but there is shortage of water so all land of village could not be irrigated with this water.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out in
02 local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, majority of people are involved in fishing so it is the main source of livelihood. The
fishing is done in Petani creek passes at kilometers from village. The boat having size of 20ft
length and 10ft width are used. The most common fishes found are Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet,
Maroairi, Kodio and star Kodio. The quantity of fishes depends on the level of tide. If the tide comes
at higher level in creek, the greater quantity of fishes is caught. The sell point is fishery Karachi.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations: Schoolteacher, Peon, watchman, Beldar.
Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common. Only one case of exogamy
available in village. Mostly, the marriage is held at the age of 20 to 24 years.
Birth of Child: Birth of son is celebrated. Naming ceremony of both son and daughter is held after
seven days of birth.
03
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in the
south of our village at about 30 kilometers on the shore. Another is Saeed Mohammad Sheerazi
located in north of village at about 15 kilometers on the creek. The Uris at both shrines is held
annually and thousands people visit these shrines.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project


Mr. Muhammad Sadiq Jatt: Two years ago, some official from any company had come to my
village and had discussed about the wind power project. At that time the location of the project they
told was the plot available around my village rather than in Khati Kun. So I had told them about the
ownership of plot that is mine. So they had made an agreement on white paper that they would
appoint 30 persons from my village in the project and will provide electricity. But since that no body
04 has come here again. Now if the project is to be built in south of my village that land is not on the
record of revenue so I think its government land. We have no any objection on the installation. But
we hope this project will give us opportunities of employment and electricity to the village. Our area
is far flung from towns so is deprived and no basic facility is available.
Mr. Ghulam Qadir Jatt: I had heard about the power house to be built in our village but now it is to
be built in Deh Khati Kun. Though we have much interaction with that area but we welcome this
project because this will provide us electricity and employment.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Naib Nazim UC Haji Girano


Date: 24-10-2007
Name: Muhammad Bachal Caste: Rind Baloch Occupation: Naib
Nazim UC Haji Girano
Name: Ranjho Caste: Rind Baloch Occupation: Farmer
Name: Muhammad Yaseen Caste: Rind Baloch Occupation:
Schoolteacher
Village: Muhammad Hassan Rind located at 15 kilometers in the east of project site
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 12 households
01 Castes of Social Groups living in village: Rind Baloch
Number of Schools at village: One Boys Primary School is available at village.
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- 60 Girls- 10
Number of Teachers at School: 01
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit BHU
Matheno Rind or Taluka Hospital Mirpur Sakro
Common Diseases: Malaria, Diarrhea, TB, Asthma, Skin and eye problems.
Source of Drinking water: Ground Water through
Electricity to village: Yes
hand pumps
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
In village seasonal crops are cultivated. One season is Rabbi in which wheat and vegetables
are cultivated, another season is Kharif in which Rice and tomato are cultivated in plenty
amount. Almost every household has some piece of land for agriculture. Few households
having no land cultivate land of others on tenancy basis. In irrigation, branch canals named
Jam and Ladhya pass the village but there is shortage of water so all land of village could not
be irrigated with this water.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out
02 in local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, majority of people are involved in fishing so it is the main source of livelihood.
The fishing is done in Petani creek passes at kilometers from village. The boat having size
of 20ft length and 10ft width are used. The most common fishes found are Jheenga, Dathi,
Paphlet, Maroairi, Kodio and star Kodio. The quantity of fishes depends on the level of tide. If
the tide comes at higher level in creek, the greater quantity of fishes is caught. The sell point
is fishery Karachi.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations: Schoolteacher, Peon, watchman, Beldar.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common. Only one case of
exogamy available in village. Mostly, the marriage is held at the age of 20 to 24 years.
Birth of Child: Birth of son is celebrated. Naming ceremony of both son and daughter is held
after seven days of birth.
03
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in
the south of our village at about 30 kilometers on the shore. Another is Saeed Mohammad
Sheerazi located in north of village at about 15 kilometers on the creek. The Uris at both
shrines is held annually and thousands people visit these shrines.
Information about Union Council (Reported by Naib Nazim UC)
Mr. Muhammad Bachal Rind: The union council Haji Girano is having the population of
23000 individuals approximately. The UC has 26 primary schools which are functional on the
record and one middle school. It has one basic health unit that is insufficient for the people.
The economy of the UC depends on the fishing and agriculture. For fishing, fisherman
approach Petani creek for the fishing. In agriculture, wheat, rice, tomato and vegetables are
cultivated as cash crops. Canal water is the source for irrigation of agriculture but this UC is
04 located at the tail of Indus so water does not reach in canals therefore agriculture in UC is
very much affected from less irrigation. The west side of the UC is coastal belt so there is
thousands of land lying barren and is not on the revenue record. Geographically, the
settlement of the villages is scattered and communication infrastructure is very poor so
villages have lot of problems to communicate with each other and specifically with towns.
Under the budget allocated to union council by district government, four primary school
buildings are under construction and three waiting spots for passengers are to be constructed.
While no any other developmental scheme is in pipeline.
Views/ Comments on Power Wind Project
Mr. Muhammad Bachal Rind: I had heard about the power wind project to be launched in
Deh Khati Kun. I believe this project will bring awareness among the people of the area.
Actually, majority of population of union council Haji Girano is living poor life; people have no
much employment opportunities in the area so when this project will be started certainly poor
people will find opportunities for laboring. I think this project will also bring development in
05
communication infrastructure like roads repair which leads to project site. So I personally
welcome this project in the area.
Mr. Muhammad Yaseen Rind: The commencement of the wind project is good development
initiative for the area. In villages those are located in the surrounding of the project site have
no facility of electricity so with the start of this project they will get electricity. Except for this,
poor people will have labor opportunities in this project.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Medical Officer RHC Gharo


Date: 26-10-2007
Name: Dr. Mushtaque Ahmed Memon
Designation: Medical Officer
Contact Number: -
01
Posting at: Rural Health Center Gharo
Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
District: Thatta Sindh
Health facilities at One Taluka Hospital at Mirpur Sakro, One RHC at Gharo, Nine BHUs
02
Taluka: at UC level.
Dysentery, ARI, Worm Infection, TB, and water born diseases
Most Common
Infectious and Contagious both are common. Many cases of Hepatitis
Diseases at Area:
have also been treated.
All centers are functional in the area. At every BHU a doctor and a
Functionality of
03 dispenser have been appointed. They are performing their duties at
Medical Centers:
respective BHU.
The medicines have been the issue for medical centers, in spite of that
Availability of
we have tried to make available the most common medicines at
Medicines:
centers.
Main Causes of Contaminated and arsenic water, unhygienic conditions and
04
Diseases: environmental changes are the main causes for diseases.

Interview with NGO Representatives


Date: 26-10-2007
Name of NGO NRSP National Rural Support Program
Name: Zaheer Ahmed Khoso
Designation: Incharge Social Mobilizer
Contact Number: 03003280325, 03222301651
01
Office Location: Gharo
Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
District: Thatta Sindh
02 Target Area Union Council Gharo, Gujjo, Dhabeji and Choubandi
Social Mobilization, HRD (Human Resource Development) Micro
03 Interventions
Financing and CPI (Community Physical Infrastructure).
NRSP intends to intervene in union council Haji Girano so social
mobilizers have conducted general survey of the area. In survey it has
been observed that people of this UC have some major problem 1.
communication infrastructure as villages are located on the coastal
side and tracks lead to these villages are totally Katcha so during
rainfall these peoples communication to each other and with towns
Interaction with UC becomes cut off. 2. Lack of health facilities people living far flung
04
Haji Girano area do not access BHU or taluka hospital timely that cause severe
loss on their health/ lives. 3. Less awareness about education very
low literacy rate is prevailing in the UC. Specifically the area that is
coastal belt of UC, schoolteachers do not attend schools so children
are engaged in labor work or wandering here and there. So in near
future NRSP would intervene with different components like social
mobilization and micro financing.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

The installation of power wind project will reflect in the shape of


development towards the area. Although this project does not benefit
direct to the public but certainly it will benefit after its launching/ start.
When electricity will be generated that will certainly be trickle down
Remarks on Power towards the villages through proper channel. This project will also
05
Wind Project provide employment opportunities during its construction period.
Overall, this will have very positive impacts on the area.
More important is the location of the wind plant. It is far way from the
populated area that is very positive action as there will be no
disturbance of project activities to the people living in area.

Interview with NGO Representatives


Date: 26-10-2007

Name of NGO WWF World Wide Fund for Nature - Pakistan


Name: Abdul Waheed Jamali
Designation: Development Officer
Contact Number: 0298772318
01
Office Location: Thatta
Taluka: Thatta
District: Thatta Sindh
02 Target Area District Thatta
Interventions Indus for All Program A 50 Year Vision focus on eco systems
Presently, WWF works in taluka Jati and Keti Bandar on environmental
issues. In taluka Mirpur Sakro intervention has not yet been started.
Target Area WWF also works to document the socioeconomic conditions of the
district but that study is under progress and will take about one year to
be completed.
The people of the area would have good exposure regarding wind
03
power energy project. By the commencement of this project, people
will be aware about this technology. Over all district Thatta and
Remarks on Power specifically union council Haji Girano is deemed to be the poor areas
Wind Project of the Sindh so more than 80% of its population live below poverty line.
Consequently, people around area may be benefited by giving
employment in construction work. This act will help them to some
extent to have some amount for their livelihood.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with NGO Representatives


Date: 26-10-2007

Name of NGO KWDO Karmpur Welfare & Development Organization


Name: Abdul Qadir Lashari Project Coordinator
Designation: Saleem Tunio Project Officer
Contact Number: A. Qadir 03012403211, Saleem 03013010063
01
Office Location: Mirpur Sakro
Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
District: Thatta Sindh
02 Target Area Union Council Haji Girano
Provision of Smoke Free Stoves, Cold Storage Containers and
Muhafiz (wooden small food storage boxes) under the project
Interventions Conserving Energy Promoting Environmental Sustainability funded
by UNDP/ GEF. KWDO has provided the above items to the
communities to avoid health hazards.
Union council Haji Girano is situated in the west of the district so its
considerable area is exposed to the coast. The economy of the UC
03 depends on the fishing and agriculture. People of UC are deprived as
Information of UC
they have no proper basic facilities like health education and
Haji Girano
communication infrastructure. Scattered geographical locations of the
villages have kept people away from close coordination with each
other. In rainfall season, katcha tracks become totally blocked.
The Beacon Energy wind project would be the good intervention in the
Remarks on Power
area though it does not benefit directly to the communities but in future
Wind Project
it will certainly reflect in community development.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Fishermen on Fishing


Date: 07-11-2007
Name: Basar (03222112487) Caste: Khaskheli Occupation:
Fisherman
Name: Abdul Razzak Caste: Khaskheli Occupation:
Schoolteacher
Name: Muhammad Usman Caste: Khaskheli Occupation:
Fisherman/Boat Driver
Name: Abdul Sattar Caste: Khaskheli Occupation:
Fisherman/ Student
Village: Haji Allah Warayo Khaskheli located at 15 kilometers from project site
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
01 Number of Households in village: Approximately 30 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village: Khaskheli
Number of Schools at village: One Boys Primary School is available at village.
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- 35 Girls- 08
Number of Teachers at School: 01
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit
Taluka Hospital Mirpur Sakro for the treatment.
Common Diseases: Malaria, Diarrhea, TB, Asthma, Skin and eye problems.
Electricity to village: No Source of Drinking water: Overall ground water is not
potable but at certain place it is potable so whole
village obtain through hand pump.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, majority of people are involved in fishing. The fishing is done in Petani creek.
The boat having size of 27ft length and 10ft width are used. The most common fishes found
are Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet, Surmai, Khagha, Suha, Dhangri, Louir, Kitchak and Kodio. The
quantity of fishes depends on the level of tide. If the tide comes at higher level in creek, the
greater quantity of fishes is caught. The sell point is fishery Karachi. In fish species, Louir and
Kitchak are used for feed purpose.
Mostly, fishing is done on seven day round basis. We take ration for seven days in the boat
and travel in Petani creek and in main shore for seven days. During that period following
average quantity of fishes are caught:
AVERAGE TOTAL
TYPE OF
S SIZE/ AVERAGE
FISHING MARKET VALUE
# SPECIFICATIO CATCH-SIZE/
SPECIE
N OF SPECIE QUANTITY
Shrimp
01 4 length 100 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
(Jheenga)
02 Paphlet 1 kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.250 per kg
03 Dathi 5 Kilogram 50 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
04 Khagha 5 Kilogram 40 Kilogram Rs.50 per kg
05 Surmai 2 Kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
06 Suha 20 Kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.3500 per 40 kg

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

07 Dhangri 15 kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg


08 Kitchak 4 length 40 kilogram Rs.20 per kg
09 Looair 4 length 40 Kilogram Rs.20 per kg
Type & Size of Nets used for Fishing:
Mostly three types of net are used:
1. Thukri Rush (Net) 300 to 400ft long and 5 to 6ft wide. This net is being used to catch the
shrimps in the creek.
2. Gujjo Rush (Net) 150 to 200ft long and 5 to 6ft wide. This is also being used to catch
shrimps.
Paphlet Rush: 40 to 50ft long and 5 to 6ft wide. This net is used to catch paphlet fishes and
other same size fishes.
02
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
In village seasonal crops are cultivated. One season is Rabbi in which wheat and vegetables
are cultivated, another season is Kharif in which Rice and tomato are cultivated in plenty
amount. Almost every household has some piece of land for agriculture. Few households
having no land cultivate land of others under tenancy. In irrigation, branch canals named Jam
and Ladhya pass the village but there is shortage of water so all land of village could not be
irrigated with this water.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out
in local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations: Schoolteacher, Peon, watchman, Beldar.
Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common. Only one case of
exogamy available in village. Mostly, the marriage is held at the age of 20 to 24 years.
Birth of Child: Birth of son is celebrated. Naming ceremony of both son and daughter is held
after seven days of birth.
03
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in
the south of our village at about 30 kilometers on the shore. Another is Saeed Mohammad
Sheerazi located in north west of village at about 10 kilometers on the creek. The Uris at both
shrines is held annually and thousands people visit these shrines.
Views/ Comments on Project:
04 We all villagers welcome the commencement of the wind power project. By this we will find
laboring opportunities for the survival.

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Interview with Fishermen on Fishing


Date: 07-11-2007
Name: Abdul Razak Caste: Samo Occupation: Fisherman
Name: Muhammad Dawood Caste: Samo Occupation: Fisherman
Name: Muhammad Iqbal Samo Caste: Samo Occupation:
Fisherman/Boat Driver
Village: Haji Gul Hassan Samo located at 15 kilometers from project site
Union Council: Haji Girano Taluka: Mirpur Sakro
Number of Households in village: Approximately 40 households
Castes of Social Groups living in village: Samo
Number of Schools at village: One Boys Primary School is available at village but closed due to
01 unavailability of schoolteacher.
Enrollment of Students in School: Boys- Girls-
Number of Teachers at School: No
Health Facility in village (If any): There is no any health facility at village; villagers visit Taluka
Hospital Mirpur Sakro for the treatment.
Common Diseases: Malaria, Diarrhea, TB, Asthma, Skin and eye problems.
Electricity to village: No but Source of Drinking water: Overall ground water is not
wind mill provided under MPA potable but at certain place it is potable so whole village
quota is facilitating few obtain through hand pump.
households.
Fishing: (Which types of fishes are caught- Quantity per head/ boat and sell point)
In the village, majority of people are involved in fishing. The fishing is done in Petani creek and in
main shore. The boat having size of 27ft length and 10ft width are used. The most common fishes
found are Jheenga, Dathi, Paphlet, Surmai, Khagha, Suha, Dhangri, Louir, Kitchak and Kodio. The
quantity of fishes depends on the level of tide. If the tide comes at higher level in creek, the greater
quantity of fishes is caught. The sell point is fishery Karachi. In fish species, Louir and Kitchak are
used for feed purpose.
Mostly, fishing is done on seven day round basis. We take ration for seven days in the boat and
travel in Petani creek and in main shore for seven days. During that period following average
quantity of fishes are caught:
TOTAL
TYPE OF AVERAGE SIZE/
AVERAGE
S# FISHING SPECIFICATION MARKET VALUE
CATCH-SIZE/
SPECIE OF SPECIE
QUANTITY
Shrimp
01 4 length 100 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
(Jheenga)
02 Paphlet 1 kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.250 per kg
03 Dathi 5 Kilogram 50 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
04 Khagha 5 Kilogram 40 Kilogram Rs.50 per kg
05 Surmai 2 Kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
06 Suha 20 Kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.3500 per 40 kg
07 Dhangri 15 kilogram 60 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
08 Kitchak 4 length 40 kilogram Rs.20 per kg
09 Looair 4 length 40 Kilogram Rs.20 per kg

Appendix B
Ref: R11V01FW1PD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

While few fishermen are fishing on daily basis within the small radius of creek. The following stuff is
caught on daily basis.
TOTAL
TYPE OF AVERAGE SIZE/
AVERAGE
S# FISHING SPECIFICATION MARKET VALUE
CATCH-SIZE/
SPECIE OF SPECIE
QUANTITY
01 Crabs Kilogram 250 Crabs Rs.40 per kg
02 Marooari 5 inches 15 Kilogram Rs.35 per kg
03 Jelly Fish 2 Kilogram 1500 Kilogram Rs.200 per kg
02 04 Shrimp 4 inches 15 Kilogram Rs.100 per kg
05 Kodio 50 gram 200 Kilogram Rs.5 per kg
Type & Size of Nets used for Fishing:
Mostly three types of net are used:
1. Thukri Rush (Net) 500 to 600ft long and 9 to 10ft wide and has net space of 1.5 inchs.. This net
is being used to catch the shrimps in the creek.
2. Gujjo Rush (Net) It is about 50ft in total made in round shape having one side open for entrance
of fish. This is also being used to catch shrimps.
Paphlet Rush: 500 to 600ft long and 9 to 10ft wide and has net space of 4 inches. This net is used
to catch paphlet fishes and other same size fishes.
Agriculture (Which crops are cultivated & how many houses are involved in):
In village seasonal crops are cultivated. One season is Rabbi in which wheat and vegetables are
cultivated, another season is Kharif in which Rice and tomato are cultivated in plenty amount.
Almost every household has some piece of land for agriculture. Few households having no land
cultivate land of others under tenancy. In irrigation, branch canals named Jam and Ladhya pass the
village but there is shortage of water so all land of village could not be irrigated with this water.
Livestock: (Which types of animals are domesticated?)
In cattle, cows, buffalos and goats are domesticated. The milk of cow and buffalos is sold out in
local market and few villagers do the business of sell and buy of goats.
Laboring: Some villagers are engaged in laboring work like, farming, gardening and fishing
Other Occupations: Schoolteacher, Peon, watchman, Beldar.
Marriages: Exchange marriages within the same tribe are common. Only one case of exogamy
available in village. Mostly, the marriage is held at the age of 20 to 24 years.
Birth of Child: Birth of son is celebrated. Naming ceremony of both son and daughter is held after
seven days of birth.
03
Shrines of the area: There are two shrines in the area. One named Darya Pir is located in the
south of our village at about 35 kilometers on the shore. Another is Saeed Mohammad Sheerazi
located in north west of village at about 10 kilometers on the creek. The Uris at both shrines is held
annually and thousands people visit these shrines.
Views/ Comments on Project:
04 We all villagers welcome the commencement of the wind power project. By this we will find laboring
opportunities for the survival.

Appendix B
Fauji Wind Energy-II Limited
Initial Environmental Examination
50 MW Wind Power Project
Gharo, Sindh

Report
TPL Reference: R11V01FW2PD October 27, 2011

Prepared for:
Fauji Foundation
Ref: R11FW2IEEPD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

Acronyms

AC After construction
ADB Asian Development Bank
AEDB Alternative Energy Development Board
Amsl Above Mean Sea Level
BC Before construction
BHU Basic Health Unit
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
Cusecs Cubic feet per second
DC During construction
DCO District Coordination Officer
DO Dissolved Oxygen
ECA Employment of Child Act
EHS Environment, Health and Safety
EHSD Environment, Health and Safety Department
EHSS Environment, Health and Safety Supervisor
EHSM Environment, Health and Safety Monitor
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FF Fauji Foundation
FWEL Fauji Wind Energy Limited
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GoP Government of Pakistan
GP Green Power
GRM Grievance Redress Mechanism
GWh Giga watt hour
Ha Hectare
HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus / Acquired immune deficiency
syndrome
IEE Initial Environmental Examination
IPP Independent Power Producer
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
KM Kilometer

Acronyms
ii
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KWh Kilo watt hour


LAA Land Acquisition Act (of 1894)
LOS Laws of Seas
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LT Low Tension
MAF Million Acre Feet
MARPOL Marine Pollution (Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships)
MEA Multilateral Environmental Agreements
MHa Million Hectares
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
MVA Mega Volt Amperes
MW Mega Watts
M&E Monitoring and Evaluation
NEPRA National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
NEQS National Environmental Quality Standards
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NOx Oxides of Nitrogen
NTDC National Transmission and Dispatch Company
O&M Operation and Maintenance
PCB Poly Chlorinated Biphenyl
PEPC Pakistan Environmental Protection Council
PEPA Pakistan Environmental Protection Act
PM Project Manager
PMD Pakistan Meteorological Department
POP Persistent Organic Pollutants
PPE Personal protective equipment
PS Performance Standard
P&DD Planning and Development Department
RH Relative Humidity
RHC Rural Health Center
SCR Social complaint register
TEL Tapal Energy Limited
TDS Total Dissolved Solids
TMA Tehsil Municipal Administration
ToR Terms of Reference
UA Union Administration
UC Union Council
UK United Kingdom

Acronyms
iii
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UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural


Organization
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
WHO World Health Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature

Acronyms
iv
Ref: R11FW2IEEPD
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Executive Summary

Fauji Wind Energy II Ltd. (FWEL-II), a project of the Fauji Foundation are planning to
develop, own and operate a 49.5 MW wind power plant near Gharo, about 54 km south-
east of Karachi. FWEL-II is seeking finances from the Asian Development Bank (ADB)
for this project. FWEL-II has bought the ownership rights from Green Power (Pvt.)
Limited (GP). Previously an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) for the project has
been submitted and approved by the Sind Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) in
2009. This document is an updated version of the IEE and incorporates ADB
requirements and comments on the original IEE for the project.
Study Methodology
The original study was conducted using a standard methodology prescribed by national
and international agencies and also utilized the Guidelines for Environmental
Assessment of Wind Farms in the Gharo Wind Corridor (2009) prepared under the aegis
of UNDP and AEDB. Various phases of the study included screening, scoping, data
collection and compilation, stakeholder consultation, impact assessment, and report
compilation. For the updated version, site visits were conducted to establish changes in
the baseline environment during the intervening years since the original study, ADB
requirements were addressed, conditions of the SEPA Decision on IEE accorded to GP
were incorporated, the new access route was assessed and the changes in project
details were included
Legislative Framework
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEPA 1997) requires the proponents
of every development project in the country to conduct an environmental assessment
and submit its report to the relevant environmental protection agency.
The ADB Policies and Guidelines also call for an environmental and social assessment
for projects such as the FWEL-II.
The IEE had been carried out in response to the above-mentioned Act and now
incorporates the conditions of the SEPA decision on Initial Environmental Examination
(IEE) accorded to GP.
Project Overview
Fauji Wind Energy II Ltd. (FWEL-II) plans to develop, own and operate a 50 MW wind
farm IPP project in Sindh, Pakistan. The purchaser of the projects power will be the
National Transmission and Distribution Company (NTDC). The previous owners had
leased 1,656 acres (about 670 hectares) of land from Alternate Energy Development
Board (AEDB), who have acquired this land from the Government of Sindh. New lease
for FWEL-II is being updated by AEDB for correction in respect of land boundary
coordinates. A detailed wind resource and micro siting study has been conducted. The
wind resource study is based on the five-year (August 2006 through June 2010) site-
specific wind data obtained from a meteorological mast that was set up by the previous
owner Green Power Ltd. The project will consist of 20 pylons with Nordex N100 2.5 MW
turbines mounted at a hub height of 80 m and having a rotor diameter of 100 m located
around the periphery and down the center of the 670 hectare land parcel. The access to

Executive Summary
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site will be via an approximately 3 km long and 30 m wide access road from the Coastal
Highway to the site. The access road is owned partially by Government of Sindh and
partially by private owners. Compensation will be provided to land owners when required
by relevant authorities. An 10 km internal road to service the towers will be constructed
together with the service buildings within the FWEL-II premises FWEL-I has signed an
ndicative Term sheet with Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Islamic Development
Bank for arrangement of debt for the foreign component and the remainder will be
funded through a local consortium led by National Bank of Pakistan.
Description of the Environment
The proposed power plant site is located in Thatta District, about 24 km southwest of
Gharo town, which is located on the National Highway between Karachi and Thatta. The
power plant site is located on inter-tidal mud flats, surrounded on its three sides by the
creek channels. The proposed site and its immediate surroundings are lying completely
vacant, with no habitation, cultivation or grazing activity.
Administratively, the area is located in Haji Girano, which is one of the union councils of
the Mirpur Sakro Taluka, District Thatta. However the proposed site is outside the
settled area of the union council. The nearby population is mostly rural, and depends
upon cultivation, fishing and associated activities for livelihood.
The climate in the project area can be characterized by dry, hot and humid conditions,
typical of sub-tropical coastal zones lying in monsoon region. There is a minor seasonal
intervention of a mild winter from mid-December to mid-February and then a long hot
and humid summer extending from April to October.
No sources of anthropogenic sources of air pollution exist in the immediate vicinity of the
site; therefore the ambient air of the area is likely to be free from the key pollutants such
as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Indus
River and the irrigation network emanating from it are the key freshwater resources of
the area. The nearest irrigation canal is located about 7 km from the proposed site.
The project site is located in the area which is classified as Indus Delta. However,
primarily as a result of the decreasing river water flows, the area is no longer included in
the active delta, which is now restricted between Shah Bunder and Keti Bunder. The
project site comprises of inter-tidal mudflats with marshes along the creeks. The area is
mostly plain having alluvial silt above the high tide mark. In the low-lying area, numerous
marshes have been formed. Except for some saplings growing at the edges of mudflats,
generally the area is devoid of the mangrove forest. However, no mangrove pockets
were found during the recent survey.
Stakeholder Consultation
Stakeholder consultations were carried out as part of the IEE study. These consultations
were conducted with the institutional as well as the grassroots stakeholders. The main
objectives of the consultations were to: apprise the stakeholders about the proposed
project activities; obtain their views, concerns and recommendations; and
address/incorporate them in the project design - thus enhancing the environmental and
social performance of the project.

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Impact Assessment and Mitigation


During the IEE, the projects potential social and environmental impacts were identified
and updated. Each identified impact was then characterized with respect to its nature,
reversibility, geographical extent, consequence-severity and likelihood. Based upon this
characterization, the impacts were then assessed to be of high, medium or low
significance.
The key potential environmental and social issues identified during the study included
contamination of soil and water, safety hazards, damage to infrastructure, air quality
deterioration, noise emissions, threat to wildlife and habitat modification for the
construction phase of the project. Similar impacts during the plant operation were also
identified; these included soil and water contamination, safety hazards, species mortality,
habitat modification, noise and vibration. The IEE has recommended appropriate
mitigation measures to address the above concerns, and to keep the residual impacts
within acceptable limits.
Environmental Management Plan
An environmental management plan (EMP) had been developed to provide an
implementation mechanism for the mitigation measures mentioned above and has been
updated in the light of the SEPA decision conditionalities. The EMP provides the
organization structure for the environmental and social management system during the
project, and defines the roles and responsibilities of various players. The EMP includes
a mitigation plan, a monitoring plan, the communication and documentation
requirements, and training needs, in the context of the environmental and social
management of the project.
Findings and Recommendations
On the basis of the overall impact assessment, more specifically, nature and magnitude
of the residual environmental and socioeconomic impacts identified during the original
and updated IEE, it is concluded that the proposed project is unlikely to cause any
significant, lasting impact on the social, physical and biological environment of the area,
provided that the proposed activities are carried out as mentioned in this report, and the
mitigation measures included in this report are completely and effectively implemented.
The key recommendations pertaining to the environmental and social performance of the
proposed project are as follows:
The EMP should be made a part of the contracts awarded by FWEL-II for the
proposed project.
In-house environmental and social management capacity should be developed
in FWEL-II. For this purpose, an EHS group should be established within the
company.
FWEL-II should develop its Environmental and Social Policy, which should
demonstrate the companys commitment towards sound environmental and
social management practices throughout its operations.
FWEL-II and its contractors should employ local labor as much as possible.

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Contents

Acronyms ......................................................................................................... ii

Executive Summary ........................................................................................ ii

Contents ........................................................................................................... v

Exhibits ............................................................................................................ x

Appendices...................................................................................................... xii

1. Introduction ................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Project Proponent ............................................................................................ 1
1.2 Project Background and Justification .............................................................. 1
1.2.1 Wind Power Generation .................................................................................. 2
1.3 Project Overview ............................................................................................. 2
1.4 IEE Study ......................................................................................................... 2
1.4.1 Need for the Study........................................................................................... 2
1.4.2 Study Objectives.............................................................................................. 3
1.4.3 Study Scope ..................................................................................................... 3
1.4.4 Study Methodology ......................................................................................... 3
1.5 Document Structure......................................................................................... 4

2. Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework ............................................ 7


2.1 National Environmental Laws and Regulations .............................................. 7
2.2 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 .................................................. 7
2.2.1 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA
Regulations, 2000 ............................................................................................. 8
2.2.2 National and International Environmental Standards .................................... 8
2.2.3 National Environmental Policy, 2005 .............................................................. 1
2.2.4 Land Acquisition Act, 1894 .............................................................................. 1
2.2.5 Telegraph Act, 1885.......................................................................................... 2
2.2.6 Sindh Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and Amendments 2001 ........................... 2
2.2.7 Forest Act, 1927 ................................................................................................ 2
2.2.8 The Ports Act, 1908 (the Ports Act) ............................................................... 2
2.2.9 Canal and Drainage Act, 1873 .......................................................................... 3
2.2.10 Sindh Fisheries Ordinance, 1980.......................................................... 3

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2.2.11 The Sindh Irrigation Act, 1879 ............................................................. 3


2.2.12 Provincial Local Government Ordinances, 2001 .................................. 3
2.2.13 Antiquity Act, 1975............................................................................... 3
2.2.14 Mines, Oil Fields and Mineral Development Act, 1948 ....................... 4
2.2.15 Factories Act, 1934 ................................................................................ 4
2.2.16 Pakistan Explosive Act, 1884 ................................................................ 4
2.2.17 Employment of Child Act, 1991 ........................................................... 4
2.2.18 Civil Aviation Rules (1994) .................................................................. 4
2.2.19 Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 .................................................................... 5
2.3 Asian Development Bank (ADB) Polices and Standards ................................ 1
2.3.1 2009 Safeguards Policy Statement ................................................................... 1
2.3.2 Policy on Gender and Development (1998) ..................................................... 1
2.3.3 2001 Social Protection Strategy ........................................................................ 2
2.3.4 2005 Public Communications Policy................................................................ 2
2.3.5 Core Labor Standards ...................................................................................... 3
2.4 Institutional Setup for Environmental Management ...................................... 3
2.5 Environmental and Social Guidelines ............................................................. 3
2.5.1 Environmental Protection Agencys Environmental and Social Guidelines ... 3
2.5.2 AEDB Guidelines for Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms in the
Gharo Wind Corridor ...................................................................................... 4
2.6 Obligations under International Treaties ........................................................ 4

3. Project Description...................................................................................... 1
3.1 Project Overview ............................................................................................. 1
3.2 Project Location ............................................................................................... 1
3.3 Site Layout ....................................................................................................... 2
3.4 Logistics ........................................................................................................... 2
3.4.1 Roads and Tracks ............................................................................................. 2
3.4.2 Vehicles and Traffic......................................................................................... 2
3.5 Work Schedule ................................................................................................ 3
3.6 Construction Activities .................................................................................... 3
3.6.1 Staff 4
3.6.2 Supplies ........................................................................................................... 4
3.6.3 Water 4
3.6.4 Electricity ......................................................................................................... 4
3.6.5 Waste Management ......................................................................................... 5

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3.6.6 Noise 5
3.7 Operational Activities...................................................................................... 5
3.7.1 Staff 6
3.7.2 Supplies ........................................................................................................... 6
3.7.3 Water 6
3.7.4 Waste Management ......................................................................................... 6
3.7.5 Noise 6
3.8 Decommissioning Activities............................................................................ 1

4. Analysis of Project Alternatives.................................................................. 1


4.1 Management Alternatives ............................................................................... 1
4.1.1 No Project Alternative ..................................................................................... 1
4.1.2 Siting Alternatives ........................................................................................... 1
4.2 Technology Alternatives.................................................................................. 1
4.2.1 Renewable Vs. Non-renewable Power Plants ................................................. 1
4.2.2 Transformer Oil ............................................................................................... 1

5. Description of Environment and Socioeconomic Conditions ....................... 1


5.1 Physical Environment ...................................................................................... 1
5.1.1 Physiography, Topography and Geology ........................................................ 1
5.1.2 Land Use .......................................................................................................... 1
5.1.3 Meteorology and Climate ................................................................................ 1
5.1.4 Freshwater Resources ...................................................................................... 1
5.2 Biological Environment ................................................................................... 1
5.2.1 Biological Resources of the Area ..................................................................... 1
5.2.2 Marine Ecosystem ............................................................................................ 2
5.2.3 Biological Resources of the Proposed Site....................................................... 2
5.2.4 Protected Areas ................................................................................................ 1
5.3 Socioeconomic Description ............................................................................. 1
5.3.1 Administrative Setup ...................................................................................... 1
5.3.2 Demographic Features of the Area .................................................................. 2
5.3.3 Culture, Ethnicity and Castes .......................................................................... 2
5.3.4 Physical Infrastructure..................................................................................... 3
5.3.5 Education and Literacy .................................................................................... 3
5.3.6 Health and Diseases ........................................................................................ 4
5.3.7 Agriculture....................................................................................................... 4

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5.3.8 Fishing ............................................................................................................. 5


5.3.9 Developmental Activities in the Area ............................................................. 5
5.3.10 Sites of Archeological, Historical, Cultural or Religious Significance 5

6. Stakeholder Consultations.......................................................................... 1
6.1 Objectives ........................................................................................................ 1
6.2 Participation Framework ................................................................................. 1
6.3 Stakeholder Identification and Analysis ......................................................... 1
6.4 Consultation Process ....................................................................................... 3

7. Environmental Impacts and Mitigation ..................................................... 1


7.1 Impact Assessment Process ............................................................................. 1
7.1.1 Screening of Environmental Impacts .............................................................. 1
7.1.2 Impact Characterization................................................................................... 1
7.1.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation ................................................................. 1
7.1.4 Determination of Mitigation Measures ........................................................... 1
7.1.5 Assessment of Residual Impacts ..................................................................... 1
7.2 Design Phase Considerations .......................................................................... 1
7.3 Construction Phase Impacts ............................................................................ 1
7.3.1 Soil Erosion and Degradation.......................................................................... 1
7.3.2 Air Quality Deterioration ................................................................................ 3
7.3.3 Water Contamination ...................................................................................... 1
7.3.4 Loss of Natural Vegetation .............................................................................. 1
7.3.5 Damage to Wildlife.......................................................................................... 2
7.3.6 Involuntary Resettlement and Damage to Crops ............................................ 3
7.3.7 Damage to infrastructure ................................................................................. 3
7.3.8 Blocked Access ................................................................................................ 1
7.3.9 Noise and Vibration ........................................................................................ 1
7.3.10 Safety Hazard ....................................................................................... 1
7.3.11 Public Health ....................................................................................... 2
7.3.12 Gender and Social Issues ..................................................................... 3
7.3.13 Child Labor .......................................................................................... 4
7.3.14 Impacts on Archeological, Cultural, Historical or Religious
Significance ..................................................................................................... 4
7.4 Operation Phase Impacts ................................................................................. 4
7.4.1 Soil and Water Contamination ........................................................................ 5

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7.4.2 Safety Hazard .................................................................................................. 6


7.4.3 Noise 7
7.4.4 Air Quality Deterioration ................................................................................ 7
7.4.5 Shadow Flicker and Blade Glint...................................................................... 8
7.4.6 Species Mortality ............................................................................................. 9
7.4.7 Habitat Modification ..................................................................................... 10
7.4.8 Threat to Marine Fauna ................................................................................. 10

8. Environmental Management Plan .............................................................. 1


8.1 Purpose and Objectives of EMP ...................................................................... 1
8.2 Components of the EMP .................................................................................. 1
8.3 Institutional Arrangements ............................................................................. 1
8.3.1 Management Approach ................................................................................... 1
8.3.2 Organizational Structure and Responsibilities ............................................... 1
8.4 Mitigation Plan ................................................................................................ 1
8.5 Monitoring Plan............................................................................................... 1
8.5.1 Compliance Monitoring .................................................................................. 1
8.5.2 Effects Monitoring ........................................................................................... 1
8.5.3 External Monitoring ........................................................................................ 1
8.6 Communication and Documentation .............................................................. 1
8.6.1 Data Recording and Maintenance ................................................................... 1
8.6.2 Meetings .......................................................................................................... 1
8.6.3 Grievance Redress Mechanism ....................................................................... 2
8.6.4 Reports ............................................................................................................. 3
8.7 Environmental and Social Training................................................................. 3
8.8 Change Management ....................................................................................... 3
8.8.1 Category A Change ........................................................................................ 4
8.8.2 Category B Change ........................................................................................ 4
8.8.3 Category C Change ........................................................................................ 4
8.9 Public Disclosure ............................................................................................. 5
8.10 Cost of Environmental and Social Management ............................................. 5

9. Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................ 1


9.1 Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 1
9.2 Recommendations ........................................................................................... 1

10. References and Document Support ............................................................. 1

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Exhibits

Exhibit 1.1: Project Location.................................................................... 5


Exhibit 1.2: Projection of Power Demand Growth - Pakistan ................... 6
Exhibit 1.3: Population, Income and Electricity Consumption Sindh .... 6
Exhibit 1.4: Historical and Projected Electricity Demand- Sindh ............. 6
Exhibit 2.1: Selected NEQS for Waste Effluents ..................................... 1
Exhibit 2.2: NEQS for Industrial Gaseous Emissions .............................. 1
Exhibit 2.3: NEQS for Motor Vehicles Exhaust and Noise ....................... 1
Exhibit 2.4: National Environmental Quality Standards for Noise ............ 1
Exhibit 2.5: National Environmental Quality Standards for Ambient Air ... 2
Exhibit 2.6: National Environmental Quality Standards for Drinking Water
Quality................................................................................... 3
Exhibit 3.1: Power Plant Location............................................................ 2
Exhibit 3.2: Site Layout Plan ................................................................... 3
Exhibit 3.3: Operational Noise Data (Green Power) ................................ 4
Exhibit 4.1: Health Effects of PCBs ......................................................... 2
Exhibit 5.1: Land Use in Sindh ................................................................ 1
Exhibit 5.2: Mean Monthly Maximum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi
(C) ....................................................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.3: Mean Monthly Minimum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi
(C) ....................................................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.4: Average Wind Speed Recorded at Karachi (meters per
seconds or m/s) .................................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.5: Precipitation Recorded at Karachi (mm) ............................... 1
Exhibit 5.8: Water Flow in Indus River .................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.9: Species Recorded in Creek Area.......................................... 1
Exhibit 5.10: Protected Areas in Gharo Wind Corridor ............................. 1
Exhibit 5.11: Demographic Data of Thatta District ................................... 2
Exhibit 5.12: Demographic Data of Mirpur Sakro Taluka ......................... 2
Exhibit 5.13: Educational Institutes in Thatta District ............................... 1
Exhibit 5.14: Literacy Ratio in Project Area ............................................. 1
Exhibit 5.15: Literacy Ratio by Gender .................................................... 1
Exhibit 5.16: Healthcare Facilities in Thatta District ................................. 1
Exhibit 5.17: Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan ..................................... 2
Exhibit 5.18: Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan ......... 3

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Exhibit 5.18: Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan


(Contd.) ................................................................................ 4
Exhibit 5.19: Fishing Species and Catch-Size during 7-day Trip in the
Project Area .......................................................................... 4
Exhibit 5.20: Places of Archeological, Historical or Religious Significance
Falling in Sindh ..................................................................... 5
Exhibit 6.1: Participation Framework ....................................................... 4
Exhibit 6.2: Conceptual Framework ........................................................ 1
Exhibit 6.3: List of Participants during Grass Root Consultations ............ 1
Exhibit 7.1: Impact Characterization........................................................ 1
Exhibit 7.2: Impact Assessment .............................................................. 1
Exhibit 7.3: Environmental and Social Screening Matrix (Unmitigated) ... 2
Exhibit 7.4: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project Design
Phase (Unmitigated) ............................................................. 3
Exhibit 7.5: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project
Construction Phase (Unmitigated) ......................................... 4
Exhibit 7.6: Environmental Impact Characterization for Project Operation
Phase (Unmitigated) ............................................................. 5
Exhibit 7.7: Typical Noise Levels............................................................. 6
Exhibit 8.1: Organizational Structure for Environmental and Social
Management (Construction Phase) ....................................... 6
Exhibit 8.2: Roles and Responsibilities .................................................... 7
Exhibit 8.3: Mitigation Plan ....................................................................... 8
Exhibit 8.4: Effects Monitoring Plan for Construction and O&M Phases . 20
Exhibit 8.4: Effects Monitoring Plan for Construction and O&M Phases
(Contd.) .............................................................................. 21
Exhibit 8.5: Grievance Redressal Mechanism ........................................ 22
Exhibit 8.5: Grievance Redressal Mechanism (Contd.) ......................... 23
Exhibit 8.6: Environmental and Social Trainings ................................... 24
Exhibit 8.7: Cost of Environmental and Social Management (During
Construction Phase)............................................................ 25
Exhibit 9.1: Environmental Screening Matrix (Mitigated) ......................... 2

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Appendices

Appendix A: Photographs .................................................................. 1


Appendix B: Public Consultation Details .......................................... 1

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1. Introduction

Fauji Wind Energy II Ltd. (FWEL-II),a project of the Fauji Foundation (FF) plans to
develop, own and operate a 50 MW wind power plant near Gharo, about 54 km south-
east of Karachi (see Exhibit 1.1 for project location). FWEL-II is seeking finances from
the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Islamic Development Bank along with a
consortium of local Banks led by National Bank of Pakistan for this project for this
project. FWEL-II bought the ownership rights from Green Power (Pvt.) Ltd. Previously an
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) for the project has been approved by the Sindh
Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) in 2009. This is the updated version of the IEE
and incorporates ADB requirements and comments on the original IEE for the project.
1.1 Project Proponent
Fauji Wind Energy II Ltd. (FWEL-II) is a project of the Fauji Foundation. They took over
the ownership from the previous owner Green Power (Pvt.) Limited of the Tapal Group.
Fauji Foundation is one of the largest conglomerates in Pakistan and have interest in
fertilizers, cement, food, power generation, gas exploration, LPG marketing and
distribution, financial services and security services. FWEL-II obtained the generation
license from the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) in 2006 to
engage in the generation of wind power for a term of twenty (20) years.
1.2 Project Background and Justification
Pakistan as a whole is an energy-deficient country and per capita electricity generation
has traditionally been low (581 KWh as against the World average of 2,657 KWh1). The
electricity demand in the country has grown at a rapid pace since 1985. Consumption of
electricity increased from 17,608 GWh in 1985 to 55,507 GWh in 2004, representing an
annual average growth rate of 6.2%. The growth in the electricity demand has however
been uneven over the years. The consumption grew at a rate of 11% during 1985-99,
the growth rate slowed down to 6.9% during 1990-95 and 2.5% during 1996-2000.
Since the year 2000 however, the trend has reversed and electricity demand has picked
up, mirroring the overall economic growth in the country. During the period 2001-04, the
electricity demand grew at a rate of 3.3% (NEPRA 2005).
The electricity demand in the country is projected to grow at an annual compound growth
rate of 7.9% during the period 2005-10, and increase from 15,500 MW in 2005 to
21,500 MW in 2010, as shown in Exhibit 1.2. This growth has been projected on the
basis of increase both in population and per capita income; Exhibit 1.3 presents the
linkage between the increasing population, per capita income and electricity
consumption.
Much like rest of the country, the Sindh province is also experiencing growth in the
electricity demand, as shown in Exhibit 1.4. In order to meet this increasing demand,
the existing power generating capacity has to be increased. The FWEL-IIs proposed
power plant is an endeavor towards this objective.

1
Source: Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10, Government of Pakistan, 2005.

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1.2.1 Wind Power Generation


In addition to relying upon conventional power generation technologies, the Government
of Pakistan has initiated efforts towards utilizing renewable energy resources, which are
abundant, environmentally clean and indigenous. The wind energy is one of such
renewable resources, which are abundantly available primarily in the coastal areas of
Sindh and Balochistan. Alternative Energy and Development Board (AEDB) carried out
studies in this regard, and a specific area was marked in the southern region of Sindh
Province, referred to as Gharo Wind Corridor. The proposed FWEL-II wind power plant
lies in the identified wind corridor. It plans to harness the wind energy potential that
exists along the Sindh coast. Once operational, the proposed power plant will not only
help in meeting the growing energy demand in the country, but will also contribute
towards reducing reliance on the conventional fuels such as oil and gas, which are
expensive and often imported, while also generating considerable pollution load.
1.3 Project Overview
Fauji Wind Energy II Ltd. (FWEL-II) plans to develop, own and operate a 50 MW wind
farm IPP project in Sindh, Pakistan. The purchaser of the projects power will be the
National Transmission and Distribution Company (NTDC). The previous owners had
leased 1,656 acres (about 670 hectares) of land from Alternate Energy Development
Board (AEDB), who have acquired this land from the Government of Sindh. New lease
for Fauji Wind Energy is being updated by AEDB for correction in respect of land
boundary coordinates. A detailed wind resource and micro siting study has been
conducted by the technical consultant M/S Sgurr Energy UK. The wind resource study is
based on the five-year (August 2006 through June 2010) site-specific wind data obtained
from a meteorological mast that was set up by the previous owner GP. A complete
geotechnical study, topography study, contour mapping and tidal study has been
completed1. The project will consist of 20 pylons each with a Nordex N100
2.5 MW turbine at a hub height of 80 m and a rotor diameter of 100 m. Nordex and
Descon Engineering Services will be the main contractors for the project FWEL-I has
signed an Indicative Term sheet with Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Islamic
Development Bank for arrangement of debt for the foreign component and the remainder
will be funded through a local consortium led by National Bank of Pakistan. The Power
Purchase Agreement is currently being reviewed by both FWEL-I and its lenders, and
negotiations with NTDC will start shortly.
1.4 IEE Study
1.4.1 Need for the Study
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEPA 1997)2 requires the proponents
of every development project in the country to submit either an Initial Environmental
Examination (IEE) or where the project is likely to cause an adverse environmental
effect, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) to the concerned environmental
protection agency (EPA). The IEE/EIA Regulations 2000 issued under the PEPA 1997
provide separate lists for the projects requiring IEE and EIA. The AEDB, in close
collaboration with the UNDP/GEF Wind Energy Project (WEP) have recently developed

1
Report on Subsoil Investigation for 50 MW Wind Plant near Gharo, Soilmat Engineers, February 2006
2
Act No. XXXIV of 1997. The Gazette of Pakistan, Islamabad, December 6, 1997.

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a set of guidelines to document an Environmental Assessment. These guidelines are


based on the PEPA 1997, IEE/EIA Regulations 2000 and the Pakistan Environmental
Assessment Procedures 1997 (PEAP 1997), are not legally binding but provide in one
place main factors to be incorporated in any EA of Wind Power projects
The ADB Policies and Guidelines (discussed in Chapter 2) also call for environmental
and social assessment of projects such as the proposed power plant. Since the
proponents are seeking the ADB finances for the proposed project, the ADBs policies
and guidelines will also be applicable to the project, in addition to the national legal
requirements mentioned above (and discussed in detail in Chapter 2).
1.4.2 Study Objectives
The objectives of the present IEE are to:
assess the existing environmental and socioeconomic conditions of the project
area,
identify likely impacts of the proposed project on the natural and human
environment of the area, and to predict and evaluate these impacts, and
determine significance of these impacts, in light of the technical and regulatory
concerns,
propose appropriate mitigation measures that should be incorporated in the
design of the project to minimize if not eliminate the adverse impacts,
assess the compliance status of the proposed activities with respect to the
environmental legislation and ADBs environmental and social standards,
formulate an environmental management plan (EMP) to provide an
implementation mechanism for the mitigation measures identified during the
study.
1.4.3 Study Scope
The present IEE study has been conducted for the FWEL-II wind power project near
Gharo, Sindh Province. The study covers the potential environmental and social impacts
that may be encountered during the construction and operation phases of the proposed
project.
1.4.4 Study Methodology
The key steps that were followed while conducting the IEE are briefly described below.
Scoping
During this phase, key information on the project was collected and reviewed. A long
list of the potential environmental as well as social issues likely to arise as a result of the
project was developed. A stakeholder analysis was also carried out for the consultation
carried out subsequently.
Stakeholder Consultation
Stakeholder consultations were carried out during the IEE study. Meetings were held in
the vicinity of the site and in Karachi with the institutional stakeholders and key
environmental and social issues discussed. Extensive consultations with the grass root
stakeholders were carried out at the project site. Efforts were made to solicit the
concerns and views of rural women as well. The main objective of the consultations was

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to apprise the key stakeholders about the project details, and to obtain their concerns,
apprehensions and recommendations regarding the proposed activities.
Data Collection/Compilation
During this phase, data was collected and compiled, in order to develop a baseline of the
project areas physical, biological and human environment. For this purpose, both
review of secondary sources and direct field data collection including visits to the site
were carried out.
The secondary resources that were consulted included reports of the studies carried out
earlier, published books and data, and relevant websites. With the help of these
resources a generic profile of the project area was developed. The extensive field visits
were then carried out in order to collect the primary data specific to the project sites.
During these field visits, key information on environmental and social parameters was
collected. Any hot spots falling at or near the project sites were identified, and most
importantly, the project affectees were determined.
Impact Assessment
During the impact assessment, the environmental, socioeconomic, and project
information collected in previous steps was used to determine the potential impacts of
the proposed project. Subsequent to this, the potential impacts were characterized in
order to determine their significance. Mitigation measures were identified where required
to minimize the significant environmental impacts. A management framework was also
developed in the form of an EMP for the implementation of the mitigation measures
identified during the study.
1.5 Document Structure
Chapter 2 discusses the ADBs policies and standards, as well as the regulatory,
legislative and institutional setup in the country, relevant to the environmental and social
assessment and the UNDP/GEF guidelines for the impact assessment for wind farms.
Chapter 3 provides a simplified description of the proposed project and its components.
The project alternatives are discussed in Chapter 4. The environmental and social
baseline conditions of the project area are presented in Chapter 5. The stakeholder
consultation has been covered in Chapter 6. The environmental and socioeconomic
impacts of the project are assessed and their respective mitigations recommended in
Chapter 7. Chapter 8 outlines the implementation mechanism for the mitigation
measures, in the form of an environmental management plan. Finally, Chapter 9
presents the findings and conclusion of the study.

Introduction
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Exhibit 1.1: Project Location

Introduction
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Exhibit 1.2: Projection of Power Demand Growth - Pakistan


Year Total Demand (MW)
2005-06 15,500
2006-07 16,600
2007-08 17,900
2008-09 19,600
2009-10 21,500

Table taken from NEPRAs State of the Industry Report 2005


(Source: Mid Term Development Framework).

Exhibit 1.3: Population, Income and Electricity Consumption Sindh 3


Year Population Per Capita Energy Sale Per Capita Energy
(Million) Income (Rs) (GWh) Consumption (kWh)
2000-01 24.40 18,000 3,722 151
2001-02 24.90 19,440 3,871 153
2002-03 25.42 20,995 4,026 156
2003-04 25.94 22,675 4,187 159
2004-05 26.47 24,489 4,354 162
2005-06 27.02 26,448 4,529 165
2006-07 27.58 28,564 4,710 169
2007-08 28.14 30,849 4,898 172
2008-09 28.72 33,317 5,094 175
2009-10 29.32 35,982 5,298 178
th
Source: Table-5. PC1 Proforma 6 STG Programme, Sub Transmission Lines and
Grid Stations, 2003-04 to 2007-08. HESCO September 2004.

Exhibit 1.4: Historical and Projected Electricity Demand- Sindh 4


Year Total Demand (MW) Growth Rate (%)
2005-06 1,084.80 4.62
2006-07 1,170.87 8.01
2007-08 1,244.07 6.25
2008-09 1,335.85 7.38
2009-10 1,429.84 7.04
2010-11 1,598.97 6.23

Source: Demand projections by HESCO.

3
Excluding Karachi City
4
Excluding Karachi City

Introduction
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2. Policy, Legal and Administrative


Framework

This Chapter discusses the policy, legal and administrative framework as well as
institutional set-up relevant to the environmental and social assessment of the proposed
project. Also included in the Chapter are the environmental and social guidelines from
the national agencies as well as international donors and other organizations.
2.1 National Environmental Laws and Regulations
Pakistans statute books contain a number of laws concerned with the regulation and
control of the environmental and social aspects. However, the enactment of
comprehensive legislation on the environment, in the form of an act of parliament, is a
relatively new phenomenon. Most of the existing laws on environmental and social
issues have been enforced over an extended period of time, and are context-specific.
The laws relevant to the developmental projects are briefly reviewed below.
2.2 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (the Act) is the basic legislative tool
empowering the government to frame regulations for the protection of the environment
(the environment has been defined in the Act as: (a) air, water and land; (b) all layers of
the atmosphere; (c) all organic and inorganic matter and living organisms; (d) the
ecosystem and ecological relationships; (e) buildings, structures, roads, facilities and
works; (f) all social and economic conditions affecting community life; and (g) the inter-
relationships between any of the factors specified in sub-clauses a to f).
The Act is applicable to a broad range of issues and extends to socioeconomic aspects,
land acquisition, air, water, soil, marine and noise pollution, as well as the handling of
hazardous waste. The discharge or emission of any effluent, waste, air pollutant or
noise in an amount, concentration or level in excess of the National Environmental
Quality Standards (NEQS) specified by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
(Pak-EPA) has been prohibited under the Act, and penalties have been prescribed for
those contravening the provisions of the Act. The powers of the federal and provincial
Environmental Protection Agencies (EPAs), established under the Pakistan
Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983,5 have also been considerably enhanced
under this legislation and they have been given the power to conduct inquiries into
possible breaches of environmental law either of their own accord, or upon the
registration of a complaint.
The requirement for environmental assessment is laid out in Section 12 (1) of the Act.
Under this section, no project involving construction activities or any change in the
physical environment can be undertaken unless an initial environmental examination
(IEE) or an environmental impact assessment (EIA) is conducted, and approval is

5
Superseded by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997.

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received from the federal or relevant provincial EPA. Section 12 (6) of the Act states that
this provision is applicable only to such categories of projects as may be prescribed.
The categories are defined in the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of
IEE and EIA Regulations, 2000 and are discussed in Section 2.2.1 below.
The requirement of conducting an environmental assessment of the proposed wind
power project emanates from this Act.
2.2.1 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA
Regulations, 2000
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA Regulations,
20006 (the Regulations), developed by the Pak-EPA under the powers conferred upon it
by the Act, provide the necessary details on preparation, submission and review of the
IEE and the EIA. Categorization of projects for IEE and EIA is one of the main
components of the Regulations. Projects have been classified on the basis of expected
degree of adverse environmental impacts. Project types listed in Schedule I are
designated as potentially less damaging to the environment, and those listed in
Schedule II as having potentially serious adverse effects. Schedule I projects require an
IEE to be conducted, provided they are not located in environmentally sensitive areas.
For the Schedule II projects, conducting an EIA is necessary.
The proposed project falls under Schedule I of the Regulations, hence only an IEE has
to be conducted for it.
2.2.2 National and International Environmental Standards
National Standards
The National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), promulgated under the PEPA
1997, specify the following standards:
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (16 parameters) in gaseous
emissions from industrial sources,
Maximum permissible limits for motor vehicle exhaust and noise,
For power plants operating on oil and coal:
Maximum allowable emission of sulfur dioxide,
Maximum allowable increment in concentration of sulfur dioxide in ambient
air,
Maximum allowable concentration of nitrogen oxides in ambient air, and
Maximum allowable emission of nitrogen oxide for steam generators as
function of heat input.
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (32 parameters) in municipal
and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland waters, sewage treatment
and sea (three separate set of numbers).
Selected NEQS for liquid effluents discharged to inland waters, gaseous emission from
industrial sources, emissions from motor vehicles, noise, ambient air quality and water
quality standards are provided in Exhibit 2.1, Exhibit 2.2, Exhibit 2.3, Exhibit 2.4,

6
S.R.O. 339 (1)/2001. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Islamabad. 2000.

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Exhibit 2.5 and Exhibit 2.6 respectively. These standards will be applicable to the gaseous
emissions and liquid effluents discharged to the environment from the proposed project.

2.2.3 National Environmental Policy, 2005


The National Environmental Policy (NEP) was approved by the PEPA in its 10th meeting
on 27th December 2004 under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister of Pakistan and
thereafter approved by the Cabinet on 29th June 2005. NEP is the primary policy of
Government of Pakistan that addresses the environmental issues of the country. The
broad Goal of NEP is, To protect, conserve and restore Pakistans environment in order
to improve the quality of life of the citizens through sustainable development. The NEP
identifies the following set of sectoral and cross-sectoral guidelines to achieve its Goal of
sustainable development.
a. Sectoral Guidelines:
Water and sanitation, air quality and noise, waste management, forestry, biodiversity and
protected areas, climate change and ozone depletion, energy efficiency and renewable,
agriculture and livestock, and multilateral environmental agreements.
b. Cross Sectoral Guidelines:
Poverty, population, gender, health, trade and environment, environment and local
governance, and natural disaster management The NEP suggests the following policy
instruments to overcome the environmental problems throughout the country:
Integration of environment into development planning;
Legislation and regulatory framework;
Capacity development;
Economic and market based instrument;
Public awareness and education; and
Public private civil society partnership.
NEP is a policy document and does not apply directly at the project level. However, the
development projects like power generation from wind energy should not add to the
aggravation of the environmental issues identified in NEP and mitigation measures
should be adopted to minimize or avoid any contribution of the projects and of course,
being the wind a renewable source of energy, wind energy production can be considered
as a means to integrate the environment into development planning.
2.2.4 Land Acquisition Act, 1894
The Land Acquisition Act (LAA) of 1894 amended from time to time has been the de-
facto policy governing land acquisition and compensation in the country. The LAA is the
most commonly used law for acquisition of land and other properties for development
projects. It comprises of 55 sections pertaining to area notifications and surveys,
acquisition, compensation and apportionment awards and disputes resolution, penalties
and exemptions.
For the proposed project, the proponents have purchased the land from the Government
of Sindh. Since the proposed site was a government-owned land, and no settlement or
any structure existed at the site, the LAA is not applicable to the land acquisition for the
proposed project.

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2.2.5 Telegraph Act, 1885


This law was enacted to define the authority and responsibility of the Telegraph
authority. The law covers, among other activities, installation and maintenance of
telegraph lines and posts (poles). The Act defines the mechanism to determine and
make payment of compensation associated with the installation of these lines and posts.
Under this Act, the land required for the poles is not acquired (or purchased) from the
owner, nor the title of the land transferred. Compensation is paid to the owner for any
structure, crop or tree that exists on the land; cost of the land is not paid to the owner.
2.2.6 Sindh Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and Amendments 2001
This law was enacted to protect the provinces wildlife resources directly and other
natural resources indirectly. It classifies wildlife by degree of protection, i.e. animals that
may be hunted on a permit or special license, and species that are protected and cannot
be hunted under any circumstances. The Act specifies restrictions on hunting and trade
in animals, trophies, or meat. The Act also defines various categories of wildlife
protected areas, i.e. National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Game Reserve.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as operation and maintenance
(O&M) activities of the proposed project.
Two amendments to the Ordinance were issued in January and June 2001 respectively
pertaining to oil and gas activities within national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. The first
amendment allowed the Government to authorize the laying of an underground pipeline
through protected areas. The second amendment allowed exploration and production
activities within national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. However this amendment is not
applicable for other development projects including power generation with the use of
wind energy
2.2.7 Forest Act, 1927
The Act authorizes Provincial Forest Departments to establish forest reserves and
protected forests. The Act prohibits any person to set fires in the forest, quarry stone,
remove any forest-produce or cause any damage to the forest by cutting trees or
clearing up area for cultivation or any other purpose.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as O&M activities of the proposed
project.
2.2.8 The Ports Act, 1908 (the Ports Act)
Sub-section (1) of section 21 of the Ports Act states that no ballast or rubbish/oil / water
mixed with oil shall be discharged into any port to which the Ports Act applies. Rule 6 of
the Ports Act empowers the Government of Pakistan to make any rules for the
prevention of danger arising to the public health, by the introduction and spread of any
infectious or contagious disease. This is applicable to all vessels arriving at or sailing
from any port to which the Ports Act applies (this includes the Karachi port). This may
include hoisting of signals from vessels having any suspected case of any infectious or
contagious disease; medical inspection of such vessels; questions and information
required from the masters of the vessels; detention of such vessels; removal to the
hospital of the crew members, and the cleansing and disinfection of such vessel

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2.2.9 Canal and Drainage Act, 1873


The Canal and Drainage Act (1873) prohibits corruption or fouling of water in canals
(defined to include channels, tube wells, reservoirs and watercourses), or obstruction of
drainage. This Act will be applicable to the construction and O&M works to be carried
out during the proposed project.
2.2.10 Sindh Fisheries Ordinance, 1980
The Ordinance provides for the issuing of a fishing license or permit that is mandatory for
fishing in public water, for the sale or trade or processing of fish in markets and factories,
for the declaration of sanctuary of any public water at any time and the related
restrictions, for the disposal of wastes and sewerage that must be treated to prevent
water pollution, for banning the use of explosives and toxic or poisonous agents in the
fishing activities and, for restricting to sport fishing the use of fishing craft. Fishery
Officers shall be appointed under this Ordinance and their powers extended to
inspecting persons, vessels, premises and licenses in order to verify compliance with the
ordinance. Offences are dealt with and penalties may be confiscation, fines or
imprisonment depending on the nature of the offence.
2.2.11 The Sindh Irrigation Act, 1879
This Act has relevance to the study due to the presence of the extensive irrigation
network in the project area. This Act covers the construction, maintenance and
regulation of canals for the supply of water and for the levy of rates of water supplied in
the Sindh. In this Act canal includes channels, pipes and reservoirs constructed and
maintained by the Government for the supply for storage of water. Under section 27 of
the Act a person desiring to have a supply of water from a canal for purposes other than
irrigation shall submit a written application to a Canal Officer who may, with the sanction
of the Provincial Government give permission under special conditions. The Act also
prohibits the damaging, altering, enlarging or obstructing the canals without proper
authority.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as O&M activities of the proposed
project.
2.2.12 Provincial Local Government Ordinances, 2001
These ordinances were issued under the devolution process and define the roles of the
local governments. Under this Ordinance, three tiers of the local governments have
been introduced at the district, tehsil and union levels. The topmost tier is the district
government, followed by the Tehsil (subdivision of a district) government, known as the
Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA). The lowest tier of the local government is the
Union Administration.
In addition to the local governance and municipal administration functions, the local
government ordinances also address the land use, conservation of natural vegetation,
air, water and land pollution, disposal of solid waste and wastewater effluents, as well as
matters relating to public health.
2.2.13 Antiquity Act, 1975
The Antiquities Act of 1975 ensures the protection of cultural resources in Pakistan. The
Act is designed to protect antiquities from destruction, theft, negligence, unlawful
excavation, trade and export. Antiquities have been defined in the Act as ancient
products of human activity, historical sites, or sites of anthropological or cultural interest,

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national monuments, etc. The law prohibits new construction in the proximity of a
protected antiquity and empowers the Government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in
any area that may contain articles of archeological significance.
Under this Act, the project proponents are obligated to:
Ensure that no activity is undertaken in the proximity of a protected antiquity, and
if during the course of the project an archeological discovery is made, it should be
protected and reported to the Department of Archeology, Government of
Pakistan, for further action.
This Act will be applicable to the construction as well as O&M activities of the proposed
project.
2.2.14 Mines, Oil Fields and Mineral Development Act, 1948
This legislation provides procedures for quarrying and mining of construction material
from state-owned as well as private land. These procedures will have to be followed
during the proposed project.
2.2.15 Factories Act, 1934
The clauses relevant to the proposed project are those that address the health, safety
and welfare of the workers, disposal of solid waste and effluents, and damage to private
and public property. The Act also provides regulations for handling and disposing toxic
and hazardous substances. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997
(discussed above), supersedes parts of this Act pertaining to environment and
environmental degradation.
2.2.16 Pakistan Explosive Act, 1884
This Act provides regulations for the handling, transportation and use of explosives
during quarrying, blasting and other purposes. The transmission line tower installation
sometimes needs blasting at rocky/mountainous areas, however for the proposed
project, no such blasting is envisaged.
2.2.17 Employment of Child Act, 1991
Article 11(3) of the Constitution of Pakistan prohibits employment of children below the
age of 14 years in any factory, mines or any other hazardous employment. In
accordance with this Article, the Employment of Child Act (ECA) 1991 disallows the child
labor in the country. The ECA defines a child to mean a person who has not completed
his/her fourteenth years of age. The ECA states that no child shall be employed or
permitted to work in any of the occupation set forth in the ECA (such as transport sector,
railways, construction, and ports) or in any workshop wherein any of the processes
defined in the Act is carried out. The processes defined in the Act include carpet
weaving, bidi (kind of a cigarette) making, cement manufacturing, textile, construction
and others).
FWEL-II and its contractors will be bound by the ECA to disallow any child labor at the
project sites or campsites.
2.2.18 Civil Aviation Rules (1994)
These rules apply to flight operations within Pakistan by aircrafts other than military
aircrafts and, except where otherwise prescribed, to flight operations by aircrafts
registered, acquired or operating under these rules, wherever they may be. The rules

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with relevant significance to the activities taking place in Gharo Wind Corridor are the
following:
No person shall erect any temporary or permanent structure, nor position a
vehicle or other mobile object on or in the vicinity of an aerodrome (airport), that
will be within the clearance area, or will protrude through an obstacle limitation
surface, at that aerodrome.
No person shall operate a light in the vicinity of an aerodrome which because of
its glare is liable to dazzle pilots of aircraft taking off from or landing at that
aerodrome; or which can be mistaken for an aeronautical ground light. If such a
light is operated it shall be extinguished or satisfactorily screened immediately
upon notice being given to the person or persons operating the light, by the
Director-General or by the Manager or by a person authorized by him.
No person or persons shall operate a radio station or electrical equipment in the
vicinity of an aerodrome or of a radio aid to navigation serving an airway or an air
route in Pakistan which is liable to cause interference with radio communications
between aircraft and an Air Traffic Services Unit, or which is liable to disturb the
signal from a navigational radio aid.
A captive balloon or a kite shall not be flown at a height above 200ft within 6km of
an aerodrome, and a free balloon shall not be flown at any place, except with the
express permission of the Director-General and in compliance with the conditions
attached to such permission
An aircraft shall not be flown over congested areas of cities, towns, or
settlements or over an open air assembly of persons, except by permission of the
Director-General, unless it is at such height as will permit, in the event of an
emergency, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons on the
ground, and except when it is taking off or landing, shall not be flown closer than
500ft to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure.
However as the Wind Corridor is not used much by the domestic air traffic (except for a
proximity to one not frequently used route/airport in Nawabshah), it is highly unlikely that
wind farm construction and operation activities might be affected by any of the
aforementioned rules.
2.2.19 Pakistan Penal Code, 1860
The Code deals with the offences where public or private property or human lives are
affected due to intentional or accidental misconduct of an individual or organization. The
Code also addresses control of noise, noxious emissions and disposal of effluents. Most
of the environmental aspects of the Code have been superseded by the Pakistan
Environmental Protection Act, 1997.

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2.3 Asian Development Bank (ADB) Polices and Standards


ADB policies and standards to manage social and environmental risks and impacts are
considered.
Safeguards Policy Statement
Policy on Gender and Development
Social Protection Strategy
Public Communications Policy
Core Labor Standards
2.3.1 2009 Safeguards Policy Statement
ADB operational policies include three basic safeguard policies mentioned below. This
safeguard policy statement applies to all ADB-financed and/or ADB-administered
sovereign and non-sovereign projects, and their components regardless of the source of
financing, including investment projects funded by a loan; and/or a grant; and/or other
means, such as equity and/or guarantees (hereafter broadly referred to as projects).

The Involuntary Resettlement Policy


Minimize, mitigate, and/or compensate for adverse projects impacts on the environment
and affected people when avoidance is not possible

Policy of Indigenous Peoples


Help borrowers /clients to strengthen their safeguard system and develop the capacity to
manage environmental and social risks

Environmental Policy
Avoid adverse impacts of projects on the environment and affected people where
possible.

2.3.2 Policy on Gender and Development (1998)


The Asian Development Bank (ADB) first adopted a Policy on the Role of Women in
Development (WID) in 1985 and over the passage of time has progressed from a WID to
a gender and development (GAD) approach that allows gender to be seen as a
crosscutting issue influencing all social and economic processes.

ADBs policy on GAD will adopt mainstreaming as a key strategy in promoting gender
equity. The key elements of ADBs policy will include the following.

Gender sensitivity: to observe how ADB operations affect women and men, and
to take into account womens needs and perspectives in planning its operations

Gender analysis: to assess systematically the impact of a project on men and


women, and on the economic and social relationship between them

Gender planning: to formulate specific strategies that aim to bring about equal
opportunities for men and women

Mainstreaming: to consider gender issues in all aspects of ADB operations,


accompanied by efforts to encourage womens participation in the decision-
making process in development activities

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Agenda setting: to assist developing member country (DMC) governments in


formulating strategies to reduce gender disparities and in developing plans and
targets for womens and girls education, health, legal rights, employment, and
income-earning opportunities

ADB will aim to operationalize its policy on GAD primarily by mainstreaming gender
considerations in its macroeconomic and sector work, including policy dialogue, lending,
and technical assistance (TA) operations. Increased attention will be given to addressing
directly gender disparities, by designing a larger number of projects with GAD either as a
primary or secondary objective in health, education, agriculture, natural resource
management, and financial services, especially microcredit, while also ensuring that
gender concerns are addressed in other ADB projects, including those in the
infrastructure sector.
2.3.3 2001 Social Protection Strategy
It is the set of policies and programs designed to reduce poverty and vulnerability by
promoting efficient labor markets, diminishing peoples exposure to risks and enhancing
their capacity to protect themselves against hazards and interruption/loss of income.
Social Protection consists of five major elements

Labor markets policies and programs designed to facilitate employment and


promote and efficient operation of labor markets;

Social insurance programs to cushion the risks associated with the


unemployment, health, disability, work injury, and old age;

Social assistance and welfare service programs for the most vulnerable
groups with no other means of adequate support;

Micro and area-based schemes to address vulnerability at the community level;


and

Child protection to ensure the healthy and productive development of the future
Asian workforce.
Social Protection System in Asia and Pacific Region
In considering the demands for social protection within Asian sub regions it is important
to identify the circumstances faced by their vulnerable groups. A common trait to all
countries in the region is the need to address child and youth priorities, extend coverage
to poorer communities, improve governance, and promote institutional development.

2.3.4 2005 Public Communications Policy


ADBs public communications policy provides a framework to enable ADB to
communicate more effectively. The policy aims to enhance stakeholders trust in and
ability to engage with ADB. The policy promotes
Awareness and understanding of ADB activities, policies, strategies, objectives,
and results;
Sharing and exchange of development knowledge and lessons learned, so as to
provide fresh and innovative perspectives on development issues;
Greater two-way flow of information between ADB and its stakeholders, including
project affected people, in order to promote participatory development; and
Transparency and accountability of ADB operations

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2.3.5 Core Labor Standards


ADB adopted a commitment to core labor standards (CLS) as part of its Social
Protection Strategy in 2001. Since then, ADB ensures that CLS are duly considered in
the design and implementation of its investment projects. In this regards a handbook for
CLS has been developed by ADB with cooperation of International Labor Organization
(ILO). The objective is to convince decision makers that the introduction of CLS and
labor standards in general will not impede development. The labor standards are simple
the rules that govern how people are treated in a working environment. Labor standards
cover a very wide variety of subjects, mainly concerning basic human rights at work,
respect for safety and health and ensuring that people are paid for their work.
CLS are a set of four internationally recognized basic rights and principles at work.
Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective
bargaining;
Elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor;
Effective abolition of child labor; and
Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation

2.4 Institutional Setup for Environmental Management


The apex environmental body in the country is the Pakistan Environmental Protection
Council (PEPC), which is presided by the Chief Executive of the Country. Other bodies
include the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA), provincial EPAs (for
four provinces, AJK and Northern Areas), and environmental tribunals. The EPAs were
first established under the 1983 Environmental Protection Ordinance; the PEPA 1997
further strengthened their powers. The EPAs have been empowered to receive and
review the environmental assessment reports (IEEs and EIAs) of the proposed projects,
and provide their approval (or otherwise).
The proposed projects would be located in the Sindh Province. Hence this ESA report
will be sent to the Sindh EPA for review.
2.5 Environmental and Social Guidelines
Two sets of guidelines, the Pak-EPAs guidelines and the AEDB Guidelines for the
Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms in the Gharo Wind Corridor are reviewed
here. These guidelines address the environmental as well as social aspects relevant to
the proposed project.
2.5.1 Environmental Protection Agencys Environmental and Social
Guidelines
The Federal EPA has prepared a set of guidelines for conducting environmental
assessments. The guidelines derive from much of the existing work done by
international donor agencies and NGOs. The package of regulations, of which the
guidelines form a part, includes the PEPA 1997 and the NEQS. These guidelines are
listed below.
Guidelines for the Preparation and Review of Environmental Reports,
Guidelines for Public Consultation,
Guidelines for Sensitive and Critical Areas,
Sectoral Guidelines.
It is stated in the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA
Regulations, 2000 that the EIA or IEE must be prepared, to the extent practicable, in

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accordance with the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Environmental


Guidelines.
2.5.2 AEDB Guidelines for Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms in the
Gharo Wind Corridor
These Guidelines are based on the IEE and EIA Review Regulations 2000 and the
Pakistan Environmental Assessment Procedures 1997 and provide a framework for the
relevant management of the environmental assessment submission. They incorporate
the main factors to be considered during the assessment, such as the physical,
biological and the socioeconomic impacts of the wind farms on the environment. The
main negative impacts that the proponents may encounter and their appropriate
mitigation measures have been elaborated.
The relevant impacts and mitigation measures suggested in the Guidelines will be
considered in the FWEL-II project.
2.6 Obligations under International Treaties
Pakistan is signatory of several Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs),
including:
Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal,
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar),
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES),
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),
Kyoto Protocol,
Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer,
UN Convention to Combat Desertification,
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL),
UN Convention on the Law of Seas (LOS),
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs),
Cartina Protocol.
These MEAs impose requirements and restrictions of varying degrees upon the member
countries, in order to meet the objectives of these agreements. However, the
implementation mechanism for most of these MEAs is weak in Pakistan and institutional
setup nonexistent.
Although almost all of the above MEAs would apply to the projects such as FWEL-II in
one way or the other, the ones which have direct relevance for the proposed project
include the Basel Convention, Montreal Protocol, Stockholm Convention, UNFCCC and
Kyoto Protocol.

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Exhibit 2.1: Selected NEQS for Waste Effluents

Parameter Unit Standards (maximum


allowable limit)
Temperature increase C <3
pH value (acidity/basicity) pH 6-9
5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at 20 mg/l 80
C
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) mg/l 150
Total suspended solids mg/l 200
Total dissolved solids mg/l 3,500
Grease and oil mg/l 10
Phenolic compounds (as phenol) mg/l 0.1
Chloride (as Cl) mg/l 1,000
Fluoride (as F) mg/l 10
Sulfate (SO4) mg/l 600
Sulfide (S) mg/l 1.0
Ammonia (NH3) mg/l 40
Cadmium mg/l 0.1
Chromium (trivalent and hexavalent) mg/l 1.0
Copper mg/l 1.0
Lead mg/l 0.5
Mercury mg/l 0.01
Selenium mg/l 0.5
Nickel mg/l 1.0
Silver mg/l 1.0
Total toxic metals mg/l 2.0
Zinc mg/l 5
Arsenic mg/l 1.0
Barium mg/l 1.5
Iron mg/l 8.0
Manganese mg/l 1.5
Boron mg/l 6.0
Chlorine mg/l 1.0
Source: Government of Pakistan (2000).
Notes:
1. The standard assumes that dilution of 1:10 on discharge is available. That is, for each cubic meter of
3
treated effluent, the recipient water body should have 10 m of water for dilution of this effluent.
2. Toxic metals include cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, nickel and silver. The
effluent should meet the individual standards for these metals as well as the standard for total toxic
metal concentration.

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Exhibit 2.2: NEQS for Industrial Gaseous Emissions


3
mg/Nm unless otherwise stated
Standards
Parameter Source of Emission
(maximum allowable limit)
Smoke Smoke opacity not to exceed 40% or 2 Ringlemann Scale or
equivalent smoke number
1
Particulate matter (a) Boilers and furnaces:
i. Oil fired 300
ii. Coal fired 500
iii. Cement Kilns 300
(b) Grinding, crushing, clinker coolers 500
and related processes, metallurgical
processes, converters, blast furnaces
and cupolas
Hydrogen Chloride Any 400

Chlorine Any 150


Hydrogen fluoride Any 150

Hydrogen sulphide Any 10


2, 3
Sulphur Oxides Sulfuric acid/Sulphonic acid plants 5,000

Other Plants except power Plants 1,700


operating on oil and coal

Carbon Monoxide Any 800

Lead Any 50
Mercury Any 10
Cadmium Any 20
Arsenic Any 20
Copper Any 50
Antimony Any 20
Zinc Any 200
3
Oxides of Nitrogen Nitric acid manufacturing unit 3,000

Other plants except power plants


operating on oil or coal:
i. Gas fired 400
ii. Oil fired 600
iii. Coal fired 1,200

Source: Government of Pakistan (2000).


Explanations:
1. Based on the assumption that the size of the particulate is 10 micron or more.
2. Based on 1% sulphur content in fuel oil. Higher content of sulphur will cause standards to be pro-
rated.
3. In respect of emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power plants operating on oil
and coal as fuel shall in addition to NEQS specified above, comply with the standards provided
separately.

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Exhibit 2.3: NEQS for Motor Vehicles Exhaust and Noise


Standards
Parameter Measuring Method
(maximum permissible limit)

Smoke 40% or 2 on the Ringlemann Scale To be compared with Ringlemann


during engine acceleration mode. Chart at a distance of 6 meters or
more.

Carbon Monoxide. New Vehicle = 4.5% Under idling conditions: non-


Used Vehicle = 6% dispersive infrared detection through
gas analyzer.

Noise 85 db(A) Sound meter at 7.5 meter from the


source.

Source: Government of Pakistan (2000).

Exhibit 2.4: National Environmental Quality Standards for Noise


Effective from 1st July, Effective from
2010 1st July, 2012
S.
Category of Area/ Zone Limit in dB(A)
No
Night
Day time Time Day time Night Time
1 Residential Area (A) 65 50 55 45
2 Commercial Area (B) 70 60 65 55
3 Industrial Area (C) 80 75 75 65
4 Silence Zone (D) 55 45 50 45

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Exhibit 2.5: National Environmental Quality Standards for Ambient Air

Pollutants Time-Weighted Concentration in Ambient Methods of


Average Air Measurements
Effective Effective
from 1st from 1st
July,2010 Jan, 2013
Sulphur Dioxide Annual Average 80 g/m3 80 g/m3 Ultraviolet
(SO2) 24 hours ** 120 g/m3 120 g/m3 Fluorescence
method
Oxides of Nitrogen Annual Average 40 g/m3 40 g/m3 Gas Phase
as (NO) 24 hours ** 40 g/m3 40 g/m3 Chemiluminescence

Oxides of Nitrogen Annual Average** 40 g/m3 Gas Phase


as (NO2) 24 hours. * 40 g/m3 40 g/m3 Chemiluminescence
40 g/m3
O3 1 hour 180 g/m3 130 g/m3 Non dispersive UV
absorption method
Suspended Annual Average** 400 g/m3 360 g/m3 High Volume
Particulate Matter 24 hours** 550 g/m3 500 g/m3 Sampling, (Average
(SPM) flow rate not less
than 1.1
m3/minute).
Respirable Annual Average** 200 g/m3 120 g/m3 Ray abortion
Particulate Matter 24 hours * 250 g/m3 150 g/m3 method
PM10
Respirable Annual Average** 25 g/m3 15 g/m3 Ray abortion
Particulates Matter 24 hours * 40 g/m3 35 g/m3 method
PM2.5
1 hour 25 g/m3 15 g/m3
Lead Pb Annual Average** 1.5 g/m3 1 g/m3 ASS Method after
24 hours. * 2 g/m3 1.5 g/m3 sampling using
EPM 2060 or
equivalent Filter
paper
Carbon 8 hours** 5 g/m3 5 g/m3 Non Dispersive
Monoxide(CO) 1 hours 10 g/m3 10 g/m3 Infra Red (NDIR)
method
Notes:
* Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform
interval.
** 24 hourly / 8 hourly value should be met 98% of the in a year and 2% of the time, it may exceed nut not on
two consecutive days

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Exhibit 2.6: National Environmental Quality Standards for Drinking Water Quality
Standard Remarks
Properties/Parameters Values for WHO Standards
Pakistan
Bacterial
All water intended for
Must not be Must not be
drinking Most Asian countries also
detectable in any detectable in any 100
(e. Coli or thermo tolerant follow WHO standards.
100 ml sample. ml sample.
coliform bacteria)
Treated water entering the
distribution system Must not be Must not be
Most Asian countries also
(E.Coli or thermo tolerant detectable in any detectable in any 100
follow WHO standards.
coliform and total coliform 100 ml sample. ml sample.
bacteria)
Must not be
detectable in any
Must not be
100 ml sample.
detectable in any 100
ml sample.
In case of large
Treated water in the supplies, where
In case of large
distribution system sufficient
supplies, where Most Asian countries also
(e. Coli or thermo tolerant samples are
sufficient samples are follow WHO standards.
coliform and total coliform examined, must
examined, must not
bacteria bacteria) not be present in
be present in 95% of
95% of the
the samples taken
samples taken
throughout any 12-
throughout any
months period.
12-months
period.
Physical
Color 15 TCU 15 TCU
Non Non
Taste objectionable/ objectionable/
Acceptable Acceptable
Non Non
Odor bjectionable/ objectionable/
Acceptable Acceptable

Turbidity < 5 NTU < 5 NTU

Total hardness as CaCO3 < 500 mg/l --

TDS <1000 <1000

pH 6.5 - 8.5 6.5 - 8.5

Chemical
Essential Inorganic mg/Liter mg/Liter
Aluminum (Al) mg/l 0.2 0.2

Antimony (Sb) 0.005 (P) 0.02

Standard for Pakistan


Arsenic (As) 0.05 (P) 0.01 similar to most Asian
developing countries.

Barium (Ba) 0.7 0.7

Boron (B) 0.3 0.3

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Standard for Pakistan


Cadmium (Cd) 0.01 0.003 similar to most Asian
developing countries.
Chloride (Cl) < 250 250

Chromium (Cr) 0.05 0.05

Copper (Cu) 2 2
Toxic Inorganic mg/Liter mg/Liter
Standard for Pakistan
Cyanide (CN) 0.05 0.07 similar to Asian developing
countries.
Fluoride (F)* 1.5 1.5
Standard for Pakistan
Lead (Pb) 0.05 0.01 similar to most Asian
developing countries.
Manganese 0.5 0.5

Mercury (Hg) 0.001 0.001

Nickel (Ni) 0.02 0.02

Nitrate (NO3)* 50 50

Nitrite (NO2)* 3 (P) 3

Selenium (Se) 0.01 (P) 0.01


0.2-0.5 at
Residual Chlorine consumer end --
0.5-1.5 at source
Zinc (Zn) 5 3 Standard for Pakistan
similar to most Asian
developing countries.
Organic
PSQCA No. 4639-
2004. Page No 4 table
Pesticide mg/L Annex II
No. 3 Serial No. 20-58
may be consulted***
Phenolic compounds
0.002
(as Phenols) mg/ L

Polynuclear aromatic 0.01 ( By GC/MS


hydrocarbon ( as PAH) g/L method)
Radioactive
Alpha Emitter bq/L or pCi 0.1 0.1

Beta emitters 1 1

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3. Project Description

This Chapter provides a simplified description of various components of the proposed


project and their salient features, location, and phases with particular emphasis on
aspects related to the environment. Also provided in this section is detail of supplies,
emission and discharges as well as waste disposal arrangement during different project
phases.
3.1 Project Overview
The proposed project involves developing, owning and operating a 50 MW wind farm
IPP project in Sindh, Pakistan. The National Transmission and Dispatch Company
(NTDC), which is responsible for the country-wide transmission of the electricity, will
purchase the power generated by the proposed wind power plant Fauji Wind Energy-II-
Ltd. (FWEL-II). For this project, Fauji Wind Energy-II- Ltd. (FWEL-II) took over the
ownership from Green Power (GP) Pvt. Ltd. who had previously leased around 1,656
acres of land for 33 years from Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB), who
acquired this land from the Government of Sindh (GoS). The land ownership lies solely
with Government of Sind and has leased land parcels to AEDB which in turn sub-leased
it to project company. Access road is owned partially by Government of Sind and
partially by private owners. Compensation will be provided to land owner when required
by respective authority (GoS or AEDB).
A detailed wind resource and micrositing study has been conducted by the technical
consultants M/s Sgurr Energy UK, who are world renowned wind energy experts and are
involved in wind projects across the globe. The wind resource study has been based on
two year (August 2006 to June 2010) site specific wind data from a meteorological mast
that was set up by GP close to the site. In addition, the geotechnical study, topography
study, contour mapping and tidal study have also been completed for the project.
The project will consist of 20 pylons each with a Nordex N100 2.5 MW turbine at a hub
height of 80 m and a rotor diameter of 100 m. Nordex and Descon Engineering Services
will be the main contractors for the project. FWEL-I has signed an Indicative Term sheet
with Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Islamic Development Bank for arrangement of
debt for the foreign component and the remainder will be funded through a local
consortium lead by National Bank of Pakistan.
3.2 Project Location
The proposed power plant site is located in Thatta District, about 24 km southwest of
Gharo town, which is located on the National Highway between Karachi and Thatta (see
Exhibit 3.1 for the location of the project). The site can be approached by using the
Coastal Highway linking N-5 (From Ghagar Phatak) to Keti Bunder. From the Deh
Sakran Bridge over a saim nullah (saline water drain) about 3 km access road leads to
the proposed site near. The power plant site is located on inter-tidal mud flats,
surrounded on its three sides by the creeks. This land forms a part of the Khatti Kun un-
surveyed government land which has been designated by Alternate Energy
Development Board (AEDB) for setting up of wind power projects

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Major towns in the area include Gharo and Mirpur Sakro. Small villages are scattered
throughout the area, but lie predominantly to the east of the site.
3.3 Site Layout
The project area is generally very flat, and the most prominent natural feature is the
creeks that surround the area. The site layout is shown in Exhibit 3.2. The project
components are:
20 Wind turbines, each with a generating capacity of 2.5 MW and a rotor
diameter of 100 m. Each turbine will be mounted on a tower such that the hub
height is 80 m. The tower will be a prefabricated steel structure.
20 unit step up transformers mounted at the foot of each turbine tower
20 KV underground electrical collection system that leads to the project
substation.
Project operations and control building, which will also house the substation and
grid connection to NTDC 132 KV system.
A 100 km long project road network linked to all the wind turbines.
Two meteorological masts, 80m height, for collection of wind data.
Plant O&M facility.
Standby generator of 75KVA capacity
3.4 Logistics
All equipment, supplies and personnel will be moved to and from the site using road
transport. Description of existing roads, additional roads required, and the vehicles to be
used are given below.
3.4.1 Roads and Tracks
The site is connected to Karachi via National Highway (N-5) and Coastal Highway which
links N-5 (From Ghagar Phatak) to Keti Bunder. The Coastal Highways new tarmac road
will be used by project vehicles as it is and no modifications for the haulage of project
equipment will be required up to the Deh Sakran Bridge. From the Deh Sakran Bridge
which is over a saim nullah (saline water drain) an approximately 3 km long and 30 m
wide access road from the Coastal Highway to the site (FWEL-II) will be constructed
under FWEL-II right of way (ROW). An 100 km internal road to service the towers will be
constructed on the site premises
Alternate route to the site is via the National Highway and the Gharo Keti Bundar
Highway which continues to Keti Bundar while passing through the town of Mirpur Sakro
in the east of the project area. The Jam Sakro Canal road connects with the Gharo-Keti
Bundar Highway at Leete Village which is one of many small villages near the site. From
there a dirt road leads to the Coastal Highway. However, this route is not suitable for
long trailer trucks required for transportation of the turbine blades due to sharp turns and
narrow widths at several locations.
3.4.2 Vehicles and Traffic
The movement of heavy vehicular traffic will primarily be during the turbines delivery
stage and during the movement of the batching plant and ancillaries. The batching plant

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will require the use of 4 flatbed trailers of 40-feet size with a load carrying capacity of 30
35 tons. The movement of the turbines and towers will occur over a two month period
and will require 231 heavy haul truck / trailers, 60-feet size, with extended length and
multiple axles having a load carrying capacity of 40 -70 tons. Additionally, 66 trucks /
trailers of 20 25 ton capacity will also be used.A maximum of 6 vehicles (4 axles and
above) per hour will be used during the construction period. This includes the buses and
coasters required for movement of the site staff.
3.5 Work Schedule
It is expected that work on the project will commence during the the first quarter of 2012.
Work will commence with the construction of the access road and site preparation (civil
works). The construction phase is expected to take 15 months. The schedule of activities
is expected to be finalized during a kick of meeting between the contractors and project
companies scheduled in December 2011.
3.6 Construction Activities
The contract for the construction and commissioning has been awarded to a consortium
of Nordex and DESCON Engineering, who will be responsible for carrying out the
installation of the turbines and all other electrical work which will be required for
commissioning of the wind farm.
Work will commence with construction of new road connecting coastal highway to the
site. This road will have a width of approximately 30 m and lay-byes to allow movement
of large trucks and will have a compacted gravel and clay surface. Soil will be
compacted to give a road surface load bearing capacity of 300 KN/m2. The new
upgraded / constructed roads will not have tarred surfaces.
The roads within the project area will be around 13.5 km long, and will also have a
compacted gravel and clay surface. The width of these roads will be 10 m, except the
turning points which will be approximately 12 m wide, and will be constructed at an
elevation of 4.5 m. This is particularly important as the high tide level is generally 3.5 m
above natural ground. The road embankments will have side slopes at 1:2 (V:H) and will
be suitably compacted / strengthened to withstand the ebb and flow of tides.
Each turbine location will involve compaction of around 432 m2 (36 m x 12 m) area,
raising to an elevation of 4.5 m, corresponding to the level of the road, and covering with
a compacted gravel and clay surface (moram type material). This area will be the crane
locating pad.
The turbine base is built on pile foundations, with 14 piles per location. Reverse rotary
drilling method shall be used for pile boring. If required, bentonite clay mixed with water
may be used during boring.
Civil works will also include the construction of the Sub-station and site camp
preparation. The steps taken in site preparation are expected to be as follows:
Clearing of vegetation from identified areas
Closing of two identified creeks that traverse the southern part of the site
Filling and compaction
Construction of auxiliary facilities such as site camp, equipment and supplies
storage areas, water tank and water pits, fuel storage areas and waste pits.

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Construction of the turbine foundations and the crane pad


The site construction camp will cover an area of 12,000 m2 and will have 4 construction
trailers and 4 equipment storage trailers. There will also be vehicle parking and
equipment staging areas.
The water pit will be lined with an impervious liner to prevent seepage and loss of water.
Sewage septic tanks will be lined. These will be periodically emptied into tankers for
transporting the sewage to the nearest treatment facility. Gray water (from kitchen and
washing areas) pits will not be lined, and water will be allowed to soak into the ground.
All fuel or oil storage areas will have an impervious base, with a containing dyke built
around them to contain spills should an accident occur.
The excavated earth, obtained during the piling procedure, will be used to construct the
embankment for the road. The remaining material required for the road embankments
will be from the site. The top layer of the road, morum type material or gravel and clay,
will be procured from the region.
The equipment installation phase will commence once the above activities have been
completed. No fabrication at site will take place as all components are prefabricated and
only assembly is required.
3.6.1 Staff
It is planned that, on an average, around 180 direct manpower will be required during the
construction phase. This will increase to 800 for three months of the construction period.
Additionally, around 80 support staff will also be present. No expatriate workers are
expected to be on site. Local people will be hired for unskilled jobs, especially during the
construction phase.
3.6.2 Supplies
All supplies, both for construction and for the camp, will be transported by trucks from
either Karachi or the adjoining areas, as required. This will include all fuels and oils,
drilling requirements, spare parts for the construction machinery and food and supplies
for the construction camp. Fuels and oils will be unloaded in designated areas.
Aggregate / sand will be procured from Hub. A catering company will be contracted to
supply the camps.
The onsite storage capacity for fuel will be 12,000 gallons, consisting of 2 steel tanks of
6000 gallons each. The total fuel requirement is estimated to be 2.198 ML.
3.6.3 Water
During the construction phase an estimated 186,300 m3 of water will be required for civil
works. The daily maximum will be around 40,000 liters of water for civil works. The
onsite storage capacity of water will be approximately 8,000 liters. This water will be
obtained from the Jam Sakro canal through water tankers.
The camp will require 8000 liters of potable water each day, and this will be obtained
from Leete Village. This water will be stored in a plastic tank.
3.6.4 Electricity
The expected maximum requirement of electricity for construction and the camp is 1300
KVA. Diesel generators will be used for power generation to operate the construction
equipment and for the camp. It is expected that 3 generating sets of 50 KVA each, 3

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generating sets of 80 KVA each and 3 generating sets of 200 KVA each will be sufficient
for the requirements. The welding generators will be in addition to the above generating
capacity. The daily fuel requirement will be around 6000 liters.
Emissions from the generators will be reduced by ensuring that the engines are always
properly tuned and maintained, and generators will be located so that emissions are
blown away from the camp and work areas.
3.6.5 Waste Management
All efforts will be made to minimize waste generated during the construction period. The
main types of waste that will be generated are:
Fuels and oils
Garage waste
Sewage
Camp waste
The piling operation is not likely to generate any waste as only water based bentonite
clay may be used during piling. As bulk concreting will be done using concrete pump
wastage of concrete will be minimal.
Fuels and oils will be stored in containers in areas with impervious floors and surrounded
by dyke walls. Recyclable materials will periodically be transported out of the site and
sold / given to contractors. Non-recyclable material will be collected and disposed of at
designated landfill sites.
Most garage waste, such as used spare parts, is recycled in Pakistan. All such waste
will be collected and sold / given to contractors for disposal off-site.
As part of the site preparation stage, a drainage and sewerage system will be
constructed for the camp. The sewerage system will consist of soak pits for the
collection of waste water from the camp kitchen and washing / ablution areas. Sewage
from the toilets will go into lined septic tanks. Sewage and solid waste disposal trucks
will be used to remove the sludge, sewage and solid waste from the site.
All combustible domestic waste will be collected and burned in a garbage pit, suitably
fenced to prevent it being blown away. Any non-combustible and non-biodegradable
waste, such as glass, metal and plastic, will be separated and transported out of the site
area, where it will be sold / given to a contractor for recycling or disposal at designated
sites.
3.6.6 Noise
The generators and other heavy construction machinery will not produce excessive noise
which will exceed the limits at the boundary of the plant. Workers near these machines
will use appropriate PPE.

3.7 Operational Activities


O&M activities will not be very extensive. The normal greasing and cleaning activities will
be done, except for the annual shutdown of the turbine for maintenance. Even during
this time it is not expected that any major work will be required each year.

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3.7.1 Staff
There will be no residential staff at site once the operation commences. It is planned
that a maximum of 10 people will be employed on three shifts, in addition to the security
staff. Security staff will not be resident on site.
On an average 4 pickup type vehicles per day will be moving in / out of the project site.
3.7.2 Supplies
All supplies, both for operations and for the site staff, will be transported by trucks from
either Karachi or the adjoining areas, as required. This will include all fuels and oils,
spare parts required for maintenance and food and supplies for the site staff. Fuels and
oils will be unloaded in designated areas, which will have above ground storage for 400
gallons of fuel. LPG will be used for cooking purposes.
3.7.3 Water
850 liters per day of potable water will be required. This will be obtained from Leete
Village and the site will have storage for 12,000 liters
3.7.4 Waste Management
Fuels and oils will be stored in containers in areas with impervious floors and surrounded
by dyke walls. Recyclable materials, including garage waste, will periodically be
transported out of the site and sold / given to contractors. Non-recyclable material will be
collected and disposed of at designated landfill sites.
The drainage and sewerage system constructed during the construction phase will be
used during the operations phase of the project i.e. soak pits for the collection of waste
water from kitchen and washing / ablution areas and septic tanks for sewage from the
toilets. Sewage and solid waste disposal trucks will be used to remove the sludge,
sewage and solid waste from the site.
Storm water drainage will be managed by controlled flow into the tidal creeks.
3.7.5 Noise
A simulation study of the noise that will be generated by wind turbines during operation
was conducted by previous owners and the noise map is attached as Exhibit 3.3 (Green
Power). This study shows that the noise level will reduce to below 40 dBA at a distance
of 1000 m from the turbine location. The highest noise level being generated is below the
concern level of 75 dBA.

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3.8 Decommissioning Activities


The design plant life is 25 years. Decommissioning will involve the dismantling of the
turbines, supporting towers and the Administration building / sub-station, and
transporting it out of the project area. It is expected that this activity will take
approximately 04 months and will require 300 heavy haul trucks (60-feet size) for the
turbine components in addition to 600 truckloads of other materials. The turbine
components will be sold as scrap, and all the concrete will be broken up and removed to
a landfill site. The stored fuel and oil, together with the containers, will be transported
out of the site for sale / disposal at suitable landfill sites. The site road embankments will
be leveled and the material spread evenly over the whole site. The site will be restored
as far as possible to its original condition. The access roads may be left intact, if local
people desire to use them. If not, they too will be dismantled and the land returned to its
original condition.

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Exhibit 3.1: Power Plant Location

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Exhibit 3.2: Site Layout Plan

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Exhibit 3.3: Operational Noise Data (Green Power)

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4. Analysis of Project Alternatives

This Chapter discusses various project alternatives that were considered during the
design phase. The alternatives in this Chapter have been organized in three broad
categories: management, siting and technical alternatives.
4.1 Management Alternatives
4.1.1 No Project Alternative
As described in Section 1.2, the electricity demand has been increasing during the past
several years, and this trend is expected to continue as a result of the on-going
economic uplift in the country. The key factors fueling the increasing power demand
include increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, improvement in per
capita income and village electrification.
In order to match the increasing trend in the power demand, regular investments in
various segments of the power network generation being of foremost importance is
vitally important. Otherwise, the gap between the supply and demand will keep on
increasing.
The proposed project seeks to increase the power generation capacity of the country, by
harnessing the so far unutilized wind power potential in the coastal areas of Sindh. In
case the proposed project is not undertaken, the country will miss out on an invaluable
opportunity to utilize vast potential of wind energy, and as a result, the power generation
will be necessitated by other means such as by using fossil fuel which will not only be
more expensive in the long term, but will also be more polluting than the clean energy
produced by the wind power plants.
In view of the above, the no project option is not a preferred alternative.
4.1.2 Siting Alternatives
The wind farms are by their very nature located where the wind potential is significant
where high velocity winds are prevalent for most parts of the day, and most parts of the
year. In Pakistan, such conditions are found along the coastal areas of Sindh and
Balochistan. Between these two broad areas, the coastal belt in Sindh, particularly the
areas close to the major load center, i.e. Karachi, is a preferred location, compared to
the remote coastal areas of Balochistan, such as Pasni and Gwadar. These coastal
areas in Balochistan are far away from the major load centers in the country,
necessitating the need for installing long transmission lines, which would have their own
environmental and social impacts. Therefore, the selected location for the proposed
FWEL-II wind power plant is a preferred location with respect to the wind potential on
one hand, and vicinity of the electricity load center, on the other.
4.2 Technology Alternatives
4.2.1 Renewable Vs. Non-renewable Power Plants
The non-renewable power generation technologies, such as burning fossil fuels for
thermal power generation have been the most common options throughout the world for
almost the entire 20th century. However, depleting fossil fuel resources and associated

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increasing prices, often dependent upon imported fuels are some of the problems
associated with the fossil fuel driven power plants. In addition, these power generation
technologies are a major contributor in the pollution load locally as well as regionally and
globally, particularly with respect to the greenhouse gases, which is causing global
warming.
In order to address the above problems, extensive research and development has been
going on for some time in the renewable energy technology, which include solar thermal,
solar photo-voltaic, wind energy, bio-mass, geothermal, tidal and many more. Of these,
the wind energy technology offers great potential, particularly in areas which experience
consistently high velocity winds. This technology offers clean energy without any air
pollution load, at a reasonable cost, which is likely to further reduce once the technology
matures and the scale of production increases, thus bringing the cost of power plant
production lower.
In light of the above, the establishment of the FWEL-II plant is a step in right direction,
providing electricity to an energy-deficit country through technology which does not
produce air pollution.
4.2.2 Transformer Oil
Traditionally, transformer oil meant for providing insulation and cooling of the
transformer windings used to contain poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB), a man-made
chemical known for its excellent dielectric properties. However, this chemical was then
found to be highly toxic, and more importantly, chemically very stable. Hence this
chemical would not decompose or disintegrate naturally. Due to this property of PCB, it
was included in a group of chemicals collectively known as persistent organic pollutants
(POPs). Exhibit 4.1 provides more information on PCBs.
Although, production and use of the PCB containing transformer oil is not allowed
anymore in the West, it is still being used locally. In view of their extremely harmful
effects however, use of this oil is not a preferred option for all applications, including the
proposed project.
FWEL-II through inclusion of the appropriate clauses in the transformer specifications will
have to ensure that the PCB-containing transformer oil is not used in the transformers
procured for the power plant.

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Exhibit 4.1: Health Effects of PCBs


What are PCBs?
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 synthetic chemical compounds
which are colorless and odorless. From 1929 to 1977 PCBs were manufactured in the
United States and widely used in electrical equipment and other industrial uses. Due to
the harm PCBs cause to humans and wildlife, their manufacture was banned in 1977.
How are people exposed to PCBs?
PCBs are found primarily in lake and river bottom sediments and fatty tissues in fish.
Eating contaminated fish remains the major route of exposure to PCBs. Other sources of
exposure remain very small.
How do PCBs affect human health?
PCBs are stored in the fat of animals and humans. PCBs and other contaminants can
accumulate in the body over time. It may take months or years of regularly eating
contaminated fish to build up amounts that are a health concern. However, PCBs may
eventually affect your health or that of your children.
Pregnant women and young children: Mothers who eat highly contaminated fish before
birth may have children who have slower mental development and difficulty learning. A
pregnant woman can pass these chemicals to her unborn child and to the new baby
through breast milk. However, the significant benefits of breastfeeding far outweigh the
associated risks. Young children may also experience developmental health effects.
Adults: Adults should also remain concerned about PCBs because they may cause liver
and immune system problems, including cancer.
How can I reduce my health risks to PCBs?
Most exposure to PCBs comes from eating contaminated fish. The best way to reduce
the health risks is to eat only the safest fish. Some examples include:
Choose smaller and younger fish. Generally, panfish and fish just over the legal
size will have fewer PCBs.
Choose lean fish. Panfish, brook trout and brown trout that live in streams and
rivers tend to be low in fat. Small walleye, northern pike and bass, especially
those that are just legal size, also tend to have fewer chemicals.
Release predator fish that are very large, like walleye, northern pike, muskie,
and lake trout. These fish tend to have more PCBs. Bass have different
advisories. Carp and catfish also tend to accumulate more chemicals. Any size
of carp caught in the Lower Fox River should not be eaten
Advise women of childbearing age, pregnant women, nursing mothers and
young children to select their catch or meals carefully (follow the Wisconsin Fish
Consumption Advisory, Internet links can be found below)
Trim the skin and fatty areas off the fish where contaminants accumulate

Prepared by the Wisconsin Division of Public Health, with funds from the Agency for Toxic Substances and
Disease Registry (ATSDR), Public Health Service, USDHHS. (PPH 45014 6/2001)

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5. Description of Environment and


Socioeconomic Conditions

This chapter provides baseline, pre-project conditions of the physical, biological as well
as human environment of the project area.
5.1 Physical Environment
5.1.1 Physiography, Topography and Geology
On the basis of the physical environment and geology, the project area falls in the Indus
Basin, which is briefly described below.
The Indus Basin essentially forms the western extension of Indo-Gangetic Plain, and has
been made up of the silt brought by the Indus and its numerous tributaries, such as
Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej on the east bank, and Kabul, Kurram, Tochi, and
others on the west bank. The Indus Plain is known for its agricultural fertility and cultural
development throughout history.
On the basis of hydrology and land form, the Indus Plain can be divided into the Upper
and Lower Indus Plains. The Upper Indus Plain differs from the Lower Indus Plain
(where the project area is located) primarily because of the major tributaries (Jhelum,
Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej) divide the land surface into several interfluves or doabs. The
two plains are separated by a narrow corridor near Mithankot where the Sulaiman range
approaches the Indus River. The Lower Indus Plain is very flat, generally sloping to the
south with an average gradient of 95 mm per km (6 inches per mile).
The Lower Indus Plain can be divided in five distinct micro-relief land forms: active flood
plain; meander flood plain; cover flood plain; scalloped interfluves; and the Indus delta.
The proposed project site is located in the last of the micro-relief forms listed above.
Topographically, Sindh can be divided into four distinct parts with the dry and barren
Kirthar Range in the west, a central alluvial plain bisected by the Indus River, a desert
belt in the east, and the Indus delta in the south. On the basis of this classification, the
project area is located in the Indus delta.
Geological Setting: The prevailing geologic conditions in the region are the results of
extensive inundation, depositions, coastal movements, and erosions over a long period
of time in the geological ages. The geology of the region is closely related to the
formation process of Himalayan ranges resulting in intense deformation with complex
folding, high angle strike-slip faults and crust thickening expressed in a series of thrust
faults. The important tectonic changes which have had so much influence in the region
are feebly visible particularly in the Indus Plain, and it is only by considering the geology
on a broader regional scale, as well as in site specific detail, that the effects can be
appreciated.

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Most parts of Sindh are covered either by recent alluvium or wind-borne sand. The
principal features of geological significance are to be found in the hilly portions of the
province, towards the west of the Indus. Outlying extensions of this hilly tract occur east
of the Indus as well, near Sukkur, Hyderabad and Jerruck. The isolated hills of
Nagarparkar on the northern border of the Rann of Kutch belong to quite a different
system both geographically and geologically.
The geological studies of the proposed site have not been conducted in detail. However,
the studies carried out in the vicinity of Port Qasim area which is not far away from the
proposed site reveal that Port Qasim and its adjoining areas have been formed in the
middle and upper Tertiary and the soil formation found in the area are fresh and slightly
weathered with recent and sub-recent shoreline deposits. These formations are derived
from Gaj / Manchar formation of lower Miocene to middle Miocene to Pliocene age.
Similar deposits are found all along the coastal belt of Karachi and adjoining areas.
The earthquake hazard in the Indus Delta and the estuaries on the passive continental
margin is mainly from intra-plate active faults particularly Rann of Katch Fault also known
as the Karachi-Jati-Allah Bund Fault. It has three other segments namely Jhimpir Fault,
Pab Fault and Surjani Fault. The main faults between Karachi and Rann of Kutch are
generally oriented easterly and slightly concave to the north. Two severe earthquakes
occurred in the vicinity of Karachi, one in the year 1050 at Bhambore in which 0.15
million casualties were reported and the other in the year 1668 at Pipri near Steel Mill
which is only 60 km away from Karachi, however the details of this are not available.
5.1.2 Land Use
Agriculture, followed by forestry, is the main land use in most parts of Sindh. Although
more than 50 percent of the total geographical area is cultivable, only 26 percent of it is
actually located in the central plain. The land inside the Indus embankments is almost
equally employed by agriculture and forestry, while that outside the embankments is
more extensively utilized for agriculture in the form of sparsely distributed irrigated
plantations. The land use in Sindh is given in Exhibit 5.1.
The proposed site and its immediate surroundings are lying completely vacant, with no
habitation, cultivation or grazing activity (see Exhibit 3.1 for site location, and
Appendix A for photographs of the area).
5.1.3 Meteorology and Climate
Meteorology
The climate in the Sindh coastal area can be characterized by dry, hot and humid
conditions, typical of sub-tropical coastal zones lying in monsoon region. There is a
minor seasonal intervention of a mild winter from mid-December to mid-February and
then a long hot and humid summer extending from April to October. The nearest
meteorological station is located at the Karachi Airport. The data from this
meteorological station is discussed in the following sections.
Temperatures
The air temperature in the coastal zones in the vicinity of the proposed site is generally
moderate. Annual air temperature range is 6 to 42 C. The mean maximum
temperature during summer is 35 C whereas the mean minimum temperature during
winter is 10 C. However, there are occasions when the coastal belt including Karachi is

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in the grip of heat wave and the maximum temperature exceeds 40 C. This extremely
hot weather condition persists for 2-3 days and happens only three to four times during
the year. The average temperature data showing maximum and minimum temperatures
recorded by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) at Karachi Air Port is provided
in Exhibits 5.2 and 5.3, respectively.
Wind
In Karachi and adjoining deltaic areas, the wind blows throughout the year with highest
velocities during southwest monsoon (May to August). The average wind speed for the
last over 6 years are presented in Exhibit 5.4. The dominant wind direction during the
winter is east-northeast, while during summer the direction is west-southwest.
Rainfall
The rainfall in the coastal belt of Karachi and Indus Deltaic area in the vicinity of the
proposed site is extremely low. The rainfall data shows that 156.8 mm rainfall was
recorded during first six months of 2007. The records for the last over six years are
presented in Exhibit 5.5.
Climate
Pakistans latitudinal and longitudinal extents and its northern rim of lofty mountains are
the two factors, which have a great bearing not only on the temperature and rainfall
patterns, but also on the general circulation of the atmosphere on the southern Asia.
Climate of Pakistan according to Koppens classification7 falls under the following five
types:
Tropical Semi-arid with Dry Winter: This climate type prevails in Karachi, Hyderabad,
and southern Khairpur Division. The mean annual temperature is above 18 C.
Tropical Arid: This is characterized by average annual temperature of about 18 C with
dry winters. This includes southern Kalat and whole of the Indus Plain.
Cold Semi-arid With Dry Summer: This climate type covers central Kashmir,
Peshawar, D. I. Khan, Quetta and northern half of Kalat Division.
Snow Forest Climate: This climate type is characterized by average temperature of
coldest month below 0 C. Mean temperature of the warmest month is between 10 and
22 C. It includes northern mountainous areas and parts of Kashmir.
Extreme Cold: This climate type is characterized by average temperature of the
warmest months between 10 and 0 C. It comprises eastern and northern parts of
Kashmir, Chitral, Gilgit and Laddakh.
Based upon the above classification, the project area falls in the tropical semi-arid with
dry winter climate zone.
Ambient Air Quality
No sources of anthropogenic sources of air pollution exist in the immediate vicinity of the
site; therefore the ambient air of the area is likely to be free from the key pollutants such
as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate
matter (PM).

7
Climatic Regions of West Pakistan, Pakistan Geographical Review. Kazi, S. A., 1952.

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5.1.4 Freshwater Resources


Indus River: The Indus River is the main source of surface water in the project area
(and in the country). The Indus rises in Tibet, at an altitude of about 18,000 feet
(5,486 m) amsl, and has a total catchment area of 654,329 km2. Length of the Indus
River in the country is about 2,750 km. Five main rivers that join the Indus from the
eastern side are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Besides these, two minor
rivers - Soan and Harrow also drain into the Indus. On the western side, a number of
small rivers join Indus, the biggest of which is River Kabul with its main tributaries i.e.
Swat, Panjkora and Kunar. Several small streams such as Kurram, Gomal, Kohat, Tai
and Tank, also join the Indus on the right side. Exhibit 5.6 shows Indus River and its
tributaries; Exhibit 5.7 presents key facts about the river.
The Indus River exhibits great seasonal variations, with more than 80% of the total
annual flow occurring during the summer months, peaking in June, July and August.
Exhibit 5.8 presents flow data of the Indus.
The Indus River and its tributaries on an average bring about 154 million acre feet (MAF)
of water annually. This includes 144.9 MAF from the three western rivers and 9.14 MAF
from the eastern rivers. Most of this, about 104.7 MAF is diverted for irrigation, 39.4
MAF flows to the sea and about 9.9 MAF is consumed by the system losses which
include evaporation, seepage and spills during floods. The flows of the Indus and its
tributaries vary widely from year to year and within the year. As is the case with the
water availability there is significant variation in annual flows into sea.
Several irrigation canals originating from the Indus River exist in the area, including the
Baghar, Ladhya and Jam Sakro canals. The canal nearest to the proposed site is Jam
Sakro canal, as shown in Exhibit 3.1.
Lakes: Several fresh and brackish water lakes exist in the Thatta district. These include
the Kalri and Haleji lakes and Jhuddo lagoon. Kalri Lake (also called Keenjhar) is a
large freshwater lake providing drinking water to Karachi. It was declared a Ramsar site
in 1976 and later became a wildlife sanctuary under the Sindh Wildlife Protection
Ordinance. Haleji Lake is an artificial freshwater lake with marshes and a brackish
seepage lagoon. Considered a game reserve in 1971, this lake was declared a wildlife
sanctuary and in 1976, the lake proceeded to become a Ramsar site. Haleji serves as
an important source of water for Karachi besides being a popular recreational
destination. Jubho Lagoon is a shallow, small brackish water lagoon with mudflats and
marshes that support a large concentration of migratory birds including flamingos and
endangered Dalmation pelicans, a rare species in the world. This was declared a
Ramsar site in 2001 because of the efforts made by IUCN Pakistan.
None of the above water bodies are in the immediate vicinity of the proposed project
site. Names and distances of nearest Ramsar Sites are given in Exhibit 5.10.
River Water Quality: The water quality of Indus River is generally considered excellent
for irrigation purposes. The total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 60 mg/l in the upper
reaches to 375 mg/l in the lower reaches of the Indus, which are reasonable levels for
irrigated agriculture and also as raw water for domestic use. The disposal of saline
drainage from various irrigation projects has been a major factor in the increased TDS in
the lower reaches of the rivers in the Indus Plain. There is progressive deterioration
downstream and the salinity is at its maximum at the confluence of the Chenab and Ravi
rivers, where the TDS ranges from 207 to 907 mg/l. A slight improvement in water

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quality is noted further downstream at Panjnad due to dilution from the inflow from Sutlej
River. The quality of the Indus water at Guddu, however, is within acceptable limits for
agriculture; TDS being in the range of 164-270 mg/l.
In the upper reaches of the Indus River, the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) content remains
above 8.5 mg/l which is well above the acceptable levels of 4 mg/l. The Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD) downstream of Attock has been recorded as 2.9 mg/l. At Kotri,
it has a suspended solid (SS) content of 10 to 200 mg/l. Indus River water quality has
been studied at the Dadu - Moro Bridge and Kotri Barrage, with nitrate levels at 1.1 and
7.5 mg/l, phosphate at 0.02 and 0.3 mg/l, BOD at 2.4 and 4.1 mg/l, faecal coliforms at 50
and 400 per ml, and aluminum at 1.8 and 0.2 mg/l respectively. Due to industrial waste
discharges from Punjab and Sindh, a high content of heavy metals such as nickel, lead,
zinc and cadmium have also been found in Indus water.
5.2 Biological Environment
In this section, biological information of the area in general is provided, followed by the
site-specific description. While the information of the general area is based upon the
secondary literature, the site-specific description has been updated on the basis of the
recent field work carried out.
5.2.1 Biological Resources of the Area
Five types of habitats have been found in the project area/ study area viz.
creek area,
marshes,
saim nullah,
barren/ waste land
open plain area.
The Coastal Highway passes besides the Project area through Deh Sakran and
Makhyaro. Jam Sakro Outfall Drain passes quite close to the Project Area.
The Creek area forms a part of the Indus Delta which is also a Ramsar Site (Wetland of
International Importance). The main migratory route of the migratory water birds in the
area falls along the Korangi/Phitti Creek System, Waddi Khuddi Creek, Patiani Creek,
Gharo Creek, Dabbo Creek and the Keti Bunder Area. Patiani Creek is located in the
west of the project area while the other creeks of Thatta district are quite away from the
proposed site. The creeks support large concentrations of migratory waterbirds
particularly the Waders which feed on the shallow margins or at marshes along the water
line. The main concentrations of birds are found along Korangi/Phitti Creek System in
Karachi District and Keti Bunder area in Thatta District. The project area does not fall
along the main migratory bird path.
The feeding area of the water birds lies along the marshes of the creek area which is not
included in the project area and will not be affected due to the project. Different species
recorded in the creek area is present in Exhibit 5.9.

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5.2.2 Marine Ecosystem


Mangroves
Mangroves of Indus Deltaic creek system are of great ecological and economic
significance. Mangroves play a very important role in the local economy being a source
of timber, fuel wood, fodder, honey and fisheries. The Indus Delta mangrove ecosystem
is highly rich in biodiversity, and provides, natural breeding and nursery ground for
offshore and coastal fishery resources of shrimps and fish. The mangroves also provide
sanctuary for a wide variety of migratory birds and other wild life. In addition to this, the
mangrove ecosystem also plays an important role in protection from erosion as well as
cyclones and tidal bores.
Mangroves are one of the most outstanding ecosystems of coastal zone of Sindh. The
mangroves along Sindh coast are unusual in that they occur in an arid climate. The
mangrove ecosystem stretches along the entire Sindh coast from east of Karachi to Sir
Creek covering the whole of Indus River Delta past and present.
The present Indus Delta is spread over an area of 600,000 hectares (ha), of which as
much as 260,000 ha are covered with mangrove vegetation which has been estimated
through satellite imageries. The mangroves of the Sindh Coastal areas at present do not
receive fresh water continuously which is required for their healthy growth. Mangroves in
the vicinity of Karachi receive their fresh water supply from domestic and industrial
effluents through Lyari and Malir Rivers, while the mangroves in the delta depend on the
fresh water supply from River Indus.
Earlier eight species of mangroves were reported to occur in Indus Delta along Sindh
Coast. However, now only four species are found along Sindh Coast, which include
Aegiceras corniculatum Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata.
Avicennia marina is the most dominant species of the mangrove ecosystem along Sindh
coast covering 95-98% of the mangrove forest. Rhizhophora mucronata has been
reintroduced / planted in Port Qasim Area with the efforts of Sindh Forest Department
and IUCN and only the other three species grow naturally in Indus Deltaic area.
Aegiceras corniculatum and ceriops tagal have been reported at specific places like
Hajamro Creek, Keti Bunder and Shah Bunder area.
Most of the project area is a wasteland. It is not under the influence of normal high tide.
No mangrove plants have been observed in the project area during the recent field visit.
Avicenna marina previously recorded from the area has already disappeared. It is
presumed that previously recorded mangroves would have been the result of mangrove
seeds reaching this area from nearby mangrove forest through seawater movement in
the creeks adjoining Port Qasim, but due to scarcity of fresh water and the resultant
increase in salinity in the intervening years the growth of the mangrove is affected. The
area is now mostly covered with halophytic plants.
5.2.3 Biological Resources of the Proposed Site
The project site is located in the area which is classified as Indus Delta, however,
primarily as a result of the decreasing river water flows, the area is no more included in
the active delta, which is now restricted between Shah Bunder and Keti Bunder.

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In the vicinity of the proposed site, flora/fauna observed also include the influenced area
of the Coastal Highway. The main findings are,
The four common species of the mammals in the project area include Indian
Jackal (Canis aureus), Roof Rat (Rattus rattus), House Mouse (Mus musculus)
and Desert Hedgehog (Hemiechinus collaris). No threatened mammalian
species has been reported from the area.
Fifty species of the birds have been recorded. The birds recently observed
include Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), Pond Heron (Ardeola grayii), Little Egret
(Egretta garzetta), Reef Heron (Egretta gularis), Black Kita (Milvus migrans),
Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Lesser Sand Plover
(Charadrius mongolus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), Curlew (Numenius
arquata), Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa), Bartailed Godwit (Limosa
lapponica), Common Red Shank (Tringa totanus), Eurasian Marsh Harrier
(Circus aeruginosus), Little Stint (Calidris minutus), Dunlin (Calidris alpina),
Lesser Blackbacked Gull ( Larus fuscus), Brownheaded Gull (Larus
brunnicephalus), Blackheaded Gull (Larus ridibundus), Little Tern (Sterna
albifrons), Whitebreasted Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis), Crested Lark
(Galerida cristata), Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus), and White Wagtail
(Motacilla alba).
Two species of Reptiles viz. Saw-scaled Viper and Indian Cobra have been
reported from the area.
The dominant flora of the project area includes Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora
persica, Tamarix indica, Sueda fruticosa, Salsola imbricate and Aeluropus
lagopoides

The dislocation of wildlife of the project area seems to have already taken place during
the early phase of the construction of the Coastal Highway. Now the water birds which
form a major part of the wildlife of the area have already settled by finding refuge in the
marshes amongst the grassy patches in the creek area.
5.2.4 Protected Areas
Several protected areas exist in the Gharo Wind Corridor generally and Thatta district
specially. Among these, Haleji Lake, Hadero Lake, Keti Bunder North, Keti Bunder
South, Bijoro Chach, Cut Munarki Chach, Gullel Kohri, Hilaya, Kahdi Lake and Kalri Lake
have been notified as the wildlife sanctuaries, while game reserves are located at Mirpur
Sakro, Deh Jangisar and Deh Khalifa.
Distance of these protected areas from the site is presented in Exhibit 5.10. None of
these protected areas are located in the immediate vicinity of the proposed site.
5.3 Socioeconomic Description
This section provides socioeconomic description of the project area and its surroundings.
5.3.1 Administrative Setup
Administratively, the proposed site is located in Thatta, which is one of the districts of the
Sindh Province. The Thatta District is further divided in nine talukas (sub-division of a
district, also called tehsil): Thatta, Sujawal, Mirpur Bathoro, Jati, Mirpur Sakro,
Ghorabari, Keti Bunder, Kharo Chann and Shah Bunder. These talukas include 55

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union councils, 7,200 villages and 185,477 households with the average size of 6
individuals per household (See Exhibit 5.11). The proposed wind power plant site is
situated within the boundaries of Haji Girano, which is one of the union councils of the
Mirpur Sakro Taluka. However the site is outside the boundaries of the revenue village.
Much like rest of the country, the local government system has been established in
Sindh Province as well, which consists of the elected representatives as well as
government functionaries. Under the system, each district is governed by the district
government, which is headed by the District Nazim - an elected representative, and the
District Coordination Officer (DCO) - a government official. Each district comprises
several talukas (or tehsils), which are governed by their respective Taluka/Tehsil
Municipal Administration (TMA). In turn, each tehsil or taluka comprises several unions,
which is governed by the Union Administration (UA). The nearest village located in the
site vicinity is Ali Muhammad Jatt, having a population of approximately 4000 people
5.3.2 Demographic Features of the Area
The Thatta District covers an area of 17,355 square kilometers (about 4.3 million acres),
and according to the 1998 census, had a population of 1,113,194 individuals living in
185,477 households. This population constituted 589,343 males and 523,853 females,
with a growth rate of 2.26 percent, and having a density of 67 individuals per square
kilometer. The demographic details of the district are presented in Exhibit 5.11.
The Mirpur Sakro Taluka, where the proposed site is located, covers an area of about
2,982 square kilometers (736,541 acres). The taluka is distributed in 10 unions,
92 revenue villages, 1,526 villages and 32,099 households. The total population
according to the 1998 census was 198,852 individuals. The demographic data of the
Mirpur Sakro Taluka is presented in Exhibit 5.12.
5.3.3 Culture, Ethnicity and Castes
Much like rest of the province, the project area has rich culture, customs and traditions.
There is a significant influence of the Arabian culture on the local population, though the
traces of ancient Sindhi culture as well as Hindu, Buddhism and other religious thoughts
are also present in the attitudes and approaches of the local communities. The Pirs and
Murshids (religious leaders, saints) are held in high esteem and confidence amongst the
Muslims particularly in the uneducated and poor class of the rural areas. Annual
festivals at the shrines of saints are regularly held in which people very enthusiastically
take part. Similarly, the Hindus also hold great confidence and reverence in Thakurs
and Brahmans (the higher castes). The Brahmans usually perform spiritual rites of
Hindus on special occasions.
The social setup in the rural areas exhibits a strong beraderi (communal) system, which
defines the inter- and intra-community hierarchy and allegiance, and also plays an
important role in conflict resolution at the local level. Every social group has its own
Sardar (Chief), who represents the entire community. Most of the disputes among the
community members are resolved at village level by the Sardar. Sindhi is the common
language in the project area whereas Urdu is also spoken in some urban parts of the
district.
Majority of the population in the project area is Muslim and Sindhis. Most of the
population in Thatta district belongs to Sayed, Samma, Jokhio, Palejo, Baloch, Rind,
Khaskheli, Khawaja, Memon, Mallah, Mirbahar, Jatt and Lashari castes. The Mirpur

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Sakro Taluka, particularly the area near the project site, is inhabited by Khaskhelis,
Rinds, Mallahs, Jatts, Katiars, Hadyas, Sammas, Sathyas and Lasharis.
5.3.4 Physical Infrastructure
The area is connected to the rest of the country through the National Highway which
passes through Gharo (Mirpur Sakro Taluka). The main Karachi-Lahore-Peshawar
railway line also passes through the northern parts of the Thatta district. A road network
connects various parts of the Taluka - including the Haji Girano Union Council, with the
National Highway. The metalled road nearest to the site is Coastal Highway which is
about 3 km away, as shown in Exhibit 1.1.
Generally, electricity is available in the area, though in the rural areas, its consumption is
quite low, where the electricity is primarily used for a few light bulbs and fans in a typical
household. In rural areas, houses without the electricity connections are not uncommon.
The water supply systems exist in most of the communities, however networked systems
are limited to the urban areas and larger villages/towns. Recently, the Government of
Pakistan has initiated the Clean Drinking Water Program, under which each UC will be
provided with water filtration system.
The telecommunication link is also available in the area. Moreover, the recent
development of mobile phones has expanded the service coverage to areas which were
not previously connected to the land lines.
Several industrial organizations exist in the Thatta District. These include sugar mills,
textile mills, a cement factory and rice and flour mills. However no major industry is
located near the project site.
5.3.5 Education and Literacy
A large number of educational institutes exist in the Thatta District, as shown in
Exhibit 5.13, however many of these institutes, particularly the schools in the rural
areas, are either partially functional, or altogether non-functional for a variety of reasons,
most common being the absence of teachers. The Haji Girano Union Council is one of
such rural areas, and here several of the primary schools are non/semi functional.
Furthermore, the girls enrollment is very low in the few schools which are functional.
There is only one middle school in the Union Council, which makes it difficult for the
students to come to the school from far off locations. For higher education, the students
have to rely upon institutes in the urban areas such as Gharo and Mirpur Sakro town.
In line with the state of the educational institutes in the area described above, the literacy
in the area is also quite poor. The literacy in the Thatta district at 22.14% is far below the
overall literacy in the Sindh Province which is 45.29% (see Exhibit 5.14). The literacy in
Mirpur Sakro Taluka is slightly better than that of the Thatta District, apparently because
of the presence of a few urban centers in the Taluka, compared to the overall Thatta
District which includes several remote rural areas. However, as expected, the literacy
ratio of the Haji Giran Union Council is quite low (13.9%). Further analysis the literacy
data reveals that generally, the urban areas enjoy a better literacy ratios compared to the
rural areas. Similarly, male literacy is generally higher than the female literacy. See
Exhibit 5.15 for the gender and rural/urban dimensions of the literacy at the province,
district and taluka levels.

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5.3.6 Health and Diseases


Several health care facilities exist in the Thatta district, including one district hospital,
four Taluka hospitals, 46 Basic Health Units (BHUs) and eight Rural Health Centers
(RHCs), as tabulated in Exhibit 5.18. Out of these, one Taluka hospital, nine BHUs and
one RHC are located within the Mirpur Sakro Taluka. In the Haji Girano Union Council,
only one BHU is located. However these facilities are not only quite inadequate to
provide medical care facility to the population of the area, but most of these are poorly
equipped and staffed as well. As a result, the local population is forced to go to the
larger towns and cities in case of serious diseases. The common diseases in the area
include malaria, tuberculosis, skin infections, eye infections, diarrhea, and hepatitis. The
majority of rural population in the area does not have access to safe drinking water,
hence the prevalence of the water borne diseases is quite high in the area.
5.3.7 Agriculture
Agro-ecological Zones
The use of land is governed by several interacting factors, which are physical, biological,
social and economic in nature. A clear vision of these factors is essential for increased
agricultural production in any given region. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
in 1980 divided Pakistan in ten agro-ecological zones, based on a survey carried out by
the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and review of the available literature on
physiography, climate, soils, land use and other factors affecting agriculture production.
These zones are shown in Exhibit 5.17 and defined in Exhibit 5.18. According to this
zonation, the project area falls under the Zone I, which is characterized by moderate
temperatures, low rainfall, saline soils and poor drainage. However as described earlier,
the proposed site does not support any agricultural activities such as cultivation or
grazing.
Cultivation: Cultivation is one of the main livelihood activities of the people of the
Thatta District in general and Mirpur Sakro Taluka in particular. Almost all the
households possess some piece of land which is used for cultivation. Rice, wheat,
sugarcane and tomato are main crops of the area. During rabi (winter) season, mostly
wheat and vegetables are grown, whereas during kharif (summer) season, most of the
farmers grow rice, sugarcane, vegetables and by the end of this season tomato is also
cultivated. The cultivation methods are traditional in most of the area hence the crop
yields are also quite poor. The agricultural produce is usually sold out to the local whole-
sale dealers at the rate which is typically lower than the market rate. This is primarily
because the villagers do not have much exposure of and access to the open markets in
larger towns and cities, and they find it convenient to sell their produce to the whole sale
dealers at lower-than-market rates.
Irrigation: The Indus River is the main source of irrigation water for much of the Sindh
Province. In the Mirpur Sakro Taluka, the Baghar, Ladhya and Jam Sakro canals
originating from Indus and Keenjhar Lake provide the irrigation water. The canal nearest
to the proposed site is Jam Sakro canal, as shown in Exhibit 3.1. During the
consultations in the Haji Girano Union Council, the villagers informed that most of the
areas in the Union Council do not receive enough irrigation water, because of being
located at the tail of the canal. The availability of sweet groundwater in the area is quite

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limited, and usually only a thin layer of sweet water exists over the brackish aquifer.
Hence the usage of groundwater for the irrigation purposes is quite limited.
Livestock: Much like rest of the province, livestock is also one of the key livelihood
means for the rural population of the area. The farmers in these areas traditionally keep
a few heads of livestock, ranging from bullocks for draught to cows and buffalos for milk,
and poultry for eggs and meat. There have been many traditional communities in the
area exclusively dependent on livestock for their livelihood, however, the importance of
livestock as a source of income has declined over the years.
Several commercial livestock and dairy farms also exist in the Mirpur Sakro Taluka,
some of them along the road leading to the site. Produce from these farms is usually
transported to cities like Karachi, Hyderabad and Thatta.
5.3.8 Fishing
Fishing is also one of the important livelihood means of the local population in the Thatta
District, particularly along the coastal belt. In these areas, almost every household
possesses one to two fishing boats. In the Mirpur Sakro Taluka, the union councils
Bhuhara and Haji Girano are located in the coastal belt hence fishing is the key
occupation in these areas. In the west of project site, the Paitiani creek is an important
fishing area for the people living in Bhuhara, Haji Girano and the surrounding villages.
The fishermen of the area generally remain within the creeks, and only occasionally do
they go beyond the creeks along the sea shore. The fishermen in the area generally go
for fishing on the seven-day trips, although some of them also go for the one-day fishing
trips. The fish catch from the area is mostly sold in Karachi, though a limited quantity is
also bought locally. The fish catch data for the seven-day fishing trip of a boat carrying
six fishermen from the project area is given in Exhibit 5.19. The nearest fishing
community lives in Village Ali Mohammad Jatt, approximately 2 km from the site. The
project does not affect fishing communities nor does it affect the access of the fishing
community to the coastline.
5.3.9 Developmental Activities in the Area
No major development projects are under implementation in the area. The TMAs and
UAs routinely undertake small development works, such as street pavements and water
supply schemes. Under such development works in the Haji Girano Union Council, four
primary schools are being constructed. In addition, an NGO is providing smoke-free
stoves to the villagers in the area.
5.3.10 Sites of Archeological, Historical, Cultural or Religious Significance
There exist a large number of sites of archeological, cultural, historical and religious
significance in Sindh. The major ones include the archeological remains at Moen-Jo-
Daro, which is one of the most important Indus Civilization sites, and the Makli Hills
graveyard in the Thatta District. A list of these places located in the Sindh is provided in
Exhibit 5.20. However, none of these places are at or near the proposed power plant
site.

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Exhibit 5.1: Land Use in Sindh

Area
Land Use Percentage
(Million Ha)
Not Sown 3.022 21.446
Current Fallow 1.439 18.935
Cultivable Waste 2.688 10.212
Total Available for 7.149 50.593
Cultivation
Not Available for 5.830 41.374
Cultivation
Forest 1.125 7.984
Unreported 0.007 0.049
Total 14.091 100.000

Source: Sindh State of Environment and Development, IUCN, 2004.

Exhibit 5.2: Mean Monthly Maximum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi (C)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 27.2 27 27.6 26.6 24.9 26 26.9
Feb 29.6 28.2 28.5 29.9 26.3 31.3 29.4
Mar 33.1 33.3 32.4 36.2 31.5 31.8 31.4
Apr 34.6 35.4 36.6 35.4 35.3 34 37.7
May 35.1 35.6 35.7 36.8 35.4 34.6 36
June 34.9 35.1 34.9 35.6 36 35.3 36.4
July 32.2 32.2 34.1 33.8 33.2 33.8
Aug 32.3 31.6 32.6 32.7 32.2 31
Sep 33.1 31.4 32.5 32.8 34.2 34.2
Oct 36 36.5 37 33.7 35.2 35
Nov 33.5 32.7 32.2 33.1 33.1 33.4
Dec 30.4 28.1 28.3 29.4 28.4 26.3
Annual 32.7 32.3 32.7 33 32.1 32.2 33
Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

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Exhibit 5.3: Mean Monthly Minimum Temperatures Recorded at Karachi (C)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 11.5 12.8 12.7 12.9 12.3 11.7 13
Feb 14.9 13.8 16.9 14.5 11.3 18.1 17.3
Mar 19.6 19.5 19.8 19.1 20.3 19.6 19.7
Apr 23.8 23.9 24.2 24.8 23 24.5 24.7
May 28.1 27 26.5 27.3 26.4 27.5 27.6
June 29 28.2 28.2 28.8 28.3 28.5 28.6
July 27.1 29.6 23.6 27.5 27.2 28.3
Aug 26.5 25.6 27 26.3 26.6 26.3
Sep 25.9 24.8 25.3 25.3 26.6 26.8
Oct 24.4 22.5 20.9 22.4 22.9 25.7
Nov 18.6 17.7 15.2 18 18.9 19.4
Dec 15.8 14.9 12 15.4 13 14
Annual 22.1 21.7 21 21.9 21.4 22.5 21.8
Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

Exhibit 5.4: Average Wind Speed Recorded at Karachi (meters per seconds or
m/s)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 2.6 3.6 4.0 3.4 3.6 2.0 2.0
Feb 3.4 3.9 5.0 3.7 4.2 3.0 3.7
Mar 4.3 4.0 5.4 4.0 4.8 3.0 4.0
Apr 5.6 6.5 5.2 6.0 5.1 6.2 4.0
May 7.5 8.5 7.7 8.0 7.1 8.0 6.0
June 8.1 8.2 8.8 9.0 7.5 7.7 6.3
July 6.8 9.8 6.7 10.0 9.0 8.3
Aug 7.3 7.3 7.1 9.5 6.9 6.2
Sep 5.5 7.7 6.0 7.3 6.4 4.7
Oct 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.8 3.9 4.2
Nov 2.0 2.9 3.1 1.0 2.0 2.2
Dec 2.4 3.2 3.0 2.5 1.5 3.0
Annual 4.9 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.2 4.9 4.3
Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

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Exhibit 5.5: Precipitation Recorded at Karachi (mm)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007


Jan 0 0 6.4 13.7 6.6 Trace 0
Feb 0 2.4 21.8 0 12.8 0 13.2
Mar 0 0 0 0 Trace Trace 33.4
Apr 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
June 10.6 Trace 16.3 Trace Trace 0 110.2
July 73.6 Trace 270.4 3 Trace 66.2
Aug 16.2 52.2 9.8 5.6 0.3 148.6
Sep Trace Trace Trace Trace 54.9 21.9
Oct 0 0 0 39.3 0 0
Nov 0 0.5 0.2 0 0 3.1
Dec 0 0.4 0 4.3 17.1 61.3
Annual 100.4 55.5 324.9 65.9 91.7 301.1 156.8

Data recorded at the Karachi Airport. Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.

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Exhibit 5.6: Indus River and its Tributaries a

Exhibit 5.7: Key Facts about Indus River a

Length of River Indus in Pakistan: 1,708 miles (2,767 km)

Important Engineering Tarbela Dam and Ghazi Barotha Hydro Power Project

Structures on the River: Jinnah Barrage (950,000 cusecs),

Chashma Barrage (1.1 million cusecs),

Taunsa Barrage (750,000 cusecs),

Guddu Barrage (1.2 million cusecs),

Sukkur Barrage (1.5 million cusecs) and

Kotri Barrage (750,000 cusecs)


2 2
Catchment Area: 252,638 miles (663,023 km )

Annual Average Flow: 48.0 MAF (41.41 Kharif and 6.61 Rabi)
a
Source: Pakistan Water Gateway.

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Exhibit 5.8: Water Flow in Indus River

Average Annual Average Annual Average Annual


Flow - 1922-61 Flow - 1985-95 Flow - 2001-02
(MAF) (MAF) (MAF)
93.00 62.70 48.00

Source: Pakistan Water Gateway.

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Exhibit 5.9: Species Recorded in Creek Area

Mammals 6 Species

Birds 100 Species

Reptiles 7 Species

Fishes 23 Species

Crustaceans 11 Species

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Exhibit 5.10: Protected Areas in Gharo Wind Corridor

Distance
Protected (km)
Name District
Areas
FWEL-II
Majiran Hyderabad 106
Khadi Hyderabad 111
Kinjhar Lake Hyderabad 68
Hadero Lake Hyderabad 47
Haleji Lake Hyderabad 38
Bijoro Chach Hyderabad 54
Wildlife Norang Hyderabad 49
Sanctuary Sadani Hyderabad 44
Monarki Hyderabad 39
Gullel Kohri Hyderabad 34
Cut Moraki Chach Hyderabad 44
Keti Bunder (North) Hyderabad 44
Keti Bunder (South) Hyderabad 81
Hillaya Thatta 71
Kinjhar Lake Thatta 68
Haleji Lake Thatta 38
Ramsar Sites Indus Delta Thatta -
Nurri Lagoon Badin 120
Jubhoo Lagoon Badin 120
Mirpur Sakro Thatta 14
Game Reserve
Deh Jangisar Thatta 30

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Exhibit 5.11: Demographic Data of Thatta District

Union Revenue Population


Taluka Villages Households
Councils Villages (1998 Census)

Thatta 13 61 1,107 41,408 253,748


Mirpur
10 92 1,526 32,099 198,852
Sakro

Sujawal 06 72 687 22,665 127,299

Mirpur
08 63 1,295 27,706 151,915
Bathoro

Shah Bundar 05 80 634 17,094 100,575

Jati 06 112 734 22,337 123,957

Kharo Chan 01 24 169 2,540 25,666

Ghorabari 05 59 851 15,700 105,482

Keti Bundar 01 21 197 3,928 25,700

Total 55 584 7,200 185,477 1,113,194

Exhibit 5.12: Demographic Data of Mirpur Sakro Taluka

Revenue Population
Unions Villages Households
Villages (1998 Census)

Sakro 07 98 3,436 23,489

Ghulamullah 11 198 3,605 18,441

Karmpur 10 153 2,807 18,459

Choubandi 12 222 3,588 17,510

Haji Girano 14 79 2,883 18,265

Sukhpur 7 210 3,533 18,671

Dhabeji 3 101 2,868 22,946

Gujjo 10 181 3,339 18,715

Bhuhara 14 196 3,278 20,630

Gharo 4 88 2,762 21,726

Total 92 1,526 32,099 198,852

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Exhibit 5.13: Educational Institutes in Thatta District


(1998 Census Data)
Schools 2,282

Colleges 4

Others 4

Source: District Census Report of Thatta, 1999.

Exhibit 5.14: Literacy Ratio in Project Area


(1998 Census Data)
%
District Urban Rural Total
Sindh Province 63.72 25.73 45.29
Thatta District 45.92 18.99 22.14
Mirpur Sakro 42.54 21.97 24.47
Taluka
Haji Ghirano UC - 13.9 13.9
Sources: District Census Report of Thatta, and Provincial Census Report of Sindh.

Exhibit 5.15: Literacy Ratio by Gender


(1998 Census Data)
%
Male Female Literacy Male Female Literacy
Urban Urban Gap Urban Rural Rural Gap Rural
Sindh 69.75 56.66 13.09 37.89 12.23 25.66
Province
Thatta 56.98 33.90 23.08 28.31 08.34 19.97
District
Mirpur Sakro 52.46 31.49 20.97 32.14 10.23 21.91
Taluka
Sources: District Census Report of Thatta, and Provincial Census Report of Sindh.

Exhibit 5.16: Healthcare Facilities in Thatta District


(1998 Census Data)
Taluka Basic Health Unit(s)/ Rural Health
Civil Hospital
Hospitals Public Health Centers Centers
1 4 46 8
Source: District Census Report of Thatta, 1999.

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Exhibit 5.17: Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan

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Exhibit 5.18: Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan

Temperature Rain Other


Zone Region Soil Crops
( C) (mm) Features
I Indus Delta 34-40 125-250 Clayey Soil Rice, Salinity of
19-20 Silty Soil Sugarcane, Soil,
Pulses, Poor
Berseem, Drainage
Wheat
II Southern 38-45 125-250 Silt Loam, Rice, Wheat, 20% Salt
irrigated plain 8-12 Sandy Cotton, Affected
Loam, Silty Sorghum, Area
Clay Mustered,
Sugarcane,
Gram
III(a) Sandy Desert 39-41 125-250 Sandy Soils, Guar, Millets, Dust Storm
7 Moving Sand Wheat are Common
Dunes;
Clayey Soils

III(b) Sandy Desert 40 150-350 Stable Sand Gram, Wheat, Internal


5.5 Ridges Cotton, Drainage
(sand and Sugarcane
loamy fine
sand soils)

IV(a) Northern 39.5-42 200-500 Sandy Loam, Rice, Wheat, Canal


Irrigated 6-6.2 Clayey Loam Cotton, Irrigated
Plain Sugarcane, Cropping
Maize,
Oilseeds,
Melons

IV(b) Northern 38 500 Clayey Sugarcane, Intensively


Irrigated 5 Maize, Cultivated
Plain Tobacco, Area
Wheat,
Berseem

V Barani Land 38-38.5 200-1000 Silty Loam, Wheat, Millets, Shallow


3.7 Silty Clayey Rice, Maize, Soils
loam, Clay Oilseeds, Unsuitable
Loam Pulses, Fodder for Root
Growth

VI Wet 35 >1000 Silt Loams, Maize, Wheat, Steep


mountain 0-4 Silty Rice, Mountain
Clay Deciduous Slopes
Fruit

VII Northern Dry Varied 300-1000 Deep and Maize, Wheat, Glaciers and
Mountains Clayey formed Fodders, Fruit, Snow fields
of Colluvial Apricot
material and
alluvial
deposits

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Exhibit 5.18: Characteristics of Agro-ecological Zones of Pakistan (Contd.)

Temperature Rain Other


Zone Region Soil Crops
( C) (mm) Features
VIII Western Dry 30-39 125-500 Strongly Fruit, Wheat, Numerous Hill
Mountain -3 7.7 Calcareous Vegetables, Torrents
Soils; fodder, Maize
Gravely soils

IX Dry Western 33-40.5 50-200 Strongly Tropical Fruits, Sailaba


Plateau 3 15 Calcareous Wheat agriculture
Silt Loams Summer system
Gravely soils Cereals

X Sulaiman 40-43.6 125-250 Loamy, Clayey Wheat, Gram, Sailaba


Piedmont 5.8 7.6 Lentils, agriculture
Oilseeds, Millet system
Sorghum

Exhibit 5.19: Fishing Species and Catch-Size during 7-day Trip in the Project Area

Total Average Catch Market Value


Fishing Specie Average Size
(Kilograms) (Rs per kilogram)
Shrimp (Jheenga) 4-inch length 100 100
Paphlet 1 kilograms 60 250
Dathi 5 kilograms 50 100
Khagha 5 kilograms 40 50
Surmai 2 kilograms 60 100
Suha 20 kilograms 60 90
Dhangri 15 kilograms 60 100
Kitchak 4-inch length 40 20
Looair 4-inch length 40 20
Source: Data collected during the previous fieldwork (in 2008)

Description of Environment and Socioeconomic Conditions


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Exhibit 5.20: Places of Archeological, Historical or Religious Significance Falling


in Sindh

Distance
Site Name District (km)
FWEL-II
Bhambore Thatta 21
Makli Hills (Necropolis) Thatta 46
Kalankot Fort Thatta 42

Archeological Chaukandi Tomb Karachi 40


Sites Kot Diji Khairpur 331
Mohen-Jo-Darro Larkana 310
Ranikot Fort Jamshoro 155
UmerKot Fort Umerkot 238
Dargah Darya Peer Thatta 15
Shah Jehan Mosque Thatta 47
Mir Shadad Jo Quba Sanghar 187
Religious Sites Bhittshah (Shah Latif Bhittai's tomb) Matiari 169
Hala (Makhdom Noah's Tomb) Matiari 167
Sehwan Sharif (Lal Shabaz Qalandar's Tomb) Jamshoro 210
Daraza Sharif (Sachal Sarmast Mosque) Khairpur 319
*Archaeological and Religious sites are maintained by Culture Department, Govt. of Sindh

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6. Stakeholder Consultations

This Chapter provides the objectives, process and outcome of the stakeholder
consultations conducted as part of the IEE study. As a result of the access route to the site,
through the newly constructed Coastal Highway, the inhabitants of the village of Ali Muhammad
Jatt were identified as the only receptors in the site vicinity that had not been consulted earlier.
Consultations with village inhabitants during the update surveys are also recorded herein.

6.1 Objectives
The stakeholder consultation is an integral part of the environmental and social
assessment for a project such as the proposed power plant, and aims to provide a two-
way communication channel between the stakeholders and the project proponents. In
line with this aim, the objectives of the stakeholder consultations conducted as part of
the present IEE were to:-*`
develop and maintain communication links between the project proponents and
stakeholders,
provide key project information to the stakeholders, and to solicit their views on
the project and its potential or perceived impacts, and
ensure that views and concerns of the stakeholders are incorporated into the
project design and implementation with the objectives of reducing or offsetting
negative impacts and enhancing benefits of the proposed project.
6.2 Participation Framework
The stakeholder consultation is a continued process, and should be maintained
throughout the project. The consultations carried out during the present IEE and
reported in this Chapter are essentially a first step in this process. During the
subsequent project phases as well, participation of the project stakeholders needs to be
ensured.
Exhibit 6.1 charts out the proposed participation framework during different project
phases, while Exhibit 6.2 provides the conceptual framework employed during the
stakeholder consultations carried out as part of the present IEE.
6.3 Stakeholder Identification and Analysis
The stakeholder analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the stakeholders interests
in and influence on a project. The first step for the analysis is to identify the
stakeholders, who are essentially not limited to those affected by the project. They also
include those who can affect or influence the project. They can be winners, losers or
indifferent. The stakeholder analysis aims to distinguish between the actual effects of
the project on different stakeholders, and those stake stakeholders perceptions about
the project and its effects.
The second step in the stakeholder analysis is to analyze the interests and influence of
the stakeholders, examining their assets and capabilities. The small landowners may

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have high stakes in a development project, but very little influence. As a contrast, the
regulatory agencies may have very high influence but low interest in a project.
The third step is to differentiate stakeholders by their attachment to the status quo, or
conversely, their desire/willingness to change. The stakeholders can be best analyzed
by comparing their commitment to the status quo against the influence they wield. The
diagram given below conceptually presents the interplay of stakeholders interest and
their influence.8

+ Influence

Quadrant A Quadrant B

(e.g. Big landowners) (e.g. Media)

- Interest + Interest

Quadrant C Quadrant D

(e.g. Small shopkeepers) (e.g. Share croppers)

- Influence

The stakeholders that have considerable influence and are determined to prevent
changes (Quadrant A in the above diagram), are the greatest challenges for many
projects. The groups that want change, whether or not they have much influence, are
the possible counterbalances (Quadrants B and D in the diagram). The project needs to
find ways to increase the influence of groups that favor change but lack influence and to
mediate between the influential groups that favor change and groups that oppose it.
During the present IEE, the stakeholder analysis was carried out to identify relevant
stakeholders on the basis of their ability to influence the project or their vulnerability to be
negatively impacted from it. This approach ensured that no relevant groups were
excluded from the consultations, and appropriate engagement strategies were
developed for each stakeholder.

8
Source: Social Analysis Sourcebook: Incorporating Social Dimensions into Bank-Supported Projects.
The World Bank. December 2003.

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6.4 Consultation Process


Consultations with the project stakeholders were carried out while conducting the IEE.
As a result of the access route to the site, through the newly constructed Coastal
Highway, the inhabitants of the village of Ali Muhammad Jatt were identified as the only
receptors in the site vicinity that had not been consulted earlier. Consultations with
village inhabitants during the update surveys are also recorded herein.
During the stakeholder consultations carried out in the communities near the proposed
site, the participants were first provided the salient information about the proposed
project. Some of the villagers already knew about the project, but did not know the
specific details. The participants generally welcomed the plans to establish the
proposed power plant in the area. Since the project would not directly affect them, the
villagers generally did not have any apprehension or reservation about the project. On
the contrary, they expected that the project would bring employment and small
business/trade opportunities for the local population.
The fishermen community when contacted did not share any threat to their livelihood
activity caused by the proposed project. Much like the other villagers, they also expect
some employment and business opportunities generated by the project.
The NGO representatives contacted during the consultations also viewed the project
positively. Although they thought that there would be very little direct benefit of the
project for the local community, the area will gain in terms of increased business activity,
expanded infrastructure and improved quality of life.
Four closest tribes settled in the area are Rind Baloch, Jatts, Mallah and Khaskeli. A
separate visit was conducted for consultation with women from these tribes. Women
were informed of the project as most of them didnt have any idea regarding the project
previously. They were hopeful, that the project would bring prosperity in the area.
Womenfolk from these tribes do not undertake employment or engage in activities
outside their homes and their respective land areas. Opportunities for women
employment in project activities are therefore considered to be negligible. However, they
hope that project would bring employment/business opportunities for the men which they
could support. There is an expectation that the villages where electricity is not available,
will get connected and this will enable them the savings in time from daily chores of
fetching water, chopping fodder etc. and thus engage in handicrafts which can be sold to
augment their income.
Union Administrations View
The Naib Nazim of the Union Council Haji Girano confirmed that the proposed site was
not on the revenue record so it was deemed to be the government property. The Naib
Nazim welcomed the establishment of the proposed wind power plant in the jurisdiction
of the Union Council Haji Girano, and considered it a positive step towards the
development of the area in general. He was of the view that this project would provide
much-needed employment opportunities to the poor people of area. As a result, he
expected, the economic condition of the area was expected to improve.
Exhibit 6.3 presents list of the discussants and the key issues raised during the
consultations. The details of the consultations are provided in Appendix B.

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Exhibit 6.1: Participation Framework

Stakeholders
Project
Proposed Tool Consulted / to be Responsibility
Stage
Consulted
Project Formal and informal meetings, Institutional IEE consultant.
Design Phase focus group discussions stakeholders;
Grass root
stakeholders, including
the communities to be
affected during the
project implementation.
Project Formal and informal contact Institutional FWEL-IIs HSE
Construction and liaison with the community stakeholders; Supervisor
Phase and other relevant Grass root
stakeholders (e.g. Sindh EPA) stakeholders, including
the communities to be
affected during the
project implementation.
Grievance Redress The affected FWEL-IIs HSE
Mechanism and Social communities. Supervisor
Complaint Register (discussed
in Chapter 8).
Consultations with the Affected communities. FWEL-IIs HSE
communities during Supervisor
Compliance Monitoring and
Effects Monitoring (discussed
in Section 8).
Fortnightly meetings at the FWEL-II site staff; FWEL-IIs HSE
site. Contractors. Supervisor
Consultations with the project Affected communities. External monitoring
affectees / communities during consultant.
the external monitoring
(discussed in Chapter 8).
Consultations with the project FWEL-II site staff; ADB monitoring
affectees / communities during Contractors; missions.
the site visits by the ADB The affected
monitoring missions. communities.
Project Liaison with the nearby The communities near FWEL-IIs HSE
Operation communities the power plant Supervisor
Phase

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Exhibit 6.2: Conceptual Framework

Identification of grass-root
and institutional
stakeholders

Individual Individual Group consultation


consultations with consultations with with the grass-root
the institutional the grass-root stakeholders
stakeholders stakeholders

Discussions on the likely


impacts of the project

Identification of the mitigation of


the projects impacts

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Exhibit 6.3: List of Participants during Grass Root Consultations

Location Number and Key Issue Discussed


Type of
Participants
Ratho Khan Rind Village, 3 Improved availability of electricity in the
Haji Girano UC, Mirpur area, as a result of the proposed project.
Sakro Taluka Job opportunities offered by the project.
Water shortage a key problem of the
area; improved electricity supply will
help alleviate this problem.
The project may bring further
improvement, such as improved roads.
Khariro Mallah Village, 3 The proposed project will help improve
Mirpur Sakro Taluka the living standard and economic
condition of the local people, who are
quite poor. There are very few
employment opportunities in the area.
The availability of electricity in the area
will be improved as a result of the
establishment of the new power plant.
RHC, Gharo 1 Contaminated drinking water is the main
problem for the poor health condition of
the local population.
Mirpur Sakro (NRSP) 1 The proposed project will provide
employment opportunities to the local
population.
Due to the remote location of the
proposed site, the nearby communities
will not be adversely affected by the
project.
Thatta (WWF) 1 The project will help generate economic
activity in an under-developed and
economically poor area.
Mirpur Sakro 2 The project will not directly benefit the
community. However, the overall
economy of the area will improve.
Haji Girano 7 The villagers expect the project to
provide them employment and business
opportunities.
Ali Muhammad Jatt 3 The villagers did not know about the
FWEL-II project details, however they
expected that the project would provide
opportunities for work and business.
*Ali Muhammad Jatt, >25 Women were hopeful, that the project
Muhammad Hassan Jam would bring prosperity in the region.
Khan Village,
Yaman Mallah Village,
Khaskeli Goth

*Women from four local tribes viz. Rind Baloch, Jatts, Mallah and Khaskeli were consulted in
separate focus groups

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7. Environmental Impacts and Mitigation

This Chapter assesses the potential impacts of the proposed project on the physical and
biological environment of the project area. Also provided in the Chapter is the
significance of the potential impacts, the recommended mitigation measures to minimize,
if not eliminate, the potentially adverse impacts and the residual impacts.
7.1 Impact Assessment Process
This section describes the environmental and social impact assessment process that
was employed during the present IEE.
7.1.1 Screening of Environmental Impacts
As part of the environmental impact assessment process, a screening matrix was
developed - tailored specifically to the proposed project - focusing the potential
environmental impacts during the design, construction and operation phases. The
matrix examined the interaction of project activities with various components of the
environment. The impacts were broadly classified as physical, biological and social, and
then each of these broad categories further divided into different aspects. The potential
impacts thus predicted were characterized in the matrix as follows:
High negative (adverse) impact,
Low negative impact,
Insignificant impact,
High positive (beneficial) impact,
Low positive impact, and
No impact.
The negative impacts predicted in this manner were the unmitigated impacts.
Appropriate mitigation measures were recommended as part of this IEE, thus reducing
the occurrence possibility and severity of the potentially adverse impacts.
The negative impacts identified through this process are discussed later in the Chapter.
7.1.2 Impact Characterization
Once the potentially adverse impacts were identified as discussed above, these impacts
were characterized. Various aspects of the impact characterization included:
Nature (direct/indirect)
Duration of impact (short term, medium term, long term)
Geographical extent (local, regional)
Timing (project phase: before, during and after construction)
Reversibility of impact (reversible/irreversible)
Likelihood of the impact (certain, likely, unlikely, rare)
Impact consequence severity (severe, moderate, mild).
The above aspects of environmental and social impact characterization are defined in
Exhibit 7.1.

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7.1.3 Impact Assessment and Mitigation


The impact assessment was carried out on the basis of impact characterization
discussed above. It uses all the attributes of an impact listed above (and defined in
Exhibit 7.1), particularly the likelihood of occurrence and consequence severity, in order
to assess the impact to be of high, medium or low significance, as shown in
Exhibit 7.2. Each environmental impact of the proposed project identified during the
screening stage (as given in Section 7.1.1) and then characterized (as defined in
Section 7.1.2), was assessed per the criteria given in Exhibit 7.2.
A project is not environmental (or socially) acceptable if it results in impacts with high
significance. Therefore, the impacts with high significance must be brought down to
medium or low significance through appropriate mitigation measures. An attempt is
also made to bring the impacts with medium significance to low significance;
environmental monitoring is necessary for such impacts to ensure that these do not
transform to high significance impacts. The impacts with low significance do not
usually need any mitigation.
7.1.4 Determination of Mitigation Measures
Subsequent to the impact characterization and assessment, appropriate mitigation
measures were identified, in order to minimize if not completely eliminate the adverse
impacts associated with project activities. The hierarchy of the mitigation measures is as
follows. First, an attempt is made to altogether avoid the adverse impact through change
in design, location or method of carrying out the proposed activity. If this is not possible,
the significance of the impact is reduced through appropriate mitigation measures. As a
last resort, compensatory measures are taken to minimize the adverse impacts of the
proposed activities.
7.1.5 Assessment of Residual Impacts
The mitigation measures discussed above cannot always completely eliminate the
adverse impacts of the project activities; often there are residual impacts even after the
implementation of these measures. The final step of the entire impact assessment
process is to determine the residual impact. These residual impacts are monitored
during the project execution, in order to ensure that these remain within acceptable
limits.
The environmental and social impact characterization, mitigation measures and residual
impacts are discussed in the following sections.
7.2 Design Phase Considerations
The decisions made at the design phase of any project can be quite far reaching. For
the proposed project, the aspects which can be significant with respect to the
environmental and social impacts include:
Site selection for wind power plant
Type of equipment
Design of the facilities and systems with respect to waste disposal.
The design phase impacts are screened in Exhibit 7.3 and characterized in Exhibit 7.4,
and can be readily preempted and avoided. These concerns and the measures to
avoid/minimize them are tabularized below.

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Likely Causes of
Measures to be Incorporated in FWEL-II Project
Impacts Environmental
Design to Avoid Environmental Impacts
Impacts

Soil erosion Poor site selection; The foundations of wind turbine towers will
unstable soils; be appropriately designed to avoid any soil
Inappropriate design of erosion.
foundations and roads. The site roads will be designed appropriately
to avoid any shoulder erosion.

Soil and Absence of appropriate Appropriate waste disposal systems


water waste (solid and liquid) (warehouse/workshop wastes, domestic
contamination disposal arrangements sewage, and domestic solid waste) will be
and systems included in the design of the power plant
and associated facilities.

Using transformers The transformer procured for the proposed


with PCB-containing project will be PCB-free.
oil. Leaked oil collection arrangement (such as
Leakage of transformer a channel and a drain pit below the
oil and other effluents. transformers) will be incorporated in the
design of the transformer foundations.

Loss of Poor site selection; The waste disposal systems mentioned


natural Release of above will ensure that no contaminated
vegetation contaminants in the effluents/solid wastes end up in the creek
and threat to creek water. channels.
wildlife Any plantation carried out at the site will be
carried out after obtaining expert advice;
generally, only indigenous species will be
planted.
Plantation of mangroves along the creek
channels will be considered, after obtaining
expert advice.
Aesthetic Intrusion in the natural The turbine will be painted a uniform color,
value landscape while observing marine and air navigational
marking regulations;
The plantation mentioned above will also
enhance the aesthetic value of the area.

7.3 Construction Phase Impacts


The construction phase will be by far the most significant part of the proposed project
with respect to environmental and social considerations, since most of the impacts are
likely to take place during this period.

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Various construction activities will invariably create environmental disturbances, which


may have impacts on the physical and biological resources as well as on the local
population of the area (see Exhibit 7.3). Such impacts include the following:
Physical Environment
Soil erosion, degradation
Air quality deterioration
Water contamination
Biological Environment
Loss of/damage to the floral resources (natural vegetation) of the area
Loss of/damage to faunal resources (wildlife) of the area.
Social Environment
Land acquisition and damage to crops
Damage to infrastructure
Blocked access
Noise and vibration
Safety hazard
Public health
Gender issues
Child labor
Impacts on archeological, cultural, historical or religious significance.
These impacts are characterized in Exhibit 7.5 and can be readily preempted and
mitigated. The mitigation measures recommended in this section will need to be
incorporated in the execution of the project. These impacts and their respective
mitigation measures are discussed below.
7.3.1 Soil Erosion and Degradation
The soil-related issues include soil erosion and soil contamination. Soil erosion is likely
to be caused by the vehicular traffic on unpaved roads, land clearing for construction
camps and wind turbine towers, construction of roads and excavation for tower
foundations.
Soil may be contaminated as a result of fuel/oils/chemicals spillage and leakage, and
inappropriate waste (solid as well as liquid) disposal. The unmitigated impacts related to
soil erosion and contamination is characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Mostly irreversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Major
Impact significance: High.

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Mitigation Measures
FWEL-II and its contractors will strictly adhere to the International recognized EHS
Guidelines9. Particularly, the following mitigation measures will minimize the soil erosion
and contamination:
Soil Erosion
Cut and fill at the proposed site will be carefully designed, and ideally should
balance each other. The surplus soil, if any, will be disposed at places
approved by FWEL-II (the organizational arrangements for the
environmental management during the project construction phase are
defined in Chapter 8 of this report). Such sites will be selected after
surveying the area and ensuring that soil deposition will not have any
significant impacts, such as loss of productive land, blocked access, natural
vegetation or disturbance to drainage.
If necessary, fill material will be obtained from appropriate locations
approved by FWEL-II. Such locations will be selected after surveying the
area and ensuring that soil extraction will not have any significant impacts,
such as soil erosion, loss of natural vegetation or disturbance to drainage.
It is unlikely that the fill material will need to be obtained from any cultivation
fields. However if this is unavoidable, the top 30 cm soil layer will be
removed and stockpiled for redressing the land after removal of the borrow
material. The excavation in such areas will be limited to 50 cm depth. The
fill material will not be obtained from any cultivation fields or orchards,
without the permission of the land owner/cultivator.
Areas from where the fill material is obtained or surplus soil deposited, will
be landscaped to minimize erosion and hazard for people and livestock.
Temporary embankments will be constructed where necessary to avoid any
soil eroding into the creek channels.
Operation of vehicles close to the creek banks will be minimized to the
extent possible, to minimize soil erosion.
Excavated soil will be protected against erosion caused by rain or wind.
Photographic record will be maintained for pre-project, during-construction
and post-construction condition of the site.
Soil Contamination
Vehicles and construction equipment will not be repaired in the field. If
unavoidable, impervious sheathing will be used to avoid soil and water
contamination.
For the domestic sewage from the construction camps, appropriate
treatment and disposal system, such as septic tanks and soaking pits, will be
constructed having adequate capacity, and after determining the soil
percolation capacity. The contractor(s) will submit to the FWEL-II the plans
for the camp layout and waste disposal system, and obtain approval.

9
The World Bank Groups Environment, Health & Safety Guidelines is considered internationally recognized
EHS guideline.

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Waste oils will be collected in drums and sold to the recycling contractors.
The inert recyclable waste from the site (such as card board, drums,
broken/used parts, etc.) will be sold to recycling contractors. The hazardous
waste will be kept separate and handled according to the nature of the
waste.
Domestic solid waste from the construction camp will be disposed in a
manner that does not cause soil contamination. The waste disposal plan
submitted by the contractor(s) will also address the solid waste.
The construction camp will not be established close to the creek channels
and will be located at least 1 km away from any settlements.
Residual Impacts
Appropriate construction practices and management actions as listed above will greatly
minimize the soil erosion and contamination. The significance of the residual impacts is
therefore expected to be low.
The environmental monitoring (discussed in Chapter 8) during the project execution will
ensure compliance to the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as
significance of the residual impacts.
7.3.2 Air Quality Deterioration
Construction machinery, diesel generators and project vehicles will release exhaust
emissions, containing carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen
(NOX), and particulate matter (PM). These emissions can deteriorate the ambient air
quality in the immediate vicinity of the project site and along the road leading to it.
Furthermore, construction activities such as excavation, leveling, filling and vehicular
movement on unpaved tracks may also cause fugitive dust emissions.
The deteriorated air quality at the project site is unlikely to impact the communities, since
the nearest community/settled area is approximately 2 kilometers away. However the
construction crew and other site staff can be impacted by this air quality deterioration. In
addition, the exhaust and dust emissions caused by project related vehicular traffic may
impact the communities living along the road leading to the site.
The unmitigated impacts related to air quality deterioration are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Short term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Minor
Impact significance: Medium
Mitigation Measures
As mentioned earlier, FWEL-II and its contractors will strictly adhere to the International
recognized EHS Guidelines. Particularly the following mitigation measures will minimize
the emissions and their impacts:

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Construction machinery, generators and vehicles will be kept in good working


condition and properly tuned, in order to minimize the exhaust emissions. The
exhaust emissions will comply with the NEQS (Exhibit 2.3).
Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods, such as
spraying water on soil, where required and appropriate. The waste water from
kitchen and washing area of the construction camp may be used for water
spraying.
Project vehicles will follow safe driving practice while passing through/near the
communities, including reduced speed, which will minimize dust emissions as
well.
Residual Impacts
The above measures will reduce the magnitude of the adverse impacts of the project on
the ambient air quality. The significance of the residual impacts on the air quality is
expected to be low.
The environmental monitoring (discussed in Chapter 8) during the project execution will
ensure compliance to the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as
significance of the residual impacts.
7.3.3 Water Contamination
The project activities that can contaminate soil may also contaminate the surface water.
These include:
Disposal of construction waste
Warehouse and workshop waste disposal
Domestic solid waste disposal from construction camp
Waste effluents disposal
Equipment/vehicle maintenance
Spillage/leakage of fuels, oils and chemicals.
In addition, vehicles and construction machinery operation near the creek channels can
potentially contaminate the creek water.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed construction activities on the water quality of
the area are characterized below.
Nature: Direct and indirect
Duration: Short to medium term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: mostly reversible
Likelihood: Likely
Consequence: Major
Impact significance: High
Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.

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No wastes or effluents will be released directly in the creek channels.


Appropriate waste disposal systems, as described in Section 7.3.1 will be
implemented.
Operation of project vehicles and construction machinery close to the channel
banks will be minimized.
Residual Measures
If the recommended mitigation measures are effectively employed, the project activities
are unlikely to contaminate the water resources of the area in any significant manner.
The residual impacts of the project on the water quality will therefore be negligible.
The environmental monitoring (discussed in Chapter 8) during the project execution will
ensure compliance to the above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as
significance of the residual impacts.
7.3.4 Loss of Natural Vegetation
Land will have to be cleared for constructing the roads, turbine tower foundation and
other buildings, as well as establishing the construction camp. However the site is
devoid of any significant vegetation. Some small bushes do exist at the site, but these
have very little ecological significance, and most of this vegetation at the site will not be
disturbed (see Exhibit 3.2 for the footprint of the entire facility during construction and
operation phases). No mangroves or any other trees exist at or in the immediate vicinity
of the site (see Section 5.2.3 for the description of biological resources of the proposed
site, and Appendix A for site photographs).
No protected areas exist at or in the immediate vicinity of the project site.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the floral resources of the area are
characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Medium to long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Irreversible (reversible in medium to long term)
Likelihood: Possible
Consequence: Mild
Impact significance: Low
Mitigation Measures
In view of the low impact significance on the natural vegetation, as described above, no
mitigation measures are required for the floral resources of the area. However the
following measures are recommended to improve the natural vegetation of the area:
Tree plantation plan will be developed and implemented for the project site.
Expert advice will be obtained for this purpose.
Indigenous tree species will be selected for plantation; Eucalyptus trees will not
be used in any case.
Plantation of mangroves along the channel banks will be carried out, after
obtaining expert advice. This will increase the biological value of the area on the
one hand, and forestall any channel erosion, on the other.

Environmental Impacts and Mitigation


Ref: R11FW2IEEPD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

7.3.5 Damage to Wildlife


The water birds mainly the Waders have already shifted and were found mainly in the
marshy area of the creek which is about 2 km - 3 km away from the Project Site, and the
project site does not serve as a feeding ground as of yet.
The environmental impacts with reference to biological environment include loss and
fragmentation of habitat and disturbance to the birds.
As regards the project site, the fauna and flora habitats have been identified which do
not contain any significant number of birds, moreover, the plant species are also very
few therein with the dominance of halophytes along with the invasive and more common
and widespread plant species.
Regarding the chances of avian collision with turbines, no such instances have been
reported so far. There is a need to study bird behavior and characteristic in these areas
which makes it necessary to undertake periodic bird counting and maintaining of records.
Regarding the disturbance to the marine animals, birds and the mangroves, there are no
significant impacts over the species as the creek area is away from the project site.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the faunal resources of the area
are characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Medium to long term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Low to Medium
Consequence: Moderate to Severe
Impact significance: Medium to High
Mitigation Measures
The International recognized EHS Guidelines will be strictly followed, as
described above.
Measures to rehabilitate the floral resources of the area discussed in
Section 7.3.4 above will also positively impact the wildlife resources of the area.
Overall environmental effects need to be monitored. This practice is not followed
for the Non-Protected Areas due to the non-existence of any Threatened or
Key Species in such areas.
Monitoring to gather data for mitigation measures regarding the birds, marine
fauna and the mangroves.
No wastes or effluents will be released directly in the creek channels.
Appropriate waste disposal systems, as described in Section 7.3.1 will be
implemented.
Garbage will not be left in the open.
Operation of project vehicles and construction machinery close to the channel
banks will be minimized.
The project staff will not be allowed to indulge in any hunting, trapping or fishing
activities.
Residual Impact

Environmental Impacts and Mitigation


Ref: R11FW2IEEPD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

The potential impacts of the proposed project on the wildlife of the area are expected to
be moderate in nature. With the help of the above mentioned mitigation measures,
these impacts are expected to reduce further. However, the significance of the residual
impacts on the faunal resources of the area is therefore expected to be low.
7.3.6 Involuntary Resettlement and Damage to Crops
As described in Section 5.1.2, no settlement exists nor is any economic activity such as
cultivation carried out at the proposed site and its immediate vicinity. Hence the
proposed activities will not cause any involuntary resettlement or crop damage.
7.3.7 Damage to infrastructure
No physical infrastructure exists at the site. As per the original IEE, the project related
vehicular traffic was to use Gharo-Keti Bunder route which was the only existing road network
leading close to the site. These roads and their culverts were already in poor condition.
During the construction phase, the heavy vehicular traffic transporting FWEL-II plant and
equipment, contractors machinery, camp equipment and construction material would
have likely to further deteriorated the condition of these roads, bridges and culverts,
beside requiring straightening and widening in several locations. However, due to the
construction of the Coastal Highway leading up to the close proximity of the site this will
become the primary route for site access and no significant impact to the infrastructure
as result of site construction is envisaged.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the infrastructure of the area are
characterized below.
Nature: Direct
Duration: Medium term
Geo extent: Local
Reversibility: Reversible
Likelihood: Low
Consequence: Moderate
Impact significance: Low
Mitigation Measures
Any damaged infrastructure will be repaired to original or better condition.
Residual Impact
Following the implementation of the above-recommended measure, there will be
negligible level of residual impact.
The environmental monitoring during the project execution will ensure compliance to the
above mitigation measures and their adequacy, as well as significance of the residual
impacts.

Environmental Impacts and Mitigation


Ref: R11FW2IEEPD
TEKCELLEN T
( P v t ) L i m i t ed
TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Initial Environmental Examination

7.3.8 Blocked Access


As mentioned earlier, there are no settlements at or in the immediate vicinity of the
proposed site. Hence the construction activities at the site will not cause any
inconvenience to the nearby population by blocking their access routes. The movement
of extra heavy plant equipment along the roads leading to the site may however block
the local traffic for short periods of time.
The unmitigated impacts of the proposed activities on the access routes of the area are
characterized below.
Nature: Direct