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W.Y. Evans-Wentz


Va r a na s i ♦ Ka t h ma n d u

W. Y. Evans-Wentz

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•W h oso the Faith and W isdom hath attained—
H is state o f mind, well-harnessed, leads him on ;
Conscience the pole, and Mind the yoke thereof,
A nd Heedfulness the watchful charioteer:
T h e furnishments o f Righteousness, the C a r ;
Rapture the axle, E nergy the w h e e ls ;
A nd Calm, yoke-fellow o f the Balanced M in d ;
Desirelessnees the drapery thereof.
G oodw ill and H arm lessness his weapons are,
Together with Detachment o f the mind.
Endurance is the armour o f the Norm,
A nd to attain the Peace that Car rolls on.
’T is built by self, by one’s own se lf becom eth—
T his Chariot, incomparable, supreme ;
Seated therein the Sages leave the w orld,
And verily they win the V icto ry/
T h e Buddha, from the Samyutta Niiaya, v, p.
(F. L , W oodw ard's Translation.)

and Fellow of Exeter College particularly for the inspiring encouragement with which he has favoured me in my rather unusual field of anthropological research. I. . Gautama the Buddha. to gather. has so eloquently expounded in this his Biography. I am attempting to convey to the Western World. the lale Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup. Marett. L . and so place on record. Taoists.E. These. authoritative information concerning the same ancient ideals of Asceticism and World Renunciation which Milarepa. I acknowledge indebtedness to those Himalayan and Indian Yogis (who prefer that their names be left unmentioned) from whom I had the good fortune. Reader in Social Anthropology in the University of Oxford.I. still find numerous adherents among Hindus. Among my teachers in the Occident. certain aspects of Higher or Transcendental Mahayanic Teachings. faithful to his Chief Guru. Bud­ dhists. Apart from the greater debt which I as the pupil owe to him who was my preceptor. at first hand. as in those to The Tibetan Book o f the Dead. happily. PREFACE In my Introduction and Annotations to the present work. Islamic Sufis. T o Major W . late Political Officer representing the British Government in Tibet.A . For such defects as critics may discover in my trans­ mission— and I cannot hope to have escaped all error— I alone assume full responsibility. ever since I first came up to Oxford in the year 1907. my Tibetan Guru. during my wanderings as a research student in India. I am also greatly indebted to Dr.. R. Campbell. and even native Christians throughout Asia. R . C. which have been handed on to me for that purpose by the Translator. Jains. (retired).

A Short History o f Antioch. for similar assistance. W . as well as the Editor. Mr. Sri Nissanka. indebted to Sj. I am exceedingly grateful for aid which he has rendered in reading through and criticizing my version of the translation both when in manuscript and in proof. and to Mr. I am. Bouchier. S. Sturdy. E. will serve in its own small way to help the peoples of Europe and . Thomas. M A .. I amr also his debtor for information contained in two lengthy letters from him. author of Syria as a Roman Province. concerning versions and variants o f the text. I am indebted for some suggestions as to spellings and transliterations of Oriental words. Joint Honorary Secretary with Sir John Woodroffe of the Agamanusandhana Satniti.S.H ist. E. T .). T o Dr. F. Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford.R.viii PREFACE Bhutan. and for the annotations which each has added. &c. and for the guidance afforded by his interesting and well-illustrated French translation of the yetsiin-Kahbum. who assisted the Translator in perfecting the translation of the Biography.. likewise. chiefly with respect to Southern Buddhism . T o Monsieur Jaeques Bacot I am under a special obligation for assistance with the transliterations and renderings of Tibetan proper names contained herein. and for thus facilitating its publication at a time when I found it necessary to leave England and return to my duties in India. It is the Editor’s ardent hope that this book. who read the final proofs of the Biography 1 acknowledge a like debt. too. especially Brahmanism and Tantricism. of Cal­ cutta. entitled L e Poke Tibitain Milaripa (Paris. and Sikkim. (Oxon. T o my friend in Oxford. are much indebted. of Colombo. as also to Mr.-for having critically examined the book in the light of Indian thought. 1925). translator of the Narada Sutra. A tal Bihari Ghosh. all readers of this book. F. Ceylon.

Jesu s C ollege. that external dif­ ferences due to hereditary racial characteristics. but for the Federation of the Truth that exists in all Religions. and built of prejudice and misunderstanding arising from lack of scientific knowledge. and physical environment are. at last. in fact. been allowed to stand. the same as their own . Too long has the old barrier-wall. . I can end this Preface in no more fitting manner than by quoting the Translator’s own words: * That this translation of the life-history of Milarepa might contribute a little to help to make him as well known and esteemed in other lands as he is already in his own was the one wish which impelled me as I worked at my task. then will the hour come for the leaders of the races and nations to work not merely for the Federation of the World. Science shall have demolished it. Y . and hold fast to religious ideals. set up in Dark Ages. and remains my ardent prayer as I lay down my pen/ W . in essence. the human race is One Family. PREFACE ix America to realize that the peoples of the Orient are moved by impulses common to all humanity.-W. pigmentation. anthro­ pologically. 1938. purely superficial. that. E. O xford. June at. When.

great in fame. A nd. For all Nature. . T h e iron staff. From my lips springeth forth a little song.’ Milarepa. that m y hands hold. Guideth me over the Ocean o f Changing Life. Sandberg’s Translation). The direct offspring of Memory and Wisdom. Depend not on earthly deities. in showing feats and miracles. Master am I o f Mind and L ig h t . forlorn and naked. Serveth me for a book. from the Gur-Bum (after G. Y e t an old man am I.‘ I am Milarepa. at which I look.

..... 54 C H A P T E R III: T H E P R A C T I S I N G O F T H E B L A C K A R T * T elling o f Jetsiln’s Guru and M astery o f the B lack A r t ...... M ilarepa as one o f H um anity’s H eroes ............ K argytitpas Com pared with Christian Gnostics ........ .................. ......... 31 PART I T H E PA TH OF D A R K N E S S C H A P T E R I : T H E L I N E A G E A N D B IR T H T ellin g of R ech un g’s Dream s... 27 X III................... H istorical V alue o f the N a r r a t i v e ............... ................................ 15 X..................... ............... ................. ............. 2 III. T h e D efence o f the Hermit Ideal .....................i I...... ... Genealogical T re e of Lamaist S e c t s ..... 4 IV........... ............ ........ T h e Arkant P r o b l e m ...........6 V............. xv I N T R O D U C T I O N ......... ....... and o f M ilarepa’s A n ce stry and B irth .. and the R esulting Sorrow s which M ilarepa and his Mother and S ister e n d u r e d ... 12 V III..... vii D E S C R I P T IO N O F IL L U S T R A T IO N S ........ T h e Im portance o f the Jetsiin-Kahbum i II........ .... w hich led to the W ritin g of this Biography... ........ T h e Place o f the Jetsiin-Kahbum in the Literature o f T ib e t ................ 41 C H A P T E R I I : T H E T A S T IN G O F S O R R O W T ellin g o f the Death and Last W ill o f M ilarepa’s F a th er.............. T h e KargyOtpa Apostolic S u c c e s s io n .8 V I. .........24 X II. Tibetan Schools o f Buddhist Philosophy .......14 IX............................ T h e T e x t and its T r a n s l a t i o n ....................... ..... b y Magic ............... 61 .......... the Misappropriation o f the Estate b y the Paternal U ncle and A u n t .......P R E F A C E ...................... T he Modern Successors o f M i l a r e p a ..... 10 V II. 28 R E C H U N G ’S T I B E T A N IN T R O D U C T IO N ......... ................ 20 X I............ and of how Jetsfln destroyed T h irty -F iv e o f his Enem ies and the R ich B a rley H arvest o f the O thers...... D issenting S e c t s ......................................

........ o f the Outer Experiences.......... of Jetstin’s Prophetic Dream and its Interpretation b y M arpa.................... P A R T II T H E PA TH O F L IG H T I N T R O D U C T I O N .... 173 C H A P T E R X : T H E M E D IT A T IO N IN S O L IT U D E T ellin g o f how Jetstln entered into Solitary Meditation in the Mountain S o litu d e s....................... secured perm ission to visit Tsa...... and o f how.............. and o f M arpa’s Predictions concerning Jetstln .84 C H A P T E R V : T H E P R O B A T IO N A N D P E N A N C E T ellin g o f how Jetstln O beyed the Com m ands o f his Guru Marpa......................................... thereby Suffering Strange T rials and Great Tribula­ tions . 136 C H A P T E R V I I I : T H E P A R T I N G F R O M T H E GURU T ellin g o f how Jetsiin...... 93 C H A P T E R V I : T H E IN IT IA T IO N T ellin g o f the Completion of Jetstin’s Probation ........ and... o f the Sorrow ful Parting............. 158 C H A P T E R I X : T H E R E N U N C IA T IO N T ellin g o f the Disillusionm ent w hich JetsOn met when he had reached his H om e .. he T h rice D eserted M arpa and Sought another Guru.. and of the Psycho-P hysical R esults w hich E nsued........... and o f how Jetsiin reached T s a ............ JetsUn’s B irth p lace. ........................ left his H erm itage.. in D espondency.... and of Marpa’s special charge to each o f his Four C h ief Disciples .. and o f his Songs R ecording each E v e n t ................ 83 C H A P T E R I V : T H E S E E K I N G O F T H E H O L Y D H AR M A T ellin g o f how Jetstln departed from his Guru o f the Black A r t .... o f JetsUn’s Initiation........ and o f how JetsOn found his Guru o f the T ru e Doctrine. 129 C H A P T E R V I I : T H E P E R S O N A L G U ID A N C E B Y T H E GURU T ellin g o f the Fruits o f Jetsun’s Meditation and Study ...................................................... going to his Guru..................... M arpa the T r a n s l a t o r ......... and then returned to M a r p a . and o f his V ow s to L ive the Ascetic Life and Practise Meditation in Solitude ...... o f the Guru's Final Instructions and Adm onitions ..... .............. ............ ........... o f Marpa’ s Last Journey to In d ia ................. ..... led by a Dream. .. 182 ...

o f the E xecution o f Jetstln's L ast W i l l . 235 C H A P T E R X I I : T H E N IR V A N A T ellin g o f h ow Jetsfln cam e to take Poisoned Curds from T sap h uw a’s Concubine . and the A n sw e r. o f the Passing A w a y in Samadhi. and concerning his D iscip les . and the Attendant M a r v e ls . o f JetsQn’s D iscourse on Illness and Death . o f the L ast W i l l . 244 A P P E N D IX 305 COLOPH ON 308 IN D E X 310 3119 b . of H is Final T estam en tary T each ings. . o f R ech un g’s L ate A rriv a l and P ra y e r to Jetstln. .C H A P T E R X I : T H E H E R M IT A G E S A N D S E R V IC E R E N ­ D E R E D T O S E N T I E N T B E IN G S T ellin g of Jetsiln’s D iscip les and P laces o f M editation. o f the M arvellous E vents Connected w ith the Crem ation and the R e liq u e s . o f the L ast A sse m b ly o f Jetsiin’s Follow ers. . and o f the R ecorded W ritin g s concerning Jetsiin . o f the Conversion o f T s a p h u w a . and the Resultant Super-norm al P h en o m en a .

Gods. emperors. the God who ruleth this [phenomenal] U niverse. A s the shadow followeth the body.) 1 The Editor found among the late L im a K azi Dawa-Samdup’s papers an English translation consisting o f three pages bearing this title (but without the Tibetan title o f the original text) from which the quotation has been taken. Padma-Thangyig-Serteng. brute creatures. rich and poor. . 'T h e Buddhas and the Arhants alone have discovered my true nature. Karm a folio we th. strong and weak.’ * Tib. 5. in its ve ry essence. indeed.) ‘ On what w e practise now dependeth our fu tu re . I am the deity who giveth them the prosperity they enjoy.’ From K arm a's Proclamation o f His OmnipoitMce. Therefore am I. (Lam a K azi Dawa-Samdup’s Translation. A ll other beings but live under m y despotic rule : I put them to death and I make them to liv e . and have triumphed over me. us. I humble the high and I exalt the low . Each hath perforce to taste w hat he him self hath done. a8.' From The Golden Rosary o f tht History o f Padma \Sambkava] .4 Chapter ix. 1917. A t the end o f the translation there is the following note : ‘ Translated by Dawa-Samdup in accordance w ith explanations given by the R ev. kings. and the happy and the unhappy spirits existing in this world and in the upper and in the low er worlds— all these I elevate or cast down to their respec­ tive states. and I bring about the doing o f good deeds and o f evil deeds among mankind. noble and ignoble.1 (L 3ma K azi Dawa-Sam dup’s Translation. according to their several works. Prajfia Sathi.

as the C h ie f o f the C elestial Buddhas. H is being robed as a Prince indicates that H e has direct dominion over sentient beings a\id their m oral feelings. t h e 1 H older o f the Dorje’ (the Spiritual T hunderbolt or S cep tre o f the Gods). because H is mind is e v e r in the unperturbed (or quiescent) state o f Samadhi. the Herukapas. H e is robed in the rich p rin cely robes tradition­ ally ascribed to the DhyanI Buddhas (or Buddhas o f Meditation) ot the Sambhoga-Kaya O rder to w hich H e belongs. in Gangtok. in an esoteric sense. esoterically. during the y e a r 1920. Vajra-Dhara). for these. and the Source o f G oodness. Vajra-Asana). sym bolic ot 1 A s shown by certain o f the deities of the Bardo Thodol (see The Tibetan Book o f the Dead). It w as a parting gift from the L am a to the Editor. Shunyata) as Intellect. H e is enthroned on a lion-throne. in W h om the Esoteric L ore o f the K argytltp as has its origin. the dorje in H is right hand sym bolizes D ivine M ethod and Spiritual Pow er. either in peaceful (Tib. but venerates H im . in strict accord w ith the tradi­ tions o f T ibetan m onastic art.I. to indicate that H e is beyond all fear o f Change. yab yum ). H e sh ow s a passive mien. T h e bell w hich he holds in H is left hand sym bolizes the V oidn ess (Skt. often depicted as being male-female (Tib. for it is like the blue o f the eternal h eaven ly sky. H e sits in the Buddha Posture (Skt. Bkah-rgyud-pa) S ch o ol o f N orthern Buddhism . or G reat T each ers. A photographic reproduction (about on e-h alf o f the original size) of a w ater-colour. T'o-wo) aspect. painted b y the late L am a K a zi D aw a-Sam dup. the two lions at the base o f the throne sym bolizing Fearlessness. is. having renounced the world. T h e Established Church not only regards H im as an Emanation o f the Buddha S h a k y a Muni. T h e upperm ost figure represen ts the D ivine Guru. . Z ’ i-wa) or wrathful (Tib. show ing the C h ie f Gurus.1 H e w ea rs a necklace o f bon e-beads. Sikkim . or Prim ordial. T ruth. as the K argytltp as do. because H e is naturally o f a passive (or unim pulsive) nature. analogous to the A di. H is blue colour sym bolizes H is im m uta­ bility and the eternity o f H is existence. the Heruka Buddha. Herein this P ow er is expressed through the Divine Person o f Dorje-Chang and thence through H is Initiates incarnate on Earth. and has a beauti­ ful countenance. a Tantric personification of the Saving P ow er which alone makes possible the attainment of Enlightenment or Buddhahood. o f the KargyOtpa (Tib. the C elestial Buddha D orje-C hang (Skt. are. and Justice. Buddha o f the O ld S ch o ol o f Padm a Sam bhava. more especially those o f them w ho are Great Yogis. B ein g the prototype o f the Heruka H iera rch y o f Bodhic D eities. F R O N T I S P I E C E : T H E G R E A T K A R G Y U T P A GU RU S facing title-page.

the Indian Yogi (or Saint) Naropa. as among modern Hindus. ve ry probably from Oriental sources. AvidyS). his Heruka nature being indicated by the tiara o f human skulls and the bone ornam ents adorning him. so that the Illusion (Skt. especially in the catacomb period. circumambulated Jericho daily for six successive days and then on the seventh day made a sevenfold circumambulation. seven Jew ish priests each blowing a ram’s-liorn trumpet. w hence Naropa originated. T h e red colour o f the lotus petals is sym bolical o f Sukha- vatl (the W estern Paradise) w herein reigns the Buddha Am itabha. for Tilopa is believed to have been an incarnation o f Amitabha. and o f other auras in the painting. on a sim ilar lotus-throne. Maya) of Sangsaric Existence is dissipated and the Nirvanie W a y to the Full Deliverance called Buddhahood is revealed. and indi­ cates Tilopa’s p ow er to em ancipate and save them . bore a similar significance with reference to the Christos as the Saviour of Mankind. the walls of the city fell down flat and the city w as taken {Joshua vi. the Indian Yogi (or Saint) Tilopa. The Tibetan Book o f the Dead. followed by the ark of the covenant. w hose symbol is the red. 1 The fish-symbol adopted by the early Christians. and Ignorance (Skt. O n the right o f the Divine Guru is shown the first o f the htftnan Gurus.’ being ‘ n a k ed ’ as regards all things o f the Sangsara o f which they have divested themselves. whereupon. But among initiates into Tantricism there is an esoteric significance. is shown the second of the human Gurus. This seems to be that the ram’s-horn trumpet symbolizes. or harm ony. T h u s H e com bines in H im self the yogic qualities both o f the Heruka and DhyanI Buddha. blowing a trum pet made o f a ram ’s horn. H e o f Boundless L igh t. or W ords of P o w er’ . section on ‘ Mantras. as mantric sound is in Mantra Yoga (cf. * Upon the outbreak o f a serious cattle epidemic in India. after a long blast had been blown on the seven rams’ -horn trumpets and the people had shouted with a great shout. 320). and spiritual power. the Illuminator or Enlightener. Thus among the ancient Jews. as commanded by the Lord. all-consum ing and p urifyin g and m ystical Elem ent F ire . blowing the trumpet in order to ward off or else to exorcize the epidemic. T h e golden fish which Tilopa holds aloft in his right hand sym bolizes sentient beings im­ m ersed in the Ocean o f Sangsaric (or W o rld ly) Existence. 4-ao). it is not unusual for the chief priest or astrologer o f a village to take a trumpet made of a ram’s horn and circumambulate the cattle and the village. T he green o f T ilo p a's aura. w ho received from the D ivine Guru direct guidance and teaching. T h e lotus- throne upon w hich he sits show s that he belongs to the Lotus O rder o f Gurus. Sim ilarly. the exorcizing of the Demons of W orldliness.renunciation and conquest o f the Sangsara (the Round o f Death and Birth). represents yogic equal-m indedness. the sound emitted by the ram’s-horn trumpet is employed magically.4 proclaim ing the g lo ry of his O rder ‘ T h e Unclad. Egoism. . O pposite Tilopa.1 T h e blood-filled skull w hich Tilopa holds in his left hand sym bolizes his ability to confer lokic siddhi (occult pow ers pertaining to the world) in his character as a Heruka. as it does in the hands o f Naropa. p.

H e is clad in a single cotton cloth. has obtained the right and p ow er to confer lokic siddhi. w h ich a r e : (1) Dana-Paramita (‘ B oundless C h arity ’). w h ith er he made a num ber o f jo u rn ey s from T ibet. w h ich is the Norm o f Being. too. although a v e ry famous Guru o f the L in e. such as T ilopa and Naropa w ear. N aropa’s. are com m only classified as being six in num ber: (i) the skull-tiara. is a red lotus. H e. too. (4) Vtrya- Paramitd (' Boundless In d u stry '). H e is seated on a w hite lotus-throne. (2) the arm lets. and (6) Prajhd-Paramita (‘ B oundless W is d o m ’). Beyond-N ature Nirvana. also. sitting in a cave on an antelope-skin such as yogts place under them w h en practising Yoga. like T ilo p a’s. (3) the bracelets. (5) Dhyana-Paramita (‘ Boundless M editation’). (2) Shila-Paramita (‘ Bound­ less M orality’). w hich are not visible in our painting. w hich he collected in m anuscript form in India. m ore com m only called in Tibetan Jetsiin M ilarepa. w h ere th ey hold in place the breast-plate M irror of Karma. ch iefly on T an tric Yoga. T h e se six ornam ents (usually o f human bone) denote the S ix Paramita (‘ B oundless V irtu es ’). also. esoterically sym bolize the fundamental principle or foundation o f the U niverse. oth er­ w ise know n as the O rd er o f the East. Naropa. popularly know n as M arpa the T ran slato r. a dress p artly lamaic and p artly laic) of a native T ibetan o f good fa m ily . holds a human skull filled with blood (represented in lamaic ritual by holy-w ater coloured red) to sh ow that he. like the two p receding Gurus. shown on ly on Naropa. H is throne. for he. T h e yogic ornam ents. T o attain to Buddhahood. is seated in one o f the num erous yogic postures (or asanas). the U ncreated. w h e r e in as described in The Tibetan Book of the Dead (pp. are reflected e v e ry good and bad action. on account o f the m any w orks. tiara o f human skulls and bone ornam ents w orn on the body. x x i. w hite being the colour assigned to the eastern quarter o f the heavens. sym bolical of his m em bership o f the Vajta (Tib. never renounced.and in honour of his Guru Tilopa. and o f N aropa’s m em bership in the Lotus O rder o f Gurus. is represented b y the central figure at the bottom o f the painting. Dorje) O rder. as the other Gurus o f the L in e did. 36. in addition to indicating the Heruka estate o f their w earer. e. (3) Kshdnti-Paramita (‘ Boundless P a tie n ce ’). is shown on the right o f M arpa. M ilarepa.166). w ho w as his Guru. is sym bolical o f S ukhavatl. it. which indicates that w ithout an y other coverin g for his body . the S ix Paramita m ust be assiduously practised. and as a Bodhisattva to assist in the salvation o f all living creatures. and (6) the double line o f bone-beads extending over the shoulders to the breast. and translated into Tibetan. but less red than that o f T ilop a. the Dharma- Kdya (or ‘ Body o f T ru th ’). fam ily life. T h e Guru Marpa. (5) the bone-bead apron and waist-band combined. H e is dressed in the sem i-lay dress (i. because th ey sign ify the V icto ry over Birth and D eath — over all Becom ing or C h an ge. the dress o f the K argyO tpa ascetic. (4) the anklets.

therefore. W ho. L ik e T ilopa and Marpa. is a yogic meditation-band such as Tibetan yogis em ploy to keep their legs in the posture (or asana) of deep meditation w h en in the trance-state o f Samddhi (cf. to the left o f Marpa. 31 H erein M ilarepa (the central figure round about whom are a number o f devotees. the D octrine o f the Enlightened O n e— the Ending o f S o rro w and the W a y to Final D eliverance. o f which our English text is a faithful rendering. In the central foreground. ju st below M ilarepa and extend ing to the bottom border o f the picture. at the edge o f the picture.he can w ithstand intense cold. 2011). in sign o f his ow n gow er to confer lokic siddki. equal to that of the A rctic regions. and to the right o f M ilarepa. and M ilarepa is h im s e lf‘ T h e F earless Lion o f the Dharma (or T ru th )’— cf. onw ards to our own day the K argytttpa D yn asty o f T each ers has continued without break. H e is proclaim ing. com parable to a B rahm anical sacred-thread. so the modern K argyu tp as believe. Gampopa is the fifth o f the G reat Gurus w h o took upon them selves the human form for the good o f the m any. and. p. human and celestial. T h e red band across his breast. each illustrating som e episode described in the Biography (or Jelsun-Kakbum). still confers upon the Brotherhood on Earth spiritual benediction. M I L A R E P A T H E T I B E T A N Y O G I (Tib. 134). surrounded by numerous m iniature pictures interw oven together. Sim ilar m editation-bands are w o rn b y T ilopa and Naropa. as d escribed in M ilarepa’s dream concerning the K argyU tpa H ierarchy . From Gampopa. and the great mountain around w hich th ey are placed. pp. 35s— and the cave ‘ T h e D en o f the L ion ’. w ith the aid o f the Tibetan S acred Book w hich he holds. such as prevails in the high snow -clad regions of Tibet. isolated H im alayan w ilderness such as the solitude-loving mountain-lion freq u en ts. 96 if. is represented in the garb of a lama o f the K argyU tpa Brotherhood. w h o w as M ilarepa’s most spiritually-gifted disciple. II. and the sixth in the Succession which begins w ith the C elestial Guru D orje-Chang.. telepathically transm itted in * w aves o f grace ’. p. w e see the four colum ns surm ounted b y the different sym bolic anim als. there are show n th e buildings ot various shapes w hich Milarepa constructed w h en undergoing severe penance under his Guru Marpa (cf. his righ t hand held to his ear to indicate that he is singing a hymn. Gampopa. M ilarepa holds a blood-filled skull. direct from the H eaven -W o rld w herein H e reigns. H e is singing a h y m n . holds his righ t hand to his ear. Nat-jar-pa) or Saint facing p. T h e lion sym bo l over the entrance to his cave signifies that the cave is in a high. m aking offerings and obeisance to him) is pictured after the popular tradition. for exam ple. sitting on a richly em broidered cushion in a preaching-booth.

.. near the junction o f the eyeb ro w s..... A k sh ob h ya is herein shown seated w ith legs locked and soles o f the feet upperm ost.. A s in the painting described above.. 138 H erein..... vajra-hum-kara-mudra).. or Ldmaism (London.facing p.. as in the Frontispiece... A s such it suggests the veneration and respect which all classes o f Tibetans continue to p ay to M ilarepa nearly nine centuries after the era in w hich he flourished..ushntsha) on the crown o f H is head indicates H is Buddhahood.. A . H is left hand lies on his lap in the mudra o f meditation. M ilarepa is seated in a yogic posture on an antelope-skin and clad in a single cotton cloth (which is here richly em broidered) w ith the m editation-band across his breast....... T h e third e y e (Skt. V ajra-D h ara is show n in the yogic posture of meditation. and A m ogha-Siddhi fifth ... 42. III. for detailed description o f each.. Vairo- chana being first.. T H E S U P R E M E G U R U : T H E A D I .. the Evil One... this being the yogic posture com m only assigned to all Buddhas o f M editation and their reflexes. 1895). 149-51). H is right hand touches the Earth w ith the tips o f the outstretched fingers. W a d d ell’s w ell-know n w ork (of which w e have m ade m uch use)..(cf.... are facsim ile rep ro ­ ductions o f photographs o f bronze im ages as show n in The Gods of Northern Buddhism (Plate II.... see The Tibetan Book of the Dead.. b and d). L . and the/?orf/»cprotuberance(Skt... facing p. it is in the bhumisparsha or 1 w itness ’ mudra. this illustration has been reproduced from the plate facing p.. H e is second in the Order.... .B U D D H A V A J R A - D H A R A ... A m itabh a fourth.. as popular am ong Tibetan Buddhists as pictures o f Christian Saints are am ong Christians.. T h is illustration is a photographic copy o f a picture to be m et with in the hom es o f the laity throughout T ib et. H is arm s are crossed on his breast in the posture o f the S u prem e and Eternal Buddha (Skt..... 42 A s described in our text and annotation on p. 64 in D r. follow ing.. indicates H is spiritual insightand foreknow ledge. A k sh o b h ya (the ‘ U n agitated ’ or ‘ U n sh a k a b le ’) is one o f the F ive D hyam Buddhas peculiar to N orthern Buddhism.. urna) on the forehead ot A ksh ob hya. R atna-Sam bhava third.. The Buddhism of Tibet....... W ith the kind perm ission given b y Dr.. IV . W addell to the Editor.. pp.. H is righ t hand holds the vajra. w h ich the Gandhara School o f Buddhism assigned to the Buddha Gautama w h en representin g H is invoking the Earth to bear w itn ess that H e had resisted the temptation o f M ara.. 105-18. also . the palm turned in w a rd s... b y M iss A lice G etty. pp. to w hom the Editor is indebted for perm ission to use them. like a D h yan i Buddha... T H E D H Y A N l B U D D H A A K S H O B H Y A . T h is and the illustration num ber IV .....

usually eight-spoked.. and in the small adjoining cave are show n the sym bolic W h eel o f the L aw (as depicted on the back o f this volum e and. 334) 4.. is seen in the midst of his ch ief disciples... A glorified figurative mandala is above him. from p.. sym bols o f H is Enlightenm ent. (Cf. L ik e A kshobhya. transfigured and enhaloed..... 30 (S ee p.. know n in Sanskrit as the ghania. 269 (S ee facing p.. . 1925) b y M.. is represented as being enthroned upon a lotus- throne and enhaloed by F lam es o f W isdom .. w h o kin dly allow ed the Editor to reproduce the picture here.. cannot be destroyed).... p. Both forms o f the W h e e l are intended to suggest the Thousand-Spoked W h eel o f the Good L a w o f the Buddha.. 268 H erein M ilarepa. DESCRIPTION OF EMBLEMS 1. T H E B A N N E R O F V I C T O R Y .. facingp.. and A lm igh ty Pow er..... or S criptures. sym bol o f the sym m etry and com pleteness o f the S acred L a w o f the Dharma....H e is m anifesting the signs and sym bols o f his m astership o f the Occult S cien ces. just before his Pari-Nirvana (cf... Jacques Bacot. onfront cover of book S ym bolical o f Equilibrium .... 268-9.. all m agically produced. seated in yogic posture.. c ..... pp. as he bestow s upon these disciples his final benediction. in the Cave o f Brilche.... T H E L A M A I C C R O S S E D D O R JE .. V .. in Chubar. Im m utability.. T h e T ibetan W h e e l o f the L a w (Tib... 269) .. CWos-k or~ bskor)...sym bolical o f the M ystic T ruth (which like the vajra. M arpa’s sim ilar m anifestations.. or the Divine W isdom that annihi­ lates all passions and thus leads to dominion over sangsaric (or w o rldly) existence.. H is left hand holds the bell w ith the vajra handle. T H E T I B E T A N C I T O R T E N . T H E IN D IA N W H E E L O F T H E L A W (Skt..described below) and Flam es o f W isdom . 119)... 2....... 27 5 >28J). as depicted in The Tibetan Book of the Dead (facing p. M I L A R E P A M A N IF E S T IN G O C C U L T P O W E R S facing p... 3. 163.... dating from about 500 b ... Dharma-Chakra) on back of book From designs sculptured on the Sanchi T op es. d . the thunderbolt o f the gods. H e possesses the urna and the u$hm§ha. facing p..) T h is illustration is a photographic copy o f a reproduction o f a T ibetan painting (‘ T h e C h ief D isciples at Chubar A sk in g for B ene­ diction ’).... 165 o f Le Poite Tibitain Milartpa (Paris.. to 100 a .

w hosoever desireth to reach the C ity of Nirvana requireth the E y es o f W isdom and the Feet o f Method. the A rab philo­ sophers of Cordova and of Bagdad guarded the Learning of the Ancients until Europe should be re-born to a New D ay at the Renaissance. the glory of Athens and of Alexandria had long been extinguished by the darkness of the Dark A g e s . limited to the narrow confines of a pedantic Scholasticism .K A H B U M T h is Biography of one of the Great Religious Geniuses of our human race presents to us a vivid record of the social conditions which prevailed in the Tibet of the eleventh and twelfth century of the Christian Era. was highly civilized at a time when Europe was still in an age of comparative bar­ barism. Greece. at the time Milarepa flourished.1 The civilizations of Babylonia. and that Tibet.’— Prajnd-Pdramita. by ecclesiastical authority. from the seventh century onwards. like China. but throughout the Orient the Promethean Fire was never allowed to die out. 3414 B . “ T o die in h arn ess” w as then. Herein lies the secret o f the imperish­ able vitality o f the Orient. scientific and philosophical speculations were. despite social disturbances arising from contact with the utili- 1 'T h e East. in jungle or mountain solitudes. In Europe. T H E IM P O R T A N C E O F T H E J E T S O N . have all bloomed and faded. Even till now. I.‘ Even as o n e ' desirous o f reaching a longed-for city requireth the eyes for seeing [the w a y ] and the feet for traversing the distance. also. W e of the West are too apt to forget that India. China and India have preserved unbroken a culture whose origin is lost in the past. so. not inferior in its medieval limitations and was probably superior in its remarkable philosophical and religious development to the Western World at the same epoch. even in the days o f her material prosperity. but those of China and India. never forgot the supremacy o f things spiritual.’— Sj. was. Rome. an evil to be avoided. Atal Bihari Ghosh. E gypt. K in gs renounced their kingdoms to end their days in meditation. as it still is. favoured by the influx of culture from China on the east and India on the south.

T o Oriental students interested in the complex problem of the evolution of Tibetan and Mongolian religions it should be 1 Kah-bum = * 100. that much of India’s spiritual inheritance. A s a Gospel of the Kargyiitpa Sect. in this way. to the student of religion. has been applied to the needs of Tibetan society and preserved until to-day. who by Love and Compassion have done immeasurably more to raise the status of mankind than have the innumerable hosts of armed troops and their captains throughout the ages. . if not more so. and. and of all the Great Leaders of Asia. and. H IS T O R IC A L V A L U E O F T H E N A R R A T IV E On the whole. the biographical narrative. it is one of the many Sacred Books of the E a s t. may well survive the materialistic civilization of the Occident. England was experiencing the effects of the Norman Conquest Thus.tarianism of the West. as to the historian. and. A t least this is the ideal upon which the teachings of Milarepa as applied to the prob­ lems of society on Earth are founded . literally meaning ‘ The Full Deliverance is more commonly applied to this work. Nam-tkar.000 W ords ’ . who made a number of journeys to India to collect manuscripts of Indian and Buddhistic lore. II. perhaps as historically accurate as parts of the New Testament. the Jetsun-Kahbum? or Biographical History o f Jetsiin-Mila- repa. as well as to his teacher Marpa. which was then threatened with destruction. the culture of Islam was flowing in over every part of Hindustan. at the same epoch. should be of more than ordinary importance. It is owing to him. if they continue to retain their marvellous spiritual virility. as it has come down to us. as such. And. A t the time when Milarepa was meditating amid the snowy fastnesses of the Tibetan Himalayas. have lived on. with due allowance for a certain amount of folk-lore and popular mythology which has been incorporated in it. the usual Tibetan term for Biography. may be accepted as a faithful account of the sayings and doings of j etsiin. they are in agreement with the teachings of the Buddha. and continue to lead humanity nearer that Higher Ideal of world-conquest by the mighl of the divine in man rather than by his animal might expended in the savagery of warfare. of the Christ.

as therein chanted by the Dakinls (or A ngels). Contained in it there is not only the account of the marvellous phenomena attendant upon the cremation. by his vengeful mother. T H E B I O G R A P H Y 'S V A L U E of rare interest. and eventually reaches. he became. and of how Jetsiin reanimated his corpse in order to give answer to the fervent prayer of Rechung (who. ‘ the greatest of all great successes that can ever fall to the lot of mortal man Perhaps. to some readers. he enters upon The Path of L ig h t. it is a summary of the most essential teachings of Northern Buddhism. in the second part. Moreover. as Rechung. however. In the first part of t h Biography. a black magician. be taken of the fact that it is through this chapter alone that Rechung speaks to us as an eye-witness of events. much of the matter contained in the last chapter may appear to be redundant. which are enjoined upon all the shishyas (or disciples) by the living guru (or spiritual preceptor). is. no doubt. this book should bring fresh insight. Then. but there is also the quintessence of the Teacher’s precepts. in the words of the narrative. a most precious jewel. was late in arriving at the place of the funeral ceremonies). . To mystics the world over it should prove to be. almost the most important of all. and is converted to the White Faith. he repents. after having undergone very severe trials and penances imposed by his Guru Marpa. Thenceforth. would call it. a professional doer of evil. For the Kargyiitpas. and is replete with interest for the lover of the marvellous. Account must. for a time. T o all who appreciate Buddhistic Philosophy. as he was. like many a great saint of other Faiths. having been far away at the time of Jetsun’s Nirvana. this last chapter. by the lower nature. Urged on. more especially in its Mahayanic form. concerning the passing away of their Master. its author. treading the Path of Darkness. which is Buddhism. in all the previous chapters he is merely telling us what the Teacher has narrated. and a nosegay of precepts which can be understood only by putting them to the test of practice. for Rechung did not become a disciple until Jetsiin was an old man nearing the end of his days. we see Jetsiin dominated in his youth. a treasure-house which can never be exhausted by the human mentality.

The history of this sect is contained in the account given below of the Apostolic Succession. 54-75. The followers of the ‘ Great Perfection'. pp. otherwise known as the ' Great Perfection * (Tib. and (3) the Adi-Yoga. D . 1895). the God-King of Tibet. and extending into Nepal. the Dalai-Lama. This School. there are three chief Schools of Buddhist Philosophy: (i) the Madhyamika. Sik­ kim. A s to what historical value is to be attached to them. and for more details. of which Milarepa is the greatest of the Tibetan Apostles. or ‘ Middle W ay known to Tibetans as the Oma-pa (Dbus- tna-pa). Tojetsun’s followers. wielding through its spiritual Head. D . The adherents of the Mahamudra School are the Kargyiit- pas. The adherents of the first are the Ge-lug-pas. Tht Buddhism o f Tibet (London.d . Phyag-Cfien) . which originated in India under Nagarjuna during the second century a . both temporal and spiritual power. grew out of the Sect of the Kah-dam-pas (‘ Those Bound by the Ordinances’). and is now the Established Church of Northern Buddhism. these strange events. 1358 and died in 1417. A . or ‘ Great Symbol ’ (Tib. Kashmir.after having made due allowance foraccretions derived from tradition and popular belief. are the Ning-ma-pas. Bhutan. (a) the Mahamudra. .. the ‘ Followers of the Apostolic Succession ’ (or ‘ Followers of the Successive Orders ’). the *Followers of the Virtuous Order popularly known as the Yellow Caps. in the 1 A s a general reference. or Adi-Yoga School. the student is here referred to L. who was born in A . Dzogs-Cfi ett). are no more incredible than is the story of the Transfiguration and Ascension of Jesus to Christians. T IB E T A N S C H O O L S O F B U D D H IS T P H IL O S O P H Y 1 Throughout Tibet. centring round their Guru’s passing away and his funeral pyre. of the Province of Amdo. by the Reformer Tsong-khapa (‘ Native of the Onion Country’). on the frontiers of China. . North-East Tibet. founded in Tibet at the beginning of the fifteenth century A . founded by the Indian philosopher. each reader must decide for himself. W addell. the * Old-style Ones popularly known as the Red Caps. III. the adherents of the Unreformed Church. Padma Sambhava. and parts of Mongolia.

follow the Madhyamika doctrine o f the Shiinya (or Void). 1924). in this respect. The Madhyamika School teaches that everything is void or unreal (Skt. they. ‘ Padma SambhavaTs teachings are “ old " in the sense that the truth contained in them preceded all things. These three stages correspond. So his School w as the Adi (or “ F ir s t” ). which is like the monistic conception o f the Brahman in its Nishkala (or attributeless) aspect. Teachers who succeeded Padma Sam bhavadidnot “ reform ” the sub­ stance of his teachings . * Cf. invited him to Tibet. and the Vaibhashika. Virabhava (State o f the H ero). D . they m erely adapted the “ form ” o f their own instruction to the limited capacity o f their disciples and trained them to acquire the ability (Skt. then the Oxford of India. and. In the second. p. Vahyartha-Pratyakshatva). was a very famous pro­ fessor of the Occult Sciences in the great Buddhist University of Nalanda. the sadhaka (or devotee) is subject to injunctions and prohibitions (Skt. Sarva- Skunyatva) . w hen through yoga practices the Light is seen.2 1 Sj. and the Vaibhashika. . Ti-song De-tsen. the Yogachara. S C H O O L S O F B U D D H ISM 5 year 749 A . about fifty miles south-east of Lhasa. Vahyanumtyatva) . as a w hole. that the outer or material universe is real so far as it can be experienced or be the object o f the senses (Skt. In the first. roughly speaking. at Sam-y£. nam ely. Vahya Shunyatva) . and arriving in the year 747. the Sautrantika. ‘ The three chief Tibetan Schools. how ever. being a semi-reformed body. that the outer or material universe is a matter o f inference (Skt. e. m ark three stages on the Path of Illumination' or spiritual progress. Vidhi and Nishedha). mentions four schools o f Buddhistic thought. hearing of the Guru's fame. Adhikard) to understand the A d i-Y oga doctrines. and Dtvyabhava (State of the Divine or Enlightened). the Adi-Yoga. the Sautrantika.’ T he Editor adds: Nowadays the Y e llo w Caps oppose the old unreformed Red Cap School and its illustrious Guru and Founder. and w as conveyed in the “ old- s ty le ” manner. “ bound by the ordinances” . wherein the ordinary restriclions are to a certain extent relaxed. or as Padma Jungne (Skt. that the outer or material universe is unreal (Skt. 26. although the sadhaka is not y e t altogether free. ve ry much as Protestant Christians oppose Roman Catholicism and the Papacy. Padma-Janma. ‘ The Lotus-Born’). Tibet P ast and Present (Oxford. In the third. w isely avoid either ex tre m e. are among Northern Buddhists like moderate Anglicans among Christians. there are no longer any restric­ tions . Sir Charles B ell. T h e Kgrgyfitpas. The K ing of Tibet. in the Sarva- darskana-Samgraha.1 He. also known as the Sanatana. Param- parya-Krama). T h e Pashu (Animal- Man) becomes a Vtra (Hero) and then a Divya (D ivine or Enlightened Being) . the Yogachara. has ever existed. he adheres to traditional w ays (Skt. to m y mind. Padma Sambhava. better known to the Tibetans as Guru Rinpoch’e (‘ The Precious G uru’). Atal Bihari Ghosh comments as follows : ‘ M adhavacharya. with w hat the Tantras mean by Pas/tu- bhdva (State of the Animal-Man). this is ever the process. the Madhyamika. The Guru accepted the K ing’s c a ll. i. for the state o f the Buddha or Stddka has been attained. A s to the Tibetan Bud­ dhists.

there are surviving monastic orders of the primitive pre-Buddhistic religion of Tibet called Bon.2 the mystical Vajra-Yana (‘ Thunderbolt’ or ‘ Adamantine [i. Sir Charles B ell. but nowadays it differs but little from the old-style Red Cap Sect. in 641. Turkestan and Nepal seem to have been subject to h im . .where he subsequently founded a monastery. through the K in g’s marriage with Wencheng. K ing Song-tsen Gam-po (who died about A . Cf. which. 240). p. op. 650). 18 ff. like Marpa 1 Cf. each of the three bodies wearing caps and dress of these respective colours. and a number of sects detached from them. entered Tibet from two sources: (1) from Nepal. d t. W addell. in contradistinction to the Yellow Caps and the Red Caps. 243). pp. Immutable] Path’) form of Buddhism. the native land of the Buddha. 63-7. (or Pon). the Sa-kya-pa (derived from Sa-skya.. p. T H E K A R G Y O T P A A P O S T O L IC S U C C E S S IO N 1 A century before the time of Guru Padma Sambhava. through the Tibetan K ing’s marriage in the year 639 with Bhrikutlj a Nepalese royal princess. sent Sam-bhota to India to collect Buddhist books. and his conquests w ere so extensive in W estern China that the Chinese Governm ent w as obliged to pay tribute to him to retain its own sovereignty. and (2) from China. In addition to these three chief Schools. A fourth School.e. a daughter of the Chinese Royal House. having been converted to Buddhism by his two wives. IV . Sam-bhota. A . beginning as a reformed sect. The followers of the Bon. 28. which the Kargyutpas afterward adopted. The Bio­ graphy records that Milarepa once performed a Bon rite (cf. p. the King. was originally of considerable importance. introduced among the Tibetans the Tantric and Mantrayanic aspects of Maha- yanic Buddhism. during the reign of the first Buddhist King of Tibet. are called the Black Caps. cit. D . Under him Tibet was at the zenith o f its power. thus indicating his familiarity with the older Faith. 8 Song-tsen Gam-po w a s the Ashoka o f Tibet. On another occasion he made his Magic prevail over the Magic of a famous Bon sorcerer (cf. mean­ ing ‘ Taw ny Earth with reference to the colour of the soil at the site of its first monastery in Western Tibet). op. with its doctrine of rebirth... Thereafter. L . furnished a favour­ able soil for the sowing of the seed of Buddhism.

sixteen miles east o f Lhasa. But Padma Sambhava. as he is throughout the Biography. arrived in Tibet from India. recognized as of the Kargyutpa Apos­ tolic Succession. like St. however. four centuries later. but he is. is still reverently preserved. 1038. because of his scholarship and translations. Atisha is not. and so saved for the world much of the learning of India which afterwards was lost in the land of its origin. in order to maintain their own religious authority. the f ir s t of the Reformers of Lamaism. He. however. Furthermore. or those who seek to gain Enlightenment by medita­ tion. and was born of the royal family of Gaur. which he formulated on the model of the Sanskrit alphabet then prevalent in Kashmir and North India.* Thus Atisha is not only the Chief Human Guru for the Gelugpas. Most of Marpa’s Teachers were of the ancient Indian Sect of Kusulipas. and introduced celibacy and a higher morality among the priesthood. Patrick in Ireland when opposed by the Druids. It was not. Part of Marpa's life is contempora­ neous with that of Atlsha. like Padma Sambhava. until the time of Padma Sambhava.D . Jetsun’s own Guru. ill contradistinction to those called Panditas. The cave wherein Atisha lived. under King Ti-song De-tsen.1 Marpa. in the year 980. who. for the Bonpas had until then successfully opposed it. in A . who aim at the attainment of the Supreme Truth. Then. came to be called the Translator. that Buddhism took firm root in Tibet. he gave to Tibet its first systematic and written grammar. caused the New Magic to prevail over the Old Magic. cit. p. returned to Tibet with a rich library. in a not unimportant way. Atlsha. . Sir Charles Bell. having been attached to the Vikramashlla Monastery in M agadha. as contained in the 1 Cf. was a Professor of Philosophy.. Bengal. one of the Gurus of the rival Kargyutpa Sect which Marpa founded. too. op. who was one of his Teachers. whose origin lay in the Kahdampa Sect which Atisha founded. embowered in wild rose and creepers. but his chief work came a few years after the time of Atlsha’s reformation. Tibet is also in­ debted to Sam-bhota for its alphabet. 31. is said to have studied under no less than ten famous Gurus.

by intellectual means alone. or Primordial. M arpa.1 Atlsha not having emphasized the practical applica­ tions of Buddhism b y means of the yogic ideal which. . and ever since then the Kargyutpa Line of Gurus has remained unbroken. to become the first of the Apostles of the Kargyutpa Hierarchy. cannot dispel the darkness w ith in . and Marpa to Milarepa. which teach that know ledge o f the Brahman is derived either through knowing words or through inner realization. the chief seat of the Kargyiitpas. Tilopa. as an esoteric doctrine— as it still is in its practical application— to his disciple N aropa. According to tradition. so that for them He is the Manifester of the Grace of the Adi-Buddha and inseparable from Him. who had died five centuries previously. otherwise known as Je-Gampo-pa. it fell to the lot of one of their Great Gurus. upon which the Kargyutpa School is chiefly based. two years after he had founded the Monastery of T s’ur-lka. T H E M O D E R N S U C C E S S O R S O F M IL A R E P A A t this very moment there are hundreds of the Kargyiitpa ascetics living in the bleak solitudes of the Tibetan Himalayas. T h e first method. handed it down orally. in turn. a native of Eastern Tibet. named Tilopa (or Telo).Doctrine of the Shunyata%or Voidness. Je-Gampo-pa himself died in the year 1152. Tilopa. imparted to him by the Celestial Buddha Dorje-Chang (Tib. the second method alone leads to true wisdom. Dvag-po-Lharje. Milarepa. the Kargyiitpas have come to regard Dorje-Chang (Vajra-Dhara) as equal to the Adi. the Kusulipas insisted upon. A s being their Divine Guru. Naropa transmitted it to Marpa. V. but the first o f Milarepa’s disciples. the first Buddhist ruler of Tibet. who flourished about the middle of the tenth century. Buddha. some of them in caves at the base and on the sides of Mount 1 1T h is is illustrated in various w a y s in the Brahmanik Tantras. being m erely intellectual. had the Mahamudra Philosophy. Thus the second in the Succession on Earth is Naropa. Rdo-rje- Hch’ang: Skt. Milarepa’s successor in the Line was not Rechung. Vajra-Dhard). the third. This second name. and the fourth. the author o f this Biography. meaning ‘ the Lord Gampopa was given to him because he was believed to have been the reincarnation of K ing Song- tsen Gam-po.

the Head of the Sect. subordinate to the Apostolic Guru. Each little community of these Himalayan mystics has its own Guru. are subject to the Supreme Guru. (a) Siddha (A dept).” ’— Sj. certain truths being beyond the scope o f discussion: “ A pply not argument to w hat is beyond thought. in the soundness of their Buddhism. is subject to the Celestial Line of Gurus. the hermitages of Jetsiin. the Apostolic Guru on Earth is frequently addressed as being the very em- Again. and. they are not surpassed. and these. but where there rules. wherein are still to be found. the Kargyiitpas maintain.Everest. and (a) that w hich is born of Viveka (Inner Discrimination). ed. the Tantra-raja. and. And in virtue of their vows o f unqualified asceticism and renunciation of the worldly life and their actual application of them. the Buddha Dorje-Chang (Vajra-Dhara).’ — Sj. called in Tibetan Ta-wa. the opinion that success means the acquisition of worldly riches. from him. Their system of mystical insight.1 A s electricity may be passed on from one receiving station to another. viii. Avalon. instead. Ogha. wherein the ancient ideals which they uphold no longer govern men. it is said that Jflana (K now ledge) is of tw o kinds : ( i) that w hich arises from the study o f the Agamas (Tantric Scriptures). 1 ‘ Brahmanik Tanttas refer to three Lines (Skt. fame. vouchsafed by the Buddhas. by A . and the K arg­ yutpa hermits dwell undisturbed by the restlessness of the world beyond. A tal Bihari Ghosh. so. M19 C . by any other body of followers of the Great Yogi. who. as places of special sanc­ tity and pilgrimage. through the Mystic Initiation. dis­ tinguishes the Kargyiitpas from all other Tibetan Sects. There nature remains as it has been since Earth’s early ages. Gautama the En­ lightened One. A tal Bihari Ghosh. A s will be observed in Milarepa’s hymns. as taught by the various treatises on the Mahamudra Doctrine and practised in grottoes in mountain or jungle solitudes. in Tantrik Texts. P angkti) o f G u ru s: ( i) Divya (Celestial). in turn. of hierarchical rank. to each of the neophytes. in order . It is likew ise taught that b y argumentation one cannot reach realization. Cf. by them. to each of the subordinate gurus. vol. i. ch. and (3) Manava (Human). is the Divine Grace. transmitted through the Buddha Dorje-Chang (Vajra-Dhara) to the Line of Celestial Gurus and thence to the Apostolic Guru on Earth. and power.

V I. so addressed. the Antkropos (or ’Afia/xas1). B y this appellation we are to understand that the Guru. that of the Christian Gnostics (‘ The Knowing Ones'). in the Christos. and Basilides) and its subordinate gurus and Apostolic Succession on Earth. and. taught that abstention from flesh- food. and his Fragments o f a Faith Forgotten (London. symbolized by the lamaic sceptre depicted on the cover of this book)— the meaning of the name Dorje-Chang (Vajra-Dhara). God the Father was mystically the Primordial Man. from Whom. K A R G Y U T P A S C O M P A R E D W IT H C H R IS T IA N G N O S T IC S A s basis for comparative explanation of this Kargyutpa system of mystical insight. for instance. 1921). for each living Apostle of the Succession is the Holder of Mystic Power. 535-9. 1 C f. wherein we meet with many remarkable parallels. the Christos Aeon (or Emanation of the Father). as the Great Initiator on Earth. Marcion. and its Supreme Spiritual Head. another of the great Christian Gnostic Gurus (who flourished about A. R . According to some of the many Gnostic Schools. Thus. was transmitted to His human followers the Divine Grace of the Father. literally. and observance of strict asceticism— such as the Kargyut- pas practise— lead to the Supreme through the Son. we may take. 120). . probably the most similar to it among systems known to European thought. Saturninus of Antioch. Mead’s translation (London. 1900). the A eon laO (or JeC) o f the Pistis Sophia. is the Conferrer o f Spiritual Power. the Holder of the Vajra (the Spiri­ tual Thunderbolt of the Gods.bodiment of the Buddha Dorje-Chang (Vajra-Dhara) Himself. is the Grand Master of the Esoteric Ceremonies . or. which Pro­ metheus-like he brings from the Divine Realms of the Spiritual Thunderbolt to the Race o f Men. D. comparable to the A d i (or ‘ First ’) Buddha of the Kargyiitpas and other Sects of Northern Buddhism. S . each of the numerous Gnostic communities— although these were not welded into an organic whole like the Kargyutpa communities— appears to have had its own Chief Guru (such as Valentinus. pp. one o f the ch ief Gnostic Christian Gospels o f the Valentinians. through the Saints and the Aeons of Super-Human Intelligences. See G .

the Church-Council Christian. There is. The Paradise o f the Holy Fathers. The Pistis Sophia (London. x l v . G N O S T IC IS M A N D B U D D H ISM In accord with Buddhists generally.3 was unable to hold 1 Cf. The Gnostic Sophia (‘ Wisdom ’) and the Prajna (‘ Wisdom ’) of the Prajna-Para- ntita are equally personified as the Female Principle of Nature. of the Pistis Sophia. p. W allis-Budge (London. but unlike the later Church-Council Christian. 553 did the rebirth doctrine .’ Thus not until a . d . for. Mead. 1900). too. and the consequent wonderful opinion o f its return. by the Second Council of Constantinople of a . Yum). and in the use of Mantras by both. let him be anathema. The Un-Created. held as fundamental the doc­ trine of rebirth. and Fragments o f a Faith Forgotten (London. R . or Shakti (Tib. Oil the other hand. A . would ultimately produce in him the Enlightenment of Christhood. as translated out of the Syriac by E. 1921). The Gnostic Christian. In drawing all such parallels. is not unlike the Beyond-Nature Nirvana. may be compared with the Voidness of the Mahayanic Schools. 3 T he decree is as follows : 1 W hosoever shall support the mythical doctrine o f the pre-existence o f the soul. being forbidden. d . A nd the Gnostic Christian prayed that upon his own attainment of Christhood he might be empowered to assist all mankind to reach the same Goal. 2 so that his highest ideal was to acquire such degree of positive and direct spiritual insight while on Earth as. after many pious lifetimes. similarity between the ceremony of Initiation of Christian Gnostics and that among Mahayanists. G. to both Faiths alike. Non-Being. the Christian Gnostics know no doctrine of Vicarious Atonement such as the Church Councils elaborated and made a dogma . to believe in the doctrine of rebirth. And the Supreme Pleroma of Light Ineffable. ife is necessary to differentiate the Gnostic Christian ideal of asceticism and renunciation from that of the non-Gnostic Christian hermits who dwelt in the deserts of Egypt and elsewhere in the Near E a s t1 and of their successors in the different monastic orders of the Christian Church as now organized. like the Buddhist. the Impersonal Deity of Christian Gnosti­ cism. the Buddha and the Christ being regarded as Guides and not Saviours. 553. * Cf. S. Deliverance depends entirely upon one’s own efforts. or Body of All-Intelligence. 1907).

From this point of view. like the Kargyiitpas. and so came to adopt the lesser ideal of salvation for self alone. like all the Christian Gnostics. and holds fast only to Realized or Realizable Knowledge. D IS S E N T IN G S E C T S Marpa the Translator. while that of the Church-Council Christian hermit’s is. by contrast. negative. as the followers of Valentinus and Marcion were among Christians. The Christian Gnostic seeks Realization. the followers of Milarepa are the Gnostics (‘ Knowing Ones ’) among Buddhists. Tilopa and Naropa. Milarepa the book-renouncing Gnostic-Buddhist saint. and. and selfish. and the Sufis among the Moslems.the altruistic ideal of his Gnostic brother. so that their gold was extracted from their base metal. by faith in the in­ fallibility of the Church’s decrees and teachings. presumably. the Apostle of the period of transition in the Kargyutpa history. The effect on human society of the Gnostic hermit’s altruistic ideal is positive. In other words. as has been seen. V II. and led to the alliance of Buddhism and temporal power centred in a highly organized Church. Preceding him are the two Indian Apostles. Before that date it was. in whom the KargyUtpa Teachings were put to the test of scientific experimentation.of decrees of anathema for not believing. is. rejects that peculiar form of Occidental intellectualism favoured by Church Councils which leads to the formulation of creeds beginning with ‘ I believe ’ and. and creative. and after him Milarepa. becom e to official Christianity a * h e r e s y '. Marpa was the scholar-transmitter. non-creative. as Milarepa's teachings contained herein show unmistakably. . and the Yogis among the Hindus. and unlimited. and. especially among those o f them who w e re friendly to the Gnostic form of Christianity. Whereas Tsong- khapa’s reform was chiefly external and ecclesiastical. Milarepa’s reform was internal and far more conducive to a purification of the Faith. tolerated among Church-Council Christians. a native-born Tibetan. they are the ' heretical ’ opponents of every dogma or creed intellectually based wholly upon Scriptures and Traditions.

David-Neel. a pupil of Dvag-po-Lharje. that all Red Caps are Dug-pas. employing it as a synonym for the Red Cap Sect. unpopular with those of Marpa’s followers who loved the household life. Others. W addell. seceded from Milarepa. is the most important. 1895). There appears. (a) The Dug-pa (from Dug. ‘ Thunder Dragon'. 1927). to assume. named after the Ta-lung Monas­ tery. ‘ the Lamas who belong to the Yellow Cap Sects acknowledge the superiority of their brethren in the various Red Cap Sects in all questions more or less connected with magic and occult sciences \3 * 3 L. is equally erroneous. These dissenting sects differ from one another ‘ merely in having adopted a different revelation from the Ningma Sect as a code of demoniacal worship. as certain non-Tibetan critics of Padma Sambhava seem to assume. which properly is the ftingma ’. . too. Hence there arose four chief dissenting sub-sects of the K arg- yiitpas : (1) The Karma-pa. which Marpa himself never renounced. A . The austerity of Milarepa’s rules was. My Journey to Lhasa (London. It consists of three branches: the Lower Dug-pa. Since its rise. 181. the Middle and Southern Dug- pa (now the Established Church of Bhutan). Waddell has very wisely emphasized. Karma-pa Rangchung-Dorje. p. to be need to emphasize that despite the traditional antagonism existing between the *Reformed’ Yellow Cap Sects and the ‘ Old-Style ’ Red Cap Sects of Padma Sambhava. and so referring to those who are of the Thunder- Dragon School). named after the Di-kung Monas­ tery. and (4) the Ta-lung-pa. in the latter half of the twelfth century. * A . and so relaxing the purity of the former Kargyutpa practice ’. ‘ much con­ fusion has been caused in European books by misusing the name Dug-pa. and perhaps also loved the pomp of ecclesiasticism. 67-9. Milarepa’s chief disciple and apostolic successor.* A s Dr. is second in importance. and the Upper Dug-pa. named after its founder. more given to Black than to White Magic. pp. The Buddhism o f Tibet (London. are the other two of the surviving dissenting bodies. it has lived on in Tibet and in Sikkim. as was but to be ex ­ pected.2 Furthermore. (3) The Dl-Kung-pa.

V III. school' (-------. 55) will help to correct such errors. Waddell in his Buddhism o f Tibet. p. In addition. . it indiq^tes very concisely the origin and interdependence of all the chief sects of Tibetan Buddhism and the important place which the Kargyutpa Sect occupies amongst them. School _____ fahflugna fcTaAtru: Buddhum. The following genealogical tree of Lamaist Sects (based on that published by Dr. G E N E A L O G IC A L T R E E O F L A M A I S T S E C T S Old or Unrefbrm ed Scnu.'N 1» ai * See page opposite.reformed School ■Reformed.

and now and then a little yak’s milk brought by pious laymen. may. he looks out over the human race with eyes of spiritual insight. in fact. op. i. the life lived by the Kargyutpa hermits. and beholds mankind fettered like chained slaves by their own 'conventionalities— many of which are. T h e B a r do Thodol is itself such a Terma .. but to fall. 70-71. however. T H E D E F E N C E O F T H E H E R M IT ID E A L To the ordinary European and American. d . victims to sorrow. W addell. per­ haps too much. having become an apostate from Lamaism. illness. Full of pity. accustomed. subsisting on a daily handful of parched barley. 899. the results of their previous actions. c i t . indefensible. that their Ignorance (Avidya) may be dissipated and their feet set upon the Path of the Great Deliverance.) 5 T 3ranatha is one o f the great personalities o f Tibetan history. appears to have instigated the murder o f his brother Ti-song De-tsen. He sees his fellow-men being held by their karma. And he contemplates the coming of the time when he shall be em­ powered to go forth and lead them to Freedom. w here he had founded several monasteries under the auspices of the Chinese Em peror and w as canonized. to the tread-mill of the Twelve Nidanas. Thus gaining the throne. and by others like them.) . 138s. A . pp. possibly. and. he persecuted Lamaism for about three years. 1 T h e Tertdns. L . while they struggle for the world’s baubles. 73-7. each time. and death. cit. pp. IX . op. he is offering up prayer for them. to modern comforts and luxuries. old age. that the hermit. 9 Lang-Dar-ma. ‘ Takers-out o f Terma (Hidden R evelation s)’.1 and being reborn interminably. 1573. in a .e . following. d . (Cf. clad only in a thin cotton garment. he died in Mongolia. p. as the Buddha Gautama did. east of Lob-Nor). amid the climatic rigours of the snowy Himalayas. the famous Buddhist King. supplemented by roots and herbs. play an important part in the development o f Lamaism. It should not be forgotten. W addell. in a . B orn in Tsangr Tibet. in his turn. the mutually interdependent causes of sangsaric existence. his reincarnated successors becoming the Grand Lamas o f U rg ya (in the K halka province o f Mongolia. 34. and freed from all worldly possessions and untroubled by worldly quests. (Cf. his reign ending w ith his assassination by Lam a Pal-dorje. 1 The T w elve Nidanas are described on p. L . views with deep compassion his brethren immersed in the w orld. A. see Tht Tibetan Book o f the Dead. seem an outcome o f unreasoning religious zeal.

‘ When a yogi. after all. when. too. on pilgrimage to Badrinath. the yogi teaches that all states of human activity. desirable only when directed to the one aim. Apart from their comparative value to society. wherein matriculation comes by successful world-renunciation. o r ' One Hundred Thousand Songs’. In Milarepa’s Gur-Bum. for to him the world is a vast School of many gradations. if ye but served such a Kingdom as . human life is a Net of Maya (Illusion). A s one of the Hindu yogis once asked the writer. being karmic. by right use of it. Then when the spokesman asked where Milarepa’s king­ dom was. it is recorded that when the King of Khokhom and Yerang. like trapped creatures. invited Milarepa to the royal presence and he refused to leave the hermitage. Milarepa answered: ‘ Y e circle of officials of the Kingdoms of the World. ‘ I am like­ wise a mighty king. is summoned by a mighty king is it not seemly that he should set out and go to do homage at the king’s feet ? ’ Milarepa replied. the one who delivered the invitation asked. the latter met him at his hermitage near the wild frontiers of Garhwal and Tibet. are in themselves justified . and a king who aboundeth in riches is in no wise happier or mightier than I. of reaching. the majority in the middle forms. who is a mere man. and a few ready to pass on to the University. Thus. to the yogi. ‘ Can aircraft and wireless telegraphy and all your modern comforts bring true happiness to the Race? Or can blind faith in the infallibility of H oly Books bring Emancipation without Knowledge won by practice o f religion ? ’ We. more truly cultural than the ideal of the financier in Wall Street or that of the pleasure- seeker in Paris. as by a boat one crosses an ocean to the farther shore. the Beyond-Nature. freed from all conditioned states of transitory and phenomenal being. Those who have evolved beyond the desires of the worldly life are to him of greater value to society than those who are still enamoured of the world. in which. ought seriously to consider whether the ideal which Milarepa offers to us is not. human beings struggle. in Nepal. of the Wheel that Revolveth. some pupils being in the kindergarten.

that Platonic Cave of Shadows. which. Whether he be believed or not does not affect his conviction. although usually not accepted. had been practising yoga for seventy-five years. G. H I M A L A Y A N Y O G IS A N D G O D S 17 is mine. by methods as care­ ful and scientific in their own realm as those known in the laboratories of the West in the realm of physical science. visible to Seers and can be communicated with by the pure in heart. Though invisible to the eyes of normal men. have been compared by the yogi to fish in a pond. of races still in the lower and middle grades of the World-School. in judging the yogi. Sandberg. five centuries ago Europeans believed the world to be flat it was really spherical. current among Hindus and Buddhists. and the power and wealth of all things would spring forth [for yo u ]. S«9 D . these Beings are. It has been said. pp. he added.'1 Human beings immersed in the Illusion sprung from Ignor­ ance. the acceptance or rejection o f his view of human life cannot possibly change whatever is. and. and now. or to deer in a forest who prefer to continue to be deer though there be offered to them the chance of becoming human. and not striving to know themselves. that the saints of Europe were in the past a lightning conductor to draw away from the West the wrath of God. A Bengali hermit who had renounced a vast worldly estate in Calcutta at the age of twenty-five and who. the Buddhist prays that his next birth may be among the Gods on the Himalayas. have no desire to quit the water-world and live in the a ir. This. as he may point out. satisfied with the pond and the fish existence. ye would be transformed into the mightiest of monarchs. as Silent Sentinels. at least to himself. pointed out to me some of the snowy ranges. Tibet and the Tibetans (London. since then. 1906). that the Great Rishis have been and are the Guardians of the Human Race. that he claims to have proved. 962-3. that the ideals of the worldly are merely the ideals of an immature social order. in a manner. in Ceylon. It must equally be kept in mind. in the direction of Mount Kailasa. They look out with divine com- 1 Cf. whence the Gods keep watch over and direct the spiritual growth of our Race. Even to-day. is not unlike the belief. When. likewise. in the high Hima­ layas where I met him.

the late Hermit Guru Norbu. good thoughts. The Translator himself supported it. nor to such sincere Indian yogis as the writer has met. like arrows over the world. dynamically charged with thought-forces. They sustain the psychic man. bearing grace and spiritual power. as the Sun sustains the physical man. in their foolish wisdom. implant his blessings in the hearts of men. passion from the Himalayan Ramparts of the Earth. in the course of his researches among the living saints o f the Himalayas and of Hindustan. when a young man in Bhutan. and make possible mankind’s escape from the Net of Sangsaric Existence. and would never have returned to the world had not his father. A s from mighty broadcasting stations. One of them. as They are. called him home and requested him to marry and continue the family. has the writer en­ countered a genuine yogi whose ideal was not unselfish prepara­ tion for service to the Race. Linked. is the conviction to which the developed yogi eventually attains. perhaps. as a useless member of society. as one who has deserted his duties in the world in order to win for himself a selfish salvation. I f this were. regard the Great Yogi. for he. a criticism applicable to some of the hermits of the Egyptian deserts. This. as one who had won admission into the Society of the Enlightened Ones. in short. in the Chain of Being. they fulfil a function far more important than that of all the Kings and Rulers among men. then an old man needing his support. sitting in silent meditation and Samadhi on the Himalayan Heights. too. near Buxuadar. tells us in one of his hymns (see page 216) how he— Great Yogi that he was— shoots out. Nowhere. the Great Ones broadcast over the Earth that Vital Spirituality which alone makes human evolution possible. although by birth a Brahmana. upon striking those who are receptive. and how these. it is not applicable to the Kargyutpa hermits. The worldly. till the K ali-Yuga Night shall have run its still long course and the D ay of Awakening dawns over all the nations. renounced the worldly life and went into hermitage with his Guru. had left behind him all distinctions of caste . Milarepa. with Humanity on Earth and the Enlightened Ones beyond Nature.

be he Hindu. Taoist. in past lives. tasting pleasure. he must unwaveringly hold fast to the life which he has voluntarily chosen. (a) to bring about the destruction of all sangsaric passions in oneself. was looking forward— though it may be that many incarnations were yet to be his lot— to the time when he would be able to return to the world and proclaim Truth Realizable. until all creatures. and. Sufi. marrying and giving in marriage. too. (3) to realize and then to teach others the Truth. I f the Teacher has not himself seen the Light how can he proclaim it to others ? Thus it is that the highest aim of every sincere yogi. thereby invigorating and helping to maintain in activity the higher nature o f man. does not imply that the yogi’s asceticism precludes his . as in the Mah3yana School. is first to fit himself to become a World-Teacher and then to return to human society and carry out his Vow. Renunciation must precede Conquest of Life. Jain. also m aintained^incom patible w ith the A ll- Embracing L ove o f the Good L aw . are guided safely across the Ocean o f the Sangsara to the O ther Shore of Eternal Deliverance. T H E Y O G I ’S V O W 19 and creed and. proclaimed to the rich young man of the world who asked Him the way to Salvation. Buddhist. A nd he has so chosen. through the centuries. the Hlnayana. however. for instance. by silent and invisible broadt^sting o f spiritual influences over all the nations. from the low est in sub-human kingdoms on this and every other planet to the highest o f unenlightened gods in the heaven-worlds and the most fallen of dw ellers in hell-worlds. as. by the one taking the V o w . the great Christian. regarding all mankind as his brethren. one lifetime is but as a d a y .2 1 The V ow to attain the state o f the Bodhisattva. The Vow implies that Nirvana w ill not be entered into. he has lived the worldly life. is fourfold : (i) to bring about the salvation o f all sentient beings. 151s. (See p. because. and Truth Realized must precede the task of teaching and guiding an unenlightened humanity. and (4) to set others on the Path leading to Buddhahood. For him. as the sun’s rays do the physical man. But even on this Path direct benefit to humanity is conferred in other w a y s. or Great Teacher.) The V ow to attain the state o f the Pratyeka (or Non-Teaching) Buddha belongs to the Lesser Path. all the while. leading to the treading o f the H igher Path. or Gnostic Christian. learning the lessons taught by such lives. T h e doctrine of Never- Ending Damnation finds no place in this universal altruism. filled with insatiable ambitions. 2 This. and though many thousand lifetimes in the fleshly form should be necessary to reach Enlightenment. as Jesus. being held to be— as Origen. has risen to a place among the higher species of his race.1 T o him.

having passed out of it. X. of late. Many Great Yogis. ‘ members of the human race who have reached. like one come out of a cave into the light of day. and that thire have been others of the same species in every age. is the most important anthropological question which Milarepa’s Biography raises. to the Beyond-Nature. no longer has he any desire to return to the Shadows. its Goal is the deliverance from the limited personality in the All-Enlighten­ ment. who are the yogis. The Buddhists hold that the Buddha Gautama. That men so highly developed now exist. some of another. as it were. and then. and the modern followers of the Great Rishis.Having realized that the worldly life is not the highest state on Earth. and. the Unborn. To w ork only for family or nation is for them selfish. Humanity. of the mundane into the Supra-Mundane— the Uncognizable. a few Indian Christians being numbered among them. Unmade. is but One of many Buddhas. T H E A R H A N T PROBLEM A ll of this leads us to a problem which has. the transmutation. there being but the O ne Family and the One Nation. by Western Science ? ’ This. ‘ Are there is a question which has been addressed to the writer. are possessed of mastery over natural forces as yet undiscovered. a specks apart from other human beings. some of one Faith. and who being. the height of such spiritual and physical evolutioi as this planet adm its. The Arhant Problem obviously being of very great impor- helpingr to continue the ordinary human s p e c ie s. he has relinquished i t . been discussed even among European thinkers. have altruistically dedicated the larger portion o f their life to working for social betterment. . as w as the case with Gautama the Buddha. is the clam of all the Great Rishis who have made India illustrious. the Unknowable. it seems to us. The Path he has chosen leads to the Higher Evolution. for one part of the ideal o f asceticism in the Orient is indomitable control and right use of the whole o f the physical organism rather than that common misuse of it w hich results in licentiousness. but probably suspected. Himself One of the Great Rishis. have first entered the married state. by the alchemy of Right Knowledge. as Milarepa is believed to have done. Nirvana. The Hindus make the same claim concerning their Hindu Rishis . the beginning of Whose Dynasty is lost in remote antiquity. hold firmly to it.

(a) That most of them are practising Buddhist ascetics and Hindu yogis. T H E P A T H T O A R H A N T S H IP tance in itself. and. did during the eleventh century A . as might perhaps reasonably be expected. (3) That reliable evidence suggests that among so many aspirants there are. as Milarepa is represented as doing. and therefore needs to be accepted. probably not one per ten thousand. * ‘ An Arhant being one w h o . assert that there are men now living among them who have done so. be no nearer Arhant- ship than an ordinary householder. how ever. be seen that a saintly hermit. the state o f the bhikshu. who do reach or at least nearly reach the Goal. an Arhant (or Arhat) is one who has attained to the first stage of Bodhisattvic perfections. having eradicated Lust. A n ger. with which in Milarepa’s yogic practices it is amalgamated). A n Arhant being defined as a Perfected Saint on Earth.2 The following postulates may. D . The Tibetans. at the outset. however. making serious efforts to tread the path to Arhantship. if at 1 Following the Mahayana School. unable to find anyw here in the Pali Canon teachings o f the Buddha to the contrary. and may. It is said that if a householder attains to Arhantship he either renounces the w orld w ithin seven days there­ after and becomes a monk. in fact. on their part. be m ade: (i) That hermits exist in Tibet and in the adjacent Himalayan States. 3 ‘ Although many of our scholars in the Southern School may not accept this view o f the Northern School. or ascetic w ho has renounced the w orld ly life. The Satipatthana Sutta is emphatic on the possibility o f the attainment o f A rhantship. is equally true. maintain that it is quite as feasible to traverse the path to Arhantship to its very end in this age as it has been in any past a g e . affords the most natural approach to Arhantship. and in relation to Milarepa. Kargyutpa or other.’— Sri Nissanka. an Arhant is one w ho has attained to such a high degree o f spiritual development as to have won initiation into the fourth order o f Tantric Initiates. . Follow ing the Tantric School (as apart from the Mahayana. as Milarepa. in advanced stages of sainthood. and Ignorance. is freed from the thraldom of the T w e lv e Nidanas and from ev e ry sangsaric fetter. as in India. their National Saint. is not necessarily an Arhant. can easily be proved. or who dis­ believes in Arhants. or else enters into his P a ri-N irvd n a — Sri Nissanka. exceedingly few. some consideration of it may fittingly be included in this Introduction.1 One who has reached the Goal of Enlightenment. th ey are. in justification.3 Although the assertion may not be demonstrable to a person who is not an Arhant. it will. a few.

the Truly Enlight­ ened One. though it ought not to be. extending over more than five years. He. e. have reached the Goal. O f Milarepa. on faith. after he had reached Enlightenment. much more difficult. or the treading of the Noble Eightfold Path. faith in physical facts. having gone forth into homelessness. the path to Arhantship appears still to be open. of course. that we have become unfitted to retain our old ancestral faith in facts which are super-physical. Nevertheless. the more convinced he has become that it ought not to be lightly set aside as it is apt to be by Christians. How many of us know by personal realization that the sun is 93. from Craving for Sangsaric Existence. can. it may be literally true.000. The writer.all. These Awakened Ones have reached Deliverance from Ignorance. were no longer practicable. the more the writer has examined the Tibetan’s claim to Arhants. Perhaps this is due to our having unconsciously become so dominated by scientific faith.000 miles or so distant. probably seeing no evidence of actual Arhants among themselves. To have faith about Arhants appears to be. from further karmic need of birth and death. it is written. only speak for himself and let his conclusions be taken for what they are worth. are inclined to conclude that there can be no Arhants anywhere else. then there would be— so our yogi friends contend— sound reason to sustain this sceptical attitude of the European or of the Southern Buddhist. or that any other generally accepted fact of natural science is true? W e believe such facts by force of our social psychology and of recently acquired mental predisposition. If the application of the Sermon on the Mount. in Rechung’s Introduction. more especially among ‘ heretical’ Northern Buddhists and Hindus. as a result of his inquiries. In other words. as did the Great Arhant. has good reason to think that among the Himalayan hermits (a few of whom he has conversed with in their own environments) there are possibly some— if per­ chance there be but two or three— who. having had the advantage of holy and . i. *[He was] one who. and even by Southern Buddhists. in venturing herein to put on record some results of his Tibetan and Indian researches. who.

and tasted it for himself in the delightful solitude of mountain retreats. as there are said to have been. [so that] the seeds of Experience and Inspira­ tion sprouted up in him and attained to full growth. it is not unreason­ able. as Guides W ho have ex­ plored and marked out and still guard for us the W ay. . the rare efflorescence of society. . indeed. he is the quintessence of all human enlightenment and progress throughout the ages. If this view of the Indian Seers be right. and certainly not unscientific. [He was] one who reached Those dwelling in the C ity of the Great Emancipation. but necessary. and. wherein every one existeth in indescribable bliss. would the path to Arhantship be impassable and the Goal unrealizable for mankind . A s the followers of Milarepa contend. that there should be. . in Tibet or . then. therefore. in deciding whether or not there are Arhants now. T H E P A T H T O A R H A N T S H IP sacred teachers. in the Gnostic sense. an Arhant is one who reaches perfection on Earth only after many lives dedicated to the greatest of all great adventures. stored up the life-giving elixir that fell from their lips. it is not only probable. and not by intellectual speculation. . If there be no such Guardians of the Sacred W ay of the Greater Evolution. thereby obtaining emancipation from the toils of Ignorance. and as it is believed there will be in the future. . the link uniting mankind to the Higher Culture. and more than Arhants— become understandable to us who yet dwell in the Sangsara through which They passed to Freedom. Given the beliefs of the Oriental mystic. from among this world’s millions of human beings at least a few in every generation who keep open. and we see Them as truly our own Brethren. Truth can be found only through Realization of Truth. so. as Plato would say. . in Truth-seeking. to believe that the ordinary man is far from the top of the ladder of spiritual achievement. then all of the Supreme World-Teachers— Who were Arhants. the Sacred W ay from the Plains of Earth to the Heights of Olympus.’ To the mystic of the Orient. and bid us follow Them. all escape from the Sangsara would be cut off.

as Milarepa herein bids us do. Then. aided by Major W. of which Milarepa sings in his ecstatic joy of triumph. no less than the Buddhists of all Schools. unless he first sets up a postulate that there is a New World awaiting his discovery. the only valid and scientific procedure is to explore for oneself the path leading to Arhantship. began the English translation of the Jetsiin-Kahbum. fortunately. T H E T E X T A N D IT S T R A N S L A T IO N The late Lama K azi Dawa-Samdup. inevitably. X I. because they believe that Evolution does not come to an end in man. working on it periodically when he could spare time— he being the sole support of an aged father and mother and a wife and three children— completed it on the twenty-ninth day of January. 1917. Without faith that a certain experiment may lead to a certain result. near Gangtok. Campbell. have their own Gurus to point out the W ay. Am ong human beings. upon which our version is based. during the year 1920. and Sikkim. a vast majority still do possess such faith. L. of whom the Editor has given a brief biographical account in the Introduction to The Tibetan Book o f the Dead. and the Moslem Sufi. biologically considered. the Taoist and the Christian. If this faith be lacking. no chemist or physicist could possibly discover fresh scientific truths . Sikkim (formerly a part of Tibet).elsewhere in the world. the quest would be utterly hopeless and the sceptic would continue to be as Milarepa’s School teaches that he is— the slave of Time and Change. whilst he was Headmaster of the Maharaja’s Bhutia Boarding School. and no man can ever expect to discover that New World. on the twenty-second day of June. then. he began preparing the trans­ lation for publication. and himself a Tibetan . merely the highest of the animal beings. The Hindu and the Jain. * Even the sceptic need only have faith enough to believe in the possibility of such a path in order to find and examine it. who is. who was then the Political Officer representing the British Govern­ ment in Tibet. and. 190 a. Bhutan.

too. of late. Thereafter. and in the autumn of the following year at Oxford began the adaptation of the translation which is here presented. and had he lived to do so. no doubt. Extracts and parts. published in the year 1914 the late Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup’s first English rendering of the chapter of the Biography recording Jetsun’s Meditation in Solitude. the Editor has thought it wiser to offer to the world the translation in the form which now has been given to it. beyond Darjeeling. which. for example. it was pre­ ferable to bring out. for use in connexion with the high proficiency examination in Tibetan. the work in preparation for the publishing of Jetsun’s Biography was left unfinished. in the year 1924. have. while faithfully following the Translator’s manuscript. The Government of India. all errors which may possibly have crept into our version would. Uppn the premature death of the Lama. have been eliminated. It had always been the hope of the Translator to supervise the publication of the translation .scholar. now and then appeared in translation in various European languages. both from the Biography and from the Songs (or Hymns). is Chapter X. while on a visit to the late Lam a’s home at Kalimpong. in March 1922. the Editor. MW E . shortly after his appoint­ ment to the Tibetan Professorship in the University o f Cal­ cutta. In his English rendering. in a somewhat freer manner. But rather than postpone publication indefinitely. according to our editing. working with the Lama on the translation o f The Tibetan Book o f the Dead and other Tibetan religious treatises. and saw something of the progress made with the Jetsiin-Kahbum. secured from the late Lama’s surviving son the original manu­ script translation . was then in Gangtok. The Editor. except in a comparatively few instances. where. or as is compatible with literary English. the real meaning intended rather than translate literally abstruse meta­ physical terms and phrases which— even if they could be Englished— would fail to convey the meaning an initiated lama would gather from them in the original. the Translator kept as close to the literal sense of the Tibetan text as the idioms of the two lan­ guages permit. as he said.

3 0 7 -11 . The Appendix of our edition (see page 306) records that Gampopa also wrote a Biography of Jetsiin. how­ ever. L . There is a Mongolian version of the Biography and probably another in Chinese. who. Bacot in his letters to me has stated. xxiii. Tibet and the Tibetans (London. copies of which were lent to him by Major W . and to his Milarepa the student is referred for further information. in French. Rockhill. Bacot has discussed these and kindred technical problem s. W . Sandberg. it is hoped. The Buddhism o f Tibet (London. This important task remains for scholars of the future. . In his own valuable Introduction. as follows : H. The Tibetan * H undred Thousand So n g s’ o f Milaraspa. too. but in different editions. Probtn aus dent tihetischen Legenden- buche. The Editor’s interest being anthropological rather than philo­ logical. we have no knowledge. W . nor would he have been fitted to produce one had all the necessary data and material been available. A u s den Geschichten und Liedern des Milaraspa (W ie n . O f this. the folio numbers given of the corresponding Tibetan text do not agree with those from which he made his French translation. 190 a). according to the monastery in which the printing is done.1 A s M. then. in order o f publication. 1906). Campbell. Jaschke. Our English version is the first complete transla­ tion to be published in an Occidental tongue. M. Milaraspa (1922). Berthold Laufer. 1869). die hundert-tausend Ges&nge dts Milaraspa. 54 3 -5 8 . Evidently. our version and his are based upon different Tibetan editions. in the Zeiischrift der Deutschtn Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft (Leipzig. will 1 Apart from our own and M. M. W addell. Nor can we determine whether or not there is more than one version attributed to Rechung. A . may differ according to the scribe who prepared the text for publication. ch. ZweiLegenden des Milaraspa (W ien. A . Jacques Bacot. L. xi. Berthold Laufer. Proc. there are minor differ­ ences in orthography. Bacot adds that in the last two chapters of the late Lama Dawa- Samdup’s English rendering. x iii.During the summer of 1925 there appeared an abridged transla­ tion of the Biography. by M. The Colophons. he has not aimed at the production of a standardized version . 1884). Bacot’s version o f the Biography. 1895). the chief matter so far published in Europe and America concerning Milarepa is. pp. in the Journal o f the American Oriental Society (N ew Haven. 64-7 . G. 1901). there seems to be one generally accepted and more or less standardized Tibetan te x t.

or Yogi. O f it the Translator has left behind him this scholarly judgement. we see how it is that this life of Milarepa is one of the most famous and favourite books of Tibet. When we add to this that it tells the life-story of one who is looked up to and admired by all Tibetans. than in setting down a plain tale in plain words that shall reach the reader’s mind in the simplest and most direct manner. For it is well admired by those who know how to write books as by those who only know how to read them when written. yet at the same time im­ peccably correct and grammatical sentences. and are appreciated. which can be appreciated. it is from beginning to end set down in such a plain and simple style of language that any ordinary Tibetan of to-day who can read at all can read it with ease and enjoyment. somewhat like the songs of Burns in Scotland. the Jetsiin-Kahbum possesses the rare dis­ tinction of being prized by the literary and learned classes as by the common unlearned folk. by those who understand such things. T H E P L A C E O F T H E J E T S U N -K A H B U M IN T H E L I T E R A T U R E O F T IB E T In Tibet itself. TH E B I O G R A P H Y A S L IT E R A T U R E eventually produce a scientifically accurate Tibetan text and so facilitate the eliminating from our own English version of any inaccuracies which may have crept into it. * But in modern Tibetan works. of every sect and school. it possesses many beauties due to the way in which it is written. with a view to arousing the reader’s awe and admiration at their learning. as the Ideal Ascetic. whose songs are in everybody’s mouth among the common people. even though they themselves do not feel inclined to imitate its simplicity and directness. X II. which he recorded in manuscript to serve as part of an Introduction such as ours:— ‘ Although written more than eight hundred years ago. the authors seem to be aiming more at dazzling and also puzzling the reader by their display of skill in framing cryptic. What the author says . ‘ Notwithstanding the Biography s simplicity and perfect free­ dom from needlessly complicated language. and that he is no less esteemed as a poet and song-writer.

as he follows the life of the Saint. in a biography of him. Perhaps. in the original. about the best possible book that a foreign student of Tibetan can take up with a view to improving and extending his knowledge of the language. as Sri Krishna is among those of India. * Being thus both simple and yet studded with literary beauties. to his pleasure. something of this kind is what I (the present Translator) had in view in making this translation. in the original. M IL A R E P A A S O N E O F H U M A N IT Y ’ S H E R O E S Despite the many sectarian differences between the numerous sects of Tibetan Buddhism. Alexander Csoma-de-Koros. perhaps. all Tibetans alike unite in holding Jetsiin Milarepa in the highest reverence and esteem . and the remainder in the words of his disciple Rechung. it is. and Jaschke. he may come to pass a kindlier judgement upon Tibetan life and religion and custom than his reading of books by foreigners about our country may have led him to form. as he actually lived. much of which is couched in the words of his own mouth.” And such a feast of delight it truly is. too. he may learn to love and admire Milarepa. And. the great Hungarian Tibetan scholar who made the first Tibetan Dictionary and Grammar. and they . at the same time. for he will discover that he is making the acquaintance of one who is numbered among the Great Saints of Tibet. that he is doing himself a benefit of another and as excellent a kind . as he goes on with his reading and study. I wished to show to cultured Western eyes one of our Great Teachers. M ay it thus be a feast of delight to all scholars and lovers of his versified note at the end of his work is no vain boast. and Sarat Chandra Das. who knew him in the flesh. such a student will also find. ‘ A t any rate. but the simple truth: “ This Biography [or History\ hath been made beautiful at the beginning and end with ornate language.' X III. or as Saint Francis is among those o f Europe. have all taken this book as one of the standard works on Tibetan in compiling their Dictionaries. Y et.

as he teaches us. and it pleasures as naught. like Con­ fucius. when put to the test of scientific experi­ mentation. being as universally human as humanity itself. How many parallels. then.consider him the very prototype of everything that a Great Saint should be. may be drawn between Jetsun’s precepts recorded in this Biography and those of another Great Master of Life. A s a member of the Mongolian Race. May this Book help to spread understanding of this natural law of Universal Brotherhood. In him. will be seen by making com­ parison with the Sermon on the Mount. In this way. Milarepa. failed not. can be won only by introspection and self-analysis. its learned Translator. through weighing life’s values in the scale of the Bodhi-Illu­ minated mind. is but one more instance of the fact that genius recog­ nizes no barriers in racial stock. And may it go down to the generations yet unborn as a legacy from him who made possible its transmission to the European Races. including the Greatest of them known to history. the teachings of all the Great Yogis of India. counted the world’s intellec- tualisms. its prizes. too. Milarepa may be said to belong to no one Sect or School. or creed. Milarepa. May it be one more humble memorial to its Great Hero. the Socrates of Asia. . or nationality. his supreme quest was for that personal diseovery of Truth. the late Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup. which. Gautama the Buddha.

from the Dhatnmapada. with utter jo y and gladness filled.) . vv. H e is “ the tranquil” called. 380. ‘ That mendicant. speech. Firm in the teaching o f the Aw akened One. O mendicants. (F.‘ Tranquil in body. and mind. W hoso in every w a y is w ell restrained. W h o all this world's desires hath thrown aside. Reacheth the bliss where all conditions cease. L. 377. Reacheth the State o f P eace. W oodw ard’s Translation.’ T h e Buddha.

261 .TH E B A N N ER OF V IC T O R Y Described on pages 33*. 87-8.

M IL A R E P A T H E T IB E T A N YOGI Described on pages xVHi-xix .

With such piercing sorrow did this fill his heart that he was unable to feel any envy even of the celestial felicity en­ joyed by Brahma and Indra in their Heavens. stored up the life-giving elixir that fell from their lips. who lived in this high snow-clad table-land of Tibet. much less of the earthly joys and delights afforded by a life of worldly greatness. [He was] one who. [He was] one who had been profoundly impressed from his early youth by the transient and impermanent nature of all conditions of worldly existence. [so that] the seeds of Experience and In­ spiration sprouted up in him and attained to full growth. and by the sufferings and wretchedness in which he saw all beings immersed. he was so captivated by the Vision of Immaculate Purity. by the Chaste Beauty found in the de­ scription of the State of Perfect Freedom and Omniscience associated with the attainment of Nirvana. endowed as he was with faith. and a heart overflowing with all-pervad­ ing love and sympathy. and tasted it for himself in the delightful solitude of mountain retreats. D is c ip l e of M il a r e p a Obeisance to the Guru ! [ H e r e i n ] I wish to narrate the history of a Great Yogi. having thrown aside all concern for . that he cared not even though he should lose his very life in the search on which he had set out. T o him existence seemed like some huge furnace wherein all living creatures were roast­ ing. firm and full. thereby obtaining emancipation from the toils oflgnorance. having had the advantage of holy and sacred teachers. [He was] one who. (from the Tibetan) by R echung. a keen intellect. 1 On the other hand.

Stddha. sincere. ease. and fame. worldly. the Via Sacra o f the B uddh as. obtaining transcendent pre-eminence in spiritual truths and such depth of knowledge and experience therein that religious devotion became second nature to him. sin-hardened. triumphed over the difficulties of the Path. Thus was he enabled to reclaim. and to urge them on­ ward on the Upward W ay. and protect them from the pains and terror of this low. [He was] one who. causing each hair on their body to stand on end in thrilling ecstasy. thereby manifesting super-normal powers and signs of an incomparable nature and unmistakable significance. having been favoured by gods and angels. by his profound reverence for and sincere belief in the Lineal Gurus? obtained their grace and spiritual support. the Noble Eightfold Path.worldly prospects. This process of transmission is known in Sanskrit as Paramparya-krama. 3 T he Lineal Gurus arc those o f a n y School w ho are in apostolic succession. thereby sowing in them the seed of future redemption and enlightenment. the essential esoteric teachings being handed down not in books. and nomination as their adopted spiritual successor in the promulgation o f the Spiritual Truths. and causing it to sprout up in their heart by the mere hearing of his history and name. [H e was] one who. redeem. whereas attachment to worldliness is the Path o f Enjoym ent ( S k t Pravritti-M&rgd). but from guru (teacher) to shi?hya (disciple). T h e importance o f the spiritual succession is likew ise recognized in Brahmanism w ith its three lines o f Gurus. the Divya. . and making the tears to flow copiously from their eyes. and Manava.1 [He was] one who. Nivrilti-Marga) leading to Nirvana. resolutely devoted himself to the single object of raising the banner of spiritual development to such a height that it might serve as a-guide for future followers on the Path. was en­ dowed with the power and gift of inspiring even unrighteous. name. by the power of the greatness of his fervent. worldly existence. as a signal sufficient to save them from worldliness and dilatoriness. having mastered the mystic and occult * T h e U pw ard W a y is the Path o f Renunciation (Skt. as explained in our Introduction. M ilarepa him self being the fourth in the K argyutp a Line. sceptical scoffers and unbelievers with involuntary emotion of soul-stirring faith. and altruistic love and compassion. [He was] one who.

possessed o f peculiar occult powers. Vajra-yana') is the Path o f Mysticism as known to the Kargyutpa Sect. had communicated to him by the D akinisx con­ tinuously the four blissful states of ecstatic communion.sciences. beyond phenomena. w hich. and (4) Bliss (Skt. [He was] one who eventually rid himself o f the Twofold Shadow [of Illusion and K a rm a 3] and soared into Spiritual Space. became a self-de­ veloped Buddha. of personality. (4) the L u ck y Diagram. Nirvana is beyond Nature. 4 This is one o f the eight symbols o f Northern Buddhism . have been given by the Translator as follows : ( i) A nalysis (Skt. M kah-gro-ma— pron. and attained the utmost height of spiritual experience and knowledge. o f appearances. w hich is within the realm of phenomena. and glowing love. Vichara). Many o f them are the chief deities invoked in the rituals o f Tantricism. which a r e : (1) the Golden Fish. (6) the Vase. Gyiima).4 [He was] one who. being non-sangsaric. Kah-'gro-ma) are fairy-like god­ desses o f various orders. and that the ego (itself a karmic conglomerate o f characteristics acquired during in­ calculable aeons through experiences in the Sangsara o f phenomena) is real. Christianity. together with the acquisi­ tion of transcendental powers and virtues. DakinXs has been translated as ‘ a n g e ls’ . of Gurus. Maya : Tib. 1 The Dakml[s\ (Tib. hells. It is the ‘ Unbecome. (3) Fondness (Skt. cannot be realized either w hile one is immersed in existence on Earth or in any after-death paradise— not even in the Heaven o f the Semitic Faiths (Judaism. in which Milarepa is one o f the Great D ynasty. Unborn. o f sensation. (s’) the R o yal Umbrella. The Banner o f V ictory (Tib. (a) Reflection (Skt. P rJti).2 thus furthering his spiritual growth. Sukka). 341* F . having adopted the peerless Vajra Path. (7) the Lotus. all-per­ vading goodwill. B sa m g tan ). Rgyal-mts’ a n : Skt. 3 These. These are the four pro­ gressive mental states leading to the complete concentration of mind producing ecstatic Illumination. Dhvaja) symbolizes Victory over the Sangsara. called the E ight Glorious Emblems. (5) the Banner of V ictory. o f things. [He was] one who. or Line. U nform ed’— the One Reality. or the universally human animistic belief that phenomena in worlds. is the Twofold Shadow hiding R eality. 8 The Vajra (or ‘ Immutable ’ ) Path (Skt. having attained to omniscience.6 gave himself to assiduous endeavour. Vitarka). both Hindu and Buddhist. and (8) the W h eel of the Law . the four stages o f Dhyana (Tib. till he attained the Goal wherein all doctrines merge in at-one-ment. Sgyiima— pron. Unmade. and heavens are real. Tn other contexts herein. like the topmost gem that adorns the Banner of Victory. who towered above all conflicting opinions and arguments of the various sects and creeds. Islam). (3) the Conch-shell Trum pet o f Victory. 3 Illusion (Skt. or the attainment o f Perfect Enlightenm ent— Nirvana.

situated in the perineum. having risen through the median-nerve and uncoiled the Root-Support. compared to their undeveloped condition. hath filled all the ten divisions of the uni­ verse 1 with the waving of the Banner of Fame. being hymned by gods and angels. descends as heavenly ambrosia to feed all parts o f the psychic body. and then finally enlarging the minutest nerves and changing them all into so many actual median-nerves. T h e psychic nerve situated in the hollow o f the spinal column (Skt. *iddi) and psychic nerve-centres (S k t chakra) of the human body. then the third. . even to the very toes. Sakasrdra-Padma). then the fifth. called in Sanskrit the Svadishthana. and the smallest o f the psychic nerves. and to render them into metrical stanzas to be sung in the rites and ritual of the Vajra Path. or navel nerve-centre. Brahma-dantfa) is the chief. known as the Root-Support (Skt. or median nerve (Skt. or throat nerve-centre. or transmuted sex forces. situated between the eyebrow s like a third eye. uncoiling the coils of the nerve-centres. the JjHa-chakra. called the Thousand-Petalled Lotus (Skt. and the nadir and zenith. thence rebounding and coursing down the three principal nerves. Pow er. o f the centres. or Seventh. or Serpent. and with the reverberating tones of the Melody of Praise. wherein the mighty occult power personified as the Goddess Kun^alinl lies coiled like a serpent asleep. the vital force (Skt. the Vishuddha-chakra. which is the centre of the sex-organs. and interconnected by it are the psychic nerve-centres. then the fourth. until. the yogt experiences Illumination. or set into functioning activity. The divine bliss. prana). then the sixth. which is the Supreme. The Kun^alinl. o f develop­ ing-the psychic nerves (Skt. 1 These are the four cardinal points. upon which all psycho­ physical processes ultim ately depend. the four mid-way points. like electricity in dynamos. A ll the psychic nerve-centres are uncoiled. continues its upward course. and by the ascending bliss up to the crown of his head. [He was] one whose physical body was pervaded by the descending bliss down to his very toes. in which the moon- fluid. penetrating and setting into psychic activity the sccond nerve-centre. like mercury in a magic tube. are psycho-physically all-powerful. beginning with the first. or heart nerve-centre. arising from the Illumination. Therein a subtle transformation is effected. where both merge in the moon-fluid bliss. wherein are stored. the Manipura-chakra. [H e was] one whose fame of surpassing merit. are like median-nerves in the ecstatic condition o f body such as Milarepa commonly enjoyed. it reaches the brain psychic nerve-centre.2 [He was] one who thus was able to expound fluently the meanings and ideas contained in the twelve collections of Sutras and the Four Scriptures. Muladhara) o f the median-nerve. as in Kuttfaltni Yoga. sushum nanaijt). the AnShata-chakra. O nce the psychic nerve-centres have been awakened or uncoiled. * This paragraph refers to the yogic process.

A ll pairs o f opposites being but concepts of the mundane mind. [He was] a being most diligent and persevering in medita­ tion upon the Rare Path. [He was] one who. read external phenomena like a book. With the deep. Having obtained transcendental knowledge in the control 1 The Primal Cause is Primordial Mind. had eliminated the Illusion of Duality. is destined to become a Buddha. ! A Great Yogi (or Saint) is one w ho has attained m astery of the Occult S cien ces. and directed them to his own profit and use. and power. and able to develop and emancipate even dumb beasts by preaching to them. having all his ideas and concepts merged with the Primal Cause. or ‘ Enlightened One ’. while he remained tranquil. and to teach the W a y of Enlightenment to beings who are unenlightened. and flattery. dignified. omni­ science. Singha- Nada). like an unbridled lion roaming free among the mountain ranges. * See p. a Bodhisattva is one who. artificial conventions. [He was] a being who had passed beyond the need of ob­ serving worldly rules. the One U nity. re­ verently worshipped by all rational beings [gods and men] with profound obeisance.1 [He was] one who. and attentive. awing and subduing beings and creatures of evil and selfish disposition. and revelled in freedom in the limitless and centreless sphere of the heavens. following. becoming an object of worship even to them. and Duality is realized to be Illusion. having progressed far on the Bodhi Path leading to Buddhahood. . but rather excelling all other Great Yogis and Bodhisattvas2 of his own day who were similarly blest. thundering roar of a lion 3 he proclaimed the Truth of the realizable fact of the illusoriness of the Ego. Having acquired full power over the mental states and faculties within. he overcame all dangers from the elements without. [He was] a being boundlessly endowed with grace. 3 The proclamation of the Truth by one who has attained to Bodhtc Enlighten­ ment is figuratively known among Buddhists as the ‘ L ion’s R o a r ’ (Skt. even the ultimate pair of opposites— Sangsara and Nirvana— when view ed by the supra-mundaneness of Enlightenment merge in at-one-ment. 381.4 in the full assurance of its realization. not excelled by. being well versed in the science of mind and intellect.

133). Mudita). 1 This refers to the Mahfiy&na doctrine that the state o f mind as realized in the ecstatic illumination o f Buddhahood is the only R eality. is not the void o f nothingness. already given above. thereby convincing unbelievers and turning them towards religious pursuits. there results a more spiritual liberation and a consequent better rebirth than from cremation else­ w here. very real. Shiknyatd). where. and make them carry out his commands instantaneously. It is beyond the state of mundane and illusory or impermanent mind. and so. Upebsha)— the four duties of a Bodhisattva.1 and thus able to project his subtle body so as to be present as the Presiding Yogi in all the Twenty-Four Holy Places where gods and angels assemble. which man. if the cremation takes place. [He was] a being perfect in the practice of the four stages of meditation.3 he was able to dominate gods and elementals of the eight different kinds. of the ethereal and spiritual nature of the mind. and Alm sgiving (Skt.2 Being fearless in the knowledge of the indestructible nature of mind. T o Great Yogis— as w as the case w ith Milarepa— is commonly attributed the pow er o f visiting these Sacred Centres of the Earth (comparable to the Psychic Nerve-Centres o f the human organism) with an invisible or subtle body. the divine conclaves. w h ich . * These are the T w enty-Four Places of Pilgrim age (cf. Taken together. how ever. . p. Tong-pa-nyid: Skt. the Indestructible. of a telepathic sort.* [He was] a master architect. immersed in the maya o f sangsaric phenomena. alone knows. Likewise he was able to produce flames of fire and springs of water from his body. in the fulfilment of the four classes of duties. he was enabled to furnish demonstration thereof by flying through the sky. and to transform his body at will into any object desired. p. Rejoicing (S k t. Maitreya). resting. known also to Hinduism. 4 These a re: L ove (S k t. like clouds. with such spiritual beings as naturally assemble there. or take part in. beyond the Sangsara (the pheno­ menal Universe) . 1 These are the four stages o f Dhyana. on page 33®. * H ere Mind is view ed as the Void (Tib. W ith them are sometimes included the Eight Great Places of Cremation in India. subject neither to modification nor destruction. by walking. in order to preside over. it is beyond Nature (which is the Child o f Maya). 164). for spiritual communion. Compassion (Skt. w hence there are believed to emanate magnetic-like forces which aid psychic development and make devotion more meritorious and communion. they constitute the T h irty-T w o Places o f Pilgrimage (cf. but the primordial Uncreated. Being supra-mundane. K anina). and sleeping [upheld by levitation] in the air. well versed in the exposition of the Science of the Clear Void of Mind.® wherein all forms and substances have their cause and origin. it is the Immutable.

well practised in the art of curing the chronic diseases of the [unenlightened] mind by applying the medicine of the Five Divine Wisdoms. or the W isdom born o f the Voidness. (3) the W isdom o f Equality. based upon the physics of the law o f vibration. or ‘ Body o f T ru th ’ . which is all-pervading. y e t all things as one. including the highest orders o f d eities— since all alike. it is held to be capable of disintegrating the object or element of which it is the Buddhas. and (5) the All-Perform ing W isdom . the Illuminator or E n ligh ten er. the Manifester. in the case o f spiritual beings. by means o f which he is supplicated :— ‘ W hen the Natural sound o f R eality is reverberating [like] a thousand thunders.’ . or W ords o f Pow er. incapable o f being described in terms o f phenomenal or sangsaric experience. symbolized in the first of the Five D h y 3nl Buddhas. [He was] a deeply skilled physician.2 Unformed. sub-human. the G iver o f Divine P ow er. and super human. symbolized by the third o f the Dhya. no attributes know n to the finite world or mind can be given to it. or in vibratory a cco rd . the B eau tifie r. Avalokiteshvara). the ‘ Triumphant O ne o f Divine Heroic M in d'. such as Milarepa was. or ‘ Seed of T r u th ’ . it is the Source o f the Sangsara. ‘ He who in Shapes Makes V is ib le ’ [the universe o f m a tte r]. A s the Dharma- Kdya. are subject to natural law — a particular rate o f vibration. while knowing each of them to be Audible Space. or by his reflex Vajra-Sattva. and the superior deities to emit telepathically their divine influence in rays o f grace. the second o f the Dhy&nl Buddhas . being sangsaric. which gives perseverance and unerring action in things spiritual. which enables the devotee to know each thing separately. ‘ H e of Boundless L ig h t’. Through the F ive Dhyani Buddhas lies the Path leading to at-one-ment in the Dharma-Kaya. symbolized by Akshobhya. o f impelling the lesser deities and elementals to appear. there is associated with each object and element o f nature and with each organic creature. 149) there occurs the following passage. or universe of phenomena. the National Divine P rotector of Tibet. It is the Thatness. Vairochana. (4) the Discriminating W isdom. to Nirvana— which is spiritual emancipa­ tion from the round o f births and deaths through the annihilation of the Flam e o f Desire. referring to the six syllabic sounds— Om M a-ni Pad-me H um (pron. symbolized in the fifth Dhyani Buddha. Ratna-Sambhava. the 4Alm ighty Conqueror ’ . If this be known and formulated as sound in a Mantra and used ex p ertly by a perfected Yogi. personified in the fourth Dhyani Buddha. According to the Mantray&na ( ‘ Path of the Mantra ’) School. Am ogha-Siddhi. the Norm o f being. the Mirror- like W isdom. In Tht Tibttan Book o f the D tad (p. May they be transmuted into the sounds of the S ix Syllables. the ‘ Gem-born O n e ’ . Om Md-nt Pay-me HOng)— o f the Mantra o f Chenrazee (Skt.1 [He was] an accomplished interpreter of the good or evil significations of the sounds inherent in all external and internal elements. the ‘ Unagitated O n e ’ . AmitSbha. human. 1 The Five Divine W isdom s a r e : ( i ) the A ll-Pervading W isdom o f the Dharma-Dhdtu . it is the Qualityless. to the Perfect Enlightenm ent o f Buddahood. 3 This paragraph refers to Milarepa's mastery o f the occult science of Mantras. the Cause and Origin o f all that constitutes finiteness. A s the Dharm a-Dhdtu. or. In so far as it is the Uncreated.

the limited consciousness such as the soul hypothesis inculcates is incalculably and obviously inferior. all the Great Ones o f A ll the Ages. unchanging. being allowed to shine un- obstructedly. [He was] a most learned professor in the Science of the Mind. W ithin It are contained. in indescribable unity. the second. ‘ Universal Divine B e in g ’ is not to be regarded as like the Personal Suprem e God of the Semitic Faiths. the third. o f which the uninitiated European knows very little. ‘ Divine B ody of Perfect Endowment. incompatible with individualized ego-conscious- ness. being the One R eality. develop themselves. of all Bodhisattvas in H eaven- W o r ld s . the Buddhas.’ the primary reflex of the Dharma-Kaya . beyond dispute. eternal personal self. [He was] a well-grounded mathematician who had attuned his own mental state to the unchanging level of Non-Ego. or influences. but about which he dogmatizes ve ry much.1 while most clearly knowing all the inmost secrets and the deepest recesses of the minds of others. o f all Great Teachers on Earth. and make escape from the SangiSra. If the Rays. and o f all the Esoteric Buddhism o f the H igh er Lamaism. are allowed to dominate man. pow ers. is the Source o f Nature (or the Sangsara). the mundane mind becomes transmuted into the Supra-mundane Mind. inherent power. or the Inner Light.’ the secondary reflex o f the Dharma-Kaya. to which. which. . and (3) Nirmana-Kaya. possible for mankind. from Nature. as he knew. ‘ Divine Body o f Truth. The supra-mundane consciousness is the All-Consciousness. Unformed. which has three aspects or manifesta­ tions : ( i ) Dharma-Kaya. both material and spiritual. No concepts of the limited human mind can be applied to I t . where. in comparison.2 [H e was] a perfected adept in super-normal knowledge and powers. R eality implies supra-mundane consciousness undifferentiated. ‘ Divine Body of Incarnation. only through Realization of It can It be understood. the Fully Enlightened Ones. able to traverse and visit all the innumerable sacred Paradises and Heavens of the Buddhas. is in itself non-real. being w holly phenomenal. having proved the Mind to be. into the three­ fold manifestation of the Universal Divine Being through their own free. The first is the B ody of all Buddhas in Nirvana . but rather as a figurative personi­ fication of all supra-mundane forces. 2 Supra-mundane Mind. or ego. In this context. that emanate from the Void. This is the teaching o f the School o f Milarepa. the Rays whereof. (a) Sambhoga-Kdya. H erein lies the fundamental difference betw een animistic Church-Council Christianity and metaphysical Buddhism.’ the B ody of Complete Enlightenm ent. the theory that there is a permanent. the Unmade. the Beginning and End of all visible phenomena. by the virtue of his all-absolving acts [of unsurpassed devotion]. the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas presiding therein favoured him with dis- 1 In the Buddhist view . the Q ualityless. the Saviours o f Mankind. is erroneous.

6 Sangsara. Appearing to the creatures of the S ix L okas 1 in suitable and specially adapted forms and guises. as outlined above on page 371. Nirvana. (4) the W orld of Brutes . 4 T he fivefold perfections are those which flow from the Five Divine W isdom s of the DhySnI Buddhas. (3) Encouraging good thoughts. * That is. in accordance with their karmic deserts. the other being Vajra- Sattva (‘ The Indestructible-minded O ne or ‘ The Adamantine ’ ). thereby redeeming them from the un­ utterable anguish and woe of the Sangsara . Vajra-Dhara is also the name o f the A d i (or Primordial) Buddha of the Gelugpa. the ‘ O ld-Style ’ Church. as known to mankind bound to the W heel o f Nature. In short. the Buddhas. Skt. Vajra-Dhara. m eaning‘ The Indestructible (or Steadfast) H older [o f Mystic Pow er] ’. Both are esoteric deities. Dorje-Chang)'. for the Ningmapa. * The fourfold personality (or principle) consists o f (1) Inhibiting evil thoughts. he taught them spiritual truths in a manner suited to the intellectual capacity and mood of his hearers. is one o f the tw o Bodhisat reflexes o f the D hyani Buddha Akshobhya. . and listened to his in return. [he was] a being who within the space of one life­ time obtained the Fourfold Personality. W ho are victorious over the Sangsara. the Established Church o f Tibetan Buddhism . Rdo~rjt-ch'ang (pron.6 [He was] one who reached Those dwelling in the C ity of the Great Emancipation. (a) Cutting off (or Annihilating) evil thoughts. (a) the W orld of the Titans (or Asuras) .7 where everyone existeth in indescribable 1 The S ix Loka[s] (or ‘ Planes ’) o f Sangsaric Existence are r ( i ) the W orld o f the Gods (or Dtvas) . on various occasions. wrapping these truths in parables and metaphors which were in perfect accord with the Wisdom of the Victorious Ones. (3) the W orld of Mankind .8 thus by his Teachings procuring their emancipation. Samanta-Bhadra is the name o f the Adi-Buddha. and (4) Developing (or Perfecting) good on the Dharma. or the round o f death and birth.3 and the Fivefold Per­ fections 4 which constitute the Omnipresent State of the Great Vajra-Dhara. for whose sake he continued setting the peerless Wheel of the Truth in motion.5 [H e was] one whose ceaseless grace and mercy were be­ stowed on the immeasurably countless multitude of sentient beings. (5) the W orld o f U nhappy Ghosts (or Pretas) . 7 That is. or the round o f death and birth. known in Tibetan as ‘ The Sorrowless State' (Mya-han- mtd). 5 Tib. so that he sanctified the Heaven-Worlds themselves by his visits and sojourns there. and (6) the various Hells.

following). The History [or Biography\ will be divided into two parts: first. 133. and the circumstances of his birth. and o f Pal-Zhadpa-Dorje. his ancestors. the ordinary name. that dealing with his religious career from its begin­ ning right to the time when he attained Nirvana. proceed to relate some particulars re­ garding his surname Mila and its origin. I shall now set forth. A t the outset. 1 This is a shortened combination o f Jetsiin-Milarepa. .1 the lustre of whose deeds and the effulgence of whose name shone like the sun and moon themselves. the first. somewhat at length. which turned his relatives into enemies who robbed the orphans and the widow of their whole patrimony and plunged them into great sorrow. which served to impress the truth of the existence of Sorrow indelibly upon Milarepa's heart. so that he might be able to kill his enemies in compliance with his mother's command. namely a few details concerning his birth and lineage. I shall. yet I have attempted to set forth a brief eulogy of his various deeds. Then I shall tell of the loss of his father during his childhood. Such was the Great Being who shone the brightest among all Great Beings. and second. at the same time obtaining and developing the Fourfold Principle of Immortality. that dealing with his worldly career.bliss. Then I shall tell of his studying the Black Art. called Glorious Jetsiin-Mila-Zhadpa-Dorje. O f these three things. Albeit the intrinsic value of the super-normal services he rendered to those whom he met can neither be described nor limited. the initiatory name (as given on p.



Telling o f Rechung's Dreams, which led to the Writing o f this
Biography; and o f Milarepa's Ancestry and Birth.
A t one time, so I have heard, the Great Yogi, that Gem of
Yogis— of the Anuttara Vajra-Yana School2— Jetsiin-Mila-
Zhadpa-Dorje, lived for a space in the Stomach-like Cave of
Nyanam,3 which is now a most sacred place of pilgrimage. In
that place were to be found the illustrious Great Ones, Re-
chung-Dorje-Tagpa, Shiwa-Wod-Repa, Ngan-Dzong-Repa,
Seban-Repa, Khyira-Repa, Bri-Gom-Repa, Lan-Gom-Repa,
Sangyay-Kyap-Repa, Shan-Gom-Repa, Dampa-Gya-Phupa,
and Tonpa-Shakya-Guna.* These were his disciples of the
1 A ll headings throughout the Biography, o f Parts and Chapters, and the
Synopsis at the head o f each chapter, have been added by the Editor, for the
purpose of securing greater clearness, the Tibetan o f the text itself not containing,
but suggesting them.
3 Or ‘ School of the Immutable (or Vajra) Path of the Anuttara [ Tantra] \
This is one of the distinctly Esoteric Schools o f Mahayana Buddhism, based
chiefly upon that one o f the tw o H igher Tantras called the Anuttara Tantra.
The other of the H igher Tantras is-the Yoga Tantra. O f both these Tantras,
Milarepa w as a practical master. (See p. 293 n.)
* Nyanam is a town, still existing, on the Tibetan frontier o f Nepal, some
fifty miles north-east of Nepal's capital Katmandu, and about the same distance
south-east o f Jetslin’s birthplace, Kyanga-Tsa, near the modern K iron g (cf.
p. 531). It was in the Stomach-like C ave of Nyanam that Jetsun narrated the
chief subject-matter o f our text which follows (cf, p. 34a).
* In their order as given, these names may be translated as follows : (1) Short -
Mantle Like a Dorje (the lamaic sceptre, symbolizing the Thunderbolt o f the
Gods, and Immutability), (a) R epath e Light of Peace, (3) R ep a o f N gan-Dzong,
(4) Repa o f Seban, (5) Repa the H unter, (6) Repa the Hermit of B ri, (7) Repa
the Hermit o f Lan, (8) Repa the Buddha-Protected, (9) Repa the Herm it o f
Shan, (10) Saint of M ighty Breath, ( 1 1 ) Master Shakya-Guna. (Cf. J. Bacot,
L t Poite Tibetain Milarepa, Paris, 1935, p. 34.) The Tibetan term Repa (Ras-pa :
1 cotton-clad one ’) given to eight o f these disciples, as to Mila-Repa himself,
indicates yiat they are his followers, dressed, as he was, in a robe o f w hite
cotton cloth. In virtue of the ‘ Vital W a r m t h g e n e r a t e d through a peculiar
yogic control of the respiration, th ey w ere proof against extrem es o f cold and
s«» G

highest order, all deeply practised in Yoga, and possessed
of tranquillity of mind. There also were Lesay-Bum and Shen-
dormo, female novices, in addition to a large number of believ­
ing laity of both sexes. And there also were the Five Im­
mortal Goddesses of the higher order of fairies who subse­
quently were evolved into angels, besides several highly-gifted
yogis and yog inis, some human, some super-human beings, pos­
sessed of superior attainments.1 In the midst of this congrega­
tion, Jetsiin set in motion the Wheel of Mahayanic Buddhism.
One night, while Rechung sat meditating in his cell, he had
a dream which he described as follows:
‘ I was walking through a land which wras said to be the
Western Land of Urgyan, inhabited by angels of both sexes.
The country was exquisitely beautiful and delightful, and the
houses and palaces were built of gold, silver, and precious
stones. I was passing through the capital of this country and
noticed that its inhabitants were clad in silks and adorned with
garlands of jewels and precious metals and ornaments of bone,
and that every one of them was most beautiful to behold. A ll
were regarding me with smiling faces and glances of approval,
though none ventured to speak to me.
‘ Am ong them, I encountered an old acquaintance whom I
had known in Nepal as a female disciple under Tiphupa, one
of my Gurus. She, garbed in red, was presiding over the
congregation, and accosted me with words of welcome, saying,
" Nephew, I am most pleased that thou hast come.” She
forthwith led me into a palatial mansion filled with treasures,
where I was most sumptuously feasted. She then said, “ The
Buddha Akshobhya 2 is at present preaching the Doctrine in
this Land of Urgyan. I f thou, my nephew, wouldst like to
hear his preaching, I will go and obtain his permission.” I was
heat, and so needed to w ear no other garm ent, even in the arctic winter o f the
high Himalayan altitudes o f Tibet,
1 In the Appendix (pp. 305-7) a more complete list o f names o f the various
disciples is given.
s Tib. Mi-bskyod-pa (pron. Mi-kyod-pa) : Skt. Akshobhya (meaning 4The
Unshakable [O n e ]’), the D hyinI Buddha o f the Eastern Direction. The other
four of the Five Dhyani Buddhas are : Vairochana, o f the C e n tre ; Ratna-
Sambhava, o f the South ; Amitabha, of the W e s t ; and Amogha-Siddhi, o f the


Described on pages x ix , 49-3

extremely desirous of hearing him, and replied, “ It is very kind
of thee.”
* Accompanying her, I came to the middle of the city, where
I saw an immense throne made of precious metals and gems,
and upon it, seated, the Buddha Akshobhya, of a beauty and
majesty far surpassing in splendour the figure of my imagina­
tion on which I had been wont to meditate. He was preach­
ing the Dharma to a huge congregation, seemingly as vast as
the ocean. Upon seeing all this, I was filled with such ecstatic
delight and bliss that I almost swooned. “ Stay thou here,
nephew, whilst I go and obtain the Buddha’s permission,” said
the lady. Instantly obtaining it, she returned to conduct me
into the Sacred Presence, whither going, I did obeisance to the
Buddha, and received His blessing. I then sat down to listen
to the religious discourse, and for a while the H oly One re­
garded me with smiling, benignant countenance and a look of
infinite love.
‘ The subject on which He was preaching was the lineage,
birth, deeds, and incidents connected with the various Buddhas
and Bodhisattvas of the past. The narrative inspired me with
profound belief. Finally He related the histories of Tilopa,
Naropa, and Marpa,1 at much greater length than I had been
used to hear them told by Jetsiin, so as to impart to each
person present the deepest admiration and faith. In conclud­
ing His discourse, He said that He would narrate the story of
Jetsun-Milarepa, which would surpass in wonder that of any
of the aforementioned beings, and invited us all to come and
hear it.
‘ Some present said that there could be nothing more wonder­
ful than what we had already heard, but, if anything else did
surpass this, it would have to be something very wonderful
indeed. Others said : “ The life stories we have just heard are
of persons who had annihilated their evil deeds and acquired
merit during several previous lifetimes, but Milarepa was one
who acquired merit and attained enlightenment not inferior to
that of 3ny of these, all in one lifetime.” Others again said :
1 Concerning these three Great Yogis, w hence the K argyutpa Sect arose,
see pp. 7-8, and x vi-xv ii.

“ Oh, if this history be so interesting, it would really be a sin
on our part, as disciples, were we to miss hearing it, through
desisting from praying that it might be related for the benefit
of all beings. W e ought by all means to try to get it told.”
One asked : “ Where is Milarepa now ? ” Another replied:
“ He is either in ’Og-min 1 or in Ngon-gah.” 2 I (Rechung)
thought: “ W hy, Milarepa is now living in Tibet, but these
people seem to be hinting that I should ask Milarepa himself
to tell the story of his life ; and that I will surely do.” There­
upon, the lady laid hold of my hand, and shaking it gladly,
said, “ Nephew, hast thou understood? ”
1Then I (Rechung) woke, and found that it was early dawn ;
and that morning, my mind felt very clear and my devotions
were hearty and sincere. Recalling the dream and reflecting
upon it, I thought that it was very auspicious to have dreamt
of being in the Urgyan Land, and of listening to the preaching
of the Buddha Akshobhya, and that I had good reason to con­
gratulate myself upon having met with Jetsiin-Milarepa in real
life. M y present privilege of listening to the preaching of the
Buddha, albeit only in dream, was likewise due, I considered,
to the grace of Jetsiin. I reproached myself with lack of true
faith and spiritual insight when I recollected the thoughts I had
had as I listened to the people saying that Jetsiin might either
be in 'Og-min or in Ngon-gah. It was, I realized, irreverent
feelings of familiarity with my Guru that had caused me to
look upon him as merely a human being 3 when I thought of
him as being in Tibet. What a dull, stupid person I w as!
Ought I not to have known that Jetsiin had obtained perfect
enlightenment, in fact was a Buddha, and as such was able to
1 'Og-min (Skt. Akanishtha), the Heaven of the Adi-Buddha, Nirvana
may be attained without return to incarnation on Earth, as the meaning’ of
’ Og-min (‘ N o-D ow n ’ or ‘ W ithout [Returning] D o w n w a rd ’ ) implies.
2 Ngon-gah (Skt. A m ard vatl), the H eaven of Indra, in the East, equivalent
to the H eaven o f Akshobhya, the Dhyani Buddha of the Eastern Direction.
Ngon-gah (Mngon-dgah), means ' H appy [to] know i. e. the Realm the very
thought of which fills one w ith bliss.
3 ‘ This parallels the Tantric saying, “ Gurung na mariyang b t t d h y e la i.e.
“ N ever think o f the Guru as a mortal.” Brahmanism teaches that the human
form is merely the vehicle through w hich the G um manifests himself.’— Sj. A tal
Bihari Ghosh.

reproduce his form in inconceivably countless numbers ! 1
Moreover, wheresoever Jetsiin might be dwelling, did not that
place thereby become sacred and holy, yea, become equal to
'Og-min or Ngoti-gah ? I took my dream about the lady and
the others listening to the preaching to be a divine injunction
to write a biography of Jetsiin, and firmly resolved to get Jetsiin
himself to tell me all that had happened to him. In this frame
of mind I was filled with a feeling o f deep and exalted true
faith in my Guru, to which I gave expression in fervent prayers.
Then I allowed my mind to rest tranquil awhile.
‘Again I fell into a deep slumber and dreamed another dream,
though this was not so vivid as the first. Now it was five
beautiful young maidens, respectively white, blue, yellow, red,
and green,2 said to be from the Urgyan Land, who came into
my presence together, one of them speaking, and saying, “ T o ­
morrow the story of the life of Milarepa is to be told ; let us
go and hear i t ! ” whereupon another inquired : “ Who is going
to ask him to relate it ? ” To this a third replied, “Jetsun’s chief
disciples are going to ask him.” Meanwhile all were casting
sidelong glances at me and smiling. One spoke and said,
“ This will be such an excellent sermon as all will be delighted
to hear. Should we not add our prayers as well, that it may
oe delivered ? ” One answered, “ It behoveth the disciples to
pray for the boon, and it shall be our duty and pleasure to
spread and protect the Faith.” Upon this all disappeared, as
disappeareth a rainbow. Waking, I found that the sun was
already high, and I recognized that my dream was a sign
from the Five Immortal Sisters.’ a
Having partaken of his morning meal in that happy state of
mind, Rechung sought the presence of his Guru [Jetsiin], and
found that the company [of disciples and followers] had already
1 This yogic power, with which Jelsiin is credited, o f assuming multifold
personalities and bodies, is illustrated in Chap, X II, wherein Jetsiin exhibits it
when lie is about to pass to another world. (See pp. 268 -9.)
s These maidens are Tantric goddesses, otherwise known as D a kin ts; and
the colour o f each has esoteric significance.
s T h A e Ddkinls of the five colours are the Five Incarnations o f the Goddess
Durgii who have their abode in the Tibetan Him alayas, some traditions say in
the Mt. Kailasa region, other traditions say on Mt. Everest, sacred to Milarepa
as a place o f his meditation. (Cf. p. 306.)

seated themselves.' Entreated thus.) 9 In virtue of the Suprem e Enlightenm ent o f Buddhahood. with right knee on the ground and the palms of his hands joined. (11) sleeping in a sitting posture. (8) sitting (or d w ellin g) under trees— and not in a house . Jetstin had come to realize the state o f non-duality. ‘ O Rechung.1 and other records for the benefit of beings on Earth. (2) wearing o f only three sorts o f garments. The Buddhas of the past. as thou makest this request for the benefit of others. but now I have done away with all distinctions of black or white. I am of the Josays (Descend­ ants of Noblemen) Sept of the Khyungpo (Eagle) Clan. Jetsiin smiled and said. I now am one 1 These. Marpa. O Lord Jetsiin. (7) meditation in the fo re st. wherein all opposites. (4) begging of food (or living on alms) . Naropa. w ithout reclin ing.3 Having accomplished the chief task. which have contributed to the diffusion and general prosperity of the Buddhist Faith. (3) using a blanket in cold countries . addressed him thus: ‘ May it please our gracious Lord and Teacher to favour us with a recital of the events of his life for the benefit of the present gathering. there is no harm in my complying with it. Rechung then prostrated himself in wor­ ship before Jetsiin. have done much to help the development of their fortune-favoured followers. 3031. (6) abstaining from liquid refreshm ents after m idday. too. w hich is Mind. 1 Meaning ‘ Mila the C o tton -R obed ’. thy biography also would greatly conduce to the development of many a being. have left behind them histories of Their Twelve Great Deeds. a o i. and ( i s ) practising all the above rules voluntarily (or through liking them)— and not by compulsion. and many other great saints. Tilopa. (See pp. and to serve as an example to future disciples and followers. Dvadasha-avadhula-gunah) are as follow s : ( i) w earing of cast-ofl (or torn) garm en ts. (10} dw elling in graveyards (or places o f cremation)— for purposes o f meditation on the impermanence o f life . but. 19) dw elling in the open air— w here there are no tr e e s . thou art already well acquainted with my life and history. in my maturity some white deeds. even good and evil. and my own personal name is Mila-Repa. (5) partaking o f but one meal per d ay— before or at noon . or as having a single source. the outer robe as a travelling cloak. in leaving autobiographies behind. . to which end we pray our Lord that he may be pleased to favour us with an account of his eventful life.2 In my youth I com­ mitted some black deeds. and inquiring how he fared. and the inner robe and skirt for daily u s e . are seen as unity. the tw elve great deeds (or rules o f life) o f a Buddha incarnate on Earth (Skt. ‘ In like manner. namely.

during which period thou sayest that there were several incidents to excite laughter and some so painful as to move to tears? To know of all these things would be of inestimable value to future generations. T h y clan being that of the Khyungpo (Eagle) and thy sept that of the Josays (Descendants of Noblemen). how earnest thou to be called by the surname of Mila? Again. and condescend to tell us all in detail. are at an end. Then the Conqueror returns. I solicit my friends and brethren in the Faith to join in this mine appeal. all present rose up. entreated the Teacher in these words : ‘ Gracious Lord. and of the way in which thou hast been able to soar beyond the network of karmic forces and prevent the arising of future karma. I prefer that thou shouldst allow this old man to remain in peace. a Krishna. out of compassion for me and these my fellow-disciples. the Master of Life performs actions in this world w holly disinterestedly. as the Bhagavad-GUa also teaches. kindly to set aside thy disinclination. how didst thou come to commit black deeds in thy youth and what led to thy com­ mitting white deeds. . if at all. or Avatdra-~a Buddha. said : ‘ We also add our prayers to those of the Reverend Rechung.’ 1 The goal having been won. Lord. be pleased.2 will be most interesting and profit­ able to all who cherish the like hopes and aspirations. and of how thou didst meditate upon them unceas­ ingly until thou hadst mastered the real nature of Eternal Truth and so attained to the Highest Goal of all spiritual knowledge. even death and birth. and entreat thee. the narration of some of them would cause tears to flow while others would ex­ cite mirth .’ Hereupon. all striving. O Lord. and for the good o f sentient beings. or a Christ. So. but there being little profit in such things.who needeth not strive any more in future. as a Divine Incarnation.’ Again Rechung arose. atid death and birth are normally at an end.1 Were I pressed to describe at length the events of my life. to set the Wheel of the Dharma in motion. and bowing down. and prostrating themselves several times. to reincarnation voluntarily. 2 If. and of the great trouble and sacrifices it cost thee to find them. the narrative of the manner in which thou didst first obtain the Transcendental Truths. no future karma suoh as leads to rebirth in this or any other realm o f the Sangsara arises.

since there is nothing in my life that need be con­ cealed. On his arrival in the Province of Tsang. tortured them and tyrannized over them the more. But there was one family in the place who did not believe in him. and attained skill in magic. O f their number there was one. Then Jetsiin said. * A t last some relatives of that unbelieving family advised them to call in Khyungpo-Josay. belonging to the Eagle Clan. his magical powers of curing illness and exorcizing persons obsessed by demons came to be very much in demand. to which also his father had belonged. and. am coming to eat the flesh and drink the blood of all ye demons. He had de­ veloped certain super-normal powers. Khyungpo-Josay. ! In that place. having become adept in the invocation of certain tutelary deities. became a lama of the ftingmapa Sect. the demon only made ironical retorts at the attempts to drive him o u t. who having devoted him­ self to religious study. approaching the demon. “ I. at a place called Chungwachl. if ye all so much wish it. he was known by the name of Khyungpo-Josay (Noble Son of the Eagle Clan). ‘ Regarding my clan and sept. quoting the proverb. I will gratify you. “ A pply even the fat of a dog if it cureth the sore. by all means invite him to come. till they ceased from efforts which all alike proved wholly ineffectual. That father had been a Josay (nobleman’s son). Josay was invited to come. I may add that in the northern part of the country called Uru there was a large tribe of nomads who owned cattle and sheep. On one occa­ sion it happened that this family was tormented by a terribly evil spirit. making a mock of the family. W a it! W a it! ” at the same time rushing forward .” A c ­ cordingly.” The head of the family said “ Y e s . in which he passed several years. 1 Well. but could not be exorcized by any one else. This young man came from Uru on pilgrimage along with some other pilgrims. said three times in fierce tones. so that his fame waxed great. which had never dared to approach Khyungpo-Josay. For although the afflicted family called in other lamas and had them try their ex­ orcisms. and. and whenever any one there was ill or troubled by an evil spirit he used to be sent for at once.

The poor demon was filled with terror even before Khyungpo-Josay had come near him. 402). ‘This Mila-Dorje-Sengdwasan expert and passionate gambler. Now it happened that there was a man in that part of the country who was a still greater expert in gaming. one who had many relatives and con­ nexions on the father’s side. spare my life! ” Then Josay. when every one saw that the demon afflicted no other person. and challenged him to a few games for small stakes. having made the demon take an oath that in future he would afflict no one. his eldest son in turn being called Mila-Dorje-Senge (Mila the Immutable Lion). ‘ m oth er*. 3419 H . Bacot ve ry plausibly takes ‘ Mila /’ to be an ancient and more or less local interjection denoting fright or fear. and thus his descendants came to be called by the surname M ila? And now. and said to them. M. “ M ila / M ila / I never before suffered as I did this time. T h e late Lama Dawa-Samdup has rendered ‘ Mila 1’ as ‘ O m an ! \ A s an appellation popularly given to a person. in the former sense. who had two sons. From that day Josay was called Mila. This man came to Mila-Dorje- Senge with intent to test his skill. all concluded that the demon had been killed. Thereupon the demon went to a family who were accustomed to worship him.” Upon their in­ quiring of him who had caused his suffering. the demon said : “ M ila / I would never have come where thou a r t . or rather. and had a son. and used to win considerable wagers. and Mila I ‘ O man ! ’ a In his French version (p. and cried out “ A p a ! A m a f M ila / M ila I (0 man.quickly. 0 man. Thenceforth that family came to be noted for having only one male heir in each generation. it would. thou art my father. allowed him to depart. by way of extolling his wonderful magical powers. suggest that its bearer— as is clearly the case w ith Eagle Josay— has pow er to frighten and so exorcize evil spirits. ‘ Khyungpo Josay now married a wife. Attta. and at last had wrung an oath from him. he replied that Khyungpo-Josay had come and inflicted upon him such e x ­ cruciating pain as had nearly killed him. and playing with him soon obtained 1 Apa literally meaning ‘ fa th er’ . that it had transmigrated into another form of existence. thou art my mother!) ” 1 When Josay had come near to him. the eldest of whom was called MiIa-Dotun-Seng6 (Mila the Lion who teacheth the Sutras).

w h ere hail-storms are apt to be very frequent and destructive to crops. and he accordingly asked his opponent to give him his revenge the next day. 117 -19 . with the result. his son Dorje-Seng^ took to trading. to lure Dorje on. settled down there. many lamas w hose duty is to w ard off the hail. 2 and did many other things of a like nature. and the two Milas. wandering forth in the direction of the province of Gungthang [in Tibet on the frontier of Nepal]. 1 he prepared charms for the protection of children . Thus he became quite popular as a lama-performer of ceremonies. there are nowadays. Meanwhile. dealing mostly in wool in the south during the winter. The man’s male relatives thereupon took possession of the whole of the landed and movable property of Mila-Dorje-Seng^. the lamas. cultivated valleys there are small w atch-tow ers in which these hail-exorcizing lamas dw ell during the growing season and until the harvest is gathered in. the chief cereal produced. used to spend his days in reading the Scriptures. overlooking all the high. ‘ The father. to which the other con­ sented. That day the man played as if fortune herself were watching over him. Dotun-Senge. . A s soon as any dark cloud presaging hail is seen rising over the mountain peaks and com ing towards the fields. and Dorje agreed. lands. and they drew up a signed compact to this effect. father and son. on pp.a fair idea of the strength o f his play. 42). on guard. accompanied by handfuls o f magic clay-pellets to drive the hail aw ay. These were to consist of the entire property possessed by each. They then played. and household effects. and won quite a number of wagers from Mila-Dorje-Seng£. at once launch powerful exorcism s. which might have been foreseen. Bacot renders this phrase th u s : ‘ to protect children threatened by vampires ’ (p. after settling the stakes to be played for. Then he in his turn asked for satisfaction. money. and arriving at a place called Kyanga-Tsa. and the wily man. 77-9. especially to the barley. that Mila’s opponent won the game. houses. A further account of this is given later. had to leave everything behind them and. On the mountain-sides or hills. so that neither might be able to evade his obligation by prayer or en­ treaty. This was unbearable to the latter. N ext day the stakes were increased. He also performed exorcism ceremonies for the prevention of hail-storms . 2 M. as in the time of Milarepa. Dotun-Seng£ and Dorje-Seng£. and 1 In the high valleys o f Tibet. lost to him thrice.

on their being united in marriage. still following his trading profession. these two. Then. he bought a fertile field. Dorje-Seng£ happened to meet the favourite daughter of one of the families of the place. It was just in the twentieth year of his age that Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen was married to a girl belonging to a good family among the people of T sa. who received the name of Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen (Mila the Trophy of Wisdom). So a cousin of Mila-Dorje-Sengd. Baoot notes that the field w as so named in accord with the Tibetan custom of giving to purchased fields. ‘ Mila-Dorje-Seng^. In this way. horses. and so received the name of White Garland of the Nyang. He also went to and fro between Mang-Yiil and Gungthang on shorter trips. houses. the whole rest­ ing upon four columns and eight pillars. a son was born to them. and mules the name o f their former owner (p. It was one of the best houses in Kyanga-Tsa. In this house they [he and his wife and father] lived in great affluence. and became known as “ The Four Columns and Eight Pillars'’. Paying a good price in gold and merchandise o f the north and south. who under­ stood how to treat friends and enemies according to their several dues. father and son.1 Bordering this field there was an old house-site belonging to a neighbour. his grandfather died. 4a2). Mila-Dorje-Sengd constructed a three- storied building with outhouses and kitchens. adding to the aforementioned house. amassed much wealth. T hey fell in lo ve. Mila-Dotun-Seng^'s old relations who lived in Chiingwachl heard that he and his son were prospering at Tsa.2 of the royal race of Nyang. ac­ quired more wealth than ever. * A shortened form o f Kyanga-Tsa. and this also he bought and upon it built a large house. from a man named Worma. clear-headed and energetic. She was a most lovely young lady. triangular in shape. called Karmo-Kyen (White Garland). ‘ Meanwhile. going to the northern cattle-pastures in summer. and the funeral ceremonies were per­ formed with great pomp. . ‘About this time. which lay near Kyanga-Tsa. named Yungdung- 1 M. and. with love or with hatred. While the boy was being brought up. and called it “ Worma Tosoom (Worma Triangle)>’.

M ercury. in the North Taktsi Mountains. employed for measuring short periods of time. about fifty miles due north of Katmandu. with a variety of southern merchandise. being fond of his rela­ tives. i ir. is on the Tibetan frontier of Nepal. L. (7) Horse. The Tibetan w eek. d . Bacot and the Translator agree in their calculation that Milarepa w as born in the year a . D . d . p. a . The Buddhism o f Tibet. W addell. (6) Serpent. having been the first of the last sixty-year cycle. a few miles east o f the modern K irong. is o f seven days. T h e yea r begins w ith the rise o f the new moon in February. L. nominally of 360 days. the first animal being considered male and the second female. this is the twenty-fifth day of the moon. follow ing the A ryan system. at a season when Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen was away on a trading journey. or Lamaism. w hich are : ( i) Mouse. 4 M. ‘ It was in the Male Water-Dragon y e a r 1 [ A . (9) Monkey. 65V) The place o f Milarepa's birth. Fire. 451-5. Mars. is the second of a new sixty-year cycle. pp. W addell’s reckoning the year was a .. 3 T h e Tibetan month being lunar. 1038. derived from China and India. He gave them all the assistance in his power in teaching them how to trade. 4 and no sooner was my mother 1 The Tibetan system of chronology. In the sixty-year cycle the names of these animals are combined w ith the names of five elements— W ood. that I was born . the current year.3 under a pro­ pitious star. the difference from the solar yea r is made good by adding seven intercalary months each nineteen years. named after the Sun. Jupiter. and (12) H og. W addell. (4) H are. (8) Sheep. A . Iron. (5) Dragon. i. A .Gyaltsen (Svastika-Banner of Victory) together with his family and a sister named Khyung-tsa-Palden (Demonstrator of the Nobility of the Descendants of the Eagles) removed from-that place and came to Kyanga-Tsa. (2) O x. The Male W ater-D ragon year. d . in the first autumn month 2 and on the twenty-fifth day. e. 1867. K yanga-Tsa. The Tibetan year being lunar. August. 1052. and Saturn. each year bears the name o f one of the tw elve cyclic animals. Moon. w hich begins w ith February. but according to Dr. Dorje. and a . in the course of which he was considerably delayed.) Dog. the seventh month.) * O r. ‘ About this time White Garland of the Nyang found herself great with child. London. a . op. . the Fire-H are year. in the Province of Gungthang. in which Milarepa w as born. (3) T iger. is the twenty-sixth year of the sixty-year cycle. (Cf. d . and W a te r— and each of these elements is allotted a pair o f animals. 1928. and they also came to amass much wealth. Venus. Earth. In the twelve- year cycle. welcomed them upon their arrival with unfeigned pleasure and delight. according to the Tibetan year. ^Cf. 1900 w as Iron-Mouse yea r and the thirty-fourth of the cycle o f sixty years . (10 s Bird. the capital o f Nepal. cit. 1 0 5 2 ] . 1895. is based upon the tw elve-year and sixty-year cycles o f the planet Jupiter. d . For example.

“ O. “ The work of the autumn is approach­ ing. During my child­ hood I was tended with great care. but she was also called. Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen. and the ceremonies in connexion with his funeral were performed on a magnificent scale. A s my trading business is all finished. and my name was fixed as Tho-pa-ga. by way of a pet name. I remember even now that we two [Peta and I] used to have our hair plaited with gold and turquoises. Look at the house outside ! Look at the furnishing and wealth inside! And the ornaments for both sexes! They are worthy of regard from every point of view. I can return home at once.” So saying. “ Never could there be adventurous settlers from other parts more industrious and wealthy than these folk. so that the natives of the place used to say of us quietly among themselves. Peta. and I am delighted to get the news that the child is a son. My race produceth but one male heir. my father. Call him Tho-pa-ga (De- lightful-to-hear). we were in a position to regard almost as our tenants or subjects. the naming ceremony being carried out with great pomp and display. he returned homewards. whence she came to be spoken of as Peta-Gonkyit. being connected by marriage with the highest families in the place . which so delighted every one who heard it that people used to say I had been very appro­ priately named “ Delightful-to-hear ” . all coming under our influence. well done 1 M y son hath already received his name. W e were very influential. died . my mother gave birth to a daughter who was named Gon-ma-kyit (Fortunate Pro­ tectress). and the poor people. ‘ When I was about four years old. . to name the child and perform the naming cere­ mony. and telleth of the manner of Jetsun’s birth.” The messenger who carried the letter also conveyed to him the news verbally. M y father was highly delighted and said.’ * This is the first part of the story. Come with all the speed thou canst.” ‘ A t the time when we were thus the envy of all.delivered of me than a messenger was dispatched with a letter to my father which said. In course of time I became endowed with a beautiful voice. and I have been delivered of a son.

my cows. signed. my father made known his last wishes. my granaries. and sealed in the presence of all assembled. including my herds of cattle. entrusting the care of his widow and orphans to mine uncle and aunt. in the presence of all. M y son being at present of tender years. other kinsfolk and friends. ‘ Then he spoke as follows: “ I well perceive that I shall not survive this illness. and donkeys here below the house. silks. and o f the troubles that followed the death of t h y father. silver. Finally. and garm ents. goats. especially his uncle and aunt. A ll my possessions. he had a written testament made out. the Misappropriation o f the Estate by the Paternal Uncle and A u n t . and had it read. I entrust the care of them to all of you [who are here gathered together]. all those my posses­ sions. in short. I leave behind me. I confide him to the care of all my relatives. sheep. and. my fields. my household utensils of gold. and iron. and several smaller fields. and ponies on the pastures high up in the hills. A s regardeth the remainder. CH APTER II Telling o f the Death and L ast W ill o f Milarepa's Father. was seized with a very serious illness. and all the neighbours gathered together. and even the patient himself despaired of living and resigned himself to death. and sa id : ‘ O Teacher. my father. regarding which I need not bear envy towards others. and the Resulting Sorrows which Milarepa and his Mother and Sister endured. my personal ornaments and wardrobe. Mine uncle and aunt. as also the management of his entire estate. . copper. including ‘ Worma T riangle’. Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen. A g a i n R e c h u n g spoke. my turquoises. but announced his approaching end. Physicians and lamas attendant upon him alike offered no hope of his recovery. A ll his relatives were also aware that he was dying. Out of these let a portion be spent upon my funeral ceremonies.' Jetsiin then continued : ‘ When I had about reached the age o f seven. be pleased to relate the details o f t h y sufferings. and.

and infested with lice. once adorned with gold and turquoises. but chiefly to you two. let the pair be married . and let each of us from time to time render her such help and assistance as she may stand in need of. our hands and feet became cracked and blistered. and not only that.until such time as my son is o f age to look after everything for himself. but compelled in summer to work as field-labourers for mine uncle. But chiefly I entrust this property to the care of my child’s uncle and aunt. ‘ When my father’s funeral ceremonies had been completed. now became hard and stiff. But until my son attaineth mature age I entrust everything to you. and in winter as spinners and carders of wool for mine aunt. The food given us was so coarse that it was fit only fordogs. while mine aunt took all the female appurtenances. “ Y e can all say what ye please. A s for the property.” ‘ But mine uncle and aunt said. “ Let White Garland of the Nyang her­ self be given the charge of the whole property. and we will see to it our­ selves that the widow and the orphans do not suffer.” And despite all that my maternal uncle and the father of Zesay might say. and we were bidden to go and live with each of them by turn. ‘ Tender-hearted folk who had known us in the days of our . When my son cometh to be of age. we will take care of it. my father’s personal property was then divided between mine uncle and aunt thus: mine uncle took all the men’s ornaments and raiment. Our hair. Our clothing was miserable rags tied to our bodies with a rope for girdle. the remain­ der of the property was divided equally between them. but we are the nearest relatives. and let them manage the household by themselves. And thus we were deprived of all rights over our property. Compelled to work without respite. all my relatives. all the relatives said. to the best of our ability. The insufficiency and coarseness of our food made us miserably emaciated and hag­ gard. following in the footsteps of their parents. let the twain be put in charge of the entire property. and when the bride hath been received into the house. Zesay having been betrothed to him in infancy. See that they come to no harm ! Be sure that I will watch you from the realm of the dead! ” Saying this. my children’s uncle and aunt. my father expired.

“ For see. Formerly. My mother. my sister. property is not stable.” and thenceforth mine aunt was known b y the nickname of “ Tiger- Demon M y mother also used to say that the proverb. our former inferiors. Whispered talk about the villainous conduct of mine uncle and aunt ran through the whole neighbourhood. They were not always wealthy. “ En­ trust the ownership to others and have thyself turned into the dog that guardeth the door ” . able w ife! Soft wool. the more unpleasant were the things said about us. when her husband was living. . T h y parents and ancestors acquired wealth by their own exertions and industry. “ while thy father Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen was alive. they who own the wealth becoming as it were the kings. But now. missed no opportunity of decrying us behind our back. And a time will come when thou also wilt earn wealth thyself. had been proved true in our case.” M y mother also came in for a share of the compliments whispered about. ‘ Zesay’s parents used to provide me with a piece o f cloth or a pair of shoes from time to time. but only acquired wealth latterly. and myself were reduced to such a state of misery that my mother used to say of my aunt.prosperity could not withhold their tears at the sight of us. fine blanket! ’ How true this saying is in this instance.” she said. it is like the dew on the blades of the grass.” Thus the more we suffered. her hand used to be called nourishing. They also used to say to me. and people said “ ‘ Rich hus­ band. but a Dumo-Takden (a Demoness who showeth the nature of the tigress). White Garland of the Nyang used to be called the model housewife because of her energy and ab ility. every one used. “ A s long as men themselves are not turned into property. See what happeneth when a clever man is no longer to the fore. to watch our faces to see if we smiled or frowned. and the common folk. all now regard the smiles and frowns of our uncle and aunt. So thou needest not mourn too much the loss of thy wealth. “ She is not Khyung-tsa-Palden (Demonstrator of the Nobility of the Descendants of the Eagles). and her weakness is exposed. but they paid no attention to it.” In this way they often consoled me. But now her energy and ability have been put to the test.

“ A ll here present are aware of the oral 1 Chhang. This field was cultivated by my maternal uncle.— a matter known to all of you.” Thereupon my maternal uncle proceeded to read the will aloud to the company. and the other guests were treated to quarters. ‘ About my fifteenth year. Either Chinese tea. the father of these children. and ribs. ‘ The birth of a son maketh necessary a naming cerem ony. a beer o f very small alcoholic content. chops. though bearing a not very auspicious name. in which butter has been melted at the time of the brew ing. When he had finished. chhang is commonly*made by pouring boiling w ater over fermented millet. according to their position and the degree of their rela­ tionship to us. 3119 I . and no hospitality shown to travellers or pilgrims would be complete without one or the other. ‘ Then my mother stood up in the midst of the assembly and spoke as follows: “ I beg the honourable company here as­ sembled to give me leave to explain why they have been in­ vited to be present on this occasion. and spread on the floor of our large house. as Sikkim was. So please listen to the will which I am now going to have read. my mother again spoke. With part of it he bought stores of meat. as the saying goeth. headed by their uncle and aunt. yielded a very fair crop of grain. and the offer of chhang. and the feast began. in Sikkim and other low er-lyin g countries tributary or formerly. the elders of the place. To the feast were invited all our neighbours.’ So I have a few words to say touching the last wishes of m y deceased husband. more especially those who had been present at my father’s decease and knew about his will. saying. legs. or else chhang. a talk. Mila-Sherab- Gyaltsen. my mother possessed a small field of her own called “ Tepe-Tenchung (Little Famine Car­ pet)” which. for. One whole sheep each was given to mine uncle and aunt. and its yield stored away. is the ceremonial beverage offered to guests by all T ib eta n s. Many carpets were bor­ rowed from all sides. a part of Tibet. ‘ Now the news was spread abroad that White Garland of the Nyang and her children were going to give a feast with a view to recovering their patrimony. and all our relatives headed by our uncle and aunt. is made in the higher parts o f Tibet chiefly of home-grown b a r le y . while the brown barley was brewed into chhang1 and the white ground into flour. Chhang was served in brimming cups.

and. cattle. than to oblige wicked people would seem to apply to you. “ O Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen ! look at the treatment we have to endure. “ I f it really cometh to that. ‘ I will watch over you from the realm of the d ead ! ’ Now. so I shall not weary them with a repetition of it. thus in agreement in a scheme to defraud us. he borrowed these houses. was. in accordance with the wishes of my late husband. ponies. and for all their care in looking after us up to the present moment. ye ungrateful orphans. stamping the heels of their shoes on the floor. Indeed the saying. T h ey all were ours. and silver. out with you I '* With that. T o come to the point. and myself in the face with the ends of their long sleeves. fields. Out with you. we [mother and children] are deeply grateful for all that we owe to our uncle and aunt. Mine uncle and aunt. a piece of cloth. Moreover. since they had jointly misappropriated my patrimony to their own use.1 And all my mother could say. and that she be duly installed in their joint home. if thou canst. But now that my son is able to manage a house for himself. Where did ye ever have a particle of wealth. my sister. I request that the property be restored to our care. This was only the restoration of the property to its rightful owners. the long loose sleeves o f the national Tibetan dress. said. although at variance on all other matters. . this very house we are in is ours. thou who didst say. while mine uncle had several sons. And now ye have the audacity to say a thing like th is ! Who wrote that will of yours? Y e ought to be thankful we did not leave miserable creatures like you to perish of starvation. mine uncle and aunt.” ‘ U pon my mother saying this. which when hanging free cover the hands and so protect them from the cold. or even a living head o f cattle of your own ? W e never saw any. I also ask you all to see that he be married to Zesay. they rose abruptly from their seats. a measure of barley. replied: “ Where is this property ye are talking about ? When Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen was alive. 1 That is. I was an only son. shook their garments. a roll of butter. gold. they slapped my mother.testament uttered in their presence by my late husband. 1 Rather try to measure a running stream with a quart measure. he restoring them to us only when at the point of death. here united forces.” ‘ Sneering at us.

After this refusal . mother still weeping. And even if we have. curse us I ” ‘ Having said this. A s for thy­ self and thy daughter. I do not consider it possible to bring up my children by means of wealth obtained in charity from others.surely is the time to do so. fight u s ! If ye think yourselves too few. ‘ My maternal uncle. I and my sister could render no aid other than weeping. we are not going to restore it. let us do that. ye wretched orphans ! If ye feel yourselves strong enough in numbers.” * But my mother said. W e must do our best to put to shame that uncle and aunt. alone remained behind to console my mother. These continued drinking what was left of the chhang. ye may come and live with me while ye cultivate your fields by your own labour. say what ye like. saying. offering themselves to give their share. A s for my son. Besides* there is not the least probability of their uncle and aunt ever restoring to us even a portion of our property. “ Since we are not to get back our own property. since ye have been able to invite all your neighbours and friends to such a grand feast. The other neighbours who were kindly disposed towards us added their tears to my mother’s. and few there were who did not shed tears. “ Poor widow ! Poor orphans! ” Many were sobbing. they went out. did not dare to fight him. Y e need not ask for anything from us. and that our paternal uncle and aunt should again be appealed to with the confident expectation of their making at least a decent contribution. Those who sided with them followed next. Do your worst. of course. ‘ Mine uncle and aunt continued : “ Y e are asking for wealth from us. but ye seem to have quite a lot yourselves. he must. yes. until our maternal uncle and Zesay’s folk.” And falling down in a fit of hysterical weeping she swooned aw jy. With the sum so raised it was proposed that I should be sent away to be educated. My maternal uncle said to my m other: “ Yes. be educated. saying. “ Oh.” They proposed that a subscription be raised from all who had been at the dinner. with a few others who sided with us. seeing that mine other uncle had many sons. do not w eep! It is of no avail. for we have not got any of your wealth. and send the boy away to learn something.

They will ill-treat us worse than ever. in spite of everything. 1 That is. made to run when the drum-call sounds or w afted about like smoke by the wind— an idiomatic expression similar to 1 at their beck and call from early till late .’ A s the narrative ceased. A ll this caused me much grief.of the uncle and aunt to restore to us our own. and even fu el. I was sent to a place in Tsa. our relatives seem to have contributed some pecuniary aid towards our support.” * Accordingly. to console me. from time to time they sent us flour and butter. and for a while all were silent. they will do their utmost to expose us to shame should we again submit ourselves to them. Thus he greatly assisted us to make a living and earn a little money. on her part. all those listening were. and he used to have the wool for spinning and weaving brought to his house to save my mother going from door to door to ask for it. by dint of hard work managed somehow to take care of herself [so far as having money to spend was concerned]. espe­ cially. and had to content ourselves with ragged clothes. This is the account of that part of his life in which Jetsiin had actual experience of the existence of sorrow. Tears trickled down their cheeks. * During this period. not the least jo y whatsoever did I ever know. Zesay’s parents. we got only coarse food. were very kind . a very popular teacher of the place. and often let Zesay herself come to the place where I was studying. deeply moved with sorrow and distress. without ex­ ception. But. and there put under the tuition o f a lama of the Red Sect called Lu-gyat*khan (Eight Ser­ pents). M y sistAr. doing such tasks as others gave her. and we should be like a drum on its stand or smoke in flight. at that time.1 We shall remain here and work our field. M y maternal uncle supplied my mother and sister with food so that they were not forced to beg nor to serve others. called Mithong- gat-kha (The Invisible Knoll).

and thus partaking too freely of the liquor provided was in a state of considerable excitement. * How didst thou happen to have re­ course to such a thing? W'hat led thee to do so ? ’ And Jetsiin replied.’ Rechung then asked. ‘ B y black magic. and seated at the head of the entire company. I ll] C H A P T E R III Telling o f Jetsiin's Guru and Mastery o f the Black A r t . I was seized with an irresistible desire to sing. What were those black deeds. to be taken home. Milarepa would have been safeguarded from the deplorable evil o f drunkenness. who was roasting some barley inside the house. Milarepa’ s preceptor is an ordinary lOnta. even when I was nearing the house. My mother. of which I was very proud. at which feast he was the most important personage present. by Magic. and I still went on singing. ‘ O Jetsiin. saying. and how were they committed ? 1 Jetsiin made answer. Had he been a lattta-guru. highly developed spiritually.CH AP. probably the village schoolmaster. it could not be possible that I 1 Here reference is made to the custom o f making gifts to preceptors. I heaped up piles of demerit. ‘ I came singing all along the way. according to Buddhist teachings. The road to “ The In­ visible K n o ll" passed right in front of our own house. albeit my voice on account of its unusual sweetness could hardly be mistaken. and by bringing on hail-storms. A g a in Rechung addressed Jetsiin. . hearing my voice. being moved thereto by a desire to show off my fine voice. A t this time.1 Being somewhat tipsy my­ self. ‘ Once I accompanied my preceptor to a feast held in the lower village of Tsa. and having seen several persons at the feast singing. I was sent home in advance of my preceptor with the presents which he had received. she thought. He was plied with drink by the guests and by several others also. and o f how Jetsiin Destroyed Thirty-Five o f his Enemies and the Rich Barley Harvest o f the Others. which. Still. A t this stage. is as reprehensible as it is productive of bad karma. could scarcely believe her ears. thou hast said that thou didst first commit some black deeds. in this instance o f food.

by much risk. “ O brother. This brought me to my senses. However. we two continued tugging at our mother’s hands. and the only thing I can do is to weep for very sorrow and grief. Then. I solemnly promise to do for thee whatever thou mayst desire of me. and. see what a son hath been born to th e e ! Surely it cannot be thy blood that floweth in the veins o f this vagabond ! O. so that thou mayst be able to kill these enemies of ours. and feeling the justice of the rebuke I also wept. she was utterly dumbfounded. and striking me several times on the head with the rod exclaimed. “ O. leaving the barley to burn in the pan. look what we have come t o ! ” There­ upon she fell fainting to the ground. But looking out and seeing that it really was myself. I think we are the most unhappy of all the unhappy beings existing in all the world . what art thou thinking of? See to our m other!’' she burst out weeping.” . and attended. 1Then I said. displeased look on her tear-stained faced. but that would be a diffi­ cult thing to bring to pass. and cut off the root of their posterity down to the ninth generation. Sliding down the longer steps and jumping down the shorter steps. calling to her in our anguish. dragging thy stirrups over the necks of these our enemies. Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen.should be singing at a time when our circumstances were such that it could be said of us that we were about the most unhappy creatures alive. “ W hat I should like is to see thee dressed in a coat of mail and mounted on a steed. thou art righ t. my mother ? ” * M y mother said. but do not take it so much to heart. * She dropped her tongs to the right and her roasting-whisk to the left. dost thou really feel merry enough to sing ? A s for me. came out with a rod in her right hand and a handful of ashes in her left. W hat is thy will. ‘ A t that moment my sister came out. said. “ Mother. what I wish is that thou shouldst learn the Black A rt thoroughly. ‘ After a while she revived. chiefly thine uncle and aunt who have caused us so much grief and misery. See if thou canst do that for me.” And all three of us again wept loudly. for a time. “ Son. and saying. she came and threw the ashes in my face. and regarding me with a fixed. too.

2 to learn something of religion as well as of black magic. setting out. T h eir respective capitals. Thither soon arrived five favourite sons of good families. as w ell as to one w ho follows the Right- hand Path. the seat o f the Tashi Lama. or Teacher) is applied to one who follows the Left-hand Path. and repay you for your kindness to him. The sugar I disposed of to meet my present needs . the vast gu lf separating Black and W hite Magic is due entirely to the intention o f the shisfrya or Guru and the use to which the psychic powers are p u t . as also mine expenses on the road and for the time that I should be engaged in study. of Ngari-Dol. o f Black Magic. I shall know how to show you my grati­ tude. neither doth he possess much perseverance. I told them that I was out on the same errand as themselves. LhSsa and Tashi-Ihtinpo. are known to Tibetans as Pod. 1 My mother then sold half of the field called “ Little Famine Carpet" in return for a splendid turquoise called “ Radiant Star ”. . if she would provide the fees for the G urus1 of the Black A rt. And when ye return. duly arrived at Gungthang. in W h ite Magic altruistic and pro­ ductive of benefit to all sentient beings. * Meanwhile. my mother had taken them aside and entreated them thus: “ Young gentlemen. In this place there was an inn called “ Self-perfected In n ”. Then I took them down to the lower part of Gung­ thang and there treated them to the best food and refreshments procurable. and asked if I might be allowed to accompany them. and a white pony called “ Unbridled Lion ". frequently mentioned throughout this Biography. and two loads of raw sugar. ‘ I faithfully promised to do my best to fulfil her wish. T h e former is the seat o f the Dalai L a m a . She also managed to get together two loads of madder for dyeing. bound for U and Tsang. Up to a certain point the process o f developing the skishya psychically is much the same for either Path. are Tibet's chief cities. and there I stayed some days looking out for companions— fellow-travellers who might be going the same way as myself. So I beg you to urge him to study. and to make himself proficient. and. of W hite Magic.” ‘ When the two loads of dye-stuff had been set upon the 1 The title Guru (Spiritual Preceptor. in Black Magic the aim and practice is purely selfish and evil. my son is not of a very studious disposition. e. To this they agreed. well known in the place. i. 1 T he Provinces o f 0 and Tsang. T ibet proper. the latter. Afterw ards.

we set forth. by working some destruction. I could see her gazing back at me as long as we were within sight of one another. Here I sold my pony and my dye-stuffs to a rich man. and I had secured the turquoise about my person. in a low voice broken with sobs : “ M y dear son. T h y study of magic is not the same as that of these young m en. Crossing the . A t length. she left u s. she keenly felt the anguish of parting. Again and again I looked back at her. and she could hardly bear to part from m e. in Tsang-rong. by an almost superhuman effort. suffered no less. she clung to my hand and shed many tears. I was her only son. and a well- nigh irresistible desire came over me to turn back and see her once more. at each halt. pony. consider what a state of wretchedness we are in. Thou must show thy power here in this place. M y mother. my heart was attached to her so fondly. and carry out the object that lieth before thee. And a few days later it was rumoured far and wide that the son of White Garland of the Nyang had gone away to learn black magic in order to be able to avenge his wrongs. but I could hardly bear the parting. every now and then. M y mother accompanied us a considerable way. I swear to thee that 1 1will kill myself in thy very presence. too. theirs is a matter of acquiring fame. but. and receiving payment in gold secured it about my person. serving out chhang \ and while we were walking and also during halts she appealed again ana again to my companions to look after me.” ‘ Having thus admonished me. When we were completely out of sight of one another. Later events caused me to see that this was a premonition of what was to occur— a feeling foreshadowing that I was never to see my mother alive again. she gave me the following parting admonition. taking me aside. my mother went back weeping to the village. and could not withhold the tears which flowed unbidden down my cheeks despite all that I could do to keep them back. but ours is a matter of desperate necessity. Shouldst thou return without being able to give some visible manifestation of thy power here. ‘ I and my companions now proceeded along the U-Tsang road till we came to a place called Yakde. I conquered it. I being her only son.

The Lama smiled and said. which. We were taught some branches of black magic bearing high-sounding titles.” ‘ And so we all began our studies. ‘ A t this sort of study we were kept for nearly a year. in addition. And I knew that if I were not able to do something striking my mother would certainly kill herself in my presence. I thought that such magical lore as we had mastered up till then was hardly enough for the production of any real effect in my village. and meeting the Black Magician. On inquiring of them as to who was the most noted adept in the Black A rt for producing death. “ I will consider thy request. also a method of dealing death . where we met several lamas from U. however. but. So we all turned our steps towards Lama Yungtun-Trogyal. about which time my companions began to think of returning home. a few others of a beneficial kind. begging only that he would teach me black magic in such wise that I might be able to demonstrate mine attainments in unmistakable fashion by working some havoc on those who had robbed me of my patrimony. But I was far from feeling satisfied. I presented to him everything I had— all my pieces of gold. who was well known for his accomplishments in the art of producing death and destruction by means of black magic.Tsangpo (Purifier) River. and destruction of property by hail-storms. body and life. I saw that my companions made a present to him of part of their money o n ly . one of them replied that there was a famous sorcerer named Lama Yungtun-Trogyal (Wrathful and Victorious Teacher of Evil). arriving duly at a place called Thon-luk-rakha (Sheep-Pen of Thon). A further request I made was that he would provide me with food and clothing until I had acquired proficiency in the Art. and. and the turquoise. even my very self. in addition. were not of a really effectual kind. such as that which was said to bestow the power of joining heaven and earth. we struck towards the Province of U. A s a parting gift. of Nyak. in a village called Yarlung-Kyorpo. and. as for me. So I could not 1410 K . of which Lama he himself was a pupil. ‘ On arriving at Yarlung-Kyorpo. our Teacher presented each of us with a coat made of the fine woollen cloth that is woven in the Province of U.

I never had nor ever shall have one more affectionate and industrious than that boy. bidding them farewell. and we know that to be true. and see if thou can learn a little more. I recollect that on his first coming here he spoke of some neighbours having ill-treated him. by way of see­ ing them o ff. he ad­ dressed me thus : “ Well. To this they rejoined. downright cruelty. Our Teacher telleth us that he hath nothing better to impart to us . they prostrated them­ selves before the Teacher. ‘ Putting on the coat given me by the Teacher. * Upon my going into the presence of my Teacher. Observing my reluctance. M y Teacher having a nice piece of garden land.” I was told of this afterward by one of the young pupils . retraced my steps towards my Teacher’s house. nay. It seemeth that the reason why he did not come to bid me farewell this morning was because he was returning to me. having seen what I had done. What a simple fellow he is ! I f what he sayeth be true. However. if thou wish to stay on. and then. and now offered it to him as a fresh gift. and that he wished me to teach him magic so that he might be able to give demonstration of his acquirements in his native place. how is it that thou hast not gone home ? ” I had folded up the dress which he had presented to me. I replied that I had not yet learned anything. On the way up. started homeward. I collected in the lap of my robe quite a quantity of manure which I found lying on the road. to refuse to teach him the Art. the Teacher. From the roof of his house. is said to have spoken to the pupils at that moment round about him thus:— “ Am ong all the pupils I ever have had. and. I dug a hole in it and buried the manure there. and I was filled with jo y at the prospect of being favoured with really effective instruction. I accom­ panied them the distance of a morning’s walk. Thopaga. . offering him such gifts as they thought fit.think of returning home.What we have received is quite sufficient. at the same time offering himself to me body and life. W e had best follow these methods. it would be a shame. all now dependeth upon our own application and perseverance. “.” Thereupon. my com­ panions asked me if I did not want to go home. by all means do so.

and the Kongpo Provinces. “ O Venerable Guru. I could myself wreak vengeance by mine Art. and I now entreat thee to teach me the A rt in a manner that will be really effective.Then. thou hast indeed been treated most cruelly and unjustly. bowing in reverence before him. and of how we had been defrauded. . my mother will kill herself in my presence. my narrative being broken by my sobs. and woollen fabrics in loads upon loads from the Provinces of tJ and Tsang. as offerings in exchange for this Art. Tagpo. “ If what thou sayest be true. with a widowed mother and a sister. while the tears streamed from mine eyes. grain. that he offered himself to me. and ill-treated beyond endurance. So I will make inquiry into thy case. my mother hath sent me away to learn the Black A r t . Many an appeal hath been made to me by various people that I might teach them this peerless A rt of mine. which I could see coursing down his cheeks. too. my Teacher. Unlimited quantities of gold and turquoises from the Ngari-Province. This disciple was sent to my native place with instructions to make inquiry into the facts of my case. cattle and ponies by the thousands from Dzayul.” The Guru then asked me to tell him the whole story of our ill-treatment. and that it seemed only an act of justice to bestow on me the Art.” ‘ M y Teacher had a disciple who was fleeter than a horse and stronger than an elephant. So I did not dare to go hom e. and in a few days he came back with a report that all my statements were perfectly true. A s we had no power to obtain our rights or avenge ourselves. butter. but must not do so without due cause. after full inquiry. I said. and touching his feet with my forehead. Then he said. But none yet hath said as thou hast. and if I return without being able to wreak vengeance upon those who have wronged us. silks and brick-tea from Kham and Amdo. I am an orphan. W e have been deprived of our patrimony by our neighbours. and of how we had been wronged and ill-treated by our uncle and aunt. 4On hearing the whole story. headed by our paternal uncle and aunt. have come pouring in upon me. was unable to restrain his tears. I related to him all that had happened from the time of my father’s death. body and life.

also having received from him a letter of recommendation bound with a scarf. I prayed that I might be favoured with instruction in the Art. one versed in the ritual and occult lore o f the Tantric School. There we each made a gift of a piece of fine woollen cloth. which art he taught to me. W e then swore friendship to each other. this applies to both the highest and low est personages. 120-2.) .” ‘ Thereupon he provided me and his eldest son named Darma-Wangchuk (Powerful Young Man) with a yak-load of eatables and with presents. from the peasant to the Dalai LUma. without the accompaniment o f a s c a r f. therefore. and presented our letter. and. (Cf. Formerly I had a most destructive piece of black magic called the Zadong-Marnak (Purple Basilisk). which I taught to Khulung- Yonton-Gyatso (Ocean of Virtue of Khulung). The scarf is usually white. except in Mongolia. thou must go to another place to learn it. potent to paralyse and to kill. relating all the circumstances again. ‘ Khulung-Yonton-Gyatso said. be necessary for thee to go to him to learn the art thou desirest. communicates to the disciple the essential teach­ ings until satisfied that they w ill not be abused. Europeans themselves conforming to it. ‘ Thereupon my Guru said to me. I shall teach thee the whole Art. It will. in the valley of the Tsangpo. because I feared that thou mightst use it stupidly. and. London. Lands o f the Thunderbolt. without having sufficient cause for its exercise. Assuredly I will give 1 It is an inviolable rule observed to the present day that no guru of any school. and arranged that whoever went to him to learn the art of launching hail-storms should be sent to me. and thither I now shall send thee. while those who came to me to learn the art of producing death should be sent to him with my recommendations. Only. 2 That is. w here it is said to be blue. as far as Mongolia. “ I withheld the A rt from thee in the beginning.1 But now that I am satisfied as to thy truthfulness.3 we set out upon our journey and in due time arrived at Nub-Khulung. in the valley of the Tsangpo. “ M y friend is constant in friendship and keepeth his promises. 1923. either o f black or w hite magic. The Earl o f Ronaldshay. of Nub-Khu- lung. He was a physician and also a Tantric. consisting of fine woollen cloth. s No introduction or ceremonial presentation is complete in Tibet and neigh­ bouring countries.2 He possessed a knowledge of the art of launching hail-storms and of guiding them with the tips of his fingers. pp.

closely joined together. Build thyself a strong cell which cannot easily be pulled down with the hands. if ye would like to know how it appeared to others. or force their way into it. The site of that cell can be seen to the present day in Khulung. and they ought also to be sufficient in the present case.thee the instruction thou desirest. while one story more. my Teacher came again. I prayed that they might be spared alive as objects over which to gloat. [or circle of offerings]. ‘ On the night of the fourteenth day. that very night the Tutelary Deities made their appearance. A t the outer angles let it be covered with stones large as the body of a yak. * After I had applied the instructions during seven days.” He then gave me the necessary in­ structions [in magical practice]. ‘ To come now to the practical phase of the accomplishment 0/ my vengeance by means of the Black A r t . in calling upon us over and over again these last few days ? ” ‘ N ext morning. “ Were not these the objects of thy wishes. and cite as examples of my power in the future. I next offered thanks to the Karmic and Tutelary Deities. and said that there were two more persons who ought to be sacrificed. mine uncle and aunt. my Teacher again came to see me. Thus it was that my two worst enemies.” And. my Teacher came and said. were omitted from the general destruction. at the end of that spur down there/’ pointing out the intended site to me. must be built with strong beams. I prayed that I might be allowed another seven days . “ Usually seven days are enough in which to achieve results. thou wilt see the sign of thy success.” But. asking me whether I wanted them killed or not. and laying down the trophies in a heap said. it took place thus: The eldest son of my paternal uncle was going to be married. at the end of thine altar. bring­ ing with them the bleeding heads and hearts of thirty-five persons. sure enough. on top of these three. “ To-night. and said. and this prayer was granted. Let it be so constructed that none will be able to find the entrance to it. “ Let it have three stories all underground . and . since it was a far-off part of the country in which I wished to operate. and the accomplishment of thy wishes. and left my cell-retreat.

when a maidservant. 64)— the yak being the great shaggy buffalo used as a beast of burden in Tibet. which was heard by my sister. the whole place seemed to be filled with scorpions. it is high time that the effect of karma should overtake them. in the midst of them all. Some of the invited guests. one mon­ strous scorpion1 was driving its claws into the principal pillar of the house. and. there perished thirty-five persons. ‘ A heart-rending wail arose from those outside. instead. and the whole house came down with a tremendous crash. the colts neighing and the mares kicking. getting loose. when she saw what had happened. she could not see anything of them . talking and whispering to one another. tugging at it and pulling it outwards. Clouds of smoke and dust obscured the sky. among them the bride. “ These people are acting exactly accord­ ing to the proverb: ‘ Trust others with possession of thy house. rushed upon the mares. There were assembled in the house the other sons o f that uncle. and all mine uncle’s sons.’ Even if Thopaga’s efforts at vengeance by means of black magic do not take effect. walking along and talking at their ease. and lizards. they had just come in sight of the house.” ‘ Thus. thirty-five persons in all. but now our uncle’s. and barely had time to get away when several colts and mares. ‘ In all. She was terrified at the sight. which had been tethered together below the house. women and children. of whom most were among those who inclined to our side. and be turned out of doors. Dead bodies of men. frogs. saying. Some of the colts. Bacot's version r e a d s : ‘ a scorpion as big as a yak* (p. became excited and raised a great commo­ tion. but. and those particular persons who had ill-treated us most. snakes. 1 M. A s she passed the fenced-in yard where a large number of ponies had been en­ closed. . formerly ours. until one of them knocked against the main pillar with such terrific force that it broke and fell. were on their way to the feast. but had not had time to enter. spiders. the bride. who.all who had taken m y paternal uncle’s side were invited to the wedding feast. The whole lot were flung into the utmost confusion. and ponies choked the ruins. came out of the house to fetch some water.

and hear­ ing the piteous cries and wailing which filled the air. since her son will only do the same thing over again. all the while very much doubting if it really could be so. Let us put her to the torture and wring out her wicked heart. others said that she was going too far. but she giveth vent to her malignant triumph in language which is unbearable. crying out. and raising it aloft like a ban­ ner.— he who said. Rather let us hunt out . as also with cruel joy. come and lo o k ! Our uncle's house hath fallen down.— that it was quite enough to have been avenged and that she ought not to give vent to such an excess of ill will. Look. * News of my mother’s jo y came to the ears of the people who had lost relatives in the catastrophe. Some of them said that she was rig h t. “ O mother. But seeing the fallen house covered with clouds of dust. and kill us all. just look at the human beings above and the animals below! See the treasures and provisions ruined! O what a cheering sight hath my son brought before mine eyes to bless mine old a g e ! Delighted am I to have lived to enjoy such a scene! Could any other moment of my life be the equal of this in perfect triumphant j o y ! ” ‘ With exclamations such as these. she cried aloud. my mother gloated over the cruel spectacle.” ‘ M y mother got up and came to see what had happened. and curse if w eak! ’ Now the curse of the weak and the few hath done more than the might of the many could ever have done. and a lot o f people have been killed. “ What ad­ vantage will it be to kill her.” The older and more prudent said. “ A ll glory to the Teachers and to the G ods! A ll ye neighbours. and they began to say. “ Not only hath she been the cause of the mischief. and if I have avenged myself or not. ‘ Fight if strong. Look and tell whether or not that paternal uncle’s challenge hath been answered. being heard by all the neighbours.rushed to her mother. Putting some rags on the end of a long pole. look now and see if Mila-Sherab- Gyaltsen hath begotten a worthy son or not. Though I had to eat coarse food and wear rags for a dress. see if this is not well worth our sacrifices. she was filled with astonishment.

the cub first. and myself subjected to such in­ dignities and ill treatm ent! Could any mortal help feeling as I d id ?” ‘ M y uncle replied. but I fear for thee. ‘ The maidservant who had escaped the catastrophe. my mother fastened the doors securely.” T o this all agreed. “ 0 my dear brother and uncle of my children. and sat down to ponder what she should do next. vast and extensive as it was. Thou art its main cause. What benefit was it to vent thy malig­ nant jo y in that fashion ? Was it not enough to have wrought such havoc upon them ? ” Thus he scolded her at great length. upbraided her roundly with her rashness. coming to hear of their plan. and were considering how best to send some persons to seek and kill me. “ is likely to imperil thine own life and that of thy son. had no choice but to submit to them. and kill him on the sp ot. then we can do what we like with the dam. accordingly. death will be wel­ come ! ” and rushed forth intending to kill my mother forthwith. and think of what I have endured! The property. when news of their plot came to the ears of my maternal uncle. The neighbours are con­ spiring against thee. “ T h y recklessness ”. they concocted a plot against my life. ‘ M y paternal uncle. If thou do not abide by the plan of action on which we have decided.” A s soon as he had gone. he said. we will fall out. o f seeking out the son first and then dispatching the mother. ‘ Meanwhile. * M y mother only wept and said. for we are resolved to oppose thee in this matter. “ Thou hast some reason on thy side. and now again thou art about to do something of the same sort. going to my mother. and unable to bear the thought of the orphans of her dear old mistress and her late master . getting an inkling of the plot against us. who. but put thyself in my place. said. Look to the doors— fasten them well— mur­ derers may come. But the neighbours caught hold o f him and said.” Mine uncle.-** H a ! I have no more sons or daughters to lose. I feel the justice and the sound sense of thy rebuke. taken from me by fraud. “ Listen ! It was through our siding with thee that we have brought this calamity upon our heads.

1 Nepal. ‘ The pilgrim had an old blanket-cloak. came to the door to beg alms. took it and put*a somewhat large patch on the back . as he would find them needful. ‘ My mother. She next invited him to stay in her house for a few days. a pilgrim from O. I f she were to have success. she begged them to give her a sign whether her message would be safely delivered or not. she thought of coming herself to bring me the gold. then the lamp was to go out speedily. sent a private message informing my mother of the conspiracy. and told him to get them put on. as well as to warn me of the impending danger. perceiving that for some time at least her life was safe. getting seven pieces of gold for it. But seeing no one in the place whom she felt she could trust to take them to me.being massacred. hid the seven pieces of gold within the patch. artfully putting a number of questions regarding his home and so forth. 341® L . made up her mind how to act. discovered that he would be a suitable person to whom to entrust a message for me. ‘ However. and being unable to find a reliable messenger elsewhere. offering to mend it for him wherever it had rents or holes.It so happened that the lamp continued burning for a whole day and night. she gave the pilgrim some pieces of cured hide to serve as soles for his leather boots. Thus assured that her message would not miscarry. During the time that he stayed she treated him to the best of everything she had and made him very comfortable. and. but if failure were to attend her. like India. ‘ Trimming a lamp and addressing a prayer to the Deities invoked and worshipped by me. She asked him to come in . so she prayed. then the lamp was to continue burning for a long tim e. and whether her wishes would be accomplished. and exhorting her to send me warning of the danger. unknown to its owner. is still a place o f m any pilgrim ages for Tibetan Buddhists. telling him that she had a son in U or Tsang to whom she wished to send a message. and. “ Little Famine Carpet ”. as luck would have it. who had been on pilgrimage to the sacred places in N ep al1 and was on his way home again. and my mother. She sold the remaining half of her field..

but I will root out entire generations. wishing to instil fear in the minds of the neighbours. T h ey consulted together. and was shown to those round about whom we knew to be on our side . and so forth. and ornamented it with a star prominently worked in thick white thread-work. and. it was handed over to our maternal uncle. I am spending my days in the study of the A rt. ran thus: “ I hope that my mother and sister are quite well. Here I am living in ease and comfort. and I will simply annihilate that one. Indeed it is easier for me to kill a per­ son than to say grace before meat. This stratagem had the intended effect of causing the enraged people to abandon their design of having recourse to desperate measures. she fastened the seven pieces of gold by putting in stitches all around each. It is easily done. was a sham one. just come here. and induced my 1 Or. and. Y e need not have any anxiety about me. ‘ When the pilgrim-devotee had departed. of course. finally. leaving not a trace of any one behind. If it be the whole com­ munity that beareth you ill will. and one in its centre. ‘ the pattern w as made to represent the constellation o f seven stars known as the Pleiades . I will not only kill one. black in colour and square in shape.” ‘ This letter was signed and sealed in a way to make it appear as if it had come from me. my mother. ye have only to let me know that one’s name and family. so as to make the pattern look like a group of six stars. Doth any one dare to bear enmity towards you or to intimi­ date and ill-treat you ? If so. instructed my sister Peta to tell some of the folk that the pilgrim had brought a letter from me. that it might be shown to all in the place. giving him a handsome present. charged him to con­ vey the letter to me in safety.1 but showing less prominently than the large star itself. together with the causes of his or her behaviour. and I will simply sweep the whole countryside with destruction. In doing this. even down to the ninth generation. and that they have seen the results of my magical powers. The letter which. one in each angle of the large enclosing star.She sewed over it another patch. two. or three persons. She then handed the pilgrim a sealed letter which he was to deliver to me.

and learning that I was at Nub-Khulung. I knew nothing of the valley. My cheeks ran with floods of tears. I was quite unable to make out what the letter meant. The manifestations of thy knowledge o f black magic have been seen here in most im­ pressive fashion. to my mother. whom. so the letter said. Thirty-five persons have been killed in a house which fell down on them. and my desires have been accomplished. and where they lived. the noble Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen. search for a valley facing north.” ‘ Now here was a riddle indeed. and thou wilt obtain whatever thou desirest in the way of provisions. I have heard that there are nine different kinds of hail-storms. A sk of them. part of which ran thus : “ M y dear son Thopaga. know that the pilgrim-devotee who beareth this liveth in that valley. So. There thou wilt find seven of our relatives. my patrimony. he knew. overshadowed by a black cloud. I now request thee to launch a terrible hail-storm. Shouldst thou fail to find the valley. they hate us and mean us no good. I am well satisfied with thee . the pilgrim-messenger went on from place to place inquiring for my whereabouts. take good care of thyself. I hope thou art enjoying sound health. That will complete the satisfaction of thine old mother. thou hast proved thyself worthy of the name of thy father. These people here are conspiring against our lives. Shouldst thou be short of means. They speak of sending some men to kill thee and. But the occurrence hath embittered the people against u s. after thee. came thither. Do not inquire about it from any one else. Launch one of them. handed me my mother’s letter. but I knew not where these relatives lived. finding me and giving me all the news concerning the welfare of my mother and sister. for both our sakes. myself. H e replied that he belonged to Ngari-Gungthang. 4Meanwhile. M y desire to return home and see my mother was very great. and.paternal uncle to restore our field called “ Worma Triangle” . I inquired of the pilgrim concerning the relatives. On my question­ ing him further as to the whereabouts o f my relatives spoken of . I had run short of money and needed it sorely. and lit by the stars called Mindook (the Pleiades). I asked him who they were. I also asked him where he himself lived.

Then.” I replied. the lady called to me. thou seemest to have a very vindictive mother. but he knoweth nothing about them. He himself was a native of 0 . he said that he had been to several places. she put it on her own back. and continued. Thereafter she gave him some dinner and sent him off to another apartment.” Going thither. as the sun doth not shine into a valley facing north. restored the cloak to the the letter. and yet she commandeth thee to launch hail-storms! W hat relatives hast thou in the North ? ” “ I never before heard that I had any. On asking her where she had found the gold. so also the pilgrim's cloak was one through which no sun-rays could pierce. being the incarnation of a dakirii. she replied that it had been in the pilgrim’s cloak. and then ordered me to call the pilgrim. So many persons dead. for. as also about himself and his movements. and caused the pilgrim to take off the cloak he was wearing. and chhang served. I have asked the pilgrim. but knew of none where any relatives of mine lived nor anything of such relatives them­ selves. she cut open the patch. took out the gold pieces. She read through the letter once. “ Happy indeed those persons must be who can go everywhere with no other clothing but this on their b a ck ! ” Thereupon she danced about a little and moved out of the room with the cloak on her back. So I asked him to wait a little until I came back. . “ and the letter is very ob­ scurely worded. She then had a nice big fire made. and. thy Teacher requesteth thee to come here into his presence. she presented me with the seven pieces of gold. saying. “ ThOpaga must have a very shrewd mother. at the same time telling him the news that I had got by word of mouth from the messenger. replaced the patch as it had been before. Going to the roof of the house. coming back into the room. “ ThSpaga. 4Having seen the pilgrim safely lodged. assuming a playful air. The valley facing north was the pilgrim’s cloak. which I did. I then went and showed the letter to my Guru. ‘ M y Guru glanced once at the letter and said.”' f M y Gurus wife was a lady endowed with supernatural in­ telligence. “ Thopaga. and strutting up and down the room said.

and the remark itself was intended to direct thine attention to his own person. entreating him to teach me the art of launching hail­ storms which my mother desired me to learn. when it was high enough to hide pigeons. and that I had received a letter asking for a plague of hail.” f 1 Out of the sum which thus came into my hands. and my Teacher agreed. that thirty-five people had been k illed . I told him that I had been successful. For a knowledge of theHail-Charm. recommending that my request should be granted. he. The black cloud referred to the square black patch. Lama Yungtun-Trogyal. The con­ stellation referred to the thread-work on the patch. and the seven relatives referred to the seven pieces of gold. I now thought I might direct the course of a hail-storm with my finger. Furnished with the necessary letter and a scarf. and this is only another proof of it. ordering me to complete the ceremonial connected therewith in an old secluded cell [of a hermitage]. ‘ So 1 told him at about what time the seed was usually sown.” at the same time asking me how tall the barley would be at that time. and to my Teacher gave three pieces. which thou wert to search. ‘ Meeting my former Guru. “ Very good. and finally at about what . and said. I presented to him the letter and the scarf sent by Khulung-YOntSn-Gyatso.” said he. at which he was delighted. and at once imparted to me the Charm. 1 A t the end of seven days I saw clouds gathering in the cell and lightning flashing. I returned to Yarlung-Kyorpo. I also offered the lady seven tenths . when the young shoots commonly appeared. and made offering to him of the three pieces of gold that still remained to his turn. Her am­ biguous remark about not inquiring of any one else save the pilgrim himself referred to the fact that the pilgrim was clad in the cloak . I gave the pilgrim a tenth of one piece. He inquired as to my success in my former studies. and now prayed him to grant my request. saying. “ Y e women are proverbially sharp-witted and keen-sighted.” A t this my Teacher was highly pleased. “ Now thou art able to launch hail-storms. and heard the growling of thunder. referred me back to my former Guru.

The country folk. and with me he sent the strong. and all would begin to reap at one and the same time. I told hiifi when the ears would appear. T h e exact dates for sow ing and reaping crops are fixed b y the village astrolo­ ger. a regulation was made for that year to the effect that nobody should reap at his or her own pleasure. ‘ We disguised ourselves as pilgrim s. Such predictions are no Jess accurate than those o f our modern meteoro­ logical bureaux. set up one great wail of distress and grief. a few days more. after examining the relative positions o f the planets and constellations. and when it had settled down there burst from it a violent hail-storm. ‘ The hail was followed by a heavy downpour of rain and a strong wind. and. on the heights above the valley. heavy. and said that it was still too early. He then said that it was time for me to go and launch my hail-storm. Three falls of hail followed in succession and cut deep gorges in the hill-sides. So we sought a rocky cave facing north. On this account. which made the two of us feel very cold. but not even a cloud as big as a sparrow gathered. the peasantry are accus­ tomed to cultivate and harvest their fields in common. thus deprived of their harvest. I then called upon the names of the deities. and when they would be full. and reciting the tale of our wrongs and the cruelty of our neighbours I struck the earth with my folded robe and wept bitterly. and began to chant the Charm . utters predictions as to the possibility o f rain. which destroyed every single ear of grain in the fields. Later on. black cloud gathered in the s k y . with which to celebrate the usual harvest 1 In Tibet. M y Teacher listened to me. and. ‘ Alm ost immediately a huge.1 ‘ Then I erected the apparatus required for the working of my spell. w ho.time the season for weeding arrived. saw that the harvest that year was so abundant that even the oldest folk of the place could not remember anything like it. fleet pupil already mentioned. coming to my village. he again asked me about the seasons of the barley. . were busy warming ourselves when we heard the voices of some people of the place who had come out hunting for game. as in other lands with primitive manners. having made a fire of stunted shrubs. w h ile the older and more ex ­ perienced peasants tell w h en the rains w ill start by examining the condition of the soil.

Let us hurry down to the village and bring up men. “ Oh. they turned back to the village. and. and kill him. chopping him up piecemeal and dividing his flesh by morsels and his blood by drops would hardly suffice to satisfy our vengeance. See how many people he hath killed ! And now this rich harvest.” ‘ A s they thus spoke. ye rascals! I will surely destroy by magical means whoever of you singles himself out as my most prominent foe. They were saying among themselves. but had burst right through the line of those seeking his life . this Thopaga hath plagued the countryside more than any one ever hath done. W e do not know who it may be. he lured them on.” ‘ So saying. “ Keep quiet. On the way I was bitten by a dog. much as I then yearned to see my mother. Knowing how fleet and strong he was. and. talk low ! I see smoke in the cave over yonder. I had no misgivings in leaving him behind. my friend had been surrounded. ‘ Meanwhile. they were passing right in front of our cave. is all destroyed ! If he fell into our hands at this moment. else he will certainly work more mischief on the village. He cannot have seen us. Have I not cause to feel delight at having killed sO many of you before ? How comforting to my h eart! More than that. and one of the older persons said. I had to get away as quickly as possible and go round by the Nyanam Pass. which caused me some delay and prevented mine arrival at the Inn within the appointed time. the like of which was never before seen. Because of mine enemies. I have destroyed the whole of this year’s rich harvest so completely that not a single grain of corn is left for . whereupon my companion said to me.” We made an agreement to meet again on the fourth night at the Inn of Tingri. When they began to shoot arrows and throw missiles at him he retaliated by hurling a big stone amongst them. “ It must surely be Thopaga. “ Get thyself away first and I will im­ personate thee and mock them."’ One of the younger men said. “ Beware. surround him.thanksgiving. eluding them by running swiftly when they neared him and walking slowly again when they were far behind. saying at the same time. I had to forgo my wish.

shape­ less and unpolished. . Shin-je). “ Y e two have been attended by success and good fortune. “ It was thou who brought on this.” He replied that the deities had appeared to him with countenances beam- 1 Tib. My friend approached me and asked. “ No ” . which was as big as the head of Shinje. I will lend thee mine. or in accordance with Truth (Skt.” A s there was no one who could have reached him before us and informed him we were astonished. Is not that splendid too ? For the future. “ Y e pilgrims have no objection to drink­ ing when ye get the chance. Now if thou go over there thou wilt find a marriage-feast going on. and took the bowl.” And as he went on speaking thus. and added. upon which they all turned back. I f thou have no bowl of thine own. if ye do not behave properly to my mother and my sister.” My friend said. otherwise known by his Sanskrit names as Yama-Raja ( ‘ K ing o f the D ead ') and Dharma- Raja ( ‘ K ing o f Truth ’). Dharma).” and so forth and so on. having reached Tingri before me. and Dharma-Raja because he judges and metes out punishment in strict accordance with the karmic deserts o f each o f the dead. asked the inn-keeper there if a pilgrim answering to my description had come to the Inn.1 deep and capacious. ‘ Thus it was that my friend. “ How is it that thou didst not reach the appointed place earlier ? ” I re­ plied. and thou canst have a proper time of it.any of you to pick up. I will turn this country into a desolate wilderness 1 See if I do not. The inn-keeper replied. a dog bit me on the leg and that delayed me. his pursuers became frightened and began to say each to the other. Gshin-rje (pron. and make what is left of you barren and accurst down to the ninth generation. where thou wilt be welcome. where I already was. Sangyama). I will put a curse upon your hill-tops and a blight upon your valleys. ‘ On our arrival at Yarlung-Kyorpo. Armed therewith. and asked. seated in one of the back rows. “ Who hath told thee? No one went ahead of us to inform thee. our Guru said. he proceeded to the house o f feasting. “ Never mind I ” And from that place we proceeded on our way to­ gether. H e is called Yam a-Raja because he rules or judges w ith restraint (Skt. W ilt thou go ? ” ‘ Of course my friend said “ Yes ”. the K in g and Judge o f the Dead. “ A s I was going out begging one morning.

waging war to the death with them. avenging the wrongs done to me by mine enemies. and that he had already performed the due thanksgiving ceremonies. III ] T H E D E S T R O Y IN G O F E N E M IE S 81 ing with light like the full moon . .’ This is the first act [done by Jetsiin]— the worldly act of destroying his enemies. he seemed highly pleased. * In this wise it was that I committed black deeds. On the whole.C H A P .

Psalm s o f the Early Buddhists. N ow all my sorrow s are hewn down.‘ I heeded all H e said and left the world A nd all its cares behind.) . cast out. brought to utter end. I. R h ys Davids’ Translation.’ Vasitfhl. and realize L ife on the Path to great good fortune bound. (Mrs. Uprooted. li. and gave m yself T o follow w here H e taught. In that I now can grasp and understand T h e base on which my miseries w ere built. a Bhikkhunl.

having been impressed by some unfortunate occurrence with the triviality of worldly pursuits. which are as follows: F irst: The act of his repentance and sincere search for a gifted and accomplished Guru [to guide him towards Nirvana\. far removed from the haunts of men. high on a hill. by an undistracted application to ascetic devotion in an entirely secluded place. PART II: T H E PATH OF LIGHT IN T R O D U C T IO N N ext come the acts of his attaining the Perfect State of Buddhahood. despite the pain and anguish and despondency to which he was subjected that his sins might be expiated. putting away all thoughts of worldly fame. after which he departed from his Guru. F ifth : A s the Truths began to take their own course of development. . so that every sentient being might find in it an impulsion to live the religious life. the act of his obtaining the final ear-whispered occult truths. Third : The act of his obtaining the Truths which procured for him spiritual development and Final Emancipation. Seventh : The act of his carrying out the commands of his Guru. N inth: His final act. Eighth: The act of his acquiring Transcendental Know­ ledge and Experience as the result of such devotion. S ix th : The act of his impulsion to take the vow o f devoting his life wholly to the attainment of the Highest Goal. that of the dissolution of his mortal body into Cosmic Space. whereby he was able to confer great benefit upon all sentient beings. Fourth: The act of his meditation under the personal guidance of his Guru. with boundless energy and untiring perseverance. when led by an injunction given in a dream. Second : The act of his unwavering obedience in fulfilling every command of his Guru when once found. whence the shoots of experience and knowledge began to grow. with intent to impart b y example his last teaching of all.

In the day-time I wished to be sitting down when I was going about. How and by what chance wert thou brought to seek religion. thou didst men­ g a in tion some white deeds done by thee which. all the while earnestly desirous of an opportunity to ask him to let me go and learn the H oly Doctrine. Three days later my Teacher returned with a sad and downcast mien. too. from thy youth hast taken to this sinful A rt. since I am responsible for what thou hast done. I was thus full of remorse and repentance. and o f how Jetsiin found his Guru o f the True Doctrine. my son.” 1 1 T he C u n t. ‘ I deeply repented the destruction and mischief I had wrought by sorcery. I realize the misery of all worldly existence. I longed so for religion that I forgot to eat. and to be going about when I was sitting down. of course. a wealthy and devout lay supporter of my Teacher fell seriously ill. ‘ O Teacher. from my youth up I have spent m y whole time in the practice of sorcery. A t night I was unable to sleep. ‘ About this time. and how didst thou come to encounter it ? ’ Jetsiin said. w hether o f the Left-hand Path or o f the Right-hand Path. CH APTER IV T H E S E E K IN G O F T H E H O L Y D H A R M A - Telling o f how Jetsiin departed from his Guru o f t)ie Black A r t . <( How transitory are all states of existence ! Last night that excellent layman passed away. in the killing of so many of mine enemies and in producing hail-storms. And thou. and he replied. and I cannot but mourn his loss deeply. I asked the reason of his looks. and my Teacher was immediately invited to attend upon the sick man. dealing in the Black A r t of producing death and in bringing about hail-storms. be- . must mean devotion to the H oly Dharma. Moreover. Marpa the Translator. and already hast gathered a heap of evil karma. and yet I could not bring myself to ask my Teacher to allow me to adopt a religious life. Thus I continued serving my Teacher. A Rechung spoke and said. all of which will lay a heavy load on me.

go thou thyself.’ . but everything dependeth upon a true understanding of the purport of the ritual. where lived a famous Lama of the old mystic sect named Rongton-Lhaga. and faith. Pravritti-Marga).” ‘ This was exactly what I wished. “ Certainly. learn and practise the Holy Dharma on my behalf as well as thine own. Sj. Do thou remain here and act as guardian to my children and disciples. abundant perseverance. I will supply thee with all material support. so as to save me and procure me a birth in my next existence which will further my progress on the Path of Emancipation. He replied. “ I understand that all sentient beings possess a ray of the Eternal. Thou art young. comes spiritually responsible for w hatever he directs his disciples to do— reaping evil karma from evil deeds thus done. the first being the Path of Renunciation (Skt. and I will go and work for thy salvation along with mine own. and live a life of pure religious study. I immediately prayed to be permitted to take to the religious life. of the ftingma Sect. feel confident that this superficial knowledge would stand the test of real danger. Go. I do not. Atal Bihari Ghosh has here added the fo llo w in g: * The Sanskrit terms V&ma (Left) and Dakslfina (R ight) have also a higher significance. however.c h a p . the second the Path of W orldly Acquisition and Enjoyment (Skt. This is the primary distinc­ tion as understood by the learned in India. say­ ing. I therefore wish now to devote myself to such sound doctrine as will stand firm and solid in the face of everything that may threaten. with the yak itself— a cow yak— and directed me to a place in the Tsang Valley called Nar. and that we must work for their salvation and development. I also know the rituals to be used for the purpose. Or else.” ‘ He presented me with a yak-load of fine Yarlung woollen cloth. Nivfiiti-Marga). This Lama was said to have acquired supernormal faculties in the doctrine called “ The Great Perfection ”. iv] T H E P A T H O F E M A N C IP A T IO N 85 *1 asked him if it were not true that all sentient beings killed by means of sorcery were in some manner saved and sent to higher states of existence. M y Teacher at once gave his consent. Thou wilt make a very sincere devotee. and richly endowed with energy. and it filled me with great joy. and good karma from good deeds. as also of the meaning of the words used.

and sought the Lama. while I was engaged in learning sorcery for killing purposes. and in its branches. and perfect in the end . He who meditateth upon it in the day is delivered in the course of that d a y . and in the case of launching hail-storms I had required seven days. and the like happeneth to him who meditateth upon it in the night. in its trunk. but that the Lama himself was not at home at the time. in the upper Nyang Valley. and offered him the cow yak and the bale of woollen cloth as a present. to him who hath obtained it. where he would be found. ‘ The Lama said. the mere hearing of the doctrine is sufficient to procure them Deliverance. and prayed him that he would impart it to me. and that I was willing to reward any one who would take me to the Lama. ‘ A t this the thought arose within me that formerly. whereas now I had met a doctrine which would emancipate me at any 1 This parallels the Buddha’s saying that H is doctrine is ‘ perfect in the be­ ginning. which is the knowledge of Yoga. This is a doctrine for those intellects that are most highly developed. ‘ A t Rinang I found the Lama.” He initiated me there on the spot and gave me the necessary instruction. perfect in the middle. and in its fruit. in the Tsang Valley.M y Teacher asked me to go and learn the doctrine from this Guru. saying that I was a great sinner who had come from the West Highlands in search of a doctrine which would lead to deliverance from all sangsaric existence in one lifetime. The lady accordingly sent one of the disciples with me as a guide. To the gifted. It is excellent alike in its root.1— profitable to him from whom it hath been obtained. In accordance with his wish I went to Nar. and to practise it well. it had taken me fourteen days to attain my desire. I told them that I had been sent by Lama Yungtun Trogyal. that he had a branch monastery at Rinang. they do not need to meditate upon it. “ My doctrine. to those whose karma favoureth. called ‘ The Great Perfec­ tion is perfection indeed. I will impart it to thee. Thereupon. ‘ There I found the Lam a’s wife and some of the Lama’s disciples. who told me that the place was the seat of the chief monastery.

He added that this would please . in Lhobrak. Marpa had a dream to the effect that his Guru. and in that thou wert quite correct. he is called Marpa the Translator. A t all events. the great Saint Naropa. He is the worthiest among the worthiest of men. while to the gifted and specially favoured by their good karma the mere hearing thereof was sufficient to deliver them. by day or by night. I said to myself. but instead went to sleep over my task. five-pointed and slightly tarnished. whenever I chose to meditate upon i t . carrying only a few books and some provi­ sions for the journey. and a thrill went through my whole body. wherein liveth at present a faithful dis­ ciple of Naropa. “ W hy. and so failed to put the doctrine to the test of practice.time. setting in motion every hair.” ‘ On hearing the name Marpa the Translator. I have been rather too lavish in my praises of my doctrine. A ll along the way I was possessed by but one idea: “ When shall I set eyes upon my Guru ? When shall I behold his face ? ” ' The night before mine arrival at Wheat Valley. however. Now there is a monastery called Dowo-Lung (Wheat Valley). my mind was filled with an inexpressible feeling of delight. T o him thou must go. I see quite well that I shall not be able to convert thee. while tears started from mine eyes. I therefore set out with the single purpose of finding this Guru. hailing from the Highlands. which cometh from past lives. the great Indian Saint. ‘ After a few days. On my part. I myself may be one o f these favoured and gifted persons! ” Thus was I so puffed up with pride that I would not meditate. — one who hath obtained supernormal knowledge in the new Tantric Doctrines. a very prince among translators. the Lama came to me and said. unequalled in all the three worlds. and along with it a golden pot for holding holy water. “ Thou didst call thyself a great sinner. filled with elixir. came to him and performed the Initiation Ceremony and gave him a dorje made of lapis lazuli. and ordered him to wash the dirt off the dorje with the elixir in the pot and to raise up the dorje upon a Banner o f Victory. so strong was the feeling of faith aroused within me. Between thee and him there is a karmic connexion.

two female forms acting as guardians. He further saw in his dream that the Victorious Ones pronounced benedic­ tions upon the Banner and performed the consecration cere­ mony. outwardly Marpa only said.the Victorious Ones of the past. some worshipping. and thereupon didst wash it with holy water from the urns. And thou wert saying that already it had been blessed by the great Saint Naropa. Thence it emitted a light bright as the sun and the moon. He then awoke feeling very happy. the Saint reascended into the Heaven-World. and some making offerings. washing the dorje with the holy elixir. 291-3. “ I do not 1 This is a reliquary in the shape o f a miniature stupa. Having said this. she said. I dreamt last night that two women who said they were from the Urgyen Land of the West came carrying in their hands a crystal reliquary. Thence the dorje shed abroad such a brilliant radiance as filled all the worlds with its light. which settled down on the tops of neighbouring hills. but that whatever he commanded must be obeyed. and to place it on the top of a hill. ‘ Then in his dream Marpa saw that he carried out the instructions of his Guru. “ O Master. ‘ When his wife came in to serve breakfast. pp. so that in their delight they all looked upon Marpa and his Banner of Victory with overflowing faith and reverence. and falling upon the sentient beings existing in the S ix Lokas dispelled all their griefs and sadness. and be welcome to all sentient beings. thus fulfilling the aims both of ourselves and of others. . W hat doth this mean ? ” ‘ Albeit inwardly pleased at the coincidence in the purport of these two dreams. and asked me to tell thee that thy Guru Naropa enjoined thee to consecrate the reliquary with all the due ceremonial of a proper consecration. and in addition reproduced several other reliquaries similar to itself. and that he himself was somewhat elated and proud. and elevating it upon a Banner of Victory. Compare with it the crystal reliquary borne by the DakinJs at the time o f Milarepa’s translation. and place it on the top of a hill.1 which was a little dirty. some singing praises. perform the consecration ceremony over it. as directed. filling them instead with bliss unalloyed with sorrow.

That settled my doubts. know the meaning of dreams which have no cause. Please stay at home. which he placed on the ground. with oiled and well-combed hair. he said. Marpa the Translator. liv e ?” But none could give me the information I sought. I asked one person more. too. But a bright-looking young lad. If it Hit N . I am going down along the road there to plough the field to-day. “ Bring me a good supply of chkangl ” Upon his wife taking a jarful down to him. well dressed and adorned with ornaments. and rested himself after his ploughing. I still kept on in­ quiring for Marpa. “ This may perhaps do for m yself.” Another jar was brought. covering it with his h a t. “ Thou must be meaning my Lord and father who used to sell off every­ thing in our house. a great Lama. do not g o ! ” But despite all her pleading Marpa went to the field. “ But thou hast ever so many labourers to work for thee. “ Where doth the Great Yogi. “ Was he not called anything else?” I next in­ quired. I then asked him where Wheat Valley lay. * Meanwhile. To this he replied that some called him Lama Marpa also. and then take it away to India and come back with ever so many rolls of paper. merely saying. “ There it is. saying. I thought to m yself that it was a very auspicious omen to have obtained my first view of my Guru's dwelling from this ridge. as I went along the road.” His wife said. and he said that there was a man called Marpa who lived thereabouts. but that there was nobody there who bore such a grand title as Great Yogi.” I then asked who lived there. sitting down beside the jar. bring some more for visitors. I was approaching by the road. purchase gold. Make ready. go and work in the fields like a common labourer? It will create quite a scandal. and I knew that this must be the abode of the Marpa I sought. said. and was told that it was called Chho-la-gang (Ridge of the Dharma). he sipped the chhang. and. The elder ones replied that they did not know. and he answered that the person he had called Marpa lived there. I met some cowherds and put my question to them. Marpa the Translator. He pointed it out. What will people say if thou. *Nevertheless. asking every one I met. So I next inquired the name of the ridge on which I stood.

and then ploughed the field with a will. When I recovered. on accepting which I was very much refreshed. ‘ T o this the Lama replied. but I very much doubted whether a-great translator would be found ploughing. I said. with full eyes. he is ploughing his field to-day— a thing he never did before. He was ploughing. when I came upon a heavily built Lama. the lad I had seen among the cowherds who had given me the information I wanted came to call me in. ‘ Thus thinking. rather inclined to corpulence.” And I set to work and completed the portion that still remained to do. and then asked. and straight through it in winter. I was thrilled by a feeling of inexpressibly ecstatic bliss. ‘ After a short time. thus making a triple seat. in which I lost all consciousness of my surroundings. it was afterwards called “ Aid F ie ld ”. but that his brow and the corners of his nose . I was walking along the road. I finished the chhang. I found the Lama seated on two thicknesses of cushions with a carpet over them. so I will finish this bit of ploughing for him. The moment my eyes fell upon him. and that hearing o f the fame for knowledge and learning of Marpa the Translator I had come to him to learn the True Doctrine by means of which I might obtain Deliverance. but very dignified in appearance. I will procure thee an introduction to him if thou wilt finish this bit of ploughing for me.” I considered it likely that this might be the person I sought. where in this place doth the faithful disciple of the famous Saint Naropa. a path runneth round the border of the he thou meanest. This field having aided me to an introduction to my Guru. called Marpa the Translator. In summer. “ Very good. ‘ Going now with the lad.” at the same time bringing out the chhang from under his hat and offering it me to drink. liv e ? ” f For a while. “ Whence comest thou ? What dost thou do ? ” I replied that I was a great sinner from the Highlands of Tsang. “ The Lama hath been successful in procuring the introduction for me. He charged me to plough the field well. I saw that he had been at some pains to wipe himself clean. and said to him. at which I was highly pleased. “ O Reverend Sir. and went off. the Lama scanned me attentively from head to foot.

thou didst not know me. I looked about to see if another Lama might be seated somewhere else. so thou mayst salute me. and mind to me. “ T h y being a great sinner hath nothing to do with me. and enable me to obtain Liberation in this very lifetime. my Lama. O Precious Guru. iv] T H E M E E T IN G W IT H M A R P A 91 still bore some traces of dust. I pray thee to provide me with food. clothing. I am Marpa himself. ‘ Thereupon the occupant of the cushion seat said. and instruction. or thou wilt have to find food and clothing elsewhere. But this the Lama im­ mediately forbade me to do. But what sins hast thou committed ? ” On relating in full the circumstances of my case. I said. “ I.” ‘ The Lama replied. Choose whichever thou preferrest. the Lama said. I did not send thee to commit sins on my be­ half. believed by Tibetan masters of the Occult Sciences that boeks. . to make sure. touched his feet with my forehead. but I cannot give thee food. I like thine offer to devote body. emanate definite auric influences . clothing. saying. speech. all three. “ I have come to thee. hence Marpa refused to have the w orks 011 Black Magic placed near works on W hite Magic or in contact with holy reliques. and spiritual instruction. and mind to thee. it will entirely depend upon thine own perseverance and energy whether thou attainest Liberation in one lifetime or not.” 1 I at once bowed down. I will either provide thee with food and clothing.” ‘ I replied. while I give thee the spiritual instruc­ tion thou desirest. * It is. “ Very w e ll. “ Out with thine old books. and placed them on the crown of my head. Although I thought that this was the same gentleman that had parted from me lately.chap.” and at once pro­ ceeded to accommodate myself there. and I have come here to offer body. I will find my food and clothing elsewhere. bestowing the few books I had with me upon the altar shelf. Having performed this ceremonial. speech. they will infect my holy reliques and sacred volumes and give them a cold ! ” 2 1 It is necessary that the shishya do reverence to the Guru. thou seeking spiritual instruction elsewhere. as Milarepa’s surmise in the following paragraph suggests. “ O f course. There he sat with his fat paunch protruding prominently in front of him. for the Truth. If I im­ part to thee the Truth. am a great sinner from the West Highlands. as w ell as persons.

‘ I immediately thought within myself that he knew there were some books of black magic among them.’ . So for some days I kept them in the quarters assigned to me. M y Guru's wife gave me nice food and other necessities. ‘ This is that part of my history which telleth of the manner of my coming to find my Guru. and on that account objected to their being put along with his books and images and other things. the same constituting the First of my Meritorious Acts.

Bacot’s version (p. and having four handles. the aspirant is alw ays subjected to certain severe tests respecting . Milarepa. each of these apparently being equal to tw enty of the smaller measures men­ tioned in our rendering. so that it made the house tremble a little. and that I must be careful to behave properly in his presence.2 Then. the various moods— anger. are w holly feigned. A t the time.Telling o f how Jetsiin Obeyed the Commands o f his Guru Marpa. and putting the copper vessel on top of it I carried the whole home to my Guru's dwelling. “ Ha. free from speck or flaw inside and outside. and then returned to Marpa. thou appearest to be a particularly strong little devotee. has a tw o­ fold purpose. in Despondency. he Thrice Deserted Marpa and Sought another Guru. namely. saying. whereby I obtained four hundred and twenty measures of barley. and others— which Marpa apparently exhibits in his relationship as Guru to his Shishya. I was not the least shaken in my faith in him. I happened to throw down my load a bit heavily. thereby Stiffering Strange Trials and Great Tribula­ tions. too. one on each of the four sides. 3 A s w ill be seen later on in the Biography. and correspondingly for the measures mentioned in the next sentence. for he jumped to his feet.1 With two hundred and eighty of them I purchased a big copper vessel. ‘ Arriving there somewhat fatigued. With twenty measures I procured meat and chhang. shaking the house down by mere physical strength ? Out with thy sa ck ! ” And he kicked the sack out of the house. when seen all together. No true Guru would ever allow such unworthy passions in their real form to dominate or in any degree control him . Dost thou wish to kill all of us. Before being accepted as a Skiskya. I thought that my Guru was simply a little short-tempered. This seemed to make my Gttru angry. The remaining hundred and twenty measures I put into a big sack. ill-will. and o f how. so that I was obliged to place it outside. ‘ I N O W went forth in search of alms up and down the whole Lhobrak Valley. 94) gives the number of measures as tw enty-one. to test Milarepa and to make him do penance for the evils which he had wrought through practising the Black Art. after emptying the 1 M. cruelty. and the feigned display o f them.

He next took hold of the handle-rings and shook them violently. He accepted it by laying his hand on i t . O nly after such tests does the Guru decide for what training. I went and launched a terrific hail-storm on each of the places mentioned. filling it with clarified butter for burning in the altar lamps. in return for two or three paltry hail-stones ! Now. bowing down. if for any. afterwards I will then give thee instruction in the Truth. Go thou and launch a plague of hail upon the robbers. if thou art really in earnest about the Truth. and frequently offered indignities to myself too. they are prevented from coming here with any provisions or presents. destroy a number of the Lhobrak hill-men. he remained for a while with his eyes closed in prayer. returning. and struck the vessel with a rod. have often robbed dis­ ciples of mine who have been on their way here from Nyal- Lo-ro. I repeatedly entreated him to bestow upon me some instruction. “ W h at! Thou presumest to ask for the Most Sacred Dharma. I again took it into the house.” ‘ Accordingly. Thus frequently plundered. His invocation ended. “ It is auspicious . I offer it to my Guru Naropa ” . I will undertake to impart to thee the Mystic his or her com petency (adhikara). and.copper vessel. That itself is a re­ ligious duty . Sir. and. without removing his hand from it. But the Lama replied. thou wilt go and by means of sorcery. asked for the in­ struction promised. “ I have a number of devoted disciples and lay-fol- lowers in the U and Tsang Provinces who would much like to come here. as well as by the Lingpas. as he said. he took the vessel over to the end of the altar and laid it there. and then. in which thou claimest to be an adept. Finally. whereupon he said. the aspirant is fitted. also. I could see tears trickling down his face. ‘ Being much concerned about my Liberation. and simul­ taneously he made with his hands the motion of offering some­ thing. If thou can work some signal piece of havoc in proof of thy magical power. for these. but they have been repeatedly robbed on the way by the nomad shepherds of Yamdak and Talung. . making as loud a noise thereby as he possibly could. which I pro­ cured at such cost and self-sacrifice from India. offered it to the Lama.

” And he gave me the title of Thuchhen (Great Sorcerer). A s for myself. not only will I impart the Truths to thee. that would be such a great jest as would make everybody laugh. 4N ext morning the Lama was kind enough to come to me himself and sa y . he would have killed thee for such presumption. and thou shalt have the Teachings. Sir. I urged. and all in return for thy having done evil deeds ? W hy. the great Pandit Naropa— Truths whereby one can gain Liberation in a single lifetime and attain to Buddhahood. the Bouquet of Sutras). perceiving that among the killed were several of those who had offended him. “ Ha. The sight of the bloodshed. but do not take it too much to heart. said to me. I should therefore like thee to build a house for my son.” Thus he scolded me as if about to beat me. and restore to life the killed among the Lhobrak men. thou hadst better not enter my presence again. But thou seemest to me to be a handy person. the Lama’s wife. he said. the while. Now. When thou hast completed it. affected me with the deepest remorse and anguish. h a ! Must I give thee the most sacred Truths. If thou can do that. which I brought from India with such great pains. “ It is quite true that thou art an adept in sorcery. M y Guru. handed down to me by my reverend Guru. I will let thee have the Truths. Sir.Truths. Darma-Doday (The Youth. and my magical curse taking effect among the Lhobrak hill-men a feud broke out among them . and in the fighting many of them were killed. however.441 fear I was a little too hard on thee yester­ day evening. If thou can not.” 44But ”.” ‘ Again I did as I was bidden . Have patience and wait. thou shalt go and make good all the mischief and damage which thou hast caused to the crops of the shepherd-folk. I was plunged into the depths of despair and wept bitterly. ‘ Upon my asking him again for the saving Truths. seeking to comfort me. Were it any one else save myself. but I will also supply thee with all needful food and clothing for the period of thy study. expending all my worldly goods in gold for them— Truths which still emit the holy breath of the Angelic Beings who gave them.44what will happen to me if in . well and good.

the Lama. 97). Secondly. as thou appearest to possess a considerable stock of energy and perseverance. he came along and said that. he wished me to expiate mine evil deeds. Bacot notes (p. I at once asked the Lama for a plan of the proposed house. he had not well considered the matter. My Sect is not quite the same as other sects. described a circular structure and ordered me to begin building it there. that divine grace may be received by human beings on earth in the form of w aves radiated by spiritual beings. when giving me my orders at the outset. he wished to build a house there. Firstly. and. . So. for the site was very desirable. ‘ He had recourse to the following stratagem. as I subsequently perceived. and that I must stop work on the 1 This refers to the lamaic belief. the interval I happen to die undelivered ? ” He answered. much like the Christian. the power o f the Tibetan kings having disappeared and the authority o f China not y et having been established . He took me to a mountain ridge having an eastern aspect. whereby it was agreed that no stronghold should be erected thereon2]. with none to hinder. pointing out a particular place. had apparently agreed not to fortify the site referred to in our text. being safe and not easily reached and closed forever to those who had taken the oath. he wished to mislead the aforementioned parties into allowing him to proceed unopposed with the building of his house on the site he desired. being jealous o f one another. in asking me to do this work for him. and this I at once did. not having been inchided in an oath-taking party held by his male relatives on a certain place [of strategic importance. Marpa held the superhuman Gurus of his Sect to be more capable o f helping the devotee than those o f any less spiritually-endowed sect. When I had finished about half of it. In it are to be found more emanation of Divine Grace-Waves and a more direct Spiritual Revelation than in any other sect. 2 A s M. in Milarepa’ s time there was no centralized government in Tibet. ‘ Now. Mine is not a doctrine empty of all definite promise. whether thou obtainest the Deliverance in one lifetime or not.1 Consoled and rejoiced by these comforting promises. And thirdly and lastly. “ I promise thee that thou shalt not die undelivered in the in­ terval. thou canst please thyself. had three objects in view. hence the local feudal lords. because of the direct guidance thus telepathically given by them.

” I urged. ordering me to build another house there. too. But now thou shalt build me a really nice house on this site. appearing to me to be intoxicated. This one shall not be demolished. and there addressed me thus : “ My Great Sorcerer. and was ordered by thyself. I seem to have been tipsy when I last told thee to build a house. and then thou wert pleased to assure me that thou hadst carefully con- 1 This. Again I obeyed his commands. When I had finished about a third of it.building and demolish it.” “ But. the Lama. and I have thought well over the matter. and then to give me his orders. and a great trouble to me. A Tantric mystic’s dwelling ought to be triangular. “ But if it be as thou sayest. 3419 O .” said he. or I must have been mad outright. then it must have been at a time when I was not in full possession of my senses.” I ventured to observe that it was a useless expense to himself. after describing a crescent-shaped ground-plan. He said. it is the house for T h y Reve­ rence’s son. “ W hy. and so gave thee a mistaken order.” “ I have no recollec­ tion of having given thee any such order. and that I must restore the clay and the stones to the places whence I had taken them. “ fearing that something of this kind might happen. this time to a ridge with a northern aspect. the Lama one day came down and said. I entreated him to consider matters well.1 took me to a ridge having a western aspect and. “ I am not tipsy to-day. When I had built this house up to about half the height required. so build me one of that shape. w as feigned by Marpa. A p ­ parently it was a thorough mistake all through. to be over and over again building up and pulling down houses. the Lama again came to me while I was working and said that even this house would not do. went away. ‘ When I had carried out this order. “ Who gaveth thee the order to build a house like this? ” I answered. I ventured to impress upon T h y Reverence the necessity of careful consideration.” ‘ So I proceeded to build a triangular-shaped house. and carry back to the place whence I had taken them the earth and stones I had used. 1 Once more the Lama took me away. in order that his plans for imposing penances o f a very severe nature on Milarepa should succeed.

man. then. I feared. and led me in. thou canst go away!” And the Lama went off. and so had no other choice but to demolish the triangular house like the others. that thou demolish it at once and take all the stones and clay back where thou didst find them.1 with the prayers and the injunctions and vow s. but I did not dare to show it to the Lama. Pray take pity on him now and give him some instruction. “ M y Lord. Am ongst Northern Buddhists. or what. I have not robbed thee of thy patrimony! Besides.” The Lama replied. if thou art really anxious for religious instruction— why. * The R efuges are the Buddha. and said. “ Great Sorcerer. I now give it thee. accordingly. who. lest she should think I wanted her to notice how hard I was working for them. Thereupon. the Dharma (or Rules o f Right Conduct as contained in the Buddhist Scriptures). “ 'What witness hast thou for this ? W h a t! Wert thou seeking to de­ stroy me and mine by means of sorcery. or else. similar to professions of faith. do not falsely accuse me. the Refuges are made the basis o f various formulas.’' The lady.” The Lama answered. thine useless building undertakings are only wear­ ing out the poor youth’s life. A s for instruction. And T h y Reverence at the time appeared to be in a perfectly normal state of mind. I stood in need of the Truth. and to do as bidden with the materials. . So I kept my misery to myself. between my shoulder and my spine.sidered everything. and only solicited her aid in pray­ ing the Lama to give me the promised instruction. and the Sangha (or Buddhist Community o f which the Priesthood is the most importantpart). the very shape of this house is enough to set all the Local Deities against thee! See. as thou didst yesterday. I was very much grieved at this. would be displeased if I did so. 1 B y this time I had a big sore on my back. apparently very angry. Neither did I venture to show it to his wife. and bring him in to me. but there was no help for it. prepared some food. The Lama then said to me. which looketh like a magical triangle ? Why. “ Get a nice dinner ready. of things which I have not done.” And he imparted to me the four formulas of the Refuges. and that this building should not be de­ molished. I will give thee the instruction thou desirest. by thrusting us into this triangular building of thine. ‘ The motherly lady kindly went in to her husband.

or Mystic Truths. nine stories high. the Lama said that he had not given due consideration to the matter. we came to the spot already mentioned. thou must do such and such things in order to merit them.and added. and which was now guarded by them. that he had either been out of his senses or quite mad at the time. Here the Lama came to a halt. I said. and said. In the course of our stroll. with an ornamental upper part forming a tenth story. “ These are called Temporal Religious Instructions. in the case of the second. This house shall not be demolished . and ended by saying. “ But thou wilt hardly be able to attain to such ideal height as th is. and seemed highly displeased. in the presence of both. whereon the uncles and cousins of the Lama had agreed not to build. and. I was so moved to the very depths of my heart with faith that I was unable to repress my tears . and upon its completion I will bestow on thee the Truths for which thou art pining and maintain thee while thou art in retreat per­ forming Sadhana (Meditation). In the case of the first. and I did so. so I went and called the Reverend Mother. and did not remember having ever given me the order to build it. he as1«ed me to produce a witness to his words. Now once more he is giving me the order to begin building another house. in the case of the third.” Here I ventured to suggest that he should allow me to ask his wife— whom I was used to call Reverend Mother— to come and be witness to his words.” And he proceeded to recite a brief story from the life of his Guru Naropa. so I pray that thou. But if thou seek the Non-Temporal Religious Instructions. He granted my request. my . while the Lama occupied himself in marking out the ground-plan.” Hearing this. that will be too difficult for thee I fear. “ Up to the present I have built three houses and again demolished each of them. that he had been tipsy when he gave the order for i t . Upon my reminding him of the circumstances in connexion with the third house I built. ‘ A few days after this. providing thee with all needed food and clothing. and I inwardly resolved to do whatsoever the Lama commanded me. the Lama invited me to go for a walk with him. “ Thou art now to build on this spot an ordinary quadrangular house. Then.

it being the site on which a joint vow hath been taken by them.” Addressing his wife. But now Ngogdun-Chudor. Besides. stand witness. I am not ordering . Besides. as thy workmen. and then proceeded with its erection. It is altogether needless trouble to cause thee to build houses so often. I set it in. Reverend Mother. near to the doorway. mayst be pleased to act as witness to this present order. Moreover. “ Reverend Sir. was it ? ” he said. whence didst thou procure that stone ? ” I replied. See that it is taken out and returned to the place from which it was taken. but closed and guarded b y all thy Guru's relatives. of Tsang-rong— all advanced disciples of my Guru— happened in sport to bring to that spot a big boulder. this site is not ours by right. but thy Guru [the Reverend Father] is so imperious that he will not pay any attention to us. “ O f course I can stand as witness. as a corner stone. it was brought in sport by Thy Reverence’s three chief disciples. I shall only incur risk of contention. just above the foundation. But the Reverend Father will pay no heed to such a weak voice as mine. the Lama said. and then get away home. After inspecting the building all round very carefully. and leave me to see to the performance of my part in the business! Thou needest not raise questions no one asketh thee to raise. only to pull them down as often again. and Meton-Tsonpo.” I reminded him of his promise not to have this building pulled down.” “ Oh. of Dol. the Reverend Father is doing a perfectly useless thing. “ But I did not promise to let thee employ. and had got up to about the second story from the ground when Marpa came on a visit to the scene of my toil. he pointed to the stone that had been brought by the three advanced disciples of his. A s it was a good-sized stone. my chief disciples who have been initiated into the Mystic Truths of twice-born beings. and said. there is no necessity for all these building projects.” ‘ The lady replied. of Zhung. He only replied. “ Well. “ Great Sorcerer. Tsurton-Wang-gay. thou hast no business to use for thy building purposes a stone brought by them. “ Merely do what thou art asked to do.” ‘ So I set about laying the foundation of the quadrangular building ordered. namely.

“ From where hath Marpa the Translator managed to call up such a number of troops ? ” They did not . But the Lama produced by magical power a vast body of armed troops who crowded the house both outside and inside. Let us wait and see.” ‘ However. Had we not better object to i t ? ” But others said. But if he should not. he getteth the same young man to pull it all down again and carry the materials back to where they came from. The would-be attackers were all filled with fear. but continued. L et us pull it down now! ” And with this intent. when it had reached the seventh story— and another sore had come on my body near the waist— Marpa’s relatives said to one another. “ It seemeth as though Marpa really meaneth to build on this spur.” Putting forth the strength of the three men. from top to bottom. and knoll round about. Each looked on the other and asked. I managed to get it up and put it into the same place as before. at the outset. they soon saw that this house was not to be pulled down. and set it in the same place. The pulling down of the others was only a feint designed to mislead us. and to restore it to its original place. A s soon as the Lama saw that I had accomplished this. in token of the unusual physical strength I displayed in connexion with it. This stone was ever after called my “ Giant Stone ” .thee to pull down the entire edifice. too. “ He is not going to pull down this building. spur. “ Now thou mayst go and bring back that same stone thyself. Taking out the stone. but only to take out that stone brought by my chief disciples. some of those who saw me said. I put it back whence it had come. there will be ample time to stop him. being possessed with a mania for building. they collected in a body. Then. when the building is half finished. and prevent our objecting. * While I was thus engaged in laying the foundation of this edifice on the prohibited site. he came and said. He will surely do the same in this case. Then. He hath got hold of a strong young novice from the Highlands. a wall which I had erected. and.” ‘ Thus once more I had to pull down. “ Marpa is beside himself. he keepeth the poor young man busy all the time building houses of unapproved patterns on every ridge. to the building of this one.

dare to fight with them. Instead, each one privily paid his
respects to Marpa, and subsequently all became his followers.
‘ A t about this time, Meton-Tsonpo, of Tsang-rong, came to
receive the Grand Initiation into the Demchog Mandala.1 My
Reverend Mother [my Guru's consort] thereupon spoke to me,
saying, “ Now is the time for thee also to try to get initiated.
Let us make the attempt.” I also thought that since I had suc­
ceeded in erecting such an edifice entirely single-handed, without
receiving so much as a piece of stone the size of a goat’s head,
a basketful of earth, a jugful of water, or a spadeful of clay in
the way of help from any one else, I surely must deserve some
consideration; and I felt quite sure that the Initiation would
now be bestowed on me. So, bowing down, I took my seat
among the candidates for initiation.
‘ Seeing me there, the Lama asked, 44Great Sorcerer, what
hast thou as the offering?” I replied, “ T h y Reverence
promised me that when I had completed the building of the
house for T h y Reverence’s son, I should be favoured with
initiation and instruction. So I hope T h y Reverence will now
be pleased to grant me the Initiation.” Upon this, the Lama
exclaimed, “ What presumption! What impertinence! Just
because thou hast put together a few cubits of inud-wall, I,
forsooth, must impart to thee the sacred lore which I obtained
from India only at much personal sacrifice and cost. If thou
can pay the initiation fees, well and good ; pay them ! If
thou can not, out thou walkest from this Mystic Circle.”
And he struck me, and, dragging me by the hair, flung me out.
Thereupon I wished that I were dead, or that I might die
there and then, upon the spot. I wept the whole of that night
4Then the Lama’s lady came to me, and said, 44The Lama
is beyond all comprehension. He sayeth that he hath brought
the Sacred Doctrine from India into this land for the benefit
of all sentient beings ; and, as a rule, he will teach, and preach
to, even a dog that may happen to come into his presence, and
1 That is, Initiation into the practical application o f such mystic doctrines as
are contained in the Demchog (Bde-mchTog : Skt. Shamvara) Tantra, which is
a part of the ve ry voluminous Kah-gyur or canon of Northern Buddhism.

wind up by praying for its welfare. Still, do not lose faith in
him.” Thus the good woman tried to cheer me.
‘ Next morning, the Lama himself came to me, and said,
“ Great Sorcerer, thou hadst better cease work on this house
thou hast under construction, and begin on another dwelling-
house of twelve pillars, having a hall-chamber and a chapel, to
serve as an annexe to the main edifice. When thou hast finished
this, I will surely give thee the Instructions.”
‘ Once more I laid the foundations of a building. A ll the
while the Lama’s lady continued to supply me with excellent
food and condiments daily, together with a little chhang; and
she consoled me and gave me good advice.
‘ A s the annexe was approaching completion, Tsurton-Wang-
gay, of Dol, came to receive the Great Initiation into the
Mandala of The Esoteric.1 Thereupon, the Lama’s lady said
to me, “ This time, at any rate, my son, we shall manage to
get thee initiated.” She provided me with a roll of butter,
a piece of blanket-cloth, and a small copper vessel, and told
me to go and take my seat among the shishyas who were
about to go and receive initiation. The Lama, noticing me,
said, “ Great Sorcerer, what hast thou as thine initiation fees
that thou takest thy seat in the ranks of the novices?”
I produced my roll of butter, blanket-cloth, and copper vessel,
and said that these should be mine offerings. To this the Lama
replied that these things already belonged to him, since they
had been brought as initiation fees by others ; that they would
not do, and that I must bring something belonging to myself
or else get out of the mystic circle of those to be initiated.
And, at this, he arose, seemingly in a furious temper, and drove
me out with blows from his foot, so that I wished I could sink
into the earth.

1 T e x t : Sang-dii, here refers to a ve ry abstruse and esoteric part of the in ­
struction given to candidates for Initiation into the O ccult Sciences of the
K argyutpa School. In other contexts, as on pp. 169, 287-8, 300, Sang-dii
(Gsang-’diis) is the Tibetan name o f a Tantric deity known in Sanskrit as
Guhya-kala, L iterally, Sang-dii means ‘ Esoteric ’ (or ‘ Hidden ’),w ith reference
to mystic insight conferred by the super-normal pow er o f Siddhi (lit. * A ccom ­
plishment The other classes o f such insight as a Siddha enjoys are known as
Cft’ir-Dii, meaning ‘ E x o teric1 (or 1 External ’ ), and Nang-Du, 1Internal

‘ Then the thought came to me, “ Seeing that I have caused
the death of so many people by means of sorcery, and destroyed
such a number of crops with storms of hail, all that I now am
suffering is the karmic result of those evil deeds. Or else,”
so I thought, “ the Lama must have perceived something in me
whereby he knew that I would not be able to receive and prac­
tise the Doctrine. Or, again,” I wondered, “ was it that the
Lama did not regard me personally with liking or esteem?
However it be,” so I thought within myself, “ without religion,
the life of man is not worth living ” ; and I began to make up
my mind to kill myself. A t this moment, the Lama’s lady
brought me her share of the offerings of consecrated food, and
communicated her sincere condolences. But I had lost all relish,
even for consecrated food, and wept on, the whole night through.
1 Next morning, the Lama himself came to me, and said,
“ Thou must complete both the buildings; then I will surely
give thee the Instructions and the Truths.”
‘ Going on with my building operations, I had almost com­
pleted the annexe, when another sore broke out on the small of
my back ; and, blood and matter pouring forth from all three
sores, my whole back soon became nothing but one big sore.
I showed it to my Reverend Mother; and, reminding her of
the Lama’s promise to give me instructions, I asked her to
plead for me with the Lama, so that he might be pleased to
vouchsafe me the Truths for which I thirsted. My Reverend
Mother looked attentively at my sores, and, shedding profuse
tears, promised to speak for me to the Lama.
‘ So she went to the Lama, and spoke thus: “ Great Sor­
cerer hath done so much building work that his hands and legs
are all cracked and bruised, and his back hath broken out into
three large sores, from which ooze blood and matter. I have
heard about sore-backed ponies and donkeys before this, and
seen some, too ; but never before have I heard of a sore-backed
human being, much less seen one. What a disgrace it will be
to thee if people come to hear of it! Thou who art such
a highly respected and honoured Lama, to be so cruel 1 Thou
shouldst have some mercy on the lad. Moreover, thou didst
promise to give him the Instruction he desireth so much, upon

his completing the building.” The Lama answered, “ I did,
indeed, say so ; I promised him that when the ten-storied
building should be finished I would give him the Instructions,
but where are the ten stories ? Hath he finished them yet ? ”
“ But” , urged my mediator, “ he hath built an annexe far exceed­
ing the ten-storied edifice in size.” “ ‘ Much talk, little work,’
as the proverb sayeth,” retorted the Lama. “ When he hath
completed the tenth story I will give him the Instructions—
and not till then. But is his back really broken out into sores ? ”
‘ “ O Reverend Father, thy being so despotic preventeth thy
seeing it. Otherwise thou couldst not but have noticed that
not only hath he a sore back, but that his whole back is nothing
else but one big sore.” This said in her severest manner, the
Lama’s lady hurried away from him. But the Lama called after
her, saying, “ Then let the lad come up to me.”
‘ Accordingly, I went in to see him, greatly hoping that I was
at last to be given the Instructions; but, instead, he only
ordered me to show him my sore back. Upon my doing so,
he looked at it very attentively, and said, “ This is nothing to
the trials and tribulations which were endured by my Lord
Saint Naropa. He had to undergo in his own body twelve
greater and twelve lesser trials, making twenty-four in all.
I myself did not spare my wealth or consider my body’s safety,
but, sacrificing both ungrudgingly, followed and served my
Teacher Naropa. If thou art really in search of the Truth, do
not boast so about thy services, but continue waiting patiently
and working steadily till thy building task is entirely finished.”
Once more my hopes were dashed to the ground.
‘ The Lama, then, putting his robe in the shape of a pad,
showed me how ponies and donkeys are padded when any of
them getteth a sore back, and advised me to do the same for m y­
self. When I asked him of what use a pad was when the whole
of the back was one sore, he coolly told me that it would
prevent the earth getting into the sore and making it worse;
and added that I was to go on carrying clay and stones.
1 Considering within myself that such was the wish of my
Guru, I felt that I must go on and do as commanded. I there­
fore took up my loads and carried them in front of me now, and
Sit 8 P

thus went about the work. The Lama, seeing what I was doing,
inwardly said, “ Worthy of praise is that noble shishya who un­
grudgingly obeyeth his G urus commands,” secretly shedding
tears of jo y at seeing my sincerity and my faith in him.
‘ A t length, as the sores grew more and more aggravated
and inflamed, I suffered so much pain from them that I was
unable any longer to go on working; and I asked the Lama’s
lady to plead for me again, that I might be given the Truths.
But even if this should be refused, I craved permission to rest
awhile until I should be able to resume the work. She did so,
but the Lama only said, “ Teaching or Instructions he cannot
have until he hath finished the buildings; but rest he may if
he be unable to work, since this cannot be helped. In any
case, let him do as much work as is possible for him to do."
Whereupon my Reverend Mother allowed me to rest and get
my sores healed.
‘ When they were partly cured, the Lama, making no men­
tion of Instructions whatever, said to me, “ Great Sorcerer, thou
hadst better resume thy building work and get on with it
quickly.” I was on the point of doing as bidden, when my
Reverend Mother said privily, “ Let us do something that will
make him give thee the Teachings.”
‘ After she and I had consulted together, we decided that
I should sally forth with all my worldly goods [my books and
so forth], together with a small bag of barley flour, tied on my
b a ck ; and that thereupon I should say to her, “ Oh, let me go,
let me g o ! ” at a spot on the road where I should be visible
[and audible] to the Lama from where he [habitually] sat.
This was to be by way of pretending that I was going away,
while she was to detain me, saying, “ Do not go away, do not
go aw ay; I will do mine utmost to get the Instructions for thee,”
* When this little play was thus enacted within the range of
the Lama’s eyes [and ears], he called, “ Damema (One Without
Egotism), what comedy is this ye two are acting?” His lady
replied, “ Great Sorcerer sayeth that he hath come from a far
distant country, trusting to obtain from thee, his Guru, a know­
ledge of the Saving Truths. However, instead of obtaining
them, he hath only incurred thy displeasure and procured him­

self a number of beatings. And now, fearing lest he die without
having learned the Truths, he wisheth to go elsewhere in quest
of them ; and I am assuring him that I will do mine utmost
to obtain the Truths for him, and am trying to detain him.”
“ I see,” said the L am a; and down he came from his seat,
and, giving me several blows, cried, “ When first thou didst
come to me, didst thou not offer me thine entire self— body,
speech, and mind ? Where dost thou wish to go now ? Thou
belongest to me altogether. If I liked, I could chop thy body
into a hundred b its; and no one could hinder me. And even
if thou do intend to go away, what business hast thou to carry
away flour from my house ? ” And with that, he knocked me
down on the ground, and gave me a violent beating; then he
took the bag of flour back into the house.
1 On this, I was pierced to the heart with grief, as great as
that of a mother who hath lost her only son. But, at the same
time, I was awed by the imperious dignity of the Lama, and
by the thought that the whole occurrence was the outcome of
my consultation with the Lama’s lady. I could do no other­
wise than return and lie down weeping. M y Reverend Mother
said it was evident that the Lama would not be moved to
grant my request for the Truths by any of our prayers, en­
treaties, stratagems, and the like. “ But rest assured,” she said,
“ he will surely grant them at last. Meanwhile, I will venture
to teach thee something.” And she kindly taught me the
method or system of meditation upon Dorje-Pa-mo,1 which
greatly appeased the yearning of my heart, albeit I did not
attain to the entire boon of “ The Realization of Know­
ledge ”.2 But for what I did receive I was very grateful indeed

1 T e x t: Rdorje-P’ag-mo (pron. Dorje-Pa-m o): Skt, Vajra- Varaftl, meaning
‘ Immutable (or Thunderbolt) S o w ’ , an Indian Goddess, w hose sow-form is a
mystic symbol. T h e Brahmanical conception of Varahi is contained in chapter
xxiii o f the Tantra-raja (see Tantrik Texts, ed. b y A. A valon , vol. x ii), and her
Dhyana (or w ay in which to meditate upon her) is contained in the English In­
troduction (p. 43) of the same volume. Sh e is described as Janakdttmka, that
is, she possesses the nature o f the Father (Jattaka). A ccording to Tibetan belief,
Dorje-P^mo is now incarnate in the Abbess o f the famous Sam-ding Monastery.
A s such, this Abbess is the only female incarnate deity in Tibet.
3 That is, the Realization o f the Truths, born o f practising them under a com­
petent Guru,

to my Reverend Mother. I went on with my building work. and another for her use when she should be roasting barley in the yard in front of the house. Gay-pa-Dorje). and thus to secure mine Emancipation. the Lama’s lady spoke to me saying. of Zhung. too. and. pondering the matter over again. to receive the Grand Initiation into the Mandala [or Rite] of Gaypa-Dorje. But. as well as in his unwearied perseverance in search of the Saving Truth. “ If the Reverend Father is still dissatisfied with the great devotion and obedience thou hast shown in building these houses single- handed. the Tibetan name o f a Tantric deity. Thus I resolved to do mine utmost to emulate Naropa in his severe trials and endurance. and. bringing valuable presents. such Truths as were received from her would help to wipe out mine evil deeds. she put in my hands a valuable turquoise. I began seriously to make up my mind to go and seek another Guru. I thought that as she was the wife of my Guru. then. of a deep blue shade. I came to the conclusion that as regardeth the Doctrine whereby I might obtain perfect Emancipation in this very life­ time. my present Guru was the only one possessing it. Offer him this. that. which was her own personal property. So I tried to show my grati­ tude to her by doing little services for her comfort. and offering it as mine initiation fee. and accompanied by a large retinue.Vajra. The Lama took the turquoise. I saw. ‘ About this time.1 ‘ Thereupon. I will add my prayers to thine. let us give him something in order to make sure of thy participating in this initiation ceremony at all events. H i. So minded. ‘ I went. ‘ Then came Ngogdun-Chudor. stacking stones and heaping up earth with which to make mud. So saying. took my seat among those who were going to participate in the ceremony. and must have some pecuniary offerings as his initia­ tion fee. and take the initiation. unless I obtained Emancipation in this lifetime. if he demur. . and also o f a series o f Tantras in eight volum es: Skt. * T e x t : Dgyts-pa-rdorje (pron. such as making a seat for her to sit on when she should be milking the cows in the summer time. the evil deeds which I had committed would be enough to cast me into one of the Hells. turning it over and over.

the Lama lost his temper. A t this. thou mayst bring it here. And ye. is mine. repeating. Permit me. “ Call Damema here.” Having finished. so I stayed on for a little time. So the turquoise was intended to serve as a provision for me in the event of our separation . of course. “ The Reverend Mother gave it to me.” But the Lama— the turquoise on his necklace now— only said. but simply rose and bowed down. shouted. how did we get this turquoise ? ” She prostrated herself several times before him and answered. Ngogdun and the others dared not say anything. at length said to me. it was feared that we might fall out. “ Reverend Father. and I was to keep it in secret as a piece of entirely private property. let it be as our Reverend Mother sayeth. the turquoise. too. Great Sorcerer. He hath suffered much agony of mind from having been turned out of the Sacred Circle several times already. Seeing that T h y Reverence was rather short-tempered. and said. [apparently] in fierce anger. ‘ Knowing the Lama’s short temper. Please accept this turquoise and grant him the Initiation. my sons.” When the Reverend Mother had come. This turquoise is mine own property.” He smiled. “ Great Sor­ cerer. then.and examining it carefully. it might have been lost altogether. But noting how eager this poor boy is to obtain the Doctrine. “ Yes. she again prostrated herself several times before the Lama. “ Damema. and I will bestow the Initiation upon thee. Ngogdun and ye others. Do not be silly. I request you. please! When thou thyself belongest altogether to me. if thou have any property of thine own. thy folly had very nearly lost me this valuable tur­ quoise . to pray that thou wilt have mercy on him. he said. in this. It is a special piece of private property given to me by my parents upon our marriage.” 1 Seeing that the Reverend Mother had made him an offering of the valuable turquoise. this turquoise is in no way our common property. how didst thou come by this turquoise ? ” I replied. to add your prayers to mine. “ Damema. “ Thou impertinent . I thought that perhaps he might be softened into allowing me to share in the Initiation . I could not help producing it and giving it to him. and rising.

I thought of the gold I had possessed at the time when I set out on my career of evil-doing. I will help thee myself with the necessary presents and means for thine expenses. by thy weeping. I jumped out of a window. even if I should . when I wished to set out on the path of righteous­ ness. he threw me down again on my back. He was next taking up his stick to beat me. which made the Lama anxious. after all. how I wished that I had but half of it now ! I should then be able to obtain Initiation and the Doctrine. but I was so grieved and hurt at heart that I resolved to kill myself. neglecting entirely her duty to be present and assist at the Lama’s evening devotions. thou should have to go and look for another Guru. in mine extreme terror. I saw that this Lama would never give me either. face downward. Oh.” Thus she sought to console me." Saying this. There cannot any­ where be a dearer or more faithful pupil than thyself. ‘ The leap did me no harm. I should always require to have something for a present. “ Great Sorcerer. exclaiming. I burst into tears. do not take it so much to heart. when Ngogdun intervened and caught him. with stunning force. a perfect whirlwind seemed tearing at its very roots. he felled me to the ground.fellow. But again my Reverend Mother came to me. whereupon he ordered me out. But without gold. Meanwhile. in the hope that he was now going to fulfil my dearest wishes. to blame me in this manner?” ‘ A s I came out. and I am pierced with remorse. bringing me solace. though he still pretended to be angry. I felt as if my heart were almost breaking. and deplored the fate which deprived me of it now. “ It did not shake my faith in thee. with great violence. I went. why dost thou not get out when I tell thee? What right hast thou to remain in my presence ? ” Thereupon. He asked me whether his refusal to initiate me the previous day had shaken my faith in him or inspired me with dislike. remaining with me and weeping throughout the entire night. for I considered that it was my great evil-doing which debarred me from sharing in the ceremony. If. ‘ N ext morning. picking me up. “ What reason hast thou. Then. and saying. the Lama summoned me into his presence. I answered.

Not possessing any worldly wealth. having failed to obtain the saving Doctrine. nothing could be done without it. I was over­ come by an intense longing to see her just once. so I collected a little barley- flour by begging. why dost thou not work at . it was past noon. and by remorse at mine ingratitude in thus leaving the kind lady without a word. for fear of incurring the Lama’s displeasure. all ready prepared for me by his lady— tasty. that in getting my food from the Lama I had been paid at least half my. What should I do ? Oh. But go I m ust! ‘ So. but. if thou can not read. go elsewhere to obtain the Doctrine. and cooked my food.wages for the work I had done for him. borrowed some vessels. I had worked such sad havoc among the folk of my district by my wickedness an^ my Black A r t ! One of two things. saving up my wages. and said. By the time I had eaten. It were better for me to end my life at once than to go on living without it. When I had gone about four or five miles on my way. I must go forth in search either of gold or of the Doctrine. if thou can read ? Or. what should I do ? Should I go and make myself the servant of some rich man and. ‘ As I was on my way to return the vessels I had borrowed. I set forth without even telling my Reverend Mother of mine intention. an old man stopped me. however. I should have to die unemancipated. And then reflecting on the trouble I had experienced in procuring just this one morning’s meal. gathered some fuel. and leaving behind the bag of flour. The thought then came to me. but was unable quite to make up my mind to do so. get together enough gold to pay mine initiation fees and to support me during the period of penance and meditation? Or should I go home and see my mother ? Perhaps I might get some money there somehow. taking my books. It was time for the morning meal. and comparing it with the rich living I had enjoyed at the Lama's house. then. steaming hot dishes every day— I thought myself very un­ grateful indeed in coming away without first bidding the kind lady farewell! I had half thoughts of going back. “ Dear me ! thou art quite a young man. why dost thou beg ? W hy dost thou not earn thy food by reading the Scriptures. must be done at once. able to w ork.

“ Very w ell. S ’erpayin'). or ‘ Transcendental W isdom '. As I compared my trials with those of the Arhant. “ bring back my destined pupil. Thereupon. The old man then said. . and I will pay thee handsomely. had sold the very flesh off his body for the Doctrine. Nothing can be dearer to a man than his own heart. too. Ch’os- non-pa).” I reflected. “ But even if he do not. telling him that I was not a professional beggar. and was soon en­ gaged in reading the abbreviated version of the Prajna-Para- m i t a in eight thousand verses. they seemed to dwindle away to nothing. Canst thou read or n o t? ” I replied.1 In the course of my reading. or Metaphysical Part o f the Southern Buddhist Canon known as the 7V*- Pitaka (or ‘ Three Baskets [of the L a w ] '). in twenty-one volumes. he wrapped up his head in his mantle. “ A t last. Reverend Father. Though the immediate consequence would be death.” This said. ‘ To return to what happened at the time I left the Lama. in which it was narrated that this Arhant. forms the third great division o f the Northern Buddhist Canon known as the Kah-gyur. yet even this he determined to sell. and remained silent for a long time. and that I was able to read.” * I was only too glad to accept the offer. and Guardian Spirits. that did not turn him from his purpose. thine implacable foe hath left thee. A rt thou satisfied now ? ” “ Whom dost thou mean ? ” he asked. And she replied. “ hath not my Reverend Mother promised to help me to find another Guru ? ” So back I went to him. “ O Gurus of the Kargyutpa Deities. I came to the history of an Arhant called Taktungoo (Ever- Weeping). and said. such as this mentioned in our text. and corresponds to the Abhidharma (Tib. at last. but could not repress a tear. she went to the Lama.” he exclaimed. the Lama might impart to me the teaching for which I longed. there are various epitomized versions o f it. O w ing to its great bulk in the original.something ? Thou wouldst earn thy food and a little money. being penniless. ‘ Upon my coming back and doing obeisance to the Lama's 1 The PrajfUi-Paramita (Tib. When the Lama’s lady perceived that I had really gone away. a hope sprang up in me that. come and stay in my house and read the Scriptures for me. “ Was it not poor Great Sorcerer whom thou didst treat as thy dead­ liest enemy ? ” The Lama frowned.

and said. and. the Lama spoke to me. and I feel sure that the Lama will not give me the Teachings. But if thou think otherwise— why. If I were sure of obtaining them when I had completed the building. He hath come back.” * I left the Lama’s presence without venturing to utter a word . in and do obeisance to thee ? ” “ Oh. that was the best thing thou couldst have done. hardly tallied with his refusing to give me even the least morsel of spiritual teaching. indeed. he shed tears and cried. favour thee with some teaching. I should be very content to go on and finish it. Now be gone . saying. So please Ml» Q .” Upon my entering where he was. “ Great Sorcerer. thou must be prepared to sacrifice life itself for it. and then thy wishes shall be granted. filled me with grave apprehen­ sions of more trouble. however. “ but thou mayst let him come in and pay his respects. “ Really. as excuses for not giving them to me. but for himself. I feel sure that I shall not get them. But I see very well that'the Lama will only raise one objection after another. I think the Lama will now. but I said to the lady : “ Reverend Mother. complete the three remaining stories of the building.1Let my destined and gifted pupil be brought b ack! ’ And I think thou hast been brought back by the grace of the Lama. first of all. she was greatly rejoiced. and thou canst go wherever thou wishest. for on mine informing him of thy departure. but his refusal to give me any teaching in the Doctrine himself. If he had. it is not out of love for us. May I give him permission to come. I have a great desire to see my mother once again. called me gifted. it would be something to rejoice o ver. for I judged that to wish me back and call me his gifted pupil.lady. even though I do complete the building. ‘ The Reverend Mother now went in and said to the Lama. or to allow me to go to any one else for it. “ O Reverend Father. I f thou be really in earnest to obtain the Doctrine.” said the Lama . and all that. thought to myself that the Reverend Mother was only saying this with a view to encouraging m e. do not be vacillating in tliine aims.” ‘ I. I am only throwing away food on th ee. at last. Great Sorcerer hath not been able to forsake us.

who filled his bowl with it again and again. “ Thou are quite right. And of the third brew. In one of his Hym ns (p. ‘ It seemeth that the great Pandit Naropa. I will do my best to arrange that thou receive the Teachings thou desirest from him. that the higher ideal & renunciation absolute— asceticism unqualified. but even tea. he having been plied so often with the over-strong brew fell sound asleep. 191. and so Marpa. I wish health and long life to you both.” ‘ I bowed down to her. These she strained. A s more fully explained in our Introduction. The second brew was served to the pupils. Marpa represents m erely a transitional develop­ ment in Tibetan Buddhism. Milarepa. being a scholar more than a saint. named Ngogdun-Chudor. Upon the occasion of this celebration of the holy day. had been in the habit of observing the tenth day of every month as a grand day of worship. I followed her example. not unlike that in connexion w ith libations and H oly Communion in other religion s. as it w as due w holly to a wom an’s artifice. drawing off the first brew into one vessel. Milarepa taught. not only those containing alcohol. when she-said. the lady herself sipped. had been fermented for the occasion. more thoroughgoing even than Tsong-khapa. following) he has put on record his opposition to the use o f all stimulating beverages. the Reform er of the Gelugpa. secondly.1 1 It should be noted here that this over-indulgence arises. became more or less affected. was accus­ tomed to do the same. I worked with a will for several days. from a ritualistic usage. or Established Church of Tibet. Stay here a little while longer. and that. the Lam a him self is not m orally responsible. A ll the rest of the pupils. she had the chhang from that vessel served to him by various assistants (among them both herself and me). Three large vessels. and. while he lived. A s for the Lama. who hath the same precepts and teachings as the L am a.” Delighted at the prospect of obtaining my wish. I have promised to find thee a Guru. W h ereas Marpa w as married and lived in the world. too.allow me to return home. however. H is illustrious successor. and that only a little. in the first instance. Now there is a pupil of the Lama. and escaped becoming affected. was a reformer. . the Reverend L ad y practised a stratagem at his expense after this fashion. each hold­ ing twenty measures of chhang. and for a few days act as if thou wert working. and was coming away. and illustrated by his own later life.

‘ Some two days after my departure. I did mine utmost to induce him to stay. which she had all ready. at a distance.” when I approached.” ‘ Meanwhile. to learn the Doctrine . The main purport of the letter was a command to Ngogdun to give the Great Sorcerer the Teachings.While he thus lay asleep. still thou wert not disposed to give him the Teachings. And she replied. in the Central Province of Tibet. and found Ngogdun— himself a Head Lama by this time— expounding the Double Analysis 1 to a large body of his pupils. and enclosing therein the garlands and the rosary as a gift from the Lama. “ Oh. She replied that I was probably on the road. Lama 1 T e x t : Tak-nyt. he was saying that though he had done so much work for thee. I pre­ ferred not to do so.” replied his lady. and I went to Ngogdun with full confidence in his ability to teach me the Saving Truths. and I am the Blissful One. prostrated myself. and. Then he said. a philosophical treatise somewhat like the Bhagavad-Gtta. I am the Hearer. she directed me to go to the aforementioned Ngogdun-Chudor and hand it to him. “ Yesterday. “ Where hath he gone. I had arrived at Riwo-Kyungding. and when ? ” asked the Lama. “ My pupil cannot have got very far away yet. . He was just dealing with the passage. but I could not hold him . but only scoldings and beatings. and I am the Devotee. Thus was I sent by her in the direction of the Central Province of Tibet. “ I am the Expounder and I am the Truth. the Lama’s face turned black as night. the Lama asked his lady what I was doing. his lady abstracted from his room certain articles. after wrapping it up in a costly scarf and sealing the letter with the Lam a’s seal. I am the Teacher of the World. For some time he sat silent. Then producing a letter in my Guru's name.” ‘ On this piece of news. I am the Being Who hath passed beyond all states of worldly existence. “ When did he leave ?" he asked. And as I should only have won him another beating by coming to tell thee of his intention. he left yesterday. so he would go and look for another Guru elsewhere. including Naropa’s garlands and rosary of rubies. but exactly where she was unable to say. The spot came to be known as Chag-tael-Kang (The Hill of Obeisance).

from this simple occurrence. taking off his hat. he was greatly delighted. and that I was Great Sorcerer. The person sent recognized me. returned my salutation. and offered the letter-packet and the reliques . ‘ When the man went back to Lama Ngogdun and told him these things. he broke off his exposition at the auspicious passage mentioned. rare are the occasions of enjoying such a favour as this. R ox. which he now read.” Thereupon. so much so that he exclaimed. “ Of a truth. Bacot's version (p. My humble monastery to be blessed and honoured by the presence within its doors of such precious and sacred reliques of our Great Teacher. He sent one of those about him to inquire who I was. and asked. that I should one day become a master of all religious lore. Then he put them in the holy of holies of his altar.Ngogdun. iao). indeed. Tears came from his eyes.) is said to blossom only upon the birth o f a Buddha in this w orld. observing that from my mode of salutation I seemed to be one of the pupils of Marpa the Translator. ‘ When I reached his dwelling. while various musical instruments were sounded in honour of the reliques I had brought. praying that grace might be vouchsafed him. that he predicted. I told him also that I had brought with me Naropa’s garlands and ruby rosary as a token from the Lama. and as Great Sorcerer is im­ 1 The Udumvara {Ficus Glomirata. Lama Marpa. and. this letter begins thus : ‘ To the Im­ mutable Ngogdun. ‘ The letter. a Follow ing M. upon receiv­ ing them. and sent some of the monks to fetch banners. taking off his hat. had sent me to attend the lectures here. being too busy to look after my private tuition. ran thus : 2 “ l a m just about to enter upon a close retreat. Naropa ! Such an occasion is as rare as the Udum- vara blossom. and he. and pendants. R ealizer o f Nirvdrta' In our version this address is lacking. I prostrated myself. . ceremonial umbrellas. was profoundly moved. and that the fact of mine arrival whilst he was expounding those particular stanzas seemed highly auspicious— so auspicious. “ What bringeth thee here ? ” I replied that our Guru.1 We must receive it with all the respect due to such a rare event. he put the reliques on the top of his head.

He said. at least. I send him to thee for the Initiation and Consecration. reaching the scene of my intended deed. And so I decided that I must go. If I refused^ I should be disobeying a Guru. I send thee herewith Naropa’s garlands and rosary of rubies. as ordered by the Lama. but on their way hither. they are stripped of the scanty store of gear with which they set out for this place in order to pursue their studies. he would surely give me the Initiation and the Consecration. Tagpo. indeed. Just as the hail-storm was about to burst. I should lose all opportunity of obtaining the Teachings. ‘ Accordingly. and. and Yarlung. Kongpo. I set forth. making me the means of wreaking vengeance by doing hurt to life and property. therefore. I authorize thee to do so . began to beat her breast and weep. of Dol. my hostess. but now that I was come myself. further. and here I was again being asked to work harm and do an evil deed. I could not bear to be so cruel . provided with the necessary ap* purtenances. through the depredations of those lawless folk. I took lodgings in the house of an old woman.” ‘ I now bitterly repented the fate that had put such an accursed power into my hands. and due to the Lama’s benediction and grace. or. it was very good. I had come here in search of the Saving Truth. in token. saying. Ngogdun said that. in the Yepo country.patient and eager to have the Teachings. grant him these. and.” ‘ Having finished reading the letter. in addition. as the lightnings flashed and the thunder growled and the first hail­ stones were about to fall. the old woman. one whom I in­ tended to take for my Guru— almost as heinous a sin as to refuse to obey an actual G uru. “ Alas ! What shall I have to live on if my crops are destroyed by the hail ? ” ‘ This was too much for me. When thou hast done this. “ I have a number of pupils who come from Kham. the Yepo and Yemo. Do thou. I there­ fore request thee to go and punish those lawless folk by launching a hail-storm upon their lands. that I had no choice. and teach him the Truths. He had been thinking of sending for me. whereof. I will bestow upon thee the Initiation and Consecration thou desirest.

this field— except for its protruding corner which had been flooded— escaped any hail-storm which visited that neighbourhood. that they became his devoted followers and faithfully served him. the erstwhile luxuriant fields utterly laid waste. I immediately covered the figure with an iron pan. the people of those two places were so profoundly impressed with the phenomenal power of Lama Ngogpa. all except the old woman’s field. (See p. at the same time describing a triangular figure with an elongated end. so that it escaped destruction. I met an old shepherd and his child who had lost their herds in the flood. I picked up some dead birds. had been devastated by wind. in my mind shielding it from the hail. at imminent risk to myself. and appealed to 1 A tax imposed on behalf o f the hail-exorcizing lamas. was devastated by a gust of wind. ‘ On my way back [to my new Guru]. I re* quested her quickly to draw me a plan of her field. protruding beyond the coveiing- pan. on going out to look at the country. and numbers of other birds. I saw the slopes above the valley all furrowed into ravines. And it is said that the old woman was thus exempted from payment of the hail-tax1 on all of the field save that corner. After this. Ever afterward. protruding beyond the covering-pan. so. 501. thus revealing to them who had caused the this poor old woman. enjoining them to refrain thenceforth from ill-treating or robbing Lama Ngog- pa’s 2 disciples or adherents. ‘ A s I came along the way. These I laid in a heap before Lama Ngogpa. and some rats. B y them I sent word to the people of the countryside. all except a tiny corner. until I had my cap and the lap of my robe full. was damaged by the hail and flooded with water. * When the storm was over. .) ' Lama Ngogpa (or the Lama living at Ngog) is a shortened form of the name Lama Ngogdun-Chudor. my field is like this. which I found dead on the road. which I found all by themselves under a bramble bush. But that corner of the field.” she cried in a despairing tone. corresponding to the corner of the plan which. “ Oh. on pain of being visited constantly by similar hail-storms. which was quite fresh and green. which.

the followers of Naropa and Maitrl. and so forth. leaving only a small aperture in the side. In a trice. for the passage of food and water. and made off to their several nests and holes. 4 Maitrl (‘ L o v e ’). and receive the Saving Doctrine from Milarepa. in future ages they shall have evolved to the state o f man. but have been compelled to heap up sin upon sin. * That is. but among Buddhists. ‘ Thereafter. I was initiated into the Mandala [or Rite] of Gaypa-Dorje. in part. as among Brahmins and Jains. Have pity on such a terrible sinner! ” and I burst into bitter tears.2 possess those Truths which can save the greatest of sinners in the twinkling of an eye— just as one single stone flung from a sling serveth to frighten a hundred birds simultaneously. Therefore. the precept ‘ Thou shalt not k ill’ applies to all living creatures. 6 It is the usual procedure for devotees of the K argyutpa School thus to en­ close themselves in a chosen retreat and remain there in solitary meditation for . be at ease. is an Indian Yogi.1 ‘ To this. and. I now perceived that the Lama himself was a Buddha. let me prove the truth of what I say. “ Be not despairing . by then. all the dead birds and rats [which I had collected] revived. thus. having made it habitable by the expenditure of a little labour. But if thou still doubt. 1081. then he snapped his fingers. 4 See p. I came here expecting to find the H oly Doctrine. I shall put forth my power so as to prevent their falling into Hell or [degenerating] into lower states of being. from which I could see my Guru*s residence.4 I had found a cave facing south. and these birds and beasts which have been killed on this occasion by the hail-storm shall be born again as thy foremost disciples when thou shalt attain to Buddhahood. it is only the taking o f human life which is considered to be w ro n g . who.” For a few moments. he sat silent with closed eyes.6 1 Am ong Christians. We. or Saint.him thus: “ O Reverend Teacher. A ll those sentient creatures. w ill have attained Buddha­ hood. there is no cause whatsoever for such abject fear. upon w hose doc­ trines the K argyiitpa S ect is. I shut myself up in it.3 T ill that time cometh. the Lama replied. like Naropa. How delightful I How blissful! I should have rejoiced had many more creatures enjoyed the privilege of dying on such an occasion. founded.

more than ever. 95). “ In this line of development there ought not to be. I replied that I had experienced nothing [of like nature]. * M y Guru had explained to me the methods of meditation. Lama Ngogpa was to come in person and assist both in the consecration [of the house] and the ceremony to be performed [at the same time] to celebrate the coming of age of Doday-Bum 2 [Marpa’s the period o f time prescribed by the Guru. and I persevered in their practice . such devotees have not once left their cell during long periods o f years. is also know n as D afm a-Doday. wrote to Lama Ngogpa requesting him to send him so many loads of small branches for the house.” ‘ I was a little alarmed at this encounter. or else he would not have sent the tokens and the letter. proceed with thy meditation. and there never hath been. I experienced no spiritual development. owing tam y not having obtained the assent of Marpa. my Guru came and asked me if I had had such and such an experience. any who have not within a very short time made fresh progress in spiritual development. anyway. * T h is is another name for Marpa’s son. but I went on practising meditation to the best of mine ability. Similar austerities. is the popular name . except when there hath been something standing directly in the way of it. Lama Marpa.1 The letter added. as above (on p. “ How is that ?” he asked. having had the remaining portion of his son’s residence completed. that upon the com­ pletion of the ornamental spires and the cornice. In some remarkable instances. ‘ One day. the Lama M arpa. ‘ About this time. Now. despite all the assiduity on the Guru's part. who. probably derived from the e x ­ ample of Oriental asceticism . but. but my courage failed me. their sustenance being passed in to them. 1 T he tops o f religious edifices and of dw ellings of lamas in Tibet are com­ monly fringed w ith tw igs placed flat with ends projecting and trimmed evenly w ith the line o f the w alls so as to form a sort of frieze. w ere practised by the early Christian yogis who dw elt in th e deserts of E gyp t and Palestine. Well. which here replaces Darma. and for a moment thought of confessing to the deception [I had practised]. and perseverance on mine own. B u m . was I impressed with the necessity of propitiating my Head Guru. What can it be here ? It cannot be that our Head Guru hath not given his assent to thine Initiation.

In the course of our talk.000 slokas. and to the abbreviated version o f the PrajHa-Pammita in 100. ‘ Lama Ngogpa came to the aperture of my cave and read me the letter. at the same time giving it to the man and helping him to tie it up in his waist-cloth. I was to remain in my retreat. However. It is no wonder thou dost not develop any of the signs. he again came to the aper­ ture of my c e ll. she asked what else thou wert doing there.” said Ngogpa.” Ngogpa then handed me a die made of clay. therefore. and that.” “ A h ! ” he said. “ The Lama himself did not give his consent. “ From the manner in which the Lama speaketh of thee. but his wife furnished me with the letter and the accompanying tokens. and charging him to deliver it safely into thy hands. H e is also called Doday- Bum at the end of Chapter VI I. “ Yes. be either an initiatory (or religious) appella­ tion or a name given to him upon his coming o f age. “ so we have been engaged in profitless work. m» R . cUpon the return of the carriers. with which I was directed hither. A s applied to Marpa’ s son. she set it down to thy having left this die behind. he ordereth thee to return. son]. and it requested that I should be brought back to him at the same time. Dost thou wish to go or not ? ” I prayed that I might be taken with him as his attendant. B u m may. He replied that the branches had been sent by carriers. Being told that thou didst always cling to solitude. “ our Lama’s lady asked the carriers what thou wert doing. who was also to have a distinction conferred upon him. I took it from his hand given to the first tw elve volumes o f the PraJHd-P a ra mita (see p. Thou surely must have known that it is vain to hope for spiritual growth without the Gurus hearty co-operation and approval. Being told that thou wert in retreat.” I replied. The letter also intimated that Lama Marpa had heard about my being with Lama Ngogpa. observing. n a 1). it would appear that thou hast not obtained his permission in regard to the bestowal of the Truths. I inquired whether any mention had been made of myself. whereupon we had a long conversation about our Guru's approaching ceremonial of consecrating the build­ ing and bestowing it upon his son. reference being made to me as a “ wicked person ” . until these had returned and the exact date of the festival was known.

which ran thus: “ Son. I threw the die on the ground with such force that it split asunder and revealed a small roll of paper wrapped up inside. Damema. Was it not meant to show that I was an object of contempt to her ? The thought was infuriating. after a few moments. plate.” This was such welcome news to me that I actually pranced up and down my little cave. The Lama himself collected everything he possessed for an offering. cloth. I picked this up and read its mes­ sage. and gave me a silk scarf as mine own personal offering to Lama Marpa. * Lama Ngogpa then came and said. and I did so with alacrity. His wife added to it a bag full of powdered cheese. turquoises. “ Brave Grand Sorcerer. When we had arrived at the foot of the hill. ‘ When he had left me. and. the thought occurred to me that I had never manifested any weakness for dice-playing in the lady's presence. and. But. Of the latter. and danced for very joy. silk. was unable to keep up with the rest of the herd. set out for Dowo-Lung [Marpa’s monas­ tery]. In a rage. prepare thyself for the journey ” . he drove off every sheep and goat in his possession. leaving behind but one lame old she-goat. I put it on my head. and to . so perforce. and I asked myself what she could mean by sending me a thing that had led to the im­ poverishment of some of mine ancestors. thy Guru is now disposed to bestow upon thee the necessary Initiation and Scriptures. He was kind enough to acknowledge the service I had rendered to him. Therefore come with Lama Ngogpa. on which Dowo-Loong stood. except what had been given him by Marpa himself. books. live stock. gold. which. and myself. on account of its lameness. and so on. had to be left behind. the Lama requested me to go in advance and inform Lama Marpa and Damema of his approach. together with his wife.reverentially. vessels. which was to serve as mine offering to Marpa’s lady. ‘ Then Lama Ngogpa. Everything else he possessed he was preparing to take with him as an offering to his Guru. I was taken with a desire to throw the die and play with it. reliques. These possessions consisted of images. and a large retinue. deeming that it had been hallowed by the touch of my Reverend Mother.

and bowed down before him.” ‘ Apparently bursting out in rage. and saluted her with reverence.” ‘ I left the Lama’s presence and went and told his lady what he had said. Only give me a little chhang and I will run back with it to him. I then informed her of the approach of Lama Ngogpa. Accord­ ingly. gold. “ Oh. re­ freshments to meet him on his approach.see if they would not send out some chhang for him. Ngogpa is a great man. he being seated facing the East. I presented the silk scarf to him. He turned his face to the W est Then I bowed down from the West. did so much as a lame bird come out to greet me or receive me ? And must I. books. turquoises. it cannot be. ‘ I then entered the dwelling and found Lama Marpa sitting in meditation on the topmost story of the house. as an offering to thee. go and receive Ngogpa just because he is bringing me a few straggling cattle ? No. he had better go back whence he came. I will go . and asked her to send some. but he turned round towards the South. and must be received in a befitting manner. and told me to go and pay my respects to Lama Marpa. “ Reverend G uru! Although out of displeasure thou refuse to accept mine obeisance. “ Lama Ngogpa doth not expect thee to go and meet him.” I said. on his way hither. I therefore pray that thou wilt be kind enough to send some chhang and refreshments out to him. “ thy Guru is very testy. Let us both go and meet him.” “ No. and said. He surely deserveth some suitable reception befitting his state. cattle. If that be what he expecteth. Then I spoke.” she said. She was delighted to see me. and such like. and to tell him of Lama Ngogpa’s approaching arrival. I presented her with the bag of cheese. I went up towards Marpa’s dwelling and there en­ countered his lady first. a great translator. Lama Ngogpa is coming here with all he possesseth of images. “ W h at! Who gave me a reception when I came plodding home with the load of the precious teachings on my back from India ? When I brought home the precious gems of the quintessence of all the four divisions of Buddhist Doctrine. the Lama snapped his fingers and shouted. who was inside.

May the benediction of that blessing here alight. Resteth the blessing of altruism and Emancipation. May the benediction of that blessing here alight. Deva. May the benediction of that blessing here alight. Marpa the Translator. and to witness the ceremony of consecrating the house which had been built for him. May the benediction of that blessing here alight. *On my spiritual sons and skishyas gathered here. ‘ On all pure deeds and actions. . Resteth the blessing of great merit or great punishment. May the benediction of that blessing here alight. Resteth the blessing of grace and favour . and Dakirii. she went out personally to re­ ceive Lama Ngogpa. far and near. and. ‘ On the short path-way of my Truths profound. *On Guru. ‘ On this. ‘ On good and evil spirits of this transient world. May the benediction of that blessing here alight. Resteth the blessing of charity and m erit. ‘ On all my lay-disciples. M ay the benediction of that blessing here alight. Resteth the blessing of unerringness . It ran as follow s: ‘ I supplicate the Gracious Guru. ‘ Now all the people of Lhobrak had assembled together to celebrate the coming of age of Marpa’s son. Darma-Doday. Resteth the blessing of learning deep. There was a general feast.and meet him/' she said . Resteth the blessing of staunch and true faith . and Lama Marpa raised his voice and sang the benedictory psalm as a blessing upon the congregation and the occasion. May the benediction of that blessing here alight. ‘ On myself. the glorious Sect of my Line. ordering some pupils to bring a generous quantity of ckhang. Resteth the blessing of stainlessness .

hath been brought hither as an offering to thee. I beg leave to announce to thee that everything I possess. however. the Truths contained in the scrolls of which thou speakest are attended by certain very strict conditions of the Guru’s requiring. Lama Ngogpa rose up and of­ fered his gifts .” This last require­ ment evoked hearty laughter from all present. without having to wait for count­ less ages. 6On these Lamas and these laymen gathered here. had to be left behind. which.” ‘ The assembly then broke up for the day . in turn. I do not need to say that all I have and am is thine. too lame and too old to keep up with the rest of the herd. thou hast already received them.” ‘ So saying. unless thou bring up the last she- goat. I. the scrolls containing those [Esoteric] Truths that are to be whispered in the ear only. the short method of attaining Enlightenment by treading the Immu­ table (or Infallible) Path. and.’ ‘ When Marpa had ended. So. have to inform thee that the Truths and Scriptures I pos­ sess are among the rarest and most efficacious. thine ever devoted shishya. above all. and. But there is more . despite all her lameness and old age. or Vajra-Yana. therefore. “ Well. Resteth the blessing of gladness and good wishes . They belong mostly to that class of Truths called the ‘ Short-Cut of the Im­ mutable Path V by means of which it is possible to attain to Nirvana in this very lifetime. if thou go thyself and fetch it. . Such are the surpassing virtues of these Truths. the Most Precious Initiations and the Deepest Mystic Truths. who now spoke as follows. thine acquisition of that Scripture will be a matter of some difficulty. when the old she-goat were brought up. “ Y e s . he prostrated himself before the well-pleased Marpa. he would be given the Scripture he desired. if this be so. A s for the others. May the benediction of that blessing here alight. T o this Marpa replied. next morn- 1 That is. save one lame old she-goat. after which he addressed Marpa in the follow­ ing words : “ Precious and Reverend Guru. but Lama Ngogpa gravely asked if. On this present occasion. in return for which I pray that thou wilt confer upon me.

‘ A t that. as he spoke. who hast been doing . and. Marpa jumped up abruptly from his seat and made towards his wife apparently with intent to belabour her with the staff. Lama Marpa sat. what explanation hast thou to give in the matter of thy having conferred Initiation and the Truths upon this wicked person. ( Lama Ngogpa was terrified. with a long staff by his side. pointing at him with his finger. said. he kept casting glances at the stick. “ Precious G uru” he stam­ mered. and asked. he offered it to Marpa. and I obeyed Thy Reverence’s com­ mand. and was in such a state of terror that I could scarcely articulate. Thopaga ? ” And. mg. In this I have nothing with which to reproach m yself. and. I faltered out that the Lady Mother had given them to me. who. I only made requisition for it in order to illustrate the greatness and value of religious truths. looking with fierce eyes at Lama Ngogpa. Shd now ran into the chapel and shut the door. much pleased. Lama Ngogpa set forth by himself to get the lame she- goat . ‘ One day [later on]. After a time. Ngogdun-Chudot. who was one of those present. A ll trembling. “ A really devoted and faithful fol­ lower of the Mystic Truths should be like thyself. “ T h y Reverence enjoined me under thine own hand and seal to initiate ThOpaga. during a feast given to some of his dis­ ciples from the most distant parts and to the members of his own family. The Lama made several at­ tempts to open it. Thy Reverence sent Naropa’s garlands and rosary of rubies as a token of its genuineness. so be pleased to abate Thy Reverence’s displeasure with me. “ Ngogdun Chudor. failing. calling out. apprehensive of such a thing. “ Where didst thou get these things ? ” By this time I felt as if my heart were being torn out of my body. he said. came back and resumed his seat. but. had risen and moved herself some distance from him. I have truly little use for a lame old she-goat.” He then promised Lama Ngogpa that he would ini­ tiate him into various Mystic Truths and Mandalas. a short time after. he kept looking round about uneasily. But she. ‘ Marpa then turned his angry finger on me. did so. bringing it on his own back.” A s he spoke. Along with the letter. “ Thou.

the Goal to which it leads may be realized in the highest ot the Paradise Realms. “ On account of my much evil-doing. The Kal&rnava Tantra is very emphatic about the necessity of preserving one’s life. Day by day I am only heaping up one great sin upon another. It is here in this world that the Path to Buddhahood must first be entered upon. intending to commit suicide on the spot. . and makes any person who attempts suicide subject to punishment and to purification by expiatory rites (Prayash-chitta). but Lama Ngogpa. caught hold of me and said. I. If our Guru refuse to be gracious to thee. I have lost all hope of obtaining the Doctrine in this life. There is no greater sin than 1 Birth as a well-endowed human being is. it cannot be entered upon in any o f the after-death states.® If we presume to close their present career before their natural period [of dissolution]. where I sat weeping .1 and be a birth in which I shall have the oppor­ tunity to obtain the Truths. which is the essence and ultimate meaning of the Blessed Con­ queror’s injunctions. Atal Bihari Ghosh. and retired immediately to get the articles required. and must face the due punishment for the same. which will be painful to us both. declareth that all our various bodily prin­ ciples and faculties are divine. bursting into tears. although once sufficient progress has been made upon it here. A ll I ask of thee is that by thy grace thou procure that my next birth shall be among [well-endowed] human beings.something thou wert not asked to do. but I involve thee and my Reverend Mother in a share o f my troubles. ‘ Lama Ngogpa bowed. having run out of Marpa’s presence at the same time as the lady. I command thee to go and bring me Naropa’s garlands and rosary instantly. he wrapped up his head in his mantle. regarded as afford­ ing the supreme opportunity o f reaching Enlightenment. “ Brave Grand Sorcerer. saw him from a corner. Remain here for the present. It is much better that I cut short this life. and so remained. not only do I myself suffer. I will then do what lieth in my power to help thee ? ” ‘ Then I rejoined. 1 ‘ Brahmanism also teaches this. “ If I take thee again without the Guru's express command. A s soon as he came out.’ — Sj.” ‘ I turned away. by all Buddhists. do not so ! Our Mystic Doctrine. the outcome will only be a similar scene. and I prayed him to take me with him.” This said. we incur the guilt of killing the divine in ourselves. But he said.

none present was able to withhold tears of sympathy with the narrator.suicide. our Guru may still be pleased tacon­ fer the Truths upon thee.’ A t the hearing of this narration. In the Sutras. But either my heart was made of iron. . It was because of my having committed such terribly wicked deeds in the earlier part of my life. which treateth of his chastening and his purification from sin by means of trials and tribulations.” ‘ Thus did Ngogpa seek to comfort me. and some sitting down by me and trying to bring me solace. and some there were who even swooned away with excess of emotion. After all. both bodily and mental. even if he do not. suicide is spoken of as a most heinous sin. But. Other of the dis­ ciples also sympathized with me. This is the story of the Second Meritorious A ct of Milarepa. and abandon all thought of self-slaughter. too. some running in to see if Marpa were yet in a mood to be addressed with safety. so acute were my sufferings. that now I had to suffer such excruciating and indescribable tortures at the very outset of my search for a Faith and Doctrine to emancipate me. or else the time had come for it to break. Understand this well. there will surely be found some one who will give thee them.

he started forth .” said I. so go and call them. were running up and down. Now I pity my pupils. “ Where are Ngogdun Chudor.” And the oc­ currence was fully related to Marpa. o f Jetsiin s Initiation . just as he came out. “ Formerly he would have been right. his eyes were filled with tears. he next inquired. “ Now let Damema be requested to come here. “ I am debarred from the Guru's presence even when he is mild. and told him. and the other pupils ? ” Some one said. After a while. 3419 S .” And then I wept bitterly. for my very presence irritateth him and procureth me only his displeasure and beatings. and under what circumstances. adding. Marpa recovered from his sulking and became quite mild. but to-day it shall not be so.” Somebody having gone for her. Lama Ngogpa stayed with me. He said. Lama Marpa had favoured him afterward. “ If I do not remain here. and he said. this desperate person may do something rash. “ Now our Lama hath become mild. “ A s for poor miserable me. and requested the same pupil to go and relate my case to the Guru and to find out whether I might be allowed to approach him. and he hath sent me to call thee. and he hath turned out exactly what is wanted. and o f Marpa's Predictions concerningJetsiin. “ T h y Reverence having commanded Ngogdun to go and fetch Naropa’s garlands and the rosary. A t this. he is even now engaged in consoling him.” ‘ The pupil went up and represented matters to Lama Marpa. and asked him how. The chief guest now is to be Great Sorcerer. “ It is necessary for disciples of the Mystic Truths to be so . TH E IN IT IA T IO N Telling o f the Completion o f Jetsiin s Probation. and envied the happy lot of those fortunate beings who enjoyed the Gurus grace and favour. as I have said. who said.” I thereupon deplored my luckless condition. A g a i n Rechung addressed Jetsiin. but. meeting Great Sorcerer. Jetsiin continued: ‘ The other pupils.” ‘ One of the pupils went to Lama Ngogpa.

in whatever form it may appear. and. in accordance with it. Lama Marpa said. Therefore was I angered . as I. Should there be any one amongst you who are seated here. should have done. I would. although my anger recoiled on me like a wave of water. I think thy Guru is going to favour thee. A s for Damema.” She came. as thou hast thyself said. go thou and invite him. [bound by duty]. Now rejoice and let us go in. I caused him to build the edifices single-handed. Having taken my seat. and. conferred the Initiation and the Sacred Truths upon Great Sorcerer. hence I was not to blame. Religious anger is a thing ap art. and that I was to go and call thee. I was thus deprived of the chance of filling Great Sorcerer with despair. So who could blame her for furnishing him with the forged letter. who seemed so willing. could not bear to see me ill-treat poor Great Sorcerer. and went in rather diffidently. I take it to be a sign of an entire change on his part in thy favour. and the accompanying tokens. request thee to bring the reliques back for the present occasion. although it was a rather serious thing to do ? A s for thee. Wishing that Great Sorcerer might be absolved from his sins. for he said just now that thou wert to be the chief guest. why I could have got on much better by coaxing and by gentle means than otherwise. He was not angry with me either. it hath the same object— to excite repentance and thereby to contribute to the spiritual development o f the person. Great Sorcerer. obedient. who. Ngogdun-Chudor. Had it been for my selfish purpose. and patient. no one seemeth to deserve blame. thou art quite right in trying to obtain Religious Truths by every possible means. however. Had I had the chance of plunging this spiritual son of mine nine times into utter .Damema. and said. not understanding the religious motive. “ Great Sorcerer. A s for thee. feeleth shocked at these things.” * I was still doubtful. all smiles. yet it was not like vulgar worldly anger. at last. “ When we come to think well over matters. she being a woman. Not having heard of the dispatch of the forged letter to Ngog­ dun. but they shall be restored to thee. I exhort him not to be shaken in his faith and belief. who had. and possessing a more than usual share of maternal sympathy and pity. thou art not to blame.

He would thus not have been required to be born again. and in this happy mood all partook of the sacrificial cakes. I wished the dream to continue. . and shed tears. If dream­ ing. is due to Damema’s ill-timed pity and narrow under­ standing. A ll were beaming with smiles and laugh­ ter. I myself will provide him with food while he is in retreat. his physical body being forever dissolved . I wept from very delight. and that he will still retain a small portion of his de­ merits. my dress being changed [for the priestly robe]. offerings were laid on the altar.” ‘ I was not sure whether I was awake or dreaming. and Mother Damema. That it will not be so. Marpa said that in the dream-vision which he had had. which will purify him from minor sins. They recognized him to be a Buddha Himself.1 Henceforth rejoice. and again rose up and bowed down in gratitude for the kindness shown to me. or his mercy and kindness in undertaking the care of me. he would have attained Nirvana. he would have been cleansed thoroughly of all his sins. and he hath suffered many minor chastenings. did not know which to admire most in my Guru— his sternness and inflexibility while chastening me. and. 1 See p. at the very beginning. but would have disappeared totally. his Guru Naropa had given me. and with mine own hands will enclose him in the place of meditation. However. and that I should not awake. he hath been subjected to eight deep tribulations. ‘ That very night. such was mine inexpressible joy. the name Mila-Dorje-Gyaltsen (Mila. They regarded him with affection. It was upon this occasion that Lama Ngogpa. along with the others assembled there. Diamond Banner). and I was ordained a priest. I was required to observe the vow of a Ge-nyen (lay-brother) and enjoined to follow the vows of those who aspire to be Teaching Buddhas [or Bodhisattvas].despair. and were strongly confirmed in their faith and belief. in the presence of the assembly. my hair was cropped. and made obeisance. or his wisdom and sagacity in all his deeds. 119s. Now I am going to care for him and give him those Teachings and Initiations which I hold as dear as mine own heart. which have cleansed him of the heavier sins.

as though they w ere in the ethereal spaces directly over­ shadow ing the mandala on the Earth. gave me the remainder. Siddhas (or Vajts) possessed of clairvoyant vision say that when the invocation is properly per­ formed. partaking of it himself. vol. renunciation o f all sangsaric existence. by a highly developed human Guru. which invariably suggests the chief spiritual qualities o f the neophyte receiving it. which will tend to ripen the seeds of the Mystic Truths that shall be sown in thy heart. My Guru said. Swami Vivekananda. the Guru transfers spiritual pow er to the Shishya directly. which I drank entirely. “ It is a good omen.2 and proceeded to explain it.3 Then. com­ monly of different colours. or M a n ila . the neophyte at once becoming affected with divine vision and ecstatic joy. usually by intoning their secret mantra. Tantrik Texts. with his finger. the Deities appear. “ Look. The degree of competency of the candidate determines the degree o f the Initiation. Thus by the Vedha-Diksha. a special place within the diagram being assigned to each of them. ‘ When Marpa blessed the wine of the Inner Offering. or on the bare rock or earth. symbolizing the impermanence o f man’ s life on Earth. each in the place assigned in the Mandala. and. Avalon) refers to various kinds of Initiation (Diksha). Thence come the mystic regeneration and the true baptism in the fire o f the spirit. if the initiation be in a temple or house. also. T h e Kularnava Tantra (see Tantrik Texts. he pointed to the firmament above. xiv. he worshipped his Masters and Tutelary Deities. Then the Deities are invoked. vii (London. 1919). by A . cither on a floor. It is said that in this w ay R&ma-Kfishna Paramahangsa initiated his chief disciple. 3 This. and then. With the sacrificial wine. 1The C h ief o f Happiness See the late Lama K azi Dawa-Samdup’s trans­ lation o f the Demchog Tantra. ed. is a geometrical diagram outlined with dust or sand. Although the wine-offering of mine Inner Worship is superior to the Rite of Complete Initiation of any other sect. for the reception of the sixty-two principal deities invoked in the ritual of the god Demchog (Skt. he beholds various psychic centres. as indicated. . ch. yet will I also give thee to-morrow morning the Complete Initiation [of our Sect]. and the conferring of the new name.” * Then he erected the Demchog Mandala of sixty-two Deities. He pointed to the dust-painted ground plan of the Mandala and said that it was called the symbolical and figurative diagram. and said. those are called the Mandala of the Actual Realities. if the initiation be in a cave or in the open air. vol. every one saw a rainbow-like halo emitted from the skull-cup1 which contained the wine. Milarepa’s initiation being o f the most exalted character. * That is. Sharn- vara). and the Deities invoked. he prepared the Magic Circle. edited by Arthur Avalon. and make the Mystic Initiation very real and effective psychically.” 1 A ceremonial cup made o f a human skull. v.

137).uniting their voice with the voice of my Guru. conferred upon me the initiatory name of Pal- Zhadpa-Dorje(G\ot\o\xs Full-Blown Immutable One. in his Version (p. predicted that the Guardian Deity of thy Teaching would be a Ddkini. ‘ My Guru next gave me free permission to go through the [Mantrayanic] Tantras. Bearer of the Mystic Sym bol3) : Skt. and thy ploughing up the field entirely. predicted that thou wouldst be a worthy shishya. ‘ The Chief of H appiness’. My Damema had a similar dream. the Twenty-Four Holy Places. . and of similar Tantias of the Mantrayanic School. showing the temple to be guarded by a female. he said. I knew thee to be a worthy shishya from the very first. “ My son. and of their methods and systems in full.Vikasita (Hasita) Vajra. 8 This rendering of the Initiatory Name follows that by M. Such being the case. In addition. in one grand chorus. another name of Demchog (Bde-mch’og). 4 The Initiation being a Complete Initiation into the Ditnchog Mandala. there are expounded tit him various complementary treatises of an occult character concerning yogic systems of meditation. I really had gone to meet thee. Bacot. which corroborated mine. Thus thou art a shishya whom my Guru and my Guardian Goddess have given me as a boon. He also gave me detailed explanations of various works on meditation [or Yoga]. The vessel’s 1 See p. on the pretence of ploughing my field. placing his hand upon the crown of my head. is given to M ilarepa. also. there] I beheld. Pal-Khor-lo-Dom pa). the Thirty-Two Places of Pilgrimage. 1 T e x t : Dpal-hkhor-lo-sdompa (pron. i. the Eight Great Places of Cremation.4 Then. both our dreams. the underlying esoteric interpretation o f the very profound Demchog Tantra. The Deities.371). Shatnvara. and. 36s concerning these various places o f special sanctity. Furthermore. one of the Tutelary Deities o f the Kargyutpa S e c t : Skt. or W ords o f Pow er (see p. Shrl. who would imbibe the whole of the Spiritual Truths which I had to impart to thee. Thy drinking up all the chhang which I there gave thee. ‘ [And lo. I had a dream which predicted that thou wouldst be one who would serve the Cause of Buddhism very efficiently.1 and Demchog. Above all.2 with all the Deities inhabiting these different Holy Places seated round about him. the Secret Mantras.e. thine offer of the four-handled copper vessel predicted my having four famous disciples. The night before thine arrival here. very distinctly.

and the Square. too. The houses themselves symbolize the nature of the four types of action. namely.’ J The geometrical forms of the four structures are also symbolical. To this end are necessary the various yogic processes prescribed for purifying the body (Skt. . and all practising hermits of the Kargyutpa Sect are enjoined by their Guru to become proficient in acquiring it. so that it becomes “ beyond contraries” (Skt. is preparatory to Raja-Yoga. by turning thee out ignominiously. shalt 1 This is a peculiar bodily wannth acquired b y yogic control of the breathing process and the vital forces o f the body. fuel o f all sorts. And it was with a view to cleansing thee from thy sins that I had thee to work so hard upon the four houses. and that thy body would gain complete control over the Vital Warmth. and all similar mental o f intellectual and psychic opposites becoming undifferentiated to him. Pranayama'). pleasure and pain.being quite devoid of any dirt predicted thine entire freedom from worldly passions. the yogi becomes Dvandvafita in a higher sense— praise and blame. the various bodily postures (Skt. th u s: the Circle symbolizes the Element W a te r. and the Vital W armth is a very necessary acquirement for yogis in hermitage there. the peaceful. the Triangle. and through Raja. which. following. respectively. and the stern. along with other translations o f Tibetan texts on Yoga. w here Milarepa passed his life. Asana and Mudra) and control of the breathing (Skt. Under Hatha-Yoga is classified Mantra-Yoga. the Element Fire .2 I purposely wanted to fill thy heart with bitter repentance and sorrow.Yoga. verging on despair. w hereby the yogi becomes immune to coldness.1 The offering of thy vessel empty. I filled thy vessel with melted butter for altar-lamps. Atal Bihari Ghosh has added here the following : ‘ Before the shishya can practise yoga in its highest form. And thou. dampness and dryness. forms part of the practice. With a view to making thy name famous. the Element A ir . is rare and c o stly . But so that thou mightest enjoy plenty in thine old age. the fascinating. as known to Europeans. which he worked out in collaboration with the late Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup. each house representing one of the four. In the high snow y altitudes of Tibet. and that thy followers and disciples might be filled with the Elixir of Spiritual Truths. T h e Editor possesses an English version o f the process. predicted that when thou meditatest hereafter thou wilt suffer from want. he must perfect his material body by means of Hatha-Yoga. the Element Earth.) Sj. Dhauti-Shodhana). for having borne all those trials with patience and meekness. Dvan- dvatita)— heat and cold. without the least change in thy faith in me. I rang the handle rings as loudly as possible. D eep breathing. 1442. and which he anticipates publishing. the Crescent. The Gheranda-Sanghita and the Hathayoga-Pradipika describe Hatha-Yoga as the staircase leading to Raja*Yoga. (See p. for producing fire. and all similar physical opposites. in Raja-Yoga. the powerful.

They shall be devoid of carnal and worldly longings. patient. as the result* disciples full of faith. and this Hierarchy of the Kargyutpa Sect be rendered as eminent and conspicuous as the waxing moon. and kind compassion. and that my happy days began. and glad­ dened me.’ . intelligence. energy. they shall be blessed with Realization of Wisdom. so that every one of them shall be a perfect Lama.” ‘ Thus it was that my Guru encouraged. hard}'. ‘ This is the Third [Meritorious] A c t— the A ct of mine obtaining the anxiously sought Initiation and Truth. endowed from the first with the qualifica­ tions essential to worthy shiskyas. and painstaking in the time of their meditation. Therefore rejoice. and be filled with grace and truth. praised.have. Lastly.

o f Jetsun’s Prophetic Dream and its Interpretation by Marpa . I was bound to go. the Guru’s lady came up. and asked me. were it night or day. Thou knowest that the Profound Mystic Omens are very important. the Lama’s temper is quite short. She replied. and was delaying a little. " My son. but. bringing food for the purpose of holding a religious feast. without the [meditation] cushion losing warmth.” ‘ I did not much care about relaxing my meditation. didst thou set off at once to the wild solitudes after receiving the Truths.” With that she pulled it down. as well as to recount to me what thou hast experienced.'11 answered. of Marpa!s Last Journey to India . though it seemed to be a pity to have to do so. Besides. or didst thou con­ tinue to live with thy Guru ? ’ And Jetsiin made reply. ‘ My Guru commanded that I should continue there. and should there occur any bad omens through this delay. * Master. “ Son. I proceeded to demolish the wall. Eleven months went by. with an ample supply of provisions. The Guru said. There I used to sit in a rigid pos­ ture. which he did most liberally. R E C H U N G then asked. art thou coming ? ” “ I feel reluctant to pull down the wall. with a lighted lamp on my head. So I will help thee to pull down the wall and to come out quickly. it is very creditable that thou shouldst be able to meditate for eleven months. “ Oh. Then my Guru and his lady came to see me. and I retired to meditate in a rock-cave called Lhobrak-Tak-nya. Now thou mayst pull down the wall [enclosing thee]. and come to thine old father for a little rest. never mind that. and o f Marpa s special charge to each o f his Four Chief Disciples. 1 The w all b y which Milarepa w as enclosed in his place of meditation w as . Thereupon. it will never do. 1 and I went out feeling altogether lost.Telling o f the Fruits o f Jetsun’s Meditation and Study. seeing that my Guru had thus commanded. without moving till the light went out. saying that he would supply me with food and other necessities.

Y et It prevadeth all objects of knowledge. and therefore not difficult to pull down. what insight. Obeisance to the Immutable. present. he asked. audible yet inseparable from the Voidness. “ Take thy time and recount them to me. But to those of T h y followers who have been purified. 1 See p. “ M y son. and what understanding hast thou obtained ? ” And he added. and joining the palms of my hands. extem­ poraneously sang to my Guru a hymn of praise. 4 ' “ In the Holy Palace of the Pure and Spiritual Realms. with deep and sincere humility. while we were eating the meal. Damema. 0 Great Mother Damema. I knelt. Thou Mother Divine of Buddhas. Thou preachest the H oly Truths to each in his own speech. Thou. do thou. prepare food.1 There existeth not shadow of thing or concept. with tears in mine eyes. what beliefs or convictions hast thou arrived at regarding these T ruth s. Thou Person illusory. father and son. Obeisance to T h y Word. Complete in their eighty-four thousand subjects. a loose structure made of rough stones held together w ith mud. and future. Eternal Mind. offering him the sevenfold worship— as a prelude to submitting the narrative of mine experiences and convictions: 1 ‘ “ To the impure eyes of them Thou seekest to liberate. what experiences. s«» t . ‘ My Guru said. yet changeless and selfless. 3 ‘ "In the Heavenly Radiance of Dharma-Kaya Mind. Thou manifestest Thyself in a variety of shapes. Lord. “ While we two. to T h y Feet I bow down. past. appearest as a Perfected B ein g. endowed with the sixty vocal perfections. 2 ‘ “ With T h y Brahma-like voice.” Then. 36s. shall be occupied in some rituals connected with this Meditation." ‘ Upon this. obeisance to Thee.

5 ‘ “ [O Guru]. which keep the W heel o f Birth and Death revolving. Until the Whirling Pool of Being emptied be. Out of the unchanging State of Quiescence of Eternal Truth. I rejoice. Vajra-Dhara . and thine offspring. that the One R eality is beyond all conditioned states of being. I then continued: “ Inseparable from Dorje-Chang1 Himself art thou. to T h y children spiritual. and even in heavens— is illusory and undesirable. with all his followers. Skt. 6 “ Whate’er there be. To T h y disciples who T h y word obey. beyond the realm of things. as a prelude. of sensation. which I now beg to lay before thee. Obeisance humble and sincere I make. and of the power of the waves of grace proceeding from thy boundless generosity. I pray. that it is the Unbecome. along with mine own fleshly form. ‘ “ I dedicate all merit from this Hymn. O Noble Guru. I. from the world depart. with thy consort. (3) Sangskara (Mental A ctivity). Unborn. I offer unto Thee. Do not. T o each. Unto the Cause of Universal Good. U n­ formed— Nirvana . ‘ “ I have understood this body of mine to be the product of Ignorance. have imbibed a little knowledge. To serve as offerings for the rites divine. beyond N a tu re. due to non-realization that sangsaric existence— in worlds. * These are the tw elve interconnected causes. 7 : “ In merits earned by others.” ‘ Having.a composed of 1 O r. In virtue of thy fair and meritorious deeds. Then come their Present E ffects: (3) VijM na (Mundane Consciousness) within . be pleased to listen unto me for a little while. io. may I be freed and purified. as taught by Buddhism. my Guru. hells. arising from the Ignorance. and of thy kindness beyond repayment. Unmade. in the sphere of understanding. see pp. So set the Wheel of Truth in motion full. Of all my sins. sung this hymn of seven stanzas. First there arc the Past C a u ses: (1) Avidya (Ignorance). 39®. in all the systems of the many worlds. thy vassal. as set forth in the Twelve Nidanas.


1933. London. p. the source of all pains and the Sangsara. and the Slave set free in Nirvanic Bliss. A . is broken. 110. lit up by the perceptive power of conscious­ ness. in mature and married life. 1895. Here. by name (Nama) and form (R iipa). It is by treading the Noble Eightfold Path (as described on p. but to those unfortunate ones. derived from the pictorial W h eel of Life.flesh and blood. it may be the great vessel by means of which they may procure Freedom and Endowments . and both are here given in order to help the student to grasp the inner significance of one o f the most essential doctrines o f all Schools of Buddhism. (4) Nama-Riipa (Self-Consciousness). (8) Trishna (Desire). (10) Bhava (Fuller Life).) These tw o aspects are complementary to one another. wherein each of us must decide. Our present time is a most precious time. as developed in the grow ing child . W addell. (a ) Sattgskara (Conformations). developed as a result o f the sensations thus experienced . 1409. These are linked w ith Present C au ses: (8) Trishna (Desire) for sangsaric sensation . 53-6. (7) Vedana (Feeling). and (12) Jara-marana (Old A ge and Death). The Earl o f Ronaldshay. O powerful Lord and Saviour of sentient beings like myself. (Cf. by holding on to Thee. (3) Vijnana (Consciousness). the first o f the Nidanas. in one way or the other. as found in Tibetan monastic art. the exercise by the youth of the sense organs . (9) Upadana (Indulgence) o f the desire. or T w elve Links of the Chain of Causal Nexus. A nd it is this Supreme Goal which Milarepa is believed to have won. as in the state of passing from death to rebirth . I hope to cross over this Ocean of Worldly Existence. (5) Shadayatana (Sixfold Organ) o f the sangsaric body. (5) Shadayatana . Lands o f the Thunderbolt.. at b ir th . as personality develops and makes distinction between self and others. (11) J a ti (Birth) of h eir. (6) Sparsha (Contact. London. with means o f obtaining an h eir. Thence the W h eel turns until out o f death there come another rebirth. our life. Sense- Surfaces and Understanding) in the outside world.) Another aspect. To those fortunate ones who long for Emancipation. Finally. there result the Future Effects o f these ten nidanas: ( ir ) J a ti (Birth) . who only sin. to Nature. leading to (6) Sparsha (Contact) and (7) Vedana (Sensation). This is one aspect of the T w elve Nidanas. all karmic necessity for further birth and death forever ended. The Buddhism o f Tibet. is the boundary-mark whence one may take an upward or downward path. it may be the guide to the lower and miserable states of existence. may be outlined as follows : (1) Avidyd (Unconscious W ill). This. (Cf. I have understood this to be the chief end of our present term of life. . (9) Upadana (clinging) to sangsaric sensation . again. leading to clinging and greed and desire of an heir to inherit w orldly possessions . as in the womb- state. (4) Nunta-Riipa (Name and Form) concomitant with sangsSric existen ce. the resultant mental and physical sensations experienced . following) that the Chain o f Enslave­ ment to the Sangsara. preceding b irth . pp. L. and (10) Bhava (Sangsaric existence itself). for lasting good or lasting ill. through Avidya. (ra) Jara-marana (D ecay and Death) as the C y cle of L ife completes itself.

(6) Right Endeavouring. or R ight Seeing . ‘ “ Again. the Buddha. the Dharma (or Doctrinc). one must cleave to the staff of the Noble Eightfold Path. the Saiigha (or Priesthood). In this. After such realization. I have understood that one who aimeth at his individual peace and happiness adopteth the Lower Path (the Hinayand). and (8) R ight Meditation. from the level of this Path. then deep meditation on the difficulty of obtaining the precious boon of a free and well-endowed human birth. one must pass on.1 and to observe and adopt in a sincere spirit the rules prescribed. (5) Right Means of Livelihood. by degrees. (4) Right A ctio n s. to the Higher Paths. * This is the Bodhi Path. too. as set forth by the unexcelled Immutable Path (the Vajra. or R ight A spirin g. (3) Right Speech . on the uncertainty of the exart moment of death. it is necessary to gain a clear view of the goal of one’s aspirations. on the certain effect of one’s actions. rebuilding or mending them should they be­ come in the least impaired.2 by which only may a sen­ tient being obtain that emancipation. devoteth the merit of his love and compassion to the cause of others. as taught by the Enlightened One. It may be verbally described as ( i) Right Belief. it is essential to have a perfectly well-accomplished Gtiru.Yana). and on the miseries of sangsaric being. who from the very start. To leave the Lower Path and to enter upon the Higher Path. cannot fail to compel one to desire freedom and emancipation from all sang­ saric existence. But he. so difficult to escape from. I understand belongeth to the Higher Path (the Maha­ yana). or Right Rem em bering. Then. 1 Namely. I see the Guru to be the main source and embodiment of all good and happiness that can accrue to me. and to obtain this. (a) Right Aims. But to be able to do so. to gain a clear view of the Final Goal. who knoweth every branch of the four kinds of initiatory rites with­ out the slightest misunderstanding or doubt regarding them . all the while observing one’s vows as carefully as if they were one’s own eyes. (7) Right Mindfulness. . and keeping my faith in him unsullied and staunch.griefs. or Right L iving. it is first of all necessary for me to take refuge in the Precious Trinity. ‘ “ Therefore do I realize the supreme necessity of obeying the Guru’s commands and behests.

This state is called Shi-nay (Tranquil Rest). as well as. by thought-process and visualization.he alone can make the Final Goal thoroughly explicit to a shishya.” *— Sj. through moral and mental reasoning and internal search. so long as they are such. individuals.2 i i << Fjve things there are. one treadeth the Path. ‘ The deities . and years may pass without the person himself perceiving i t . Name. so that days. Light. to put the mind in that state as a result of a variety of causes. The first three are o f the Supreme. . step by step. In the Bardo Thodol (see the Sixth Day) it is said. In meditating on the Final Goal. and Form. By not submitting oneself to the state of total oblivion and unconsciousness [of objects]. A tal Bihari Ghosh.1 In realizing the non-existence of the personal Ego. one hath to put forth all one’s energies. On being enabled. by various methods. Thus.” said a sage in India. to discover the non-existence of the personal Ego and. . the mind must be kept in quiescence. The visions of the forms of the Deities upon which one meditateth are merely the signs attending perseverance in meditation. and cognitions] cease. and the mind passeth from consciousness [of objects] into a state of perfect tranquillity. being no more real than the objective forms o f human beings or ot any other objects of Nature. ideas. nevertheless. both of grammatical and logical acumen. I believe that it is only experienced when one hath gained the first [superhuman] state [on the Path to Bud- dhahood]. are incapable of ex ­ periencing it. in the last analysis of the Enlightened Mind. thus the passing of time hath to be marked for him by others. but by exerting one’s intellect or faculty of conscious­ ness in this state. all [thoughts. They have no intrinsic worth or value in themselves. one gaineth the clear ecstatic state of quiescent consciousness. Being. The ceremony of initiation conferreth the power of mastering abstruse and deep thoughts regarding the Final Goal. months. s The objective forms of deities— like the illusory visualizations produced by practices of meditation upon them and frequently outw ardly projected as hallucinatory images— are. the other two are of the [material] world. ‘ “ Although there be this state. exist from eternity within the faculties of thine own . Bliss. namely. which may be called a state of superconsciousness (Lhag-tong). therefore. or ego-entities. non­ existent. the fallacy of the popular idea that it existeth.

w ith reference to a transcendental or Nirvdmc state o f unmodified or primordial consciousness. Likew ise. I under­ stand. and a keen power of analysis. accom­ panied by energy. Avalon. but not lost. there is need of mentally praying and wishing for blessings on others so earnestly that one’s mind-processes also transcend thought. as otherwise translated.’ That is. vii. and that ‘ should doubts arise as to the divinity of these Devatas. a man who would learn about the Voidness1 [of Thought] must meditate so as to realize it. are indispensable requirements. It is the indescribable state wherein the limited personal consciousncss becomes merged. and not merely learn its definition. A . as the mere name of food doth not satisfy the appetite of a hungry person.) 1 T e x t : Tong-pa-nytd\ Skt. ‘ “ Then. they are absolutely necessary to enable one to ascend. These. also. here meaning Voidness [of Thought]. But in the process of meditating on this state of mental quiescence (Shi-nay). soaring into the regions transcending thought. like the lowest rungs of a ladder. In short. but he must eat food. to obtain the knowledge of the state of supercon­ sciousness (Lkag-tong). either on forms and shapes. A s in Patanjali’s definition of Yoga (in his Yoga Aphorisms i. Finally. such as the helpful impulses and the stages attained by their means ’ . a). or on shapeless and formless things. again. to be the highest of all Paths. . ‘ “ To sum up. says that the * Devatas are but symbols representing the various things w hich occur on the Path. they so exist only when man is regarded as the microcosm o f the macrocosm. or like the light of a lamp merged in the light o f the sun. so. vol. habituation to intellect. Shiinyata. 41. by mental con­ centration. as ‘ the suppression o f the transformations of the thinking principle’ or. one should say “ the Dakint is only the recollection of the b o d y ” . the goal of one’s aspirations must be well defined and clear. this Voidness [o f Thought] is not the voidness of nothingness. the Demchog Tantra. in the unlimited cosmic All-Consciousness— like a raindrop merged in an infinite ocean. one must practise and accustom one­ self to the mechanical attainment of the recurrence of the above practices without intermission. and remember that the Deities constitute the P a t h ( C f . into which Milarepa has been initiated. the very first effort must be made in a com­ passionate mood. by a clear and inquisitive intellect. Moreover. but a state o f supramundane mind only capable of being know n— as Milarepa explains— by the Perfected Yogi who has realized it. with the aim of dedicating the merit of one’s efforts to the Universal Good. as ‘ the restraint o f mental m odifications'. a vivid state of mental quiescence. 1919. Tantrik Texts. London. Secondly.

for any lavishness of words. forms the four different stages of the Four Degrees of Initiation. as the text suggests. too.— graduated steps in the ultimate goal of the mystic Vajra-Yana [or Immutable Path]. of Equilibrium. the U niverse of Nature). ' “ A s for myself. I have not the means to recompense thee. this essence of my learning gleaned. 1 “ If there be heresy or error in my speech. (See p. and. To understand these thoroughly. I pray that They will kindly pardon it. and prepared for every possible contingency. The radiant Rays of Light have shone. *“ Lord. face and surmount every obstacle. e. one must sacrifice bodily ease and all luxuriousness.the contemplation of Voidness. And opened wide the petals of the Lotus of my Heart. To Damema. my Guru and the Reverend Mother.1 ‘ “ To my Guru. is the last outpost of the Sangsara (i. as it is on Earth. the Mother of all Buddhas. the Avataras. ‘ “ Vouchsafe to bless me in mine efforts.” ' My Guru was delighted. to Their ears. it is possible. So will I worship Thee by constant meditation.— my benefactors. from the sun-orb of Thy Grace. Lastly. to realize Nirvana. of the Inde­ scribable. So I will repay you by a lifelong devotion to meditation. So that it breatheth forth the fragrance born of Knowledge. the Great Dorje-Chang. For which I am for ever bounden unto T h ee.) . And to all Princes Royal. 441. I make as offering. And set me then upon the Righteous Path. “ My son. and of the Incognizable. and I will complete my final study of your Teachings in the ’Og-min Heaven. your loving kindness is beyond my power to repay by any offer of worldly wealth or riches. and for ever. W ithin the ’ Og-min Heaven. the H eaven of the Adi-Buddha. with this in mind. I ask forgiveness. above. That good may come to every sentient being. I had ex- 1 This. and said. and thus escape the Sangsara wholly. being ever willing to sacrifice life itself.

some days after my Guru had returned to Wheat Valley. Maha-Mudra: ‘ Great Symbol This is one of the ch ief systems of yogic meditation of the Kargyutpa School. An old block-print copy o f the Tibetan text o f the S ix Doctrines. Chag-gya-ch'ett-po): Skt. “ I knew that my son had the will and in­ tellect to succeed. in Gangtok. dressed in silks and beautifully adorned with the six bone ornaments. he had not understood. The outcome of this led him to go to India to see Naropa. like the Great Symbol. my expectations have been fulfilled. ‘ one obtaineth the highest boon o f The Great Symbol. Tum- mo) : ‘ V ilal W armth (or Psychic Heat^ the acquisition o f which is necessary for the sake of physical comfort in Tibet and. ‘ About this time. gives the S ix Doctrines as follow s: ( i) Gtum-mo (pron. Nirvana ’. Mt’-lain) : * Dreams . T o an Indian yogi.” N ext the lady said. and reminded him of some enigmatical hints of his Guru Naropa. Maha-Mudra denotes a yogic posture.1 which will enable thee to attain Nirvana. and we -con­ versed on religious topics for a long time.state attained by yoga practices. and these the Dakinis interpreted and explained to him. w hereby. Cho-dug) : ‘ S ix Doctrines (o rT ru th s’ ). being on a pastoral tour in the North Uru villages. but essentially Indian by origin. but here. and I resumed my meditations in the close retreat. one night. are illu so ry . a teaching w hereby the . . Phyag-rgya-ch'en-po (pron. was performing a religious ceremony in one Marpa Golay’s house when he had a vision. by long continued ap­ plication to meditation thou hast obtained the Truths of the Great Symbol. when given. being sangsaric. In it the Dakinis appeared. . a. “ Son. as the text of The Great Symbol explains. (a) Sgyu-l&s (pron. with English translation by the late Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup and the Editor. which the Editor and the late Lama K azi Dawa-Samdup worked out together. is a treatise expounding the practical application of various Yogas. more or less of Indian origin. appeared to me. Gyu-lU) : ‘ Illusory B o d y ’. in this Tibetan sense. my Guru. . Sikkim.pected much from thee. also. ‘ Then. (3) Rm i-lam (pron. This.yogi realizes that his own body and all objects o f Nature.2 But thou lackest 1 Tib. Thou hast also obtained the Six Doctrines. and said.” Both were highly gratified. Then my Guru and his lady took leave of me. I dreamt that a woman of somewhat dark blue colour. Chos-drug (pron. Judging from an English translation o f a text o f this Yoga. having eyebrows and eyelashes of a golden hue. which. 3 Tib. as a driving force for the devotee seeking spiritual developm ent. it is a system developed under Tibetan influences.

the principle of consciousness. in the w aking state and in the sleeping state eq u a lly . the Ultimate— w hile experiencing the thought- transcending Great Bliss [of Ecstatic Illumination] is the Clear L ig h t’ . (5) Bar-do \ ‘ Intermediate S ta te ' [between death and rebirth]. Never­ theless. Od-sal}: * Clear L ig h t’. the Embodiment of the Buddhas. is a yogic treatise. M l* U . the science o f voluntarily transferring. so Mara tempted the Buddha (‘ T h e Enlightened One ’) under the Bo-Tree at Budh-Gaya. from body to body or from place to place. if the former. pp. that was a revelation from the Dakinis. So I pulled down the partition. the great a teaching whereby the yogT realizes that even as dreams are illusory so are all sangsaric experiences. “ W hy hast thou come. and went to my Guru. I should have to obtain the Drong-jug.’’ I informed him of my dream and said I wanted to be assured whether it was a revelation or a temptation. since there could be nothing which he did not know. and future.the precious teaching of the Drong-jug1 by which thou mayst attain Buddhahood in an instant. He sat in silence for some time. And if he took it to be a premonitory revelation. A s the Devil tempted the Christ (‘ The Anointed One ’ ) in the W ilderness. defined. and this thou must procure. I was firmly convinced that my Guru. Pho-wa) : ‘ Transference’ . 1 Mar5 is here the Evil One. and said. and concluded that the woman was a Dakinl. When I was about to return from India. 1 This. (4) Hod-gsal(pron. and (6) Hpho-va (pron. I was doubtful whether the vision was an intimation from the Dakinis of some coming event or a temptation from Mara. I begged that he should bestow on me the revealed science for which I had come. and then said. Especially as regarded knowledge. which teaches the yogT how to traverse death and rebirth without break of consciousness. from the Sacred Truths above-mentioned [whereby Nirvana is obtained] to the science of patching broken earthenware. He seemed shocked. the Devil-Tem pter of Buddhism. I knew that his understanding embraced its whole extent. instead of remaining in close retreat? Thou runnest the risk of incurring some mishap. too. past. “ Yes. since she had all the appearance of one. but the Editor has not made a study o f it. in the text.” ‘ I thought over the dream. phenomena-transcending mind (or mind in the yogic state o f non-thought)— which is the Thatness o f all things and inseparable from the Voidness. plastered together with mud. Cf.2 Anyway. would certainly be able to tell me. present. when H e was attaining Enlightenment. my Guru. as follows : ‘ It hath been said that the unmodified. 154-6.

then. searching for the Drong-jug. But although we found several treatises on Pho-wa} not a single letter regarding Drong-jug was to be found. Naropa. or hell of the Universe. xii. but merely entered into the subtle form by direct transmutation of the grosser physical body. and the theory that Jesus rose from the dead in the spiritual body. whereby the mundane consciousness is transmuted into the supra-mundane consciousness— Nirvana not being a place. but a state of Perfect Enlightenment. to the U niverse (or Sangsara). being a Perfect* d Yogi. the Pho-wa treats o f the . current among Tibetan Lamas. illustrate the same belief. Besides. The Biblical translation of the old Jew ish Prophet Elijah. the dream which I had in North Uru is likewise a sign directing me to go and obtain this same work [on Drong-jug]. w ith English rendering by the Editor and the late Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup. Milarepa. as w ill be seen in chap. or to any world.Pandit Naropa. with this he set out for India. Unformed. passes in a similar mystical w a y . and the Drong-jug treats of the yogic transmutation of the mundane (or sangsaric) consciousness o f objects (of Nature) into the supra-mundane consciousness. which has been current among many peoples in all historical ages. fuller than that contained in the S ix Doctrines. ‘ in a chariot o f fire ’.” ‘ In spite of entreaties and expostulations. did not die. wherein all component things are realized to be illusion (or Maya). heaven. beyond the Sangsara). to any place on Earth. “ Ah. in one’s own subtle body. as in the Pho-wa. the offerings being converted into a cupful of gold. The Drong-jug appears from the present passage to be a yogic treatise of like nature. too. but I do not recollect having obtained it. and. Therefore I shall go to India to obtain them. So my Guru said. except that the transference is not limited.” ‘ Thereupon. shows it to be another treatise on Yoga— the Yoga of transferring the principle of consciousness from one’s own body to another’s (as in spirit obsession). but comprises in its scope Nirvana (which is the Unbecome. Unmade.2 He had made 1 A manuscript text of this. my Guru was resolved on undertaking it. I know not how many other works there may be to procure. to Paradise. His disciples contributed liberally towards his travelling expenses. as it is said in symbol. both of us spent a whole day and night in ransacking the whole collection of manuscripts. urging his age as obstacles to this toilsome journey. a According to some traditions. Hence the importance which Marpa attaches to the Drong-jug and his insistence that Milarepa should obtain a copy of the text and master it.yogic transference o f the mundane consciousness. Other traditions say that Naropa is still alive . leaving no corpse in the Tomb. or. I will look over all mine Indian manuscripts and search for it. In this sense. where he arrived just about the time of Naropa’s disappearance. spoke about this same Drong-jug.

Govinda-Bhaga- vat-Pad&charya. the God K ing of Tibet and Pope o f Northern Buddhism. asked of him the science of Drong-jug. Learned pandits regularly sought the aid o f the Sw am i in their numerous scholarly and religious problems. and. Pandissa. the Tashi Lama. the Guru of Shangkaracharya. taking him to the monastery of Phulahari. the Buddha of Boundless Light. the great monistic expounder oi the Vedanta. which the Editor takes to be worthy of at least provisional credence.up his mind to sacrifice life itself in attempting to obtain an interview with his Guru \ and various hopeful signs and omens he interpreted as predicting his final success and the fulfil­ ment of his wish. Maung Tun K yain g is able. a picture o f whom is in the Editor’ s posses­ sion. wherein he was the head of the Yunkyaung M onastery( near Pantanaw. and some o f his very remarkable w orks on chemistry are just being brought to light. is believed to be y e t alive. Recently he is said to have been preaching to immense audiences throughout Burma. “ Didst thou recollect this thyself. like the sun illuminating the moun­ tain peaks. and named U. is known to have been in Benares long before the advent o f the British in India. but on his knowledge ot chemistry as w e ll . or didst thou receive a revelation ? ” Marpa replied. can live or die at will. the former being the incarnation of the National Divine Protector of Tibet. as such having control over all processes of Nature. who passed aw ay within recent times. to deliver learned discourses on the most abstruse metaphysics of Buddhism and to read and correct errors in classical Burmese and Pali. Sj. “ there are in the benighted land of Tibet some bright spirits. Atal Bihari Ghosh tells me that Trailanga Swami. and for his colleague in spiritual authority. and to remember his incarnation immediately prior to his present incarnation. that is to say.” said Naropa. is actually exhibited by the Burmese boy Maung Tun Kyaing. and it was on that account that I came. he at last met him in a jungle.” “ Excellent. The same claim of yogic power to reincarnate is made for the Dalai Lama. “ I did not recollect it myself. nor was a revelation vouchsafed to me per­ sonally. and reincarnate at will in a new body by submitting to the process of womb-birth. According to trustworthy report. who. Burma. a human being made perfect 011 Earth.” in India. and the lattsr of Amitabha. . Avalokitesbvara. the All-Compassionate One. Thereupon Saint Naropa asked Marpa. but none of them had lived long enough to remember when he first appeared in the H oly City. A remarkable example o f conscious reincarnation. This Guru's fame rests not only on his profound understanding o f the Vedantic philosophy. without having been educated in this lifetime. I have a disciple named Thopaga to whom the revelation was granted. ‘ Seeking his Guru with fervent prayers. being one of the Great Siddhas.

Darma- Doday.1 1 Having transmitted the whole ofthe Ear-Whispered Tantra o f the Dakinis.DakirA Kartta Tantra. had he lived. “ Now we must first of all consider the best method of rendering our Karg­ yutpa Hierarchy as enduring and eminent as possible. as Marpa sat amidst the assembly of all his disciples they addressed him in a body. T he manner of Marpa’s obeisance. and who. . then holding out his hands in prayer. ‘ On the anniversary of his son’s death. just as had been predicted at the premonitory ceremony of his obeisance. but predicted the perpetual continuance o f the Hierarchy through m e. foretold the failure of Marpa’s own offspring. would have been a worthy successor.2 Saint Naropa interpreted certain omens as predicting future events. e. It is said that even until to-day the hill-tops and the tops of trees round about PhuLahari incline towards Tibet. meaning Ear-Whispered (i. They said. ‘ It is said that Naropa. We also pray that thou wilt be pleased to leave special directions to each of us. and what particular lines of prac- 1 This is obviously a folk-legend to account for natural phenomena in the Phulahari country— the dip o f mountains. Dwelleth he who is called Thopaga. for example. Obeisance to that Great Being.” ‘ Then Naropa closed his eyes reverently. thy shiskyas. Esoteric) Tantra o f (or inspired by) the Dakinis. and nodded his head thrice towards T ib e t. who was the very embodiment of the Buddhas o f the past. and future. representing to him his advanced age and the unfortunate loss of his saintly son. after the completion of the ceremony [in commemoration of it]. chanted as follows: * “ In the gloomy regions of the North. Kah-gro-Nyen-Gyiid): S k t. as to what particular branches of doctrine each should adopt. and the inclination of trees caused by the direction o f the prevailing winds. Like the sun illuminating the mountain peaks. and all the Indian mountain-tops and the trees also nodded thrice towards Tibet. present. Judging from the source and manner of the transmission to Marpa. it seems to be one ot the most esoteric o f the orally-transmitted teachings preserved by the Kargyutpa Initiates. * T e x t : Mkah-gro-nytn-rgyud (pron. and after Marpa returned to Tibet he lost his son.

Do ye.” ‘ Accordingly. 1 It is the duty o f the Guru to set each o f his shishyas upon that path of spiri­ tual development which is best suited to the shishya. but none of them were revelations regarding the future of the Hierarchy. ‘ “ In the ample regions of the World's North. I dreamt there stood a mountain grand. The base of the mountain covered the E arth . the spiritual disciple of the Great Pandit Naropa. Its summit touching the very skies. The Kargyutpa Hierarchy hath the blessings of the Saintly Naropa. Be pleased [O Guru] to vouchsafe Thine ear awhile. Their rays illumining the heavens above. ‘ " Eastward of that glorious mountain.tice each should pursue. rely upon occult directions by omens and dreams. Quenching the thirst o f every sentient being. which I reported to the Guru in the fol­ lowing verses: ‘ “ Obedient unto Dorje-Chang’s command. The dream of yesternight I now narrate. Exactly in the manner it was dream t. (Cf.” 1 The Guru said. And on their shores bloomed varied flowers. had a dream of four great pillars. “ I. Such was the general purport of my dream.2 I narrate. according to the Guru’ s insight into the innate tendency o f each. one on one path. go and await your dreams and report them to me. Upon the pillar’s top a lion ramped . A ll or nearly all were more or less good. the Eternal Buddha. PP’ 154-5-) * O r ‘ Buddha of the Three Tim es (the Past. Their waters fell into an ocean deep. however. The mane of the lion was luxuriant. the chief disciples concentrated their minds upon their dreams and reported the results. and Future) \ . Around this summit moved the sun and moon. O f a pillar high I chiefly dreamt. His eyes upturned were looking heavenward. From its four sides flowed four perennial streams. I. Present. one on 'another. His four outstretched paws clawed the mountain-side. my chief shishyas. Which to my Guru.

” ‘ On my recounting the above. ‘ “ Westward [of the mountain] stood a pillar h igh . prepare an ample meal. I pray Thee.” When she had done so. I narrate. This to my Guru. the Eternal Buddha. This to my Guru. I narrate. he said. The vulture turned its eyes heavenward. And passed through the groves of wood and plain. This to my Guru. Above the pillar’s top soared a vulture bold . Upon the pillar’s top a mighty tigress roared . *“ Southward [of the mountain] stood a pillar high . Then soared away to the regions high. I narrate. all the pupils and disciples were invited to it. The wings of the vulture were wide outspread. The wings of the eagle were wide outspread. Her four paws clawed the jungles deep. And I beheld it had a young one fledged. This to my Guru. “ Damema. [Then] through the jungles the tigress roamed free. Foreboding good and virtuous deeds. ‘ “ Northward [of the mountain] also stood a pillar high. Her eyes upturned were looking heavenward. addressing his lady. my Guru was highly pleased. The stripes of the tigress were beautiful. “ The dream is excellent. The eyes of the eagle gazed heavenward . and said. the Eternal Buddha. I narrate. Then it soared on high. tell to us their meaning.” Then. The horns of the eagle pierced the skies. ‘ “ Deeming these to be auspicious signs. The inner stripes were triple and bold. [Then] over the mountains the lion roamed free. the Eternal Buddha. The . And that the skies were filled with smaller birds. the Eternal Buddha. With joy ecstatic was I thrilled . Upon a rock the vulture’s nest was perched. Above the pillar’s top an eagle soared . in the blue above.

The sun and moon revolving Are full Enlightenment and Love . or existence therein. 0 Saintly Naropa. The mountain grand signifieth the Kargyutpa Sect. hells. the Eternal Buddha. The four streams from the four sides issuing Symbolize Rites of Initiation and the Truths . * It is thus that Buddhism. Give ear attentively unto the meaning of this wondrous and prophetic dream. . And by my followers and all the Hierarchy. I bow down at T h y Feet. as follows: ‘ “ Lord. whether w orlds. my shishyas. Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen. all karmic suffering. and said. decay. even B rah m l and all the G o d s. The mountain’s summit touching the skies Symbolizeth our Peerless G o a l. Their rays illumining the heavens above Are Grace enlightening Ignorance. Marpa the Translator. and Evil must eventually be transmuted or sw allow ed up in Good. sang extemporaneously the interpretation of the dream. 2 1 Here Milarepa is callcd by the family name of Gyaltsen. ‘ “ The ample regions of the World’s North Symbolize the Buddhist Faith in Tibet prevailing. in teaching that every living thing w ill ultimately reach Enlightenment. after that o f his father. Which to you I will now interpret. even in Hell. Their waters quenching the thirst of every being Portend that every living thing shall ripen and be saved . is permanent — all is subject to change. Founded by my aged self. or heavens. foretelling the future destiny of the Kargyutpa Hierarchy to his disciples.” The chief disciples asked him to interpret the dream and to unravel the mysterious signs. repudiates the Semitic doctrine o f Eternal Dam nation. which is an excel­ lent sign. “ Mila-Dorje- Gyaltsen1 hath had such and such a dream. in assembly seated here. Nothing sangsaric. Thou. the Great Avatar a and Translator. Then [our saintly Guru]. ‘ “ O ye. The base of the mountain covering the Earth Showeth how our deeds will fill the W orld . Refuge of all Sentient Beings.Guru then addressed the meeting. must at last run its course and end. and dissolution.

my shishyas. or Light) is that realized in this world through practising deep meditation (Skt. The Mother Reality is the Primal or Fundamental Truth. when the Inner and O uter Light thus dawn in at-one-ment. and o f many races and Faiths. Their waters falling in an Ocean Deep Are the blending of the Inner with the Outer L ig h t. of Supra- mundane All-consciousness. Dharmala-Matri-Putra : ‘ Mother and Offspring R e a lity ’. The dream entire is good. The Offspring R eality (or Truth. The lion’s mane luxuriant. in a state o f quiescence of the primordial or un­ modified mind — a foretaste o f Nirvana. There is then momentarily a glimpsing of Reality. of Zh ung. in the Intermediate (or Bar-do) State at the moment when the co'nscious- ness-principle quits the body and before karmic propensities have begun to burst forth into activity. the Complete Illumination of Buddhahood is won. my shishyas. . experienced only after death. ‘ “ The great pillar eastward of the mountain grand Is Tsurton-Wang-gay. the Pagan calling It the Light of the Gods. The tigress roaring on the pillar’s top Showeth him to be in nature tigress-like . The great pillar southward of the mountain grand Is Ngogdun-Chudor. The lion ramping on the pillar’s top Showeth Tsurton to be in nature lion-like . O ye. Dhyana). in various ages and lands. 1 Tib. Chos-nyid-nta-bu : Skt. The lion’s four paws clawing the mountain-side Show him endowed with the four boundless motives . The lion’s eyes turned heavenward Show he hath bidden farewell to sangsaric life . not ill. Numerous are the records o f great saints and seers. or ‘ Inner and Outer L ig h t’ . 0 ye. showeth how With the Mystic Truths he is imbued . Truths Realized. of Dol. 1 The varied blossoms blooming on the shores A re Fruit Immaculate. The lion’s roaming free o’er the mountains high Showeth that he hath gained the Realms of the Free. or the Buddhist the Light o f Truth. the percipient has the yogic pow er to hold fast to the transcendental experience— and usually he has not— all karmic clingings to the Sangsara being cut off. the Christian the Light o f Christ. in assembly seated here. who when dying have seen this Light. not ill. The dream regarding the East is good. in assembly seated here. If.

O ye. my shishyas. The wings of the eagle wide outspread Show him well-imbued with the Mystic Truths . physical and psychical. 2 The eyes of the Eagle turned heavenward Show that he hath bidden farewell to sangsaric life . The vulture soaring above the pillar’s top Showeth him to be in nature vulture-like . The triple all-encircling stripes Show that he hath. ‘ “ The great pillar northward of the mountain grand Is Mila-Repa. not ill. The tigress roaming the jungles free Showeth that he hath attained Salvation . The four paws clawing the jungles deep Show that by him the Duties Four 1 will be fulfilled . The dream regarding the South is good. within himself. The eagle soaring above the pillar’s top Showeth him to be in nature eagle-like . The dream of the West is good. not ill. The tigress traversing the groves of wood and plain Showeth that his Hierarchy will be continued through his progeny. realized the Trinity . in assembly seated here. or Yoga. ‘ “ The great pillar westward of the mountain grand Is Meton-Tsonpo. The stripes appearing well-defined and beautiful Show him well imbued with the Mystic Truths. of Gungthang. my shishyas. The flight of the eagle in the blue above Showeth that he hath passed to the Realms of the Free. 36*. 2 That is. O ye. in assembly seated here. The eyes of the tigress turned heavenward Show that he hath bidden farewell to sangsaric life . The wings of the vulture wide outspread Show him well-imbued with the Mystic T ruth s. the dangers. 3410 X . of Tsang-rong . and the numerous impedimenta or temptations attendant upon the practice of meditation. 1 See p. The eagle’s horns piercing the skies Show that he hath passed meditation’s pitfalls.

On you my mantle now hath fallen. what particular line of study and truths was most suitable for each of his four chief disciples. Accordingly. in assembly seated here. He saw Ngogdun-Chudor. So he resolved to observe the omens of the dawn. And if my words prophetic be. 1081. the Lama thought that he would find out. Thus each made good progress in spiritual development. my shishyas.” ‘ When the Guru had uttered these prophetic words. B y day he gave them instruction. lecture. by the aid of his clairvoyance. was engaged in meditating on Pho-wa (Transference— of the Principle of Consciousness). at daybreak next morning he regarded all his principal disciples with his clairvoyant vision. The vulture’s gazing heavenward Showeth that he hath bidden farewell to sangsaric life . engaged in ex­ plaining and elucidating the rituals of Gaypa-Dorje. The flight of the vulture in the regions high Showeth that he hath attained the Realms of the Free. Small birds filling the heavens wide Show the spread of the Kargyutpa S ect. each of the shishyas was filled with joy. Meton- 1 See p. of Zhung. ‘ One night. O ye. Then he opened out to them his treasures of religious books and scrolls of Mystic Truths and Sciences. The vulture’s bringing forth a chick Showeth that he will have a peerless [spiritual] son . by exposition. Then shall the Kargyutpa Hierarchy Attain pre-eminence and glorious growth. The dream of the North is excellent. and sermon . ‘ “ Now is the duty of my life fulfilled . The vulture’s nest perched on a rock Showeth his life to be enduring as the rock . so that he might give to each just those texts of the Scriptures which would be most useful. during a special Initiation Rite of the Yum (Mother Text). of D6l. .l TsurtCn- Wang-gay. by night he encouraged them to meditation.

The process is a part o f Kundalitit Yoga (see p. Marpa gave the text on Pho-wa (Transference— of the Principle of Consciousness). Brahmn-randhra). are commonly spices and drugs. 4 These are not pills for curing fleshly ills. 1 Ibid. which is to be likened to a bird flying out of an open skylight. opened by means of the yogic practice of the Pho-w*.1 and I myself had been observed meditating on Tum-mo (the science of generating Vital Heat). situated on the crown o f the head at the sagittal suture where the two parietal bones articulate. Their ingredients. The bird flying out of it is the consciousness-principle going o u t. To this he added the six ornaments. or Transference o f the conscious­ ness-principle. and the ruby rosary which were originally Naropa's. ass'1. and medicinal pills. giving a recipe for manufacturing such spiritually-potent pills as are still made and sold by the lamas— even by the Dalai Lama himself. 34s).TsOnpo. so compounded by a Saint or H oly LSma that they are believed to be yogically charged with his grace-radiations and auric blessing and thus capable of conveying these to the patient. In addition to its resultant physical warmth. was engaged in meditating on Od-Sal (Clear Light). (Cf. which are kept secret from the laity. p. or temporarily during the practice of the Pho-wa. ‘ To Tsurtdn-Wang-gay. which set forth the explana­ tions so clearly and methodically that it may be said to re­ semble a row of pearls strung upon a thread. and so greatly assists the Tibetan yogi in solitary meditation. He also gave to him the Indian commentaries on the texts already given. of Tsang-rong. according to the four methods and the six aims. * The open skylight is the Aperture o f Brahma (Skt.) . of Dol. he favoured each of us with the gift of his last and best teachings.2 ‘ Thus was he occultly apprised of the innate aptitude of each of his chief disciples for mastering that particular line of study which would be most profitable and into which he should confer initiation. and ex ­ horted him to serve the universal aim by preaching to all sentient beings. either permanently at death.3 This was accompanied by the reliques of Naropa's hair. for it is through this Aperture that the consciousness-principle quits the body. ‘ Accordingly. w ith English translation. but pills which have been occultly compounded and psychically infused w ith virtue by Naropa for the cure o f Igno­ rance (Avidya)— the Cause of Death and Rebirth.4 and ritual head-dress illuminated with 1 See p. To Lama Ngogpa he gave the text categorically explaining the Gyiid (Tantras). the sacrificial spoon. nails. The Editor possesses a treatise in Tibetan. 145". this yogic practice also produces ve ry marked effects psychically.

‘ To me he said. M ay you prove to be devoted guardians of the Faith. often illuminated with gold and silver. * Then.1 and the injunction to practise Pho-wa. which is like unto a lighted lamp illu­ minating the gloom of night. with the exhortation that he should take the short path across the Bar-do (the Intermediate State— between death and rebirth). I have several more Teachings and Initiations to im part. . and in wildernesses. that it may flourish and expand. the pieces are fastened together side-wise so as to form a cir­ cular band which fits round the head leaving the lop o f the head uncovered. I have no longer my son. he gave a text on the Od-sal (Clear Light). thine understanding should develop well in thy Guru’s presence. Therefore. “ I have given to each of you those T exts and Branches of the Truth by which ye will be most benefited. and bears a mystic mark like a St. small double-drum (damaru). in caves. is illuminated— in a super-conscious glimpsing of Nirvana." Thereupon. s' The hat worn by the Kargyfltpa yogis on ceremonial occasions symbolizes this relique. W ith the points upward. which is like unto a blazing faggot. besides.” 1 Such a head-dress consists of five pieces— usually o f thickened Tibetan manu- script-paper shaped like a pointed pear— on each being a painted image of one o f the Five Dhyani Buddhas. I entrust to you the entire charge of all my sacred Kargyutpa texts and reliques. each to his own country. and I foretell that these same Teachings shall be the best adapted to the followers of each of you. [three of] the chief disciples departed. s That is to say. before a vast assembly [of disciples].paintings of the Five Dhyani Buddhas. which is the ‘ gloom of night ’. the experiencing o f the Clear Light implies an ecstatic state wherein the gloom of Ignorance {Avidya). and when worn appear like a gorgeous crown. Marpa [chiefly addressing the four disciples named] said. with Maitrl’s 3 hat and Naropa’s raiment. stay a few years longer with me. ‘ T o Meton-Tsonpo. ‘ To myself Marpa gave a text on Tum-mo (the science of generating Vital Heat). of Tsang-rong. the original hat o f the Great Indian Yogi M aitrl. A n d rew ’s Cross (X). or Enlightenment.2 along with Naropa’s lamaic sceptre (dorje) and bell. and oyster-shell libation-cup. Doday-Bum. and commanded me to meditate in various solitudes— on mountain peaks. “ As for thee.

until the shoots of Spiritual Wisdom shot up in my heart. according to Marpa’s command. ‘ In this wise did I pass my time in delightful meditation. and a part of the offerings from every religious ceremony— even the smallest — which they celebrated. I shut myself up in close retreat in the Zang-phug (Copper Cave)— a cave pro­ phesied of by Naropa. ‘ Thus. developing mine understanding in the presence of my Guru for some years.] .’ [This constituted! Milarepa’s Fourth Meritorious Act. Both my Guru and his lady ever sent me a share of any food of which they partook.

T hen Rechung asked Jetsiin. On waking up. and o f how Jetsiin reached Tsa. ‘ I did not stay there many years. Thou the Immutable. . M y mother was dead. This dream showed me that my house. left his Hermitage.Telling o f how Jetsiin. I could not help shedding tears again. going to his Guru. but one morning it happened that I had slept very long. and had a dream. and I was calling upon my mother’s and sister’s names and weeping bitterly. was in such a broken and dilapidated condition that it looked like an old donkey’s ears. A family of three members. called “ Four Columns and Eight Pillars ”. securedpermission to visit Tsa. ‘ What led to thy coming away from Marpa’s presence ? How many years didst thou stay in retreat ? ’ And Jetsiin said. and I made up my mind to go and see mine aged parent once again by any possible means. ‘ A t dawn. was heart­ rending. I went to ask leave of my Guru. Pray let me as a mendicant go to my home once more. Usually I never slept. but sitting near the head o f his bed I meekly and humbly chanted to him this appeal: ‘ “ O Lord Compassionate. and mine only sister was roving friendless in the world. When I attempted to think. When I got there he was sound asleep. The grief I experienced at not having met my mother again since our parting under the aforesaid unhappy conditions so many years before. o f the Guru’s Final Instructions and Admonitions . and the circumstances which led to my returning home were these. O f the inhospitable land of Tsa. demolishing the wall enclosing me in my retreat. The field called “ Worma Triangle” appeared to be overgrown with weeds. Jetsiin’s Birth­ place . The books of Scripture appeared damaged by the leakage. o f the Sorrowful Parting . W hile in retreat I was making satisfactory progress. led by a Dream. harassed by hostile relatives. the long­ ing to see my mother only increased more and more. and. I saw that my pillow was quite wet with my tears.

My library of Sacred Scriptures. and at the same moment his lady brought in the morning meal. In the wretched glen of Tsa. who was betrothed to me in youth . I fain would see if he still liveth. Y ung-gyal. Mine only sister. this very moment! ” But once more I urged upon him what I had dreamt. I fain would see if she be yet alive in health. I fain would see if she be dead or not.” ‘ Just as I had finished this appeal my Guru awoke. And thou also incurrest great personal danger. Back again to thy retreat. thou runnest the risk of being possessed by the Demon (Mara). I fain would see if it be ruined or not. M y cruel aunt. “ My son. I fain would see if it be fallen in ruin. I fain would see if it be overgrown with weeds or not. M y mother. I fain would see if she be fit to wed. Y et there are these to cause anxiety: My house called ‘ Columns Four and Pillars Eight ’ . how dost thou dare to come out of retreat so suddenly ? Why. M y well-known field. the vessel that held my form . Peta G onkyit. My Guru at once addressed me. I fain would know if she hath strayed or not. will I return. then. ‘ " Though of wealth not much remaineth. The sun’s rays shot through a chink above his pillow and like a halo of glory lit up his venerable head. the ‘ Worma Triangle’ . And quickly. These three events occurred simultaneously. Have now for many years been parted. My Zesay. So let me go and see my mother but this once. saying. M y neighbour and mine uncle. in the following verses: ‘ “ O Lord Compassionate. No longer can I bear the pain of separation. the Tiger-Demon. Thou the Immutable. Permit this mendicant but once again to see his home. they were a combination of events with which several future happenings were inseparably connected. .

a system of Yoga w hereby the yogi is taught to enter the dream-state at w ill. and here also thou hast been for these many years. deck the altar with quite sure of finding any of them in good health.” ‘ Then my Guru replied. Thus is realized the illusory nature of both states. I long to see her. Therefore. thou canst not. “ M y son. too. when first . The practice also enables its master to die and to be reborn without loss of memory— death being the entry into a dream-state and birth the awakening. I grant thine appeal. and the Mysteries of the Dream Symbols. as for the others. I fain would know if he liveth now or not. but now thou yearnest for many things besides. while his lady decked the altar. know that finding me in sleep when thou didst come to address me is an omen that we two shall not meet again in this life. . Now I can let thee go. And more than all. 144’ . Kunchog-Lhabum . Damema. But the rays of the rising sun shining upon my dwelling-house is a sign that thou wilt be a shining light amongst the Buddhist hierarchies.” ‘ M y Teacher set himself to prepare the mandala diagram. and then to return to the waking state without breaking the stream of normal consciousness. it is not likely that thou wouldst find thy mother alive. Let me go home but once. But if thou desire to go. Even though thou wert to go home. My family pastor.thou didst come here to me. I beg Thee. Damema’s bringing in the morning meal just then showeth that thou wilt be sus­ tained by spiritual food.1 and the Tantras whispered in the ear of the 1 A s referred to in the treatise oil the S ix Doctrines see p. above. my dear old m other. having conferred upon me the last and highest Initiations. and. in order to explore scientifically its characteristics as compared with the w aking state. There is. If thou count on coming back here. and that thou wilt glorify the Faith. The anguish now hath grown unbearable. oh so anxiously. Thou hast passed some years in U and Tsang. thou didst say that thou shouldst have no reason to yearn for thy relatives or home. Further. Then. And quickly I’ll return. And the sun's rays enhaloing my head is a sign that this Sect of meditative Kargyiitpas will flourish and spread far and wide. Lord.

and incapable of understanding the sublimest of the Truths. and by me in converting thee. thereby will the displeasure of the Deities be incurred. too.’— Sj. for it is not worldly vanities alone that will satisfy me. If any shishya manifest innate aptitude for receiving these Truths. Thou. So there are five more to be obtained from India . shouldst try thine utmost to obtain them . who will be narrow of heart. greed. let them be given him. one of my disciples will journey to India and obtain these from one of the disciples of Naropa’s other disciples. Therefore. And I command thee to confer them thus. with the condition that they shall be handed down from one guru to one shishya for thirteen generations. Much more am I satisfied with thy sincere devotion and energy. which are never com­ mitted to w riting. Thou in thy turn shalt confer them upon such o f thy disciples as the Deities shall indicate. 4) there is recorded the following parallel command : “ L et not affection. Mysteries. beware of adopting that method of instruction. the esoteric (or ‘ ear-whispered ’) teachings. watch and guard over them . “ F ix well thine attention . and dire will be the effect.Shishya by the Guru} he said. develop them . they are certain to be of the greatest use to humanity. though somewhat lighter conditions than these are sometimes attached to them. upon thee alone I confer these Texts. if thou entertain any thought that be­ cause thou art unable to offer me worldly goods I may still have other texts secreted from thee. And now. 1 That is. therefore. will not be very suitable for degenerate beings of the future. Four of them I have given to thee.” T h e Shruti (Vedic Texts) likewise enjoin secrecy regarding Brahmavtdya (knowledge o f the Supreme Brahma). because I have been so commanded by my Lord Naropa. or fear prompt thee to reveal the Great M ystery to the unworthy.2 although he be unable to present any worldly wealth as the offering. guard them with the utmost care. 8419 Y . If these Truths be exchanged for worldly vanities or for the currying of favour. being handed down orally from guru to shishya. divest thy mind of such thought. and Initiations. The method adopted by Tilopa in disciplining Naropa. and let them enhance the glory of the Faith. Take all such shishyas in thy special care. ‘ “ In India there exist nine texts of this character. Atal Bihari Ghosh. Reveal it only to the deserving. ' 3 ‘ In the Nitydskocjashikartiava Tantra (iv.

‘ Banner o f Sadhaud 1. Make lonely caves thy home paternal. w hile Milarepa’s is to his Guru. Much talking is of little profit. [So] store within thy heart [these] precepts wise: Many seeming 1 T h ats' are not the ‘ That ’ . A contented heart is the noblest k in g. not even to the foremost. sorrow-burdened world . Desirest thou wealth? then store thou this. ‘ The Guru having delivered this deeply impressive dis­ course sang the following song extempore: ‘ “ Obeisance ! Adoration to the Kind and Gracious Lord ! T o meditate upon His Acts is of itself a holy text.1 ‘ “ I have conferred upon thee the Supreme. Each Guru is visualized as being a Divine Being. nay. as revealed by the Deities and transmitted to me by my Lord Naropa. Desirest thou a safe path ? then tread thou this. The Doctrine which subdueth passions vile is the Noble Path. raise aloft the Banner of Zealous Devotion and Meditation. Many trees bear nought of F ru it. L et Thought riding Thought be thy tireless steed. To no other of my disciples have I imparted them . To thee I have handed them on in an entire and perfect manner. Acquiring these is not acquiring Truth. Marpa. Mystic. And solitude thy paradise.2 ‘ “ T o desire much.” ‘ Then he invoked the Tutelary Deities to bear witness to the truth of these statements.Therefore. 1 L iterally. ' “ That which enricheth the heart is the Sacred W ealth. . 3 Marpa’s prayer is addressed to his own G u m N aropa. A ll Sciences are not the Wisdom True . Desirest thou a noble master ? Then seek thou this. Ear- Whispered Truths. And thy body thy temple filled with gods. And ceaseless devotion thy best of drugs. like unto a vessel filled to the very brim. *“ Forsake the weeping. bringeth a troubled mind.

and resolved within myself to emulate my Guru and obtain occult powers of like nature. impossible 1 The sense o f this last stanza being som ewhat uncertain in the late Lama Dawa-Samdup’s translation. with the various symbolic implements associated with these Deities. gems. Without corruption. lotuses. and on my remaining for some days my uncertainties touching the texts were cleared up. without wither­ ing. Bring forth its foliage and its fruit. without being scattered. he said. my Guru showed himself in the form of Gaypa- Dorje and in various other divine forms. Y et remain with me a few days more.” 1 ‘ Having sung this. Milarepa. and myself are one. I have shown them as my parting gift to thee. and all the others. swords.” ‘ Thus did I see that my Guru was as infallible as the Buddha Himself. thus to my son en­ trusted. Having manifested these signs of a Master of the Occult Sciences. . Lord and Guru. The Teaching that containeth all of Wisdom I have given . but since all composite things are alike liable to dissolution it can­ not be helped. “ My son. and a splendid feast for the brotherhood.” I obeyed. thy going away breaketh my heart. have these cleared. which she did upon a grand scale. ‘ Then my Guru asked me. and dost thou believe ? ” I replied. ‘ Then the Guru commanded his lady to deck the altar with offerings for a ceremony.‘ “ To thee. such as dorjes. Ah. Hum in different colours. hast thou seen. He also showed the mystic [mantric] letters Om. the Teaching. “ Yes. “ Son. and rejoiced beyond measure at it. which ought never to be exhibited in a spirit of mere bravado. And may this Perfect Seed of Truth. and if thou find in them uncertainties. M. the Guru placed his hand upon my head. examine thy texts. placing offerings for the Tutelary Deities. wheels. Bacot’s version has in part been followed here. T h y faith. bells. and said. “ These are called psycho­ physical powers. thou energetic one. sacrificial cakes for the Dakinis. During the assembly.

in Nepal. Meditate there. near each other. and any solitary cave. obtain these powers. should be a suitable place for meditation and for raising the Banner of Devotion. though long. I myself will emulate Thee in devotion.” * He answered. Realize this fact for thyself. is it not to believe. with fuel and water close at hand. taking up thine abode in these places as foretold. so rejoice. waste not thy time in vain talk with the multitude. and the solitudes of wildernesses. the abode of Demchog (Shamvara). W e shall without doubt meet again in the pure celestial regions of the life beyond. while the Tise Peak (Mount Kailasa) hath been mentioned by the Lord Buddha Himself as the Great Moun­ tain. till I. I will bear thee in my heart. but at once devote thyself to meditation. I foresee that thou wilt . and thou wilt bear me in thine. Devi-kot and Tsari. Amongst mountain recesses. “ That is well. for I have shown to thee the mirage-like nature of all existing things. Do thou meditate there. If thou do so earnestly. are mentioned in the Lalita.” ‘ Tears filled the Guru's eyes and ran down his cheeks. and there­ by serve the Cause of Universal Good. Renounce. And now thou art fitted to take thy departure. thou shalt satisfy thy Guru and repay thy parent’s kindness and love. The Lapchi-Kang is the most sacred amongst all the Twenty-Four Places of Pilgrimage. who seek only to attain the aims and ends of worldly existence. But if thou fail in devotion. in Brin (Drin). lie in the East. being the Godavari of the Scriptures. ‘ “ A t some period of thy devotions. Chubar. going into retreat in mountain recesses. we shall not see each other again in this life. shall be but an occasion for heaping up demerits. is a spot sacred to the Dakinis. too. “ Now. and Yolmo-Kangra. then. then thy life. as he continued. my son. Thou thyself shalt devote thy whole life to meditation. And Riwo-Palbar. that known as Gyalgyi-Shri-La (Holy Mount of Glorious Soli­ tudes) hath been blessed by the feet of many a great Indian saint and yogi. A disciple of thy succession will open these sacred places of pilgrimage and guard them.Vistara. my son. all the ambitions of this life . but the time hath not come yet for the opening of them. and a fit place for meditation. lonely caves.

“ Damema. was overwhelmed with weeping.” And I did so. perfectly accomplished in both temporal and spiritual affairs. so faithful. upon corning to join us. Every word that my Guru uttered at this time produced a deep and lasting impression upon my heart. but open it not till then. though potentially Buddhas. 'T h e night was passed in similar expressions of sorrow. though it is sure to depress my spirits. “ Thou speakest truly. And now this son.” And thereupon he handed to me a sealed scroll. Milarepa is going to­ morrow. and faultless from every point of view. and intelligent. energetic. which . through ignorance of their high origin and destiny suffer pain and sorrow and die in anguish. and goeth to meditate on them in solitude. and we had no really serious talk. who would have fulfilled the wishes both of himself and of others. at once began to sob and weep. “ Sleep thou near me this night. and expressed their sorrow in words and tears. and die without Enlightenment. and each word helped me in my subsequent devotion. even unceasingly.” ‘ The lady replied. why weepest thou ? Seeing that my son hath received the Precious Truths in full. came to see me off* up to a distance of about four or five miles. How can I help weeping ? ” And she wept still more bitterly as she said this. I weep now because I cannot help it. forgo it. “ Damema. so kind- hearted. and more especially how human beings. The Guru said to her. but difficult is it to hold fast to compassion such as that. We two. The next morning the whole party. when that assailed by a very great physical danger. A ll were sad. consisting of thirteen persons. once having won [in virtue of their human birth] the mighty opportunity of bettering their condition. When we came upon a hill-top called Chho-la-Gang (Hill of Religion).” To me he said. then in­ deed mightest thou weepj yea. M y Guru's lady. I. ‘ Then the Guru said. I was deprived by Death of a son. too. I must go some distance to see him off. is going to be separated from me while yet living. shall converse. willing. and my Guru likewise. what cause is there here for tears ? If thou consider how all sentient creatures. make suitable preparations for the occasion . father and son. look thou into this.

By that alone wilt thou benefit thyself and all living creatures. to my home I go. howe’er. a prayer to urge: That Thou wilt be my Constant Guide In this as in the future life . “ Grant Thine Approval to my prayer. and entreat the Tutelary Deities to watch over thy safety as thou goest. an escort of twelve mountain goddesses. Thou the Immutable. And by a pure and sincere heart accompanied. “ M y son. Go thou hence to Lama Ngogpa. and it is said that robbers infest the Silma Pass in Tsang. and said. For the first time. I should have liked to send thee in the com­ pany of some reliable comrades. my Guru held my hand. On Silma’s Pass. noting all dif­ ferences. 0 Kindly Lord and Father. as humble mendicant. Having done this. But I will pray for thee. I go to Tsang. as T h y Humble Shishya. we halted and took our meal. Make me to realize the Truths Profound. O Gracious Lord. Adoration unto Thee. And seal it by T h y Spiritual Pow er. And safely keep them from temptation. . Escorted by hosts of Dakinis. and compare notes with him regarding the sacred texts thou hast received. 1 guarded by Divinities." ‘ Then I sang to my Guru these verses of an extempore psalm : “ ‘ O Lord. speech. Be thou very wary on the way. What need have I of fear of mortal foes ? ‘ “ I have. T h y Gracious Love provideth. Spend no more than seven days there. but I see that thou are destined to go alone. thou mayst proceed straight to thy home. This over. For the first time. and mind. because thou art going through U and Tsang. which thenceforth must be thine only duty. Bless Thou my body. ‘ “ Trusting to the power of the Precious Trinity. O Dorje-Chang. Then pro­ ceed at once to the wilderness to meditate and carry on thy devotions.commanded a good view of the country all round.

And may the benedictions of the Devas and the Pakittis Invigorate thy life and mind. Long-chSd-ao-ku). Unerring as the Eternal Law. Chos-sku— pron. the Dharma-Kaya (Tib. The second is the Divine B o d y o f Perfect Endowment. righteous son. my last and precious words. of Avatdras. the Sambhoga- Kdya (Tib. Unmade. ‘ “ May this. Sink deep and rest within thy heart. thy words are sweet. Tri-Kaya). Tiil-pat-ku). Bless him. being beyond all concepts o f the mundane mind. the second. which is the body o f all Bodhisattvas in H eaven -W orld s. w hich is the Body o f all Buddhas. May thy righteous heart. The Nirmana-Kaya realize. Sprul-pahi-shu— pron. “ M y son. The third is the Divine B ody o f Incarnation. Shu-gsum— pron. my Guru said. T h y suppliant's fate lieth in T h y H ands. noble. Ku-sum . the NirmSna-Kaya (Tib. bear speedy fruit: By pious ones mayst thou be ever loved.1 ‘ “ May these. on Earth. Longs-spyod-raogs-sku— pron. Tong-pa-nyid). May thy nectar-like and prayerful speech In the Sambhoga-Kaya reach perfection fu ll. O f these. And Guardian Angels guard thy path Throughout thy journey of the following days. or Great Teachers. And the Protecting Spirits watch o’er thee. Shunyatd. . Now shall I impart to thee my best- prized and last instructions. that he shall steadfastly remain in solitude. it is the first reflex of the Divine Body of Truth.” Then. The first Body is Transcendental B o d h i. so pure and grateful. the Unformed. Nirvana. Ch8-ku). Skt. the first is the Divine Body o f Truth (or Dharma). [Likewise] I crave T h y Blessing for a long and healthy life. it is the Voidness (S kt. May thou the Dharma-Kaya gain . my prayer. bear them ever in thy heart. Reflected Badhi\ the third.” ‘ When I had offered up this prayer. Practical Bodhi. 1 This stanza is based upon the Mah&y&nic doctrine o f the T h ree Bodies (Tib. placing his hand upon my head. he sang to me the fol­ lowing hym n: *“ Obeisance unto all the Gurus \ 4“ High-minded. Tib. And may the escort of twelve goddesses Attend thee o’er the Silma Pass.

aunt. ‘ 44Within a region undefiled.) 3 It w as nettle soup. wherein Shiva (as the Deva or Shakta) and Kundalinl (as the Devi or Shahti) in union produce in the yogf the ecstatic state o f Illumination. * That is. 4“ Am id the lonely solitudes of caves There is a mart wherein thou canst exchange This whirlpool life for bliss eternal. . 1 The i meeting hall ’ is the ‘ Thousand-Petalled L o tu s’. * Siddhi literally means ‘ accomplishment or ‘ fruition o f Sadhana'. (See pp. as w ill be seen in Chapter X . 169®. * T h e magnetic or psychic influences which a sacred centre naturally radiates— if it be undefiled by the auric emanations o f towns or villages inhabited by worldly- minded multitudes— favour success in Yoga. about a sacred temple.1 ‘ 44Within the wholesome feast of nettle soup2 There is nectar pleasing to the gods. B y noise of men and dogs untroubled. * “ Within the scientific system of thy texts There is a harvest yielding precious fruits. 444Within the sacred Garden of Obedience 6 There is a mine of all success. and kith and kin There is a tutor who’ll dispel fond dreams [of family ties]. ‘ “ Within the temple of thy form inspired There is a meeting-hall of deities. which constituted Mila­ repa’s chief food while he w as practising Yoga in the solitudes. 444Within the close confinement of a solitude. H ere it refers to success in gaining yogic or super-normal powers. There is the boon of quickly gaining Siddhi? 144 Within the freedom of one’s self-support There is the heavenly blessing of a peaceful heart. obedience to the commands o f the Guru. 444Within the hatred and contempt awaiting thee at home There is incentive to immediate devotion. There is the pleasing prospect of success.*“ In the sad sight of thy home and fields There is a preacher of ‘ ’tis vanity *“ Among thy sister. 34".* 4“ Within sincerity of faith devout There is the virtue born of zealous effort.

Anahata-chakra). The blessings of the Vital Truths by the Dakinis revealed. The blessings of the Gracious Dakinis. * ( Dwellers in the T hree Abodes ’ is probably a reference. who de­ vours all things. esoterically worded. S a ­ ha srara-Padma). the Vital Truths enable the devotee to differentiate the Sangsara from Nirvana . in this esoteric sense. The blessings of the Noble Truths. A tal Bihari Ghosh has added here the fo llo w in g : ‘ In another aspect. Gaypa-Dorje. as edited by Arthur Avalon. She is called K ali because she devours (kalanat) Tim e {Kald). *“ Within the zeal and energy of Milarepa There is a pillar of the Buddhist Faith . Upon the B eing2 who holdeth that Pillar [may there rest] The blessings of the Noble Succession.) 4 These are the deities called in Sanskrit the Dhartna-pdlas. i. who is the personification of the Primordial Positive (or Male) Energy. London. of obedience born. Sj.' (Cf. and the Brain Psychic-centre (Skt. for she is not a lw ays of wrathful aspect.* The blessings of the Mother Kali. 1 That is. The blessings of the Deities Divine. in Tibetan they are called CKos-skyong. Demchog. here she sym ­ bolizes the Shakti or Primordial Negative (or Female) E n ergy of the Universe. (Cf. ch. the H eart Psychic-centre (Skt. Vishuddha-chakrd). iv. the ‘ Three Abodes ’ being. * The Being is Milarepa. to adepts in the science of Kundalirtl Yoga. the Throat Psychic-centre (Skt. *“ [Let there be] blessings on thine efforts.) S41» Z ® . 6 Kali is the Great W rathful Mother-Goddess K ali (or Durga) . And infallible may mine own blessings be.3 The blessings of the Noble Guardians of the Faith.*“ Within the Vital Truths by Dakinis revealed There is the boundary between Sangsara and Nirvana} 4“ Within the School of Marpa the Translator There is the hope of endless fame. 342. being the Spouse of Shiva. K a li is the Ever-youthful Mother (Adya Prakriti) . The blessings of the K&rgyiitpa Saints. 1913. e. And blessings on thy lineal followers. and also to realize— in the Supra-mundane Consciousness o f Buddha- hood— that the one is inseparable from the other.5 The blessings of the noble brethren in the Faith. ‘ Guardians of the Dharma ’ . but appears benign or terrific in accordance w ith the devotee’s karmic deserts. Tantra o f the Great Liberation. p. and Sang-dii. The blessings of the Dwellers in the three Abodes.

as a small token of regard from me. in future may we meet In the blessed Holy Realm. Then the Reverend Mother. O son of highest destiny. Drink deeply of the nectar of thy Guru's Divine W isdom .” 1 Having sung this.‘ “ Bear these [my final admonitions] in thy heart and realize them. A s thy raiment pure and soft. They are my last parting gift to thee. saying. as friends. she sang the following h ym n : 1 “ Obeisance to the Feet of Gracious Marpa ! * “ My patient son. giving me a human skull filled with oblation-wine. The warming breath of angels wear. these are a few articles for the time being. And of their kindly care oft th ink. 1 In perfect peace and safety go thy w a y . and provi­ sions. in future may we meet In the blessed H oly Realm. my son. E at all thou canst of heart-sustaining Sacred texts and sermons deep . and this sincere prayer from thy mother. Forget not these last spiritual gifts. ‘ “ Forget thou not thy parents spiritual. as friends. . And. *“ Forget thou not thy parents spiritual. And. my Guru's lady. so energetic. presented me with substantial presents. Oft and ever pray to them . as friends. and long-suffering. I wish thee a happy journey. And. 1 This refers to the V ital W arm th acquired by yogic practice. including clothes. and may we meet again in the blessed and holy paradise of Urgyen. In perfect peace and safety go thy w a y . In perfect peace and safety go thy w a y . Constant. Marpa was filled with great gladness. which I now utter ” . “ M y son. in future may we meet In the blessed H oly Realm. In grateful memory hold them ever. boots. and.

and strong was mine inclination to go back. of noble destiny. And may devotion pure repay them. and that henceforth I would commit no irreligious act. and as for the next life. tears choked her voice. as a dim grey group. Besides. . And. I was only going away for a short while. The practice is said to help in awakening the Kundalini or Serpent Pow er. ‘ “ May these good-wishes bring forth fruit. and the long-pent-up grief of the others burst forth in torrents of tears and sobs. he had promised that we should meet again in the Holy Regions. Train thy heart to selflessness. to 1 This refers to the yogic practice o f meditating on the Guru as being in the contemplative posture (or asatta) and overshadowing the Brahmanic A perture. as friends. The burden of the Higher Path (the Mahayana) Bear thou e’er with faithful fortitude . Unto her son her last injunctions giveth. My heart yearned to rejoin them. A s for my Guru. May we. I walked in the usual manner till I came to a knoll whence I could again see them. ‘ “ Damema. the loving son and mother. and moved backward. Thee [O son] thy loving dame shall cherish. But when I passed out of their sight. I could always meditate on him [as if he were enhaloed] above the crown of my head 1 as long as I should liv e . I bowed down to my spiritual father and mother for the last time. in future meet In the blessed Holy Realm. whence the consciouaness-principle goes out of the body.‘ “ Thinking of the helpless beings [of Sangsara]. and it was with a most painful effort that I tore myself away. A s friends. keeping my face to­ wards them as long as my Guru's countenance was within view.” ‘ A s she sang these verses. in future may we meet In the blessed Holy Realm. And may he e’er retain them in his heart. I saw them standing there with tearful faces. In perfect peace and safety go thy w a y . I thought to myself that I had now obtained the Truths in their entirety.

1 ‘ Having done this. and expressing a wish for a future meeting started for home. 1611. the ourney w ould have taken several months.) 1 M. ' the Sacred Daktrii K am a Tantras ’.’ Thus endeth [the narrative which constituteth Milarepa’s] Fourth Meritorious A ct. my being impelled by a significant dream to take leave of my Guru and return home. in a sorrowful mood. There.2 ‘ Thus did all come about— mine obtaining the Truth in its entirety. Bacot (p. I paid him due worship. 1 H ere and onwards the textual numbering o f the chapters has been made to conform to the numerical rearrangements by the Editor. w hereas by supernorm al means Milarepa accomplished it within three days. as pos­ sessing the divinely-inspired esoteric teachings which are ear- whispered. but that in the actual practice of the rites and rituals pertaining to the Doctrine. . that is by normal means. while thus engaged. until I reached Lama Ngogdun-Chudor’s house. and I could hurry back to my Guru. p. while I exceeded him in some respects. 177) here notes that ordinarily. I found that he exceeded me in the exposition of the Tantras. feeling somewhat elated at the development in the art of controlling the breath which this betokened. and. and in their application to daily life. (Cf. I reached there after three days.see my mother who had given me birth. I was not far behind him.3 1 L iterally. after we had duly compared notes with each other. my thorough study of it. this chapter in the Tibetan being numbered the fifth. * Thus I went on communing with myself.

Telling of the Disillusionment which Jetsiin met when he had reached his Home. failing to get it. upon which they told me every­ thing in detail. finally. did the dream prove to be true. and their occupants. who had a single son. I was to ld . when thou didst reach home..’ Then Rechung said. as there were no living occupants. A g a inRechung asked. let alone go there. Owing to the early death of the father. Venerable Guru. ‘ Tell us. Then. there was a very well-to-do family in that house.l Formerly. but was at present occupied by ghosts only. On this account. When the son had attained his majority. pointing towards mine own house. after the father’s decease the paternal relatives usurped all the property of the minor son. had recourse to black magic. I asked them the name of the place and its occupants. houses. Launching curses and hail-storms on this place he did much mischief here. I asked them the names o f places. or didst thou find thy mother alive ?' Jetsiin replied.1 with whom thou didst meet. *Venerable Guru. and. Now we are all so very afraid of his Tutelary Deities that not one of us hardly dareth even to look in that direction. and what had happened to the inmates. he asked for the restoration of his property. On asking them how it came to be empty. and. and a mistake in the manner of his making his will.' Thereupon Jetsiin continued : ‘ I saw a number of shepherds at a place high up in the glen whence my house was visible. and o f his Vows to live the Ascetic Life and Practise Meditation in Solitude. how thou didst enter thy house. They told me that the house was called “ Four Columns and Eight Pillars ”. the house 1 The sense apparently is. whether they had gone elsewhere or died. and in what spirit the people received thee. ‘ The inauspicious dream proved only too true. feigning ignorance. it was not my lot to see my mother. 1 in what condition thou didst find thy house .

and not come back. ‘ This assured me that the villagers were so afraid of my Tutelary Deities that they would not dare to harm me. in clear and deep meditation. whereby I realized that it was indeed possible to save both my father and mother from the pain and . and thick layers of dust and earth fallen from the [ruined] roof covered them . Wherever I looked. The fine house. and some evil spirits. After sunset I went to the village. as nothing hath been heard of him. where I wept bitterly. too. O Pilgrim. and lo ! I beheld my house exactly in the condition I had seen in my dream. He had one sister. when I remem­ bered my Guru’s Teachings . And about the happenings previous to that he had only heard from others. thou mayst get some books in the house. I made a pillow of my mother’s bones and remained in an undistracted state of tranquillity. hath gone away begging somewhere. Then groping my way towards the outer rooms I found a heap of earth and rags. communing spiritually with my mother's spirit and the divine spirits of the saints of the Kargyiitpa Sect. and he said that it might be about eight years since the mother’s death. but concerning the launching of the hail-storms and the other havoc wrought by the son’s black magic he could barely recollect them as a child. and. must be dead. So unbearable was the thought that I should never more see my mother that I was about to lose consciousness. If thou dare to go there thyself. which instinctively I knew to be my mother’s. desolation and ruin met me.” I asked the speaker how long ago all this had happened. The son. which used to be like a temple. abandoning the mother’s corpse.holdeth the corpse of the mother of the only son. so that I was overwhelmed with despondency. over which a large quantity of weeds and grass had grown. was in a most dilapidated and ruinous condition. I hid myself in a nook till past sunset. On shaking it up I found it to be a heap of human bones. they were serving as nests and sleeping-places for birds and mice. The set of sacred volumes had been damaged by the rain leaking in. The news of the death of my mother and the disappearance of my sister filled my heart with despair and sorrow. who. A deep and unutterable yearning seized me.

tsha-tsha (pron. I came to the conclusion that there was no permanent benefit to be obtained in any state of sang­ saric existence. namely. Carrying the volumes on my back and my mother’s bones in my lap. it is necessary for thejyogT to sit in solitary meditation upon a corpse. it corresponds to the Dharma-shartra of Indian Buddhism.2 I would offer the volumes of Scripture in payment for having this done . sleep in that posture. especially during the dark hours of the n ig h t. if need be. as for myself. and remained thus in samadhi for seven days and nights. I gathered up my mother’s bones . universal among human beings. I started forth. the world had nothing to tempt me or 1 All Tantric_yo£ls are exhorted by the guru to practise meditation in cemeteries and in places where corpses are cremated or else thrown to the birds of the air to be devoured. JetsUn practised such meditation. he is directed to make a pillow o f the corpse.’ 1 Tib. Sri N issanka: ‘ Seven days appears to be the period o f time usually passed in samadhic trance. of such environments. An unutterable anguish wrung my heart to its very core. After passing seven days and nights thus. and. making of his mother’s bones a pillow. I saw that their letters were still clear. and. I rose from the samadhi} ' Thence. in order to overcome the dislike or horror. I vowed that if any thought of worldly ambition should allure me. upon reflection. ‘ Making these mental resolves over and over again. miseries of sangsaric existence. The following addition to this note has been made by Mr. and then. and to realize the transient nature o f w orldly existence. which is shaped like a miniature stupa. I prayed to the Tutelary Deities and Dakinis to cut short my life if ever I should come to think of an easy sort of devotion. Accordingly. upon removing the heap of dust and dirt that had accumulated upon the volumes of Scripture. in other rituals. called tsha-tshas. So I made up my mind to dispose of my mother’s bones in the approved way. to have them pulverized and mixed with clay and then moulded into minia­ ture reliquaries. I would go away to the Dragkar-Taso C ave3 and there pass my whole time in constant meditation. I determined to sit there night and day. I would commit suicide rather than allow myself to be overcome by it. tsha-tsha). * Or ‘ the Rock-Cave W h ite as the Tooth o f a Horse \ . Henceforth. In some rituals. till death should put an end to my life. and is still in use through­ out Tibet. T h e Buddha Gautama is said to have passed seven days of ecstatic bliss alternating with seven days o f Nirvanic bliss during a period of seven w eeks while seated beneath the Bodhi Tree at Budh Gaya.

A re ever transient. So I will go to gain the Truth Divine. instead of doing work that's profitless. when I was born [and grown]. A teacher of the transitoriness of things I’ve found Within my native land— prison of temptation . to practise meditation. little would have been the profit. And so. my father did not live. I repeated my vows to devote my life to a rigid course of asceticism in the realization of the bind me to it. when my father lived. So I will go to gain the Truth Divine. Thou the Immutable. I find my mother dead. may I. Had both together met. And by T h y Blessing and T h y Grace. to practise meditation. even then. come back home. In an almost frenzied mood I sang the following verses of firm resolution to myself: 1 “ O Gracious Lord. When I. To the Dragkar-Taso Cave I’ll go. T o the Dragkar-Taso Cave I’ll go. little would have been the profit. her brother. ‘ “ A ll phenomena. myself. and resolved to adhere to them firmly. O Marpa the Translator. ‘ “ First. experience and faith obtain. I find my sister gone astray. Next. was long a w ay. the son. to practise meditation. little would have been the profit. Had both together met. From this noble teacher. no permanent gain [in it]. ‘ “ When my mother lived. But more especially the worldly life Hath no reality. myself. existing and apparent. and unstable. her brother. When I come home. changing. was aw ay. So I will go to gain the Truth Divine. The Truth Divine I’ll seek. Had both together met. ‘ “ When my sister was at home. . according to T h y Words Prophetic. even then. the [grown-up] son lived not. even then. To the Dragkar-Tasc Cave I’ll go.

in a burst of religious zeal. half hymn. the master was aw ay. So I will go to gain the Truth Divine. I know you all to be but empty things. To the Dragkar-Taso Cave I'll go. he said. they lay damaged by the rain. He was afraid. to practise meditation. but he kindly promised to cast the tsha-tshas for me. no veneration had th ey. Marpa the Translator. and home. When I told him that my Tutelary Deities would not haunt him. the devotee. asking him to cast the tsha-tshas of my mother’s bones. even then. I found him dead. “ So be it. even then . and all possessions. To the Dragkar-Taso Cave I ’ll go. even then. May I succeed in meditation in the solitude. little would have been the profit. Had both remained together. To the Dragkar-Taso Cave I’ll go. A n y thoughtless one may have you. When the veneration came. A s for me.” ‘ Having thus sung this. When the farmer came. to practise meditation. that if he accepted the books my Tutelary Deities would haunt his house. he consented to take them. I went first to the house of my former private tutor. the house was fallen in ruin.“ ‘ When the Scriptural T exts were there. as I was -giving the books to him voluntarily. Had both together [earlier] met. ‘ “ O Gracious Father. and to him I offered the volumes. the farmer was a w a y . ‘ “ Native land. So I will go to gain the Truth Divine. half song. to practise meditation. Had both remained together. but his son was living. the field was choked with weeds. So I will go to gain the Truth Divine. 1 “ When the house stood firm. *“ When the field was fertile. then. little would have been the profit. I go to win the Truth Eternal. When the master came. little would have been the profit. saying.’’ Thereupon he began to make the 3411 A a .

And I added. Thereby will I also rescue my parents [from sangsaric existence]. and thereby preparation for returning to the world o f mankind as a guide to salvation. 1 The hermit life such as Milarepa sought is. for the K argyutpa devotee seek­ ing Enlightenment. said to me. and had no time for talk. the highest life on earth . and suggested that I should repair my house. There­ fore will I aim to live the ideal life [of a Kargyutpa devotee]. continuing the conversation. which would surely end in my being preci­ pitated into the chasm of destruction. “ I have a general conviction that I do not want anything save a life of meditation and devotion. “ In thy youth thou didst destroy thine enemies by black magic. I saw the consecration rites performed [over them]. so as to allow him time to furnish me with a small quantity of provi­ sions to serve me during my devotions. when my tutor's son proposed to detain me for a few days to talk over old times. ‘ To this I agreed . Thou wilt surely become a saint in the future. but in virtue o f knowledge o f truth. What Gurus hast thou sought. marry Zesay. however. not by repetition of intellectual formulas of ‘ I believe ’ . indeed. but I told him that I must hasten on to meditate at once. for by means of it the devotee may acquire true wisdom. I helping him. and. Now. is admirable. He insisted. and settle down as a Ningma Lama. and what spiritual texts hast thou obtained?” He asked me these questions with interest. but that if I presumed to imitate him without being endowed with his purity of pur­ pose and his spiritual power. for I take no pleasure in the worldly life. He congratulated me. I told him that Marpa had married for the purpose of serving others. and he. . and related to him how I had found Marpa. and in reply I told him that I had obtained the doctrine of the Great Perfection. saying that he would give me of his b est. thou hast become a reli­ gious devotee. Then. in thy maturity. The casting of them having been finished.tsha-tshas. I was preparing to depart. having deposited them inside a stupa (reliquary). it would be the hare’s emulation of the lion’s leap. on my spending at least the night with him. this. To live as a hermit in solitude and devote my whole life to meditation is the essence of my Guru's command.1 thus satisfying my Guru as well as doing service to all sentient beings and serving the Cause of the Hierarchy.

ye beings unfortunate. nor do I aspire to other than this. . and to those to whom the thought of death and hell hath not been brought forcibly home. Grant that this mendicant. 1 “ Alas.lastly. may cling to solitude. I know naught but medita­ tion. the mendicant. A s for myself. The deeper is my sorrow the longer that I taste of yours. ‘ “ My pasture-fields. This is a picture of Illusoriness. O Noble Marpa! May I. best. despite starvation and poverty. The deeper is my grief the longer that I think of y o u . till into Hell we fa ll. of all things. Who cling to worldly things. A life of ease may do for those who have not suffered as I have. ‘ “ Lord Dorje-Chang. For them whose karma bringeth [sorrow’s] heart-ache. Moreover. Which maketh me to seek the contemplative life. I shall even profit myself. Thou the Immutable. blessed by T h y Grace. even unto death itself. be purged of worldly clingings by T h y Grace. where browsed my sheep and goats and cows. Devotion of their life to Truth is.’ ‘ And with tears welling out mine eyes I sang the following song: *“ Obeisance to T h y Feet. and so am not likely to accomplish anything else. yea. it hath been indelibly impressed upon my heart that worldly pursuits are worthless. Are haunted now by evil spirits. circumstances have convinced me most firmly of the vital need of zealous devotion and deep meditation as long as I live. alas. and a burning desire to devote my life to meditation hath been enkindled. Amid the charming Gungthang plains. after my having seen the wretched ruins of the house and the remains of the property which my deceased parents possessed. We whirl and whirl. The guests who loiter in this world— Illusory and transient as it is— Must needs be ill with [sorrow’s] heart-ache.

Now looketh like a lion’s upper jaw . ‘ " My noble father. Mila-Shergyal.1 Hath left no trace of ever having lived . Bless Thou T h y Suppliant that he may cling to solitude. Now looketh like a donkey’s ears: These too are pictures of Illusoriness. the Treasure of the Law. Now sideth with mine enemies . Is serving now as menial under others. thou art quite right. the ‘ Worma Triangle’. Is now nought but a heap of whitened bones: E ’en these are pictures of Illusoriness. and no one knoweth where she b e : E ’en these are pictures of Illusoriness. The tower of four sides. ‘ “ My relative and neighbour. Nyang-Tsa-Kargyen. M y cousins and my kith and kin A re ready now to rise as foes [against m e]: E’en these are pictures of Illusoriness. Which make me seek the contemplative life. uncle Yung-gyal. Hath strayed. Peta-Gon-kyit.” And his wife shed 1 T h is is a shortened form o f Mila-Sherab-Gyaltsen. “ E xcellent. ‘ “ M y fertile field. M y fond and loving mother. and roof that made these nine. ‘ “ O Gracious One. my host sighed and said. 4Four Columns and Eight Pillars’. Have served as lining for rats’ holes and nests of birds: E'en these are pictures of Illusoriness. Kunchog-Lhabum. Which make me seek the contemplative life. Mine only sister. Which make me seek the contemplative life.” ‘ On my singing this melancholy song. Thou the Immutable.* “ M y well-built house. Which make me seek the contemplative life. Is now o’ergrown with weeds and grass. Which make me seek the contemplative life. . ‘ “ My household priest and private tutor. M y sacred books. eight pinnacles.

I kept on repeating the resolution over and over again to myself that I would do so.copious tears. In mine own heart. in which is related how Milarepa was driven to a religious life of energetic devotion by the sad circumstances described herein. . too. I have no cause to blame myself for having practised meditation and devotion instead of having wasted my time in worldly pursuits.’ This constituteth the Fifth Meritorious Act. And. in fact. The sight of the wretched condition of my home in ruins had affected me so deeply that I could not help giving utterance to several such resolutions to live the life of a hermit in solitary meditation.

‘ “ Good cause have I for anger ’gainst thee,
But the commandments of my Guru I’m fulfilling;
Be not so vengeful, O mine aunt,
And food for my devotions give to me.
“ *O Marpa, L o rd ! O Thou the Merciful!
B y the power of Thy Grace, cool down T hy suppliant’s wrath!’
* On my singing this, half in song and half in weeping tones,
a girl who had come behind mine aunt could not refrain from
shedding tears. Mine aunt also was struck with remorse and
shame, and she went inside and sent me a roll of butter and
some powdered cheese-flour by the girl.
‘ Going round to the other tents to beg, I could not recognize
any of the occupants, but they all seemed to recognize me.
Staring hard at me, they each gave me a handsome quantity
of alms, with which I returned to my cave. From mine aunt’s
behaviour I could judge what would be mine uncle’s,1 so I re­
solved that I would not go in his direction on any account.
But happening to go to beg from the cultivators of the upper
Tsa Valley, I chanced to come right on the door of mine uncle’s
new house, whither he had removed [after his disaster]. He,
knowing me, rushed upon me, crying, “ Though I be like an
old corpse, yet thou art the very man I have wanted to meet.”
With deadly purpose, he flung at me a stone which nearly hit
me. I turned and fled, but he flung at me as many stones as he
could, with whatever strength he possessed. I continued my
flight, but he came out armed with a bow and arrows, saying,
“ Thou trafficker in lives! Thou traitor!2 Hast thou not
destroyed this country ? O neighbours, countrymen, we have
now got hold of our enem y; come out quickly! ” With that
he began shooting at me, while some of the youths of the
place began to pelt me with stones. I, on my part, was afraid
that I might fall a victim to their wrath and vengeance as
a retribution for having employed black magic against them.
So intending to intimidate them with my black-magical power,
I cried out loudly: “ O my Father, and ye Gurus of the Karg-
1 This is the paternal uncle who robbed JetsQn of his inheritance, and whose
house and wedding party Jetstln, in revenge, afterward destroyed by black magic.
* Literally, ‘ tripper up o f fee t'.

yiitpa Sect ! O ye myriads of blood-drinking and faith-
guarding Deities! I,a devotee, am pursued by enemies. Help me
and avenge me. Although I may die, ye Deities are immortal.”
‘ Thereupon, all of them were terror-stricken ; and they
caught hold of mine uncle, some who sympathized with me
intervening and acting as mediators, while those who had
stoned me asked my forgiveness. Mine uncle alone would not
consent to give me any alms, but the rest gave me each a hand­
some amount, with which I returned to the cave. I thought
that if I remained there any longer I should only be stirring
the anger of the people; so I resolved to go elsewhere. But
that night I had a dream which directed me to stay there
a few days more, and this I did.
‘ Zesay (to whom I had been betrothed in my childhood),
hearing about my being there, came with some nice food and
drink to meet me. She wept copiously and embraced me.
When she had told me of the manner of my mother’s death
and about my sister’s straying, I was greatly saddened, and
wept bitterly. I said to her, “ How constant thou art, that
thou shouldst not have married yet.” She said, “ People were
so afraid of thy Deities that no one dared to ask my hand in
marriage, nor would I have married even had any one proposed
to me. That thou hast taken to this religious life is admirable;
but what dost thou intend doing with thy house and field ? ”
I understood her desire, and thinking that since, by the grace
of my Guru [Marpa the Translator], I had given up worldly life
altogether, praying for her might suffice from a religious point
of view, but that I should say something to her which might
settle her doubts from a worldly standpoint. So I said to her,
“ If thou meet my sister, give them to her ; until she cometh,
thou mayst enjoy the field th yself; and, if my sister be dead,
then thou canst have both the house and the field for thine
own.” She asked me, “ Dost thou not want them thyself?” And
I replied, “ I shall find my food as the mice and birds do theirs,
or I shall fast and starve, therefore I need not the field;
and, as I shall dwell only in caves and lonely solitudes, I have
no need of a house. I realize that even though I should possess
the whole world, at my death I should have to give up every-
S419 b b

th in g; and so it will confer happiness in this and the next life
if I give up everything now. I am thus pursuing a life which
is quite opposite to that followed by the people of the world.
Give up thinking of me as a living person.”
‘ She then asked me, “ Is thy practice also opposed to that
of all other religious persons?” And I replied, “ I am of
course opposed to those hypocrites who have assumed a reli­
gious garb only for the sake of the honour attending it, and—-
their aim being merely the acquisition of wealth, fame, and
greatness— have succeeded in getting by heart the contents of
a volume or two ; and who, having strong party feelings, strive
for victory for their own party and defeat for the opposite
party. But as for those who are sincere devotees, although
they be of different sects and creeds, if their principle be not
like the one mentioned above, then there cannot be much dis­
agreement between the aim of the one or the other, so I cannot
be opposed to any of them. On the whole, if they are not as
sincere as myself, then they must, of course, be opposed to my
1 On this, she said, “ Then how is it that thy practice is so
poor and miserable— much worse than that of the meanest
beggar? I have never seen anyone like this before. To what
particular doctrine of the Mahayana Sect dost thou belong?”
I told her that it was the highest creed of the Mahayana ; that
it was called the Path of Total Self-Abnegation, for the pur­
pose of attaining Buddhahood in one lifetim e; 1 and that to
attain Buddhahood thus we must scatter this life’s aims and
objects to the wind.
‘ She said, “ Indeed, I see that the practice of thy doctrine and
theirs is quite opposite; and from what I hear and see of thee
it appeareth that the practice of the Dharma is not altogether
a very easy m atter; theirs would have been an easier path to

1 It is one of the teachings peculiar to Mah5y 5na Buddhism, as taught
throughout The Tibetan Book o f the Dead, that simultaneously with realization
of the unreality of all sangsaric (i. e. worldly) existence Perfect Enlightenment,
Buddhahood, daw ns ; and that this supreme attainment is possible for any yogic
devotee sufficiently advanced on the Path to make the Great Renunciation and
win the G reat V ictory in a single lifetime, as Milarepa is later on shown to have

tread.” I replied, “ The yogi who still retaineth a love of the
world would not attain to mine ideal of a sincere devotee. I am
of opinion that even those sincere Truth-seekers who still cling
to the yellow robe retain a little love of worldly fame and
honour; and even though they do not retain it, yet am I con­
vinced that there is [between me and them] a vast difference
in regard to the speed and efficacy of attaining Buddhahood.
This, however, thou wilt not comprehend just now. So, if thou
think thou canst, thou shouldst devote thyself to a religious
life; but if thou feel unequal to the task, then thou canst
enjoy the house and field as I have already said, and hadst
better go home.” She replied, “ I cannot accept thy house and
field which thou shouldst give to thy sister. I should like to
be a devotee, but such a devotee as thou art I cannot be.”
Having said this she went away.
‘ Mine aunt, coming to learn that I did not care about my
house and field, after a while began to think that since I pro­
fessed a determination to adhere to my Guru’s command, she
might perhaps be able to obtain them for herself. So she
visited me, bringing with her a quantity of barley-flour, butter,
chhang, and other food, and said, “ Some time ago I treated thee
unkindly, being steeped in ignorance; but as thou, my nephew,
art a religious person, thou must pardon me. I f thou wilt
allow me, I will cultivate thy field, and supply thee with food.”
To this I agreed, saying, “ So be i t ; please supply me with
the flour of twenty measures of barley per month; the rest
thou canst en jo y; thou mayst cultivate the field.” She went
away delighted with the bargain. For two months she supplied
the flour as agreed; then she came again and said, “ People
say that if I cultivate thy field perhaps thy Tutelary Deities
may injure me because of thy magical power.” When I satis­
fied her, saying, “ W hy should I practise sorcery now ? Rather
wilt thou be acquiring merit if thou continue to cultivate the
field and supply me as thou art doing,” she at once said, “ In
that case, wilt thou kindly reassure me by taking an oath that
thou wilt not practise sorcery any more. Thou canst have no
objection to doing so.” I was not sure what she intended
doing; but, as I considered it consistent with my calling to

please others, I reassured her by taking the oath in accordance
with her wish, at which she went away quite pleased.
* A ll this while, in spite of mine unremitting perseverance in
meditation, I was unable to obtain signs of any improvement
or growth in my knowledge or experience of Ecstatic Warmth ;
and I was becoming anxious as to what I should do next. One
night I dreamt that I was engaged in ploughing a very stiff
and hardened plot of land, which defied all mine efforts ; and,
despairing of being able to plough it, was thinking of giving
up the task. Thereupon, my beloved Guru Marpa appeared
in the heavens and exhorted me, saying, “ Son, put forth thine
energy and persevere in the ploughing; thou art sure to suc­
ceed, despite the hardness of the soil.” Then Marpa himself
guided the team ; the soil was ploughed quite easily; and the
field produced a rich harvest. The dream gave me great
pleasure on my waking up.
‘ Thereby the thought arose in me that dreams, being illu­
sory reproductions o f one’s own thoughts, are not regarded as
real even by stupid and ignorant boors, and that when I thus
allowed a dream to affect my temper I must be more silly
than the greatest fool. But as it seemed to be a sign that if
I continued to meditate with zeal and perseverance mine efforts
would be crowned with success, I was filled with pleasure, and
in that mood I sang this song to impress the true interpretation
of the dream clearly on mine own memory:
‘ “ I pray to Thee, O Gracious L ord !
Grant that this mendicant may cling successfully to solitude.
‘ “ I put upon the field of Tranquil Mind
The water and manure of a constant faith,
Then sow it with unblemished seed of a heart immaculate,
And over it, like pealing thunder, reverberateth sincere
Grace of itself upon it falleth, like a shower of rain.
* “ Unto the oxen and the plough of Undistracted Thought
I add the ploughshare of [Right] Method and of Reason.
The oxen, guided by the undeluded person,
And with firm grasp of undivided purpose,

And by the whip of zeal and perseverance goaded on,
Break up the hardened soil of Ignorance, born of the Evil
Passions Five,
And clear away the stones of the hardened, sin-filled nature,
And weed out all hypocrisies.
*“ Then, with the sickle of the Truth of Karmic Laws,
The reaping of the Noble Life is practised.
The fruits, which are of Truths Sublime,
Are stored within the Granary to which no concepts can apply.
“ ‘ The gods engage in roasting and in grinding this most
precious food,
Which then sustaineth my poor humble self
Whilst I for Truth am seeking.
*“ The dream I thus interpret:
Words bring not forth True Fruit,
Mere expositions do not yield True Knowledge.
Y et those who would devote themselves unto the life religious,
In meditation must exert their utmost zeal and perseverance;
And if they will endure hardships and strive most zealously,
And seek with care, the Most Precious can be found.
May all who are sincerely seeking Truth
Untroubled be by obstacles and interruptions on the Path.” 1
* Having sung this, I made up my mind to go and carry on
my meditation in the Dragkar-Taso Cave. A s I was about
to start, mine aunt came up with sixty measures of barley-flour,
a ragged dress of skins, one piece of good cloth, and some
butter and grease mixed up into a ball, and said, “ My nephew,
these are in payment of thy field, which thus is disposed of.
Take them and go away to a place far beyond my sight and
hearing, for the neighbours are saying to m e,' Thopaga hath
wrought much mischief upon us before th is; and if thou must
still have dealings with him and serve him, we are certain that
he will do us more harm and perhaps kill the remaining
people of the place. Rather than this, we will kill both of you.’
.So it is safer for thee to flee away into some other country.
1 O r : 1 in their quest for Truth ’ .

Moreover. and thou mine aunt art the very person on whom I must practise my patience. what could I do with the field. by T h y Grace do I the life ascetic liv e . have been the means o f bringing me to this life [of renunciation]. Being possessed of such magical powers. I could with the greatest ease stretch thee out a pale corpse in an instant. Whoever holdeth fast to it severeth Salvation’s Vital Cord. and so I said to her. but the house. and for this fam ily alone should the Bodhisattva labour. Matthew x . “ If I were not faithful to my religious vows. and in return for these deeds of yours I will ever pray for you. too.” ‘ I knew that the people would not speak in that fashion.’ . and ended by saying. I would not refrain from practising sorcery to regain possession of my field. I am sincerely grateful to both of you. 3 6 -7 : 1 A nd a man’s foes shall be they o f his own household. 1 The affectionate expressions of one’s kith and kin are the Devil’s Castle . for on whom should I practise my patience if not on those who have wronged me ? If I should die to-night. yet I will not do so. especially as I have not sworn to refrain from doing so under these circumstances. 1 That is. ‘ “ In harvesting of evil deeds the human race is b u sy. 1 T o build it is to fall into the Flames [of Anguish]. or with these few articles themselves ? Patience is said to be the shortest path to obtain Buddhahood. why should they sacrifice me ? But there is not the least doubt that they will kill thee. ye. And the doing so is to taste the pangs of Hell.If thou do not go.” Then I explained to her everything explicitly. “ A s for me— whose life is devoted to the search for Truth— I require only my Guru’s in­ structions and nothing m ore. M y weal and woe are known to T h e e ! The whole Sangsara^ being e’er entangled intheWebof/sTarw#. Cf.” And I sang to her the following song: *" O Lord. and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me. H e that loveth father or mother more than me is not w orthy of me . my Guru. mine aunt and mine uncle. Not only can I give to thee the field. the true and o n ly fam ily being Hum anity. that ye may obtain Buddha­ hood in your future lifetime. exclusive attachment to one’s own family is selfish. so thou art welcome to both the field and house.

both field and house.‘ “ The piling up of wealth is the piling up of others’ property. C f. and the w hole of Islam. O aunt. *“ I wash off human scandal by devotion true . is sundered. 7). but in exciting the nerves and the mind they give such control over the body to the low er or animal nature as to inhibit all influx of the elevating spiritual influences o f the higher nature. the sacred w a y to Olympus is closed. they are gone astray through strong drink . To drink it is to drown Salvation’s Vital-Cord. they are swallowed up o f wine. ‘ “ B y compassion I subdue the demons . if stimulants are used to drown all unhappiness and an artificial and deceptive feeling that everything is w ell with the world be engendered thereby. the old Jew ish prophet Isaiah has approached the right view in these w o rd s: 1 The priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink. 1 In the Buddhist view . they stumble in judgem ent’ (Isaiah xxviii. in the last analysis. prohibit the use o f all such stimulants. Thus. Take all. and despair are to be regarded as potent means to awaken the human race to the fact that all sangsaric existence is. is lost— the Vital Cord of Deliverance. What one thus storeth formeth but provisions for one’s enemies. inseparable from suffering. . but be filled with the Spirit.’ 1 That is. they err in vision. And upward turn my face. too. most unfortunately. wherein there is the only true bliss. the golden link between the higher and the low er. the opportunity of reaching the purely spiritual state o f Supramundaneness.. Although Christianity does not. 18 ): ‘ And be not drunken with w ine. in the world of famished (or unhappy) ghosts (Skt. the H igher Hinduism. and human beings are left in the darkness of their unbelief. To utter it entaileth general disturbance and destruction. And by my zeal I satisfy the Deities. as do Buddhism. slaves to the animal within them. tobacco. beyond the realm o f sorrow. pain.2 ‘ “ The counsel of mine aunt is born of wrath and vengeance. and even the narcotic effects o f strong tea and coffee— are not only demonstrably deleterious to the physical organism. ‘ *' Whatever I possess. ‘ “ Enjoying wine and tea in merriment is drinking juice of aconite. sorrow. Preta-Loid). Furthermore. To eat them would entaila birth amongst the famished ghosts. narcotic drugs. and therefore undesirable. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians (v.1 ‘ “ The price mine aunt brought for m y field is things wrung out of avarice. wherein is riot. and therewith happy be. all stimulants— alcoholic drinks. A ll blame I scatter to the wind.

on the other hand. and came to the Dragkar-Taso Cave. . I felt relieved of the care of my field and house.'’ And she went away satisfied. unto this solitude will I hold fast. For that would be to choke myself with dust. mine aunt said. made similar resolutions (cf. which I found to be very com­ fortable. Having provided myself with a hard mattress seat. I took the vows of not descending to any village or human habitation : ‘ “ Until I have attained to Sid d hi1. ‘ This circumstance affected me very painfully. of which I had thus disposed. e. that I may pass my life in solitude successfully. it came to be called Kangtsu-Phug (i. O f starvation though I die. the Cave wherein he [Milarepa] was set upon his feet in devotion.2 E ’en though of cold I die. I’ll not go to seek alms given in faith or dedicated to the dead. I’ll not descend to beg for gar­ ments. or occult powers. 1 Siddhi. my nephew. A s this cave had afforded me pro­ tection while I laid the foundation of Samadhi (the Quiescent State). I resolved to carry out im­ mediately my plan of going to the Dragkar-Taso Cave to continue my meditation. such food is unclean to a devotee.” ‘ On my singing this. The next morning. I set forth with the articles which mine aunt had brought me as the price of my field and the little remnants of the former provisions. as Milarepa is here.‘ "O Gracious One. the Mahapadana Suita). Though I fall ill. or transcendent or super-normal knowledge. or laid the Foundation). it is very praiseworthy. Gautama while still a Bodhisattva. 1 That is. I’ll not descend to join in pleasures of the worldly life. having been dedicated to a deity or to the dead. “ A truly religious person should be like thee. Thou the Immutable. and spreading my bedding on it. but. e'en unto death. E ’en though of misery and sorrow I should die. and therein settled myself. I’ll not descend to seek one dose of medicine. Vouchsafe Thy Grace. Immediately prior to attaining Buddhahood.

May the flakinis and Faith Protecting Deities fulfil my wishes. if he be aiming— as Milarepa w as— at Deliverance from the Sangsara.1' ‘ [I added]: “ Should I break these vows— seeing that it is better to die than to live a life without seeking to acquire Truth— may the Divine Beings. May [I]. specch. which. consecrating my vow s: ‘ “ Offspring of Naropa and of the Saving Path. cling successfully to solitude. cut my life short immediately. But may Tranquillity of Meditation be increased. But may the foliage luxuriant. is experienced in the yogic condition o f suspended animation or yogically induced hibernation. is not necessarily a state of unconsciousness. the hermit. and heart I dedicate to winning Buddha­ hood. And may they bless mine efforts . of Uncreatedness. A like state. it is not desirable that he should do so. 1 There are states o f Unconsciousness. And render me all needed aid. But body. who protect the Faith. into which a yogi may fall. Although a practised yogi may hibernate for v e ry long periods— according to some yogis for centuries— and eventually revive in his physical form. which do not lead to Enlightenment. and Pdkinis enable me to keep my vows. 1 But may the Blossom of the Superconsciousness bloom forth in me. ‘ “ May the Guru. Gods. I sang this song. burst forth in me. ‘ “ May pleasures of the world illusory not tempt me . ‘ “ May various mind-created worldly thoughts not vex me . . and may my Guru's and Devass grace combine in directing my next life to religious pursuits and endow it with the firmness and intellect necessary to enable it to surmount all obstacles [on the Path] and triumph over them. * “ May I not lie steeped in Unconsciousness of Quietude . And not one movement of my body will I give to any worldly purpose.” ‘ Having thus vowed. however.

as follow s: ‘ Then. ‘ “ May I doubt not the Path and Method I pursue . I had the following vivid dream. I began to practise the three exercises of Physical. T h y Blessings grant.2 Thus a year went by. when. But may I ripen fruit of Knowledge and Experience. 203) is more detailed. and Mental Culture. I continued my meditations. * [Thus directed]. Bacot’s version (p. 0 Gracious Lord. But may I find self-satisfaction in the Knowledge of mine own [True] Mind. I sought the well-being o f m y body. I sought calmness o f mind. being too weak. being derived from the root Va (‘ to breathe’ or ‘ to blow ’) refers to the motive power o f the vital-force (Skt. and sang to myself the following song of self-reproof: 1 Skt. saying that they had been sent by my Guru Marpa to instruct me in religious physical exercises. I had a desire to go about for a little recreation.‘ “ May I. but my body. be troubled not with mental conflicts. I mentally acquired knowledge of the Maka-Mudra (Great Symbol) . living on just a little flour mixed up with whatever food came in my way. But may I follow in the footsteps of my Father [Spiritual]. B y the condition of mine own liberation w hich controlleth the imagination. may firmly hold to solitude. and. Vayu. A number of women came carrying all sorts of food with which they performed a puja (religious ceremony). 1 H ere M. or rather vision in a superconscious state. and developed the Ecstatic Physical Warmth. Embodiment of the Immutable. ‘ I prayed earnestly to my Guru . Soon the internal. was unable to control the Airs (Psycho-Physical nervous Power. and continued to be very sensitive to the cold. ‘ “ May Mara and his hosts disturb me n o t. or Fluid)1 of my system. in the squatting posture [or asana] which resembleth the “ S ix Internal H earth s” . when I instantly recollected mine own vows. one day. so that I did not acquire the Ecstatic Internal Warmth. Prana). B y means of the condition of the breathing which giveth regularity. A fter that I entered into meditation. one night. Vocal. I was about to start forth.’ .’’ ‘ This prayer finished. in hermitage. that I [the mendicant]. which. 1 sought rightness of speech.heat began to come over m e.

I might have died without being able to attain Buddhahood . having sung this song of self-reproof. of Ignorance. that the devotee must not allow the hypnotic glamour of the worldly life to affect him. ’twill seek for vain frivolities. both night and day. will subdue thee. I continued unceasingly my meditations for over three years. I had resolved on the starvation diet of twenty measures o f barley-flour per year. Jealousy. *“ Walk thou not forth. in Marpa’s form ! Grant that this mendicant may cling to solitude. If it be raised. Greed. M ilarepa! To thee I sing this song of self-counsel. as they do the multitude. the Poisons Five. 'twill hanker after numerous im­ pieties. but rest content upon thy seat. lest the ‘ F ive [or Six] Poisons’— Pride. and Lust— enslave him. ‘ “ Therefore thou feelest lonely and wouldst seek diversion . T h e vo w not to sleep is one o f tw elve austerities permitted b y the Buddha. scattered to the wind will thy devotion be. But now my stock of barley-flour was quite expended. If to temptation thou give way. If thou fall asleep. *“ O thou strange fellow.‘ “ O Dorje-Chang Thyself. *" Raise not thy head. but continue thy devotions. If forth thou walk. Sloth. But an esoteric meaning is also implied here. and I could feel my spiritual knowledge expanding and improving greatly. A n g er. . thy feet may strike ’gainst stones. namely. but exert thine intellect. 1“ Excite not thus thy mind. If thoughts it harbour. and now even that had run out. to sangsaric existence. ‘ “ Sleep not.” 1 ‘ Then. ‘ “ A loof thou art from all of humankind Who might with thee sweet converse hold. No reason is there for thee thus to seek. this would have been a deplorable interruption 1 Slothfulness and torpor are condemned as unbecoming a yogf. but bend it down. but let it rest in peace . To thy desire for these distractions give not way.

A t first they ran away. I should not be breaking my vows. My body became shrunken to a mere skele­ ton . just like the nettle. and touching it with fondness. ‘ I used to regard the scroll. ‘ Living on nettle broth alone. I continued my meditations. but I had some signs telling me that the time for doing so had not yet arrived. accordingly. They came up and pried into every nook and corner of my cave. it would be preferable to die in the course of my devo­ tional life rather than break my vows. I strolled forth beyond the front of my Dragkar-Taso Cave . Moreover. some hunters from the Kyeedrong mart chanced to come strolling my way. Once or twice I was on the point of opening and reading its contents. I considered that worldly people re­ joiced over the acquirement of a seeka (one four-anna weight) or two of gold and felt unhappy at losing the same. I kept it by me. Sometimes I used even to have belchings [as if I had eaten my fill of food]. my life. they . I had no clothes on the outside of my body. sometimes putting it on my head. in mine eternal career. although I had nothing to eat. and over it grew a covering of greenish hair. with plenty of nettles growing round about— a delightful spot. and it was greenish in hue. it would be in the interests of my devotion to do so. Compared to that. On mine assuring them that I was a human being and a devotee. A t the same time. and this had the effect of soothing my stomach. they said I did not look like one. was infinitely more precious. and there discovering a sunny spot with good springs of water. Accordingly. devoted as it was to the attainment of Buddha­ hood. nor any whole­ some food inside. Were the entire universe to be filled with gold. having failed to obtain any sport. without descending to human habitations to beg. saying they had seen a bhuta (an evil spirit). still the life devoted to the attainment of Buddhahood was infinitely more precious. commanding extensive views— I removed to it. ‘ About a year after that. which my Guru had given me. with special veneration. What should I do ? Then the thought came to me that if I started forth in'Search of some article of food to sustain my life. but anyhow came to look well at me. A t last.

and even if he be not one. but. all my clothes were worn out. said. had their eyes put out. we will lift thee up again. I told them I had only nettles. and we will repay it liberally.said. otherwise we will kill thee. and the sack in which the flour had been supplied.” The other one said. “ O ye fellows.. This filled my poor weakened body with much pain . “ Where are thy food-stuffs ? Let us borrow some. too. that he will do. “ Hermit.” And they picked me up and let me fall on the ground several times over. therefore remember me in thy prayers. nam ely. ‘ About a year after that. “ A ll righ t. . it is admirable of thee to stand such ill-treatment. in fun. but it seemeth that divine retribution overtook them.” And to me he said.” Thus they threatened me.” The others added.1 and shed tears. and only some rags of the cloth which mine aunt had given me as the price of my field. remember to put us. and the Indifference of equanimity towards all states or conditions of sangsaric existence. “ A s we have lifted thee up. and all. I have done nothing against thee. under thy prayers’ protection. it being essential to attain­ ment o f Nirvanic Enlightenment for the Bodhisattva to be perfected in the ‘ Four Brahma Q ualities’ . who refrained from this heartless deed. One of them. He hath not compelled us to be hungry. Compassion. They replied that they were not going to rob m e . I had no intention or thought of cursing them . I once thought of sewing the rags together and making them into a sort of bedding. " A y . this man seemeth to be a real Lama. ye may be quite sure— only in a different w a y ! ” They went away laughing boisterously. and Altruistic Love for every sentient being. remained. ye will not gain glory by ill-treating such a weak person. as for insulting me. P ity. I pitied them sincerely. what should they gain by it ? I said that they might possibly acquire merit. and even if I had other things— seeing that they were rude enough to insult me by lifting me up— they should not obtain them by using force. for 1 came to learn afterward that the hunters had been arrested by the Governor of the Province. except the person who refrained from offering indignities to me. Do not act so. ay. and then I thought 1 Milarepa here shows himself loyal to his Vow . spite of it. As for me. Thereupon they said. The leader was killed.

A t last. and. They wished to see for them­ selves. I covered those parts of my body which required it most. and that I must sew the rags together. carrying large quantities of meat. On seeing me. “ Look again. I made it serve as covering for the lower part of my body [by wrapping its ends round me] as well as it could . when one day there was a noise as of many people talking. all these were far too worn to be of any use at all to serve as coverings. I told them that I was not a bhuta. approach the entrance of my cave. every nook and corner being pried into. saying respect­ fully. I saw another party of hunters. on partaking of the food. and kept in position by ends of rope tied together to make a girdle. Finally. even those old hunters who had come last. and.that if I died that very night what would be the use of sewing. began to be afraid. So. but I had no needle or thread. and ransacked the whole place. there is a bhuta ! ” and ran aw ay. and added. at night. while I covered the upper part of my body with the ragged empty flour sack . the ragged sack and the remains of the tattered skin dress afforded me some protection from cold. They left me the remainder of their provisions. it seemed to me that this was too much of self-abnegation. ‘ Thus I continued meditating for about another year. those in the front cried out. and for our own sins in killing them. all of them were moved to veneration.” On being told that there it was still. so I twined the rags about my body in three pieces. with what remained of the rags of the cloth.” ‘ I rejoiced at the prospect of having food such as ordinary human beings eat. and a large quantity of meat. I passed the days as well as I could'. those in the rear said that it was not probable that there would be a bhuta about in broad daylight. and. Under this. But seeing nothing but nettles. better far to go on with my meditation. On peeping out. in the rear. and see whether the bhuta is there still. I enjoyed a . Please pray for the absolution of the animals we have killed. “ Oh. “ It is praiseworthy of thee to practise such asceticism. but a hermit. knotted in three places. spreading the tattered skin dress underneath as bedding. who was reduced to this plight for want of provisions.

believing that I possessed some wealth. groping about. “ Y e may be quite sure that I am a man. happened to come strolling by the cave. saying. too . A s I was sitting in Samddhi. having failed to secure any game. “ We heard that thou hadst come once to thy home many years ago. and a cheerfulness of mind which tended to increase the zeal of my devotional exercises . so I allowed the maggots to take the meat for themselves. but I cannot offer you any food which ye would be able to eat. wearing the above triple­ knotted apology for clothing. And I thought that however nice it might be. I opened my mouth and spoke. stealthily pried into every corner of my cave. a person. they prodded me with the ends of their bows. till at last it was full of maggots. ‘ About a year after that. they asked me for a loan o f some food. came and. it was not worth my while going to the length of committing robbery for a m eal. promising to repay it handsomely. some hunters of Tsa. On my answering in the affirmative.sense of bodily ease and comfort. they were more inclined to believe me a bhuta. which would be robbery. While they were discussing this amongst themselves. The meat I used sparingly. Upon my observing this. I thought that the merit ac­ quired by those who offer a few scraps of food to the lonely hermits in the solitudes would surely exceed that of the most munificent gifts to those who are enjoying plenty and living amidst human society in towns and villages. but I considered that it was not intended for me to enjoy the meat.” The person himself could not help laugh­ ing.” They recognized me from seeing my teeth. I laughed outright.” They said that whatever did . They said. ‘ One night. Hast thou been here all the while?” I replied. and I experienced keen spiritual happiness such as transcended anything I had known before. being curious to know whether I was a man or a bhuta. I once thought of clearing it of the maggots and using i t . and asked me whether I was Thopaga. since I should have to dispute it with maggots. Seeing the state of my body and clothes. “ Try if thou canst find anything by night where I have failed by daylight. and then he went away. while I fell back upon mine own nettle broth. “ Y e s . and said.

of Lhobrak. and recommended the addition of more nettle tips in place of salt. They did so. but I had done without that also for years. and obtained from him the Truth which conferreth Buddhahood in one lifetim e. By denying myself the trivial pleasures to be derived from food. but as they expected some­ thing to season the soup with. clothing. but that I had done without that for some years. But y e !— born in a country where the Noble Doctrine of the Buddha prevaileth. bone. yet have not so much as listened to one religious discourse. “ O my friends. it is no wonder that thy body hath been reduced to this miserable plight. such as meat. I am obtaining that which will avail me in Eternity. I am subduing the Enemy [Ignorance] in this very lifetime. I should then have food with pala­ table qualities. do not say that. and now. “ If I had that. and fame. I told them if I had that. with the highest aspirations. but I have not had that for years. ye are striving your utmost to gain the lowest depths and the longest terms of an existence in the Infernal Regions! Y e are accumulating sins by the pound and stone.” Then they asked for flour or grain to thicken the soup with. A t last they asked for some salt. marrow. Amongst the World’s entire human population I am one of the most courageous. thou wouldst have a bellyful of food and warm clothing. and vying with . on the other hand. “ Living upon such food. I should then have food with sustaining properties. and wearing such gar­ ments as thou hast on now. I am one of the most fortunate and best amongst all who have obtained the human life. let alone devoting your lives to i t . They said. having entirely given up all worldly thoughts. and told them to apply nettle tips instead. but. even if thou should serve as a servant. far away from human habitations. to which I again said that salt would have imparted taste to my food. I said. A pply the nettles in place of the seasoning. I have met with Marpa the Translator. Thine appearance becometh not a man. 1 am passing my life in strict asceticism and devotion in these solitudes. W hy.” I said.for me would do for them. or fat. Thou art the most pitiable and miserable person in the whole world. Then I told them to make fire and to boil nettles.

Return ye to your own abodes. everything is comfortable. And to the error of the Ego Doctrine2 will hold fast. Comfortable is the Lucid Mind which discerneth present clingings and the Final G o a l. I pray that ye spare me your misplaced p it y . 1 The meditalion-band is placed so as to encircle Uie body and the yogttaUy postured legs and thus prevent the legs dropping w hen the yogi enters into deep meditation— there being need to maintain the posture (Skt. * The Doctrine of a personal Ego or S o u l. and this life’s aims. ‘ “ The sun’s last rays are passing o’er the mountain tops . Comfortable is the single meditation-band which holdeth up my knee. Comfortable is the Nepalese cotton-padded quilt above me. see p. who soon must die. 381. A Sana). to a diet temperate inured. each other in th at! How foolish and perverted are your aims in life ! I not only rejoice in the prospect of Eternal Bliss. Have settled down to win the perfect Buddhahood. try to imitate me . eliminate unhealthy physical conditions.1 Comfortable is the body. I. ‘ “ Here in the Dragkar-Taso’s Middle Cave. but enjoy these things which give me contentment and self-appro- bation. sm D d . which cuts off or short-circuits certain bodily forces or currents. ‘ “ Comfortable is the hard mattress underneath me. And as for me. the Yogi Tibetan called Repa. upon the Path of the Acquirement of Eternal Bliss. and cure illnesses. On this the topmost summit of the Middle Cave. Relinquishing all thoughts of what to eat or wear. But if inspired ye be not with the aim of the ascetic life.” 11 then sang to them a song about rny Five Comforts : ‘ “ Lord 1 Gracious M arpa! I bow down at T h y F e e t ! Enable me to give up worldly aims. 4“ If all of ye can do so. Asanas also make the body pliant and capable of great endurance. Nought is there uncomfortable. For I a Yogi am. uncertain of the hour of death.

mine eyes were deeply sunken into the sockets . “ Do not weep. my colour was of a bluish green. and comforted her by saying.” ‘ On hearing the song. W ith self-set task of winning perfect Buddhahood. they said. and my limbs appeared as if they were about to break. having gone to obtain some food and drink. “ H a ! Ha ! see how she praiseth her own brother ” . “ Whether he be Buddha or animal. She. my brother hath roamed away. the hairs of my head were stiff. It is quite possible that it is thy brother. and I myself am reduced to a beggar’s life: what is the need of gloating over my miseries ? ” And she burst out weeping. the man who sang that must be a very Buddha himself. Altogether. No time have I to waste on useless talk . I also met him some time ago. we cannot rough it as thou art doing. she came to me at the Dragkar-Taso Cave with a jugful of chhang and a small vessel full of flour. then both of us will go to see him. it is thy half-starved brother’s song. and formed a formidable w ig . Zesay came up just then. On first seeing me from the entrance of the cave. My body was emaciated by the privations and hardships .” ‘ Thus being led to believe the statement. and another said. my bones showed prominently.” Then they went off home. I was a sight which inspired her with such a dread­ . they chanced to sing this song together. upon hearing the song. she was frightened.” On this. “ O h ! my parents are dead long a g o . “ Sirs. a growth of bluish-green hair covered my skeleton-like form. yet. my relatives have become mine enemies. I f he be. Peta said.” One among the hunters said. * On the occasion of an annual feast-day in Kyanga-Tsa. A s for us. Therefore shall I into the State Quiescent of Samadhi enter now. It happened that my sister Peta was also there. and find out if he be there still. “ Thou art singing of various comforts. Go thou to the Dragkar-Taso Cave. he is on the point of death from hunger. thou dost really possess a very nice voice. said to them. my muscles were all shrunken and shrivelled. in fact.

So harken thou unto thy brother’s song : ‘ “ To repay the kindness of all sentient beings. sobbing forth the following: “ Our mother died in great trouble with a keen yearning to see thee. alas! thy circumstances are such. too. I at last succeeded in doing so. 1 So interminably. . “ A rt thou a human being or a bhuta ? ” I answered. I tried my best to console her. covering her face with both her hands. Applying the best means of restoring her. But. and. crying. being unable to bear the great privations and loneliness in our own house. came in and embraced me. I. the G urus! Grant that this Yogi may hold fast to solitude. No one came near u s . But she put her head between my knees. I thought that thou wert also dead. But I. felt both glad and sorry at the same time. Am sure to win Eternal Happiness.ful fright that she took me to be a bkiita. however. “ I am Mila Thopaga. A t last she mustered up courage. * “ O sister. knowing her to be Peta. thou art filled with worldly sentiments and feel­ ings. and sang this song to my sister: ‘ “ Obeisance to my Lords. and I. recognizing my voice. left it to go a-begging in distant lands. Thou seest what mine own destiny is ! Could there be any one on the earth more wretched than ourselves! ” Then she repeatedly called upon the names of our parents. But recollecting that she had heard that her brother was on the point of death from starvation. too. brother!” and then fainted away for a while. she half doubted whether it was really myself. alone by taking on myself these hardships. They having been our parents. have expected that if thou were alive to have found thee in better circumstances than these. have evolution and transition. I should. I. and continued wailing bitterly. A t last. and said. during inconceivable aeons. “ Brother.1 to the life religious I did give myself. [Know thou that worldly] joys and griefs are all imper­ manent. felt very sad. gave way to another flood of tears. and asked me.” She.

Though with no chance of driving melancholy from my mind. Y et if thou could observe my mind. ’tis the Bodhi Mind itself. ‘ “ Here in this solitary rocky cave. ‘ “ In my behaviour. four kinds o f birth are mentioned : birth by heat and moisture. A greenish hue. ‘ “ Thus persevering in my meditation.‘ “ Behold my lodgings. The respect for woman among Buddhists is based on this principle. that all sentient beings have been our parents. 'tis like a skeleton . which is highly interesting in the light of modern biological sciences. I meditate with zeal. True-Embodiment of the Eternal Buddhas. as in the low est forms o f organic life . say that each creature normally experiences 8. and rebirth. Unchangedly I ever hold adoration and affection For the Guru. like nettles hath become. likew ise. 1 doubtlessly shall gain Transcendent Knowledge and E x ­ perience . 1“ Sitting upon this cold rock underneath me. which changeth not. M y body. either at death normally or by yogic practices super-normally at any time. 0 sister. A s in The Tibetan Book o f the Dead (p. such as that when the consciousness-principle is transferred from the human to another realm of existence. birth b y e g g . and super­ normal birth. Enough to bear the tearing of my skin ofF or my flesh from off its bones . I am like a madman . *“ Behold my body .000 sorts o f birth ere attaining to the state of mankind. The Conquerors rejoice at seeing it. been going on. . Even an enemy would weep on seeing it. it hath assumed. 178). both inside and out. thou art moved thereby to disappointment and to sorrow. A n y other person would be timid in them. like those of jungle beasts are th e y . ' “ Behold my food .400. ’tis like the food of dogs and pigs It would excite in others nausea. birth by womb . T h e Hindus.

” Saying this. whichever way I observe thee. They met me while I was going to fetch water. ‘ The next morning. thou dost not look at all like a sane human being. nor could I afford to lose the time in doing so. But I have not seen even one who is undergoing such privations and penances. But also give thyself to penances. I see not the use of going a-begging for food. as I go along. Peta said. even if they could not bear all that thou hast borne. for religion’s sake. They offered me the meat. and do partake of the food of men. she said. and yet.” But I said. Zesay paid me a visit.” * When Peta had heard this. While I was drinking the chhang. I felt very much strengthened and refreshed by partaking of it. also. “ O my brother. begging for your food. I can succeed. Zesay added. ‘ “ Therefore. in my next birth. “ It would be admirable were it as thou sayest. She was accompanied by Peta. flour. To woeful sorrows give not way. but it is difficult to believe it true. despite their bashfulness. And. Even if I were to . my sister. will come to offer thee a cloth. and chhang. Peta dear. Prosperity and happiness is won within this lifetime. other devotees would practise at least part of such hardships. she gave me the chhang and the food she had brought. in this. they could not help weeping at mine utter poverty. and a goodly supply of chhang and flour. butter. but it was of no avail. I experienced a sharp feeling of excitement and physical pain. and I. bringing some well-cured and seasoned meat and butter. MWith the uncertainty of the time of death looming over me. For were it as thou representest it to be. I being stark naked (for I had no clothes). after Peta’s departure. and a variety of pious and impious ideas and thoughts sprang up in my mind. and my devotions during the night were more earnest and spiritual. I tried mine utmost to concentrate my mind upon medi­ tation. Some days after this. And if. I will try to find some cloth and bring it over to thee. Pray have recourse to soliciting of alms. they were both ashamed . Buddhahood I’ll win. “ Do have recourse to alms.

and clothed in fine raiment— all obtained at the cost of real and sincere devotion. amid this Solitude. ‘ “ My death unknown to any human being. My rotting corpse unseen by birds 2— Could thus I die. So saying. Naraka- Loka). 1 Nam ely. I will not pay heed to thine advice of going a-begging for food. I the devotee. it would be for the sake of Truth and Reli­ gion . Contented would I be. My sorrowing unknown unto mine enemies— Could thus I die. yet most sentient beings are doing their best to obtain the miseries of these three states of existence. my brother. Contented would I be. Tityaga-Lokd). the W orld of Unhappy Ghosts (Skt. * “ My happiness unknown unto my relatives. “ How then. the W orld o f Sub-human Creatures (Skt. I sang the song of what would constitute my Satisfactions: ‘ “ Obeisance to the Body of my Lord. A s for me. . amid this Solitude. ‘ “ My growing old unknown unto my betrothed. but even thine ingenuity seemeth to fail in devising any­ thing more painful and abstemious. My falling ill unknown unto my sister— Could thus I die.’' I replied that the three Lower Lokas1 are much more miserable than this . I the devotee. Preta-Loia). and the H cli-world (Skt.’' Peta said. I could not be satisfied with that show of devotion which is practised amid a circle of merry relatives and friends.die of the cold. Nor do I need thy clothes and visits. amid this Solitude. I the devotee. I am satisfied with these present afflictions. can thy heart be satisfied ? It seemeth to me that something more wretched than this would satisfy thee. Contented would I be. therefore. and. a In most parts o f Tibet it is customary to give a corpse to the birds to devour— as the Parsees do. the Guru ! 0 grant that I may cling successfully to solitude. revelling in unlimited quantities of food and drink. I should have very little cause for regret.

Zesay said.‘ “ My putrid flesh sucked by the flies. water-burial. and. pp. the birds and wild beasts. In addition— according to place. My dissolving muscles eaten by the worms— Could thus I die. I cannot bear to see thee in such utter want of clothes and food. and will come over with it. . are practised in Tibet. be granted as I wish . and earth-burial. Contented would I be. it is probable that thou wilt die without any one near thee. of starvation and cold. but seeing that thou wilt not go to beg for alms. by casting it -into rivers or lakes . amid this Solitude. somewhat after the Egyptian fashion. With no mark of blood within [the C ave]1— Could thus I die. T h y devotion would not run away if thou shouldst have a sufficiency of good food and clothing. the giving o f the corpse to the Element Earth. ‘ “ With none to crowd about my corpse [or bier]. “ T h y first sayings and thy present actions agree. in this solitude. I the devotee. my brother. circumstances of death. 35-7.” * On hearing this. and rank o f the deceased— fire-burial. may this prayer about the manner of my death Amid this uninhabited Solitude Bear fruit. the giving o f the corpse to the Elem ent W ater. e. w h ereby a corpse is given to the denizens of the Elem ent A ir. ‘ “ With none to ask where I had gone. Contented would I be. Then satisfied I ’ll die. for all beings good. I will do my best to find a cloth for thee. as for me. Therefore this song is worthy of admi­ ration. ‘ “ Thus. I the devotee. the giving of the corpse to the Element Fire. I the devotee. amid this Solitude. Contented would I be. mummification o f the corpses o f the Dalai and Tashi Lam as and of great nobles. after having been dismembered. amid this Solitude. 1 This refers to the Tibetan method o f air-burial. as among Christians . “ Whatever thou mayst say. Contented would I be. ‘ “ With no human foot-print by my door. See The Tibetan Book o f the Dead. I the devotee. and. I the devotee. i.” Then Peta said. just as thou desirest. And with no place which one might point to as my goal— Could thus I die. With none to lament o’er my death— Could thus I die. also. as in cremation . amid this Solitude.

see p. the devotee is directed to change his food as he progresses from one stage to another on the Path o f Accomplishment. .Should I. ‘ On my partaking of the good food. I found it to contain the manner of treating the present ailment. Peta’s chhang had somewhat excited the nerves. my physical pains and my mental. I saw that the minuter nerves of my system were being straightened o u t. In this predicament. I will come to bring thee some sort of a cloth. a even the knot of the Sushumnd-Nadi (median nerve) was loosening below the n avel. I understood 1 A s in the practice of KundalinI Y oga. on studying the contents of the scroll. I opened the scroll given me by my Guru. 34s. which I at once began to practise. the MulSdhdra- chakra . It was mentioned in the scroll that I should use good wholesome food at this time. and. they both went away. and therein differing from them. Thereupon. 1their knots w ere lo o se n in g '. Thus was a hitherto unknown and trans­ cendent knowledge born in me. and Zesay’s offerings had fully affected them. What till now had been regarded as objective discrimination shone forth as the Dharma-Kaya. but this had been retarded by the poor quality of my food. disturbances increased so much that I was unable to go on with my meditation. I found it contained the accessory means and exercises [both physical and mental]. thus clearing the obstacles and dangers on the Path. find that thou art not dead. see p. the Svadhishlhdna- chakra. and turning the Vice to Virtue. I knew that the very evil [or danger] had been turned to good. and next below this is the centre o f the Element Earth. I now understood what was happen­ ing . which I will try to get.1 The per­ severance with which I had meditated had prepared my nerves for an internal change in the whole nervous system. 34*. N ext below it is the centre of the Element W ater.” Having said this. and increasing the Spiritual Earnestness and Energy. but exceeding them in its depth and ecstatic intensity. thinking that there could not be a greater danger than the inability to continue my meditation. * T h e navel nerve-centre (Mantpura-chakra) is the centre of the Element Fire o f the body. 2 Literally. 3 and I ex­ perienced a state o f supersensual calmness and clearness resembling the former states which I had experienced. Soaring free above the obstacles. however.

the Sangsara and Nirvana to be dependent and relative states . This Universal Cause. I sang this hymn [of prayer]. but according to their result. which is dis­ tinct from the ideas of Interestedness or Partiality. M y belief in the methods of the Mantrayanic doctrines. 351 and 36s. at the crisis. and it only awaited the accident. which had served as its main cause . 3 The Translator. So by way of proving my gratitude. and accelerated his spiritual grow th and development. in such a w a y that these gifts may become eternal and inexhaustible sources of good karmic results to them. and therefore mine obligation to them was great. resulteth in the Sangsara. 1 Cf. I was perfectly convinced that the real source of both Sang- sara and Nirvana lay in the Void ness [of the Supra-mundane Mind]. was thus firmly established. the late Lama Kazi Dawa-Samdup. So Jetstln wished to w eigh their gifts. pp. as the Ultimate Opposites. and the timely prescription contained in the scroll. it resulteth in Nirvana.2 The knowledge I now had obtained was born of my previous energetic devotions. which teach that a real transcendent knowledge can be obtained by proper care of the body and without giving up nourishing food and comfortable clothing. which embodieth the Essence of the Dependence and Relativity of Facts: 3 * “ Obeisance to the Feet of Marpa of Lhobrak ! Grant that this hermit may hold fast to Solitude successfully. it m ay be said that the result depended on their gifts. 1 and that the Universal Cause is Mind.’ S4i4 E e . the other the state of the supra-mundane mind o f the Dharma-Kaya. of the wholesome and nourishing food. not according to their value. the one the state of the mundane mind. I also saw that Peta and Zes^y had greatly contributed to the final development of the hitherto latent qualities. to bring it forth. 1 Sangsara and Nirvana to the Enlightened Mind o f a Buddha are. This accelera­ tion having been brought about by their gifts. when directed along the Path of Disbelief [or Selfishness]. as their gifts had tended to bring out and develop the latent qualities in Jetsiin’s own physical system. and to consecrate their pious deeds to an Eternal and In­ exhaustible Purpose. inseparable— being but states o f mind. while if it be directed along the path of Altruism. has here added the following explanatory note : ‘ This somewhat abstruse phraseology means— as far as can be understood— that this hymn w as sung as a dedication o f the merits o f Zesay’ s and Peta’s pious gifts.

and difficult to gain. in rocky caves. and the layman providing him with food. upsprouting from the earth. delicate and brittle. Success for them and me dependeth. lieth true success. ‘ “ In the stoical and patient fortitude of Milarepa’s meditation. ‘ “ The life-sustaining principle. in Perseverance. Of this.2 *“ The yogi who. (Cf. Do each thus win the chance of gaining Buddhahood .) 2 T h e virtue of M ilarepa’s meditation and of the faith of the beings of the Three Lokas or Regions. the essence is Compassion. And laymen who provide his sustenance. Of this. Lieth opportunity of Universal Usefulness. Wherein. the first stanza above. is nourished and sustained. And devotion zealous and sincere. nourished by one’s parents. And ambrosial showers from the heavenly dome of blue. the essence is the Consecration. Join together and then favour the religious life . (See p. of Form (Riipa). From the Root-Support Lotus (the Earth) it rises . both work for and attain Buddhahood. amid the uninhabited solitude. and of Formlessness (Ariipa). O f Knowledge Spiritual doth this consist. which confer Ecstatic Illumination.) . o f Desire {Kama). And in a life religious this is employed the best. And the Sacred Teaching of the Sacred Guru. from the Thousand-Petalled Lotus (the Sky or Heavens) falls the ambrosial showers. by means of consecrating the merits of their mutual helpfulness to the Cause o f the Enlightenment o f all sentient beings. unite and produce a spiritual force helpful to all sentient beings throughout the Sangsara (or Universe of Nature). Join together and confer a blessing on all sentient beings . doth meditate. viz. This body..3 1 There is herein an underlying reference to the development of the Kundalinl (or Serpent) Power. O f this the essence is Compassion. And the faith of beings of the Lokas Three.‘ “ Upon the charity of righteous laymen. 34*. Join together and bring forth the Issue of Success . * “ The rocky cave. 3 The yogi meditating.1 ‘ “ The transient body. B y meeting food. after the Obeisance.

It symbolizes the Mount Meru of the human organism. are the two complementary channels. Itfd-natff) and the right- nerve (Skt. each being separated from the other by an iron-wall. 8 The benediction bestowed upon the Initiate and his fervent aspiration to attain Realization of Truth combine and speedily lead to the Goal— True Wisdom being won through direct communion with the superhuman Gurus. the Sahasrara-Padma . in my dreams. the left-nerve (Skt. Brahnta-dan 4 a).1 ‘ “ In the Rites Initiatory. O Thou the Immutable. Lieth opportunity of meeting speedily [Spiritual Com­ munion] . Rationally interpreted. the iron- wall symbolizing darkness. I zealously persevered in my meditations.‘ " In the Sacred Guru's grace. the base is the Root- Support rrrve-centre of the Susftumna-ttdfl. our Universe is but one in the infinity of space. B y day. Dorje-Ch’ ang) is. which confer and bless with Occult Power. in our text. Lieth opportunity to uphold the Truth [the Hierarchy]. The weal and woe of this mendicant Thou knowest. O f this. like the two serpents coiled round the wand o f the messenger-god Hermes. earnest and sincere [of the devotee]. I thus felt that I could exercise endless phenomenal powers . O f this.2 ‘ “ Lord Dorje-Chang. * Mount Meru is the Great Central Mountain of Buddhist as of Hindu m ythology. round which the cosmos is disposed in seven concentric circles of intervening seas and mountains. in the hollow o f which is the median-nerve (Skt. And the active meditation of the zealous shishya. I began to feel that I had obtained the power of transforming myself into any shape [desired]. Mount Meru. which. encloses each universe. has an esoteric significance. A t last.” ‘ This hymn having been sung. the essence is the Purity of Faith. the Chief. known as the Muladhara-chakra. Mount Meru is the centre of gravi­ tation of a universe such as o u rs. the ch ief channel o f psychic forces in man regarded as the Microcosm o f the Macrocosm. the spinal column (Skt. by night. the hub o f the physical universe. in the Buddhist scheme o f Cosmology. But here. and. of whom Vajra-Dhara (Tib. Pingala-naft). And in the prayer. and of flying through the air. for the Kargyutpa School. I could traverse the universe in every direction unimpededly— from the summit of Mount Meru 3 to its base— and I saw every- 1 Pure faith and devotion in the shishya and the divine grace of the Guru combine to produce the Saints who uphold the Church of Truth Universal on Earth. . Round the Brahma- dantja. the essence is the Benediction. The summit of Mount Meru is the Thousand-Petalled Lotus o f the brain nerve-centre. Sushumna-na<fV). like an egg-shell.

‘ Thenceforth. Each of my multiplied .” The father himself was bending his body about so as to avoid situated in the perineum. the ‘ Castle lyin g in Shadow s to the E yebrow s' would be the Ajna-chakra. i. The father said. . whither Mila­ repa sometimes flew. and there I obtained a far greater development of the Vital Warmth than ever before. a man is flyin g! ” And he left his work to look at me. centred his consciousness in practising Kundalinl Yoga (see p. Seeing that I had obtained infinite pheno­ menal powers [even though it be but in my dreams]. Move aside and do not allow his shadow to fall over thee. named Mila. If so. or into an expanse of flowing or calm water. I was filled with happiness and encouragement at mine own success. all endued with the same powers as myself. Sometimes I flew over to the Min-khyiit-Dribma-Dzong (Castle lying in Shadows to the Eyebrows)1 to meditate. a very mischievous woman. Likewise [in my dreams] I could multiply myself into hundreds of personalities. while I was thus flying. “ What is there to marvel at or to be amused about in the sight ? One Nyang-Tsa-Kargyen.thing clearly [as I went]. * This name may possibly also have esoteric significance. and then come back and preach the Dharma to many persons. She had been one of those who had perished in the crashing of the house. that whatever is not here is not elsewhere. finally. and said. Pinddnda) is to know the Macrocosm (Skt. Btahmanda)— that w hatever is here is elsew here. I happened to pass over a small village.e . The son saw me fly­ ing. while the father was guiding the ploughshare. 34s) and thus acquired the siddhi of levitation and flying. and the father and son were engaged in ploughing a field [as I flew over]. and go on leading the team. I could also transform my physical body into a blazing mass of fire. Sometimes I flew back again to the Dragkar-Taso Cave. where a brother of mine uncle’s deceased daughter-in-law happened to live. I actually could fly. until. The Tantras teach that to know the Microcosm (Skt. It is that good-for-nothing starveling. He had also a son. In the Thousand-Petalled Lotus. The son was leading the team. ‘ Once. had a wicked son. called Long-da. “ See. I persevered in my devotions in a most joyous mood. Shiva {Jnana : ‘ Divine W isd om ’) and Kundalinl (Shakti: ‘ Divine P o w e r ’ ) come together in union.forms could traverse space and go to some Buddha Heaven. and the yogi experiences Illumination. listen to the Teachings there.

or w orldly glory and prosperity. Indra’s temptations. to prevent such a one from becoming his rival. praying for protection from harms and the fulfilment of selfish desires. and had been seen flying by human beings. during which I had been seen by several persons to whom I had talked upon religious subjects . worldly folk would flock to me. now K ing o f the Celestials. I do not mind his being a good-for-nothing person.” So saying. once having been a prince on Earth. after giving up all worldly aims and prospects. so I resolved to devote myself to helping others. even till now. he continued looking at me. and.falling under my shadow. in the caves of which the followers of Milarepa. such was the command I re­ ceived. I thought that by dedicating my whole life to meditation. and that would conduce to the Cause of the Buddhistic Faith and to the benefit of all sentient beings. who would thus be led to spend their life in devotion. that I had obtained transcendent knowledge and siddhi (super-normal powers).2 Worldly fame and prosperity might retard the progress of my devotion and obscure my spiritual knowledge . “ If a man be able to fly. ‘ Now I thought that I could efficiently help all sentient beings if I liked. so I resolved to go and carry on my meditation in the solitudes of Lapchi-Chubar (Between Rivers). But the son said. carrying on 1 This is one o f the reasons w h y the Buddha and other of the Great Rishis ot India prohibited the w orking of miracles except in cases o f extreme necessity. Indra. Thereupon. is said to use these temptations against any man who practises great yogic austerities. So I resolved to spend my whole life in meditation. but I had a direct command from my Tutelary Deity to go on devoting my whole life to meditation. I could do no better. Everest. I thought that I had lived very long in the place. in serving all sentient beings thereby. and now. 2 That is. like those that he once practised. if I continued here. ‘ Again. although risen to his present state from the human state.1 This would be courting the temptations of the Son of the Celestials. The Tibetan name .3 Accordingly. I should be setting an example to future devotees. also. as my Guru had commanded By that alone I should serve the Cause of the Buddhistic Faith . ' 3 The Translator has thought that Lapchi-Chflbar m ay possibly be another name for Mt. there can be nothing more wonderful than a man flying. I started forth. practise the Kargyutpa system o f yogic meditation.

Demonstrateth the nature of all things [component]. 1 ‘ T here is this precept among the Kaula T a n trics: “ From Brahma to a blade o f gras3 all things are my G u r u s ’— Sj. who were coming towards my place for a meal. this being the hardened encrustation of the nettle broth which had assumed the shape of the outer vessel. and asked me to partake of their meal. Therefore do I. I also understood it to be a sort of exhortation to persevere in my devotions. B y breaking. But more especially human life it symbolizeth. 324 ). had heard it. The handle of the earthen pot back from the Dragkar-Taso Cave the earthen vessel in which I had been cooking my nettle-food. some hunters. What art thou doing with the broken earthen pot and the inner pot of hardened encrustations of froth of nettle broth . by having once existed. Feeling the whole occurrence to be very wonderful. and quite naked most of the time. despite mine attempts to catch it. A tal Bihari Ghosh. The earthen pot. “ O Hermit. Everest is Lapchi-Kang. The mishap vividly brought home to me the impermanent nature of all worldly things. which constituted my sole wealth. my soles having become hardened. and now by existing not. and horny scales being upon them. From within the broken vessel there rolled a perfect green image of it. I sang the following hymn in a spirit of deep faith : ‘ “ Even the earthen pot. Resolve to persevere unwaveringly. the pot itself rolled away and broke. They said. and how cometh it that thou art so emaciated and greenish in appear­ ance ? " On mine explaining to them the reason of mine emacia­ tion they were filled with wonder. . and this name is used by Milarepa in his song to his sister (see p.” ‘ While I was singing this. thou possessest a very musical voice for singing. But as I had been long practising meditation and living upon such poor food. one of the younger hunters commonly given to Mt. hath now become a Guru/ For it preacheth unto me a wondrous sermon on Imper­ manence. Mila the Devotee. I slipped upon a stone just beside my cave and fell down. W hile I was eating.

moving like the wind. but there is no one in the world who is so happy as myself. and obtain good food and clothes . accoutred in arms like a thorn-bush. “ Thou possessest a very fine voice. my body.said. Listen to me. Or else thou couldst devote thyself to trade. thou wouldst be subduing thine enemies. and. thou wouldst be far better off than this. . thou seemest to be a powerfully built man." To which I replied. Hitherto. Please sing us a song. A t the worst. which con­ stitute my felicity. to Buddha- hood. “ Y e all seem to think me very miserable. which. thou couldst serve as a ser­ vant. as regardeth thy body and mind. and thou wouldst be happy. better keep quiet.” So saying. thou dost not seem to have known of this. be riding a horse like a lion . wherein the Altar is. Within my breast. nor one who can boast of greater sense or a nobler and more successful life. w hen uncontrolled. thou wouldst. B y accu­ mulating wealth thou wouldst be protecting thine affectionate kindred. if thou should take to a worldly career. Once the mind processes are dominated. and it is not likely that he will mind our worldly counsel. the Y outh of Intellect. “ Why. if things went well. The catch­ ing and tying up of the Horse are the first steps in the science o f mind-control called Yoga. I sang them the hymn of a Yogis R a ce: ‘ “ I bow down at the Feet of my Gracious Father Marpa ! ‘ “ Within the Temple of the Bodhi Hill." Then to me he said. Within the chamber topmost and triangular within my heart.1 ‘ “ What Lasso must be used to catch this Horse ? And to what Post must It be tied when caught ? What Food is to be given It when hungry ? 1 It is here assumed that the heart is the centre w hence originate all mental impulses. in which line thou couldst earn sufficient to make thee happy. so set about it now. In­ stead of undergoing such troubles and privations. “ He appeareth to me to be a very good devotee. doth prance about. which will do good to our minds. the bridled and saddled Horse carries its spiritually accoutred rider. The Horse of Mind. I enjoy the following things. just as the best of you. are as unruly as a wild horse.’’ One of the older hunters said. but ye could not understand it.

And shot forth thus.8 Barbed with the Feathers of the Four Unlimited [Virtues]. as Head-stall and as Nose-band. when hungry. and leading to Dhydtta and Samadhi. the long Spear of Aspiration. Fixedness Immovable . as the Lasso. And slay the Sprite of Selfishness. broadcast like silent and invisible arrows which fall among all nations. Around it pass.8 1 These verses describe progressive stages in yoga practice. It must be fed. He draweth out to the full fathom of Communion W ide. Intellect. 1 It must be tied. and polishing. Made straight by lack of wrath or hatred. And. For Saddle. Intelligence. * H ere the figure used is o f an arrow-shaft of bamboo. Tipped with the Arrow-head of Intellect made keen. Milarepa justifies the life o f ascetical seclusion from the world. the most u sefu l. They strike the Faithful Ones. when thirsty. when cold. who regard the yogt as a useless member o f society. with the Guru's Teachings. Attach to It. • Singleness o f Purpose or One-Pointedness o f Mind. use the Will. It must be kept. to the Post of Meditation. Then placed within the pliant Bow of Wisdom Spiritual. of the Stream of Consciousness. And fixed there. virtue and goodness . hangeth the Sword. beginning with EhSgratd. for Bridle. ow ing to his thought-force. His Coat of Mail is Learning. w hich is commonly straightened and made even by heat. W hat Drink is to be given It when thirsty ? In what Enclosure is It kept when cold ? “ ‘ To catch the Horse. in the Enclosure of the Voidness. in the Aperture of the Wise Path and Right Method. Upon his back he carrieth the Shield of Patience . scraping. It must be given to drink. He holdeth. as Girths and Cruppers. * H erein. the arrows fall midst all the Nations. ‘ “ Its rider is the Youth of Intellect [Keen Watchfulness]: The Helmet. use. b y his side. which he weareth. and Contemplation. in his hand. the Vital- Airs. in fact. Unknown to the w orld ly multitude. is Mahayanic Altruism . when caught. Thought. he is. The smoothed Reed of Universal Mind [or Cause]. Singleness of Pur­ pose .

all Evil Passions. I ’m carried on to Buddhahood. but pity and self-conceit are opposed to each other. O M arpa! are kept alive in the world. Thus. the Buddhas)’. when a party of maidens. do not speak thus.2 Its Hind-part leaveth. Its Goal is the attainment of the State of all the Conquerors. And protected are our Kindred. See. 4“ By running such a race. one of them said. ‘ Jinas (the Conquerors. not only is the Saint the most essential o f all members of human society. in its rear. getting up. going through Palkhung. and the Pathw ay leading to the Olym pus o f the Gods is guarded and kept open. Skt. O Gracious Guru. attachment to sangsaric life.” I thinking them to be poor ignorant creatures. too. 841S F f . ye would not be born such as I am even though ye were to wish and pray earnestly for it. “ O ye girls. 15-24. our Introduction. Grant me T h y Blessings and T h y Grace. * Or. “ How piteous ! It maketh me quite nervous to see such a sight. I sang them this song: ‘ “ A t T h y Feet. “ O see how miserable this man appeareth! Grant that I may never be born in such a shape! " to which another added. was lying on the road to enjoy a view of the place.1 ‘ “ This Horse doth course along the widespread Plain of Happiness. Seeing my emaciated body.” ‘ On hearing this. and. and. having arrived at Tingri. now I pray . and so inconsistent. Listen to a song of mine. 1 These are all sentient beings in all the S ix Lokas (or W orlds) of the Sangsara. pitied them. they were moved with faith and went away in that mood. Its Front-part goeth on to the safe place of Deliverance.” With that. rather gaily dressed. pp. ‘ I then proceeded towards Chubar. Thus are the Enemies. Judge if this be like your own conception of felicity: Worldly Happiness I covet not. happened to pass by on their way to Snag-mo. It is praise­ worthy to pity. but his field o f altruistic service is the whole universe. Y e need not be anxious about that at a ll. I said. overcome.

She. Women of evil karma think a married life the most desirable of things. pitiable it is to see these beings thus deluded 1 * “ In these dark days. gaily dressed. like stones from off a path: Oh.1 Mischief-making knaves are worshipped as if gods. 1 O r. True devotees are cast aside. on Truth. and we have uttered several foolish things in a spirit of self-conceit. with that. “ This is the famous Gungthang-Milarepa. too. In answer to the senseless talk of ignorant beings. was very sorry." ‘ Upon my finishing the song. And returning Good for Evil. And I.‘ “ Those creatures. And mutual pity. ‘ A ge of Iro n 1— the * Dark A g e o f waning Religion and flourishing W orldliness. I'm preaching. Pravritti) or renunciation of the world (Skt. and prayed that I might be pleased to give them another sermon. w hether w orldly enjoyment (Skt. ’Tis exchanging wine for water. they all directed the girl who had uttered the speech to do so. L et us see who winneth in the end. Have mutual contempt for each other. . she offered them to me with prostrations. so then I sang to them the following song: ‘ “ I supplicate my Gracious Lord ! A sermon brief. which were used as cur­ rency then. and. But in the lance-tilt of our mutual pity. of the K ali-Yuga. and. pity these poor ignorant beings! ‘ “ Y e group of maiden sisters. producing seven shells.2 ‘ “ This truthful sermon is by Milarepa preached. the girl who had pitied me said. Milarepa of Gungthang. Contemptuously regard all others save themselves. too . Nivritti) leads to True W isdom . And impostors are prized as if more precious e’en than gold . in w hich the human race now is. 2 That is. Their self-conceit doth burn as hot as fire: A h. Now let us ask his pardon". who in evil karma are immersed.

I had been here long enough. of Hindu m ythology. and was progress­ ing favourably in my devotion and meditation . where I heard about both Lapchi-Chubar (Mt. I thought that if I remained in this place any longer. The Wise and Learned are not prized. *“ In the eyes of gay young women. lovers or guardians o f hidden treasures. In the Regions Lower. but the rake is prized .” ‘ On hearing this song they were moved to deep faith. demarcating courses of rivers and stream s. Everest?) and Kyit-Phug (Pleasant Cave). thus far. but love-songs do. causing winds and rain. to some extent. to the deterioration of my devotional practices. Unto the ears of youthful maidens. ‘ “ These are the truths in verse. also known as Nyima-Dzong (Sunny Castle). in the Naga’s Palaced City. but Riches a re . but Exposition is .1 Truths Spiritual are prized not. In the dreg-like remainder of these evil times [of Darkness]. had gained by my stay. and proceeded on their way. T h e y are thus somewhat like the Elementals of Medieval Philosophy. each class o f which inhabited one o f the elements. * The Nagas. popularity would only do harm to my meditative devotions. And as a joyful song betokening full pardon. as in our text here. to benefit human b ein gs. and (4). *I also went on towards Brin (Drin).1“ In the Palaces Celestial of the Gahdan Gods. of which I chose the latter. Now I must go to a most solitary region 1 Gods of the Tushita Heavens. *** In the Provinces of U and Tsang and the Four Districts. Meditation is not prized. (a) aerial. Truths Profound and Deep are prized not. but Liars are. There I spent some months. Prosaic sermons on religion sound not sweet. Sung in payment for the seven shells. guarding the H eaven-W orlds . or Dragon-demigods. bringing gifts of provisions. but the people of Brin visited me. are o f four kin d s: (1) celestial. 2 In this World of Human Beings. Good men are not prized. Not the devotee. (3) earthly. and. but the wicked are. but Truths Scientific a r e . who are more intellectual than spiritual. Knowing that this would tend. .

and. While I was about to start on my way thither. blowing trumpets by pairs. A t Tingri. where I then was. and. she asked some among the assembly there whether they had heard or seen aught of me. He hath a throne under him. inquiring from every one. not finding me there. some of whom blew conchs. dressed in silks of five different colours. If I now meet my brother. with an umbrella over him. it will never do to go on in this starving. he is clad in silken garments. So.” Thinking thus. Thou art past shame and common decency! Make a lower garment of this blanket. Even if thou be . at Gungthang-Tot. “ Other devotees and religious folk enjoy these things. I would have thee try to enter his service and follow him as his disciple. and his lips are always dipped in tea and chhang. she had come inquiring after me right up to Kyit-Phug. which thou sayest is thy mode of living a religious life. according to my Gurus command. thus benefiting his relatives. with a great crowd round about. I resolved to go to Lapchi-Chubar. my sister Peta came to offer me a piece of blanket-cloth. and an umbrella over him . and collecteth their offerings in large quantities. who walk in front of him. Upon seeing me. Upon seeing this. She had taken it to Dragkar-Taso. clarionets. but my brother’s religion is a source of misery and trouble to himself and shame to his relatives. He is surrounded by his disciples and followers. had come searching for me. “ O brother. naked condition. woven of wool which she had collected from the leavings of others. and flutes. and seek a cave there. He assembleth a crowd wherever he goeth. she at once said. and surrounded by his dis­ ciples. Peta thought. but quite different in style and practice from thyself. she had come tracking my very footprints. that a hermit resembling a caterpillar which feedeth upon nettles had passed from Palkhung towards La-Tot-Lho (Upper Hills Facing South). all offering him tea and chang. who is a Lama indeed. and hearing. and is one who can be boasted of as a most eminent Lama. being told that I was at Brin. I shall try mine utmost to persuade him to become a disciple of this Lama. and go to the Lama Bari-Lotsawa. she had seen Lama Bari-Lotsawa (The Great Bari Translator) seated upon a high seat. cymbals.

Marpa the Translator. have developed so prominently. Moreover. Fam e. giving up all prospects in this life. W orldly acquisitions o f wealth and the need of clinging to them.Blam e. P o v e r ty . By thus obeying my 1 T h e se a re : Com fort. T h ey are objects of loathing and abhorrence to every righteous being among gods and men. which did not exist at the time of thy birth. and there is no shame in that. accepted as his meanest disciple. thereby breaking their parents’ hearts. W ealth. that would be better than this sort of life. Moreover. and hurt themselves in the end. then thou especially shouldst feel shame because thy breasts. I am fulfilling them. I am proud that I have obtained the Truth through my being a man . thou art quite mistaken. cause pain and suffering to other beings. Thou regardest my naked condition with shame. clothing. because I have cast aside clothing and coverings. aims. do not speak in that fashion.1 I regard with as much loathing and disgust as a man who is suffering from biliousness regardeth the sight of rich food. and objects. therefore is it that I am assuming this beggarly and penurious mode of life. But if thou speak of shame at seeing my body. deploring our lot. Nay. T h y penurious devotion and my luckless life will scarcely do in this world. I regard them as if they were the murderers of my father. and they alone should feel shame. I was born thus . bade me to give up all worldly concerns. ‘ I tried to console her by saying. Such being my Guru's commandments. and name . W e cannot thus sustain life. “ Peta. committing various acts of deception and meanness to attain their selfish aims. and to carry on my devotions most energetically. my Guru. I feel them as keenly as though I had been cast alive into flames.” And then she began to weep bitterly. . Praise. I am frightened at the pains and tribulations of this Sangsara. to bear the loss of food. as well as the pursuit of the Eight Worldly Aims. to live in various solitary places [not fixing myself to one place per­ manently] . if thou think that I am meditating in this penurious condition just because I cannot earn or obtain food and clothing. But those who knowing certain acts to be sinful commit them.O bscurity. and those coveting property dedicated to Gurus and the Trinity.M isery. therefore there is no shame in it.

Guru's commandments. for four: These four. Immersed in worldly wishes as thou art. I gave up all thoughts of this life. because I saw that there is no certainty as to when death may come upon me. The polished handle of red teak-wood. at the bottom. [A Chorus. Protector of all Sentient Beings. the five verses which follow . to pass thy life in meditation at Lapchi-Kang. who is older. at the top. Thou the Eternal Buddha! Since Thou. The ribs outspread. like a peacock’s gorgeous feathers. thine elder brother could procure. and come with thy brother. And blessed Thy Shishyas with T h y Grace. below. therefore am I devoting myself to devotion and medita­ tion in such an energetic way. . but I shall earn eternal happiness for every sentient being. 314".1 If thou can give up worldly thoughts and come to pass thy life in meditative devo­ tions. I should be able to acquire as much as Lama Bari-Lotsawa himself is acquiring. accompanies this stanza and each ot the five following stanzas. above). O Marpa the Translator! ‘ “ M y sister Peta. ‘ “ The pinnacle of gold. for tw o . if needed. I shall not only be able to confer tem­ poral ease and comfort on those who are my followers. for th ree. The fringe of Chinese silk. so what need is there to speak of his meanest follower! But I desire Buddhahood in this very life­ time . listen unto me. by worldliness unsullied hath remained. in between. for one. the sun of thy temporal and eternal happiness will thus shine in full splendour. Give ear to thy brother’s song.” Then I sang this song: ‘ “ O Lord. Everest is commonly known to the Tibetans (cf. p. I f I were to think of acquiring wealth and ease. Peta. placed on an umbrella.] 1 Lapchi-Kang is the name by which Mt. I bow down at T h y Feet. in­ cluding myself. do thou also give up all worldly aims. arranged in tasteful folds. as indicated.

for four: These four. for three. for tw o . for one.' “ But these are worldly things. for three. massive. for three . do thou. of food and wealth. with goodly stock of Chinese tea. O Peta. ‘ “ The white conch-shell’s far-sounding note. A well-stocked store. just above a village placed. thine elder brother could procure. and in astro­ logy. for four: These four. for enjoying them. The busy hands. for three. thine elder brother could procure. my Sun of Happi­ ness shineth gloriously. if needed. plaited in fine plaits. and tall. for o n e. Likewise. for tw o. A field. pretty little temple. in necromantic seership. for four : These four. The silken ribbons [on the conch]. and crowd of servitors. by ’my thus eschewing worldliness. thine elder brother could procure. The correctness and the modesty of a pastor’s acts. [Chorus] . of brick. And. if needed. to meditate. A numerous retinue. for one. The psalms melodious. The splendid kitchen. if needed. sung with a view to turn the heads of the laity. [Chorus] *“ A building. of youthful novices. if needed. of many youthful novices. [Chorus\ ‘ “ The well-liked trade. The performance of thepujds. extensive and fertile. for two . thine elder brother could procure. [Chorus] ‘ “ The charming. for tw o . The practised blower’s full and potent breath. for one. for four: These four. The fluent speech. And come to meditate in Lapchi-K ang: Let us together go to Lapchi-Kang. beautiful. The vast assembly of celibate priests [summoned thus]. well arranged. and I’ve eschewed them. all worldliness eschew.

my sister. tall crest of a powerful horse. sisterly affection. I do not even know where . if needed. ‘ “ Do thou. for four: These four. I will not go to Lapchi-Kang. be high-destined ones. the twain. my brother. uncertain o f the hour of death. cling to worldliness. jewel-bedecked and gold-inlaid. These talks of worldly things disturb my meditation. Therefore to Lapchi-Kang I’m going. And let us go together.” ‘ On my singing thus. An armed escort. for three. The teachings of my Guru-Father are beneficial to the mind . I being born. know I must d ie . A saddle. which I need not go to seek at Lapchi. Let us. “ I see that thou meanest ease and comfort by worldliness. And can not come to Lapchi-Kang. for all the time thou canst. thine elder brother could procure. Peta said. And go together to the Ranges of the Lapchi-Kang. [Chorus] 1 “ But if thou can not give up worldliness.*“ The proud. No time have I to postpone my devotion. Strive to remain. in this life now. as for me. in conquering enemies and protect­ ing friends. where I shall have nothing to eat. the Eight Sangsaric Aims. but. brother and sister. for two . A ll these fine-sounding truths and sermons are merely excuses to cloak thine inability to be as well off as Lama Bari-Lotsawa. A s for that. No liking have I for thy sentimental. Acquire sins by the pound and stone. nor anything to wear: it would be unendurable misery. And strive to win thyself a birth in the Three Lower Worlds. for one. I’ll earn the Great Happiness of Deliverance . And vigilance unceasing. Thus. Renounce. unto Lapchi-K^ng. ‘ “ Y et if thou fear the Sangsara in the least. in the Sangsara. both of us have so little to give up. Uninterruptedly will I devote myself to meditation. contemplating that which bringeth benefit. splendidly accoutred.

” I replied. as well as a cover for my nakedness. and sewed myself a cape to cover my head entirely. A s thou seemest to be so prudish and more sensitive to the feeling of shame than myself. and so I have made these coverings. one by one. I must 3119 G g . since mine other limbs are also organs of this same body. next. my brother. and. A t times. at least stay on for some days more. I have been at the pains to sew this covering for it. I showed her what I had done. she said. “ I am the worthiest of human beings. ‘ Meanwhile. my sister came b a ck . thou seemest to have ample leisure. I cut up the blanket which she had brought me. in any case. Upon this. on a begging errand. Please sew thyself an under­ garment from this is . and kept my vows rigidly. thou appearest to have no time to spare for anything save devotion .” I consented to remain there for a few days. I said that I h ad . and I would entreat thee. I could find thee more easily then. so it would be best if thou remain here permanently. I have devoted myself to a religious life. as thou sayest. but made to serve the ends for which thou didst intend it. and putting on the coverings. and as I could not afford to cut off the part which thou lookest upon as shameful. for I have thus prepared a covering for the organ of shame. then. but thou hast spoilt the blanket which I prepared with so much trouble. and. like an animal pursued by dogs. instead of rushing about and clinging te uninhabited cliffs and rocks. and. and kept them ready. Thy blanket hath not been wasted. Then she went towards Tingri side. The people of this place seem disposed to regard thee with veneration. But. at the cost of my time for devotions. But as thou appearest to feel shame at seeing my natural shape. I sewed a co\fer for each of my fingers and a pair of coverings for my feet. Knowing what is really shameful. to remain per­ manently in one place. “ O brother! thou art no longer a human being! Thou art not only devoid of the sense of shame. I will return in a few days. I thought a covering for each of them would be required similarly. as she requested. A few days later. at other times. for I am engaged in turning to the best account the precious boon of a blessed human life. upon her asking me whether I had sewn the blanket into a dress.

vile frauds. To me. * Thoughts being things. the thought-waves created by them in the ether are potent to affect for good or ill all beings throughout the universe. 0 Peta dear. each of a cer­ tain sex. yet few refrain from them. Give ear awhile unto thy brother’s song : ‘ “ Thy shame is born of ignorant conventionalities. They do not know what really is shameful and what is not Therefore listen to this song of mine. are acts filled full of shame and meanness. Evil deeds. Deceiving friends and kindred who confide in one— These.2 begot of unbelief.1 What shame can be attached thereby ? When ’tis known that human beings are born. she kept quiet. indeed. and robberies. 1 That is. Covetous and harmful thoughts. please'do away with thine own as quickly as thou canst. ‘ “ The most of worldly folk heed not Those acts which truly are either mean or shameful: The Daughter of Shame is bought with wealth.tell thee that if I should feel shame thou shouldst feel more shame. Then I said. who knoweth what shame truly is.” When I said this. Shame thou feelest where for shame there is no cause. ’Tis known. body. The Child of Shame is dandled on the lap .” With that I sang to her the song which showeth clearly what is shameful and what is n ot: “ ‘ To all the Lineal Gurus I bow down ! Grant me knowledge of what is really shameful. speech. But that which is really shameful is evil deeds and wily deception. Seeing that it is better to do away with an object of shame than to keep it on. as on the Earth. . too. “ Worldly folk regard with shame that which involveth no shame. thefts. In showing in its natural shape my threefold personality. and her face was sullen. and these they do not feel shame in committing. held fast with prudish shame. and mind. the devotee. that each possesseth certain organs.

however. mine uncle. on the side opposite to us. and came with whatever she herself could carry.” Having said this.” Suiting her action to the words. thine aunt is coming over. So please use these. induced her to remain as long as the provisions might last. But let thine understanding flow within its natural channels. having lost her brother. “ It is for that very reason that I am lifting up the bridge. and grease. butter. I talked to her about religious sub­ jects and about the Law of Karma. but now I have come. Found in the Sacred Teachings of the Mystic Path. I. " Niece. do not. Peta answered. which she had obtained by begging. yet I cannot give thee up. seek to add unto thy present miseries. “ This cruel aunt who hath caused us so much harm and misery we must not meet. right up to the place where I was living. and the yak. They who have vowed to pass their life in meditation. so that even though she did not earn merit by practising devotion.” “ Niece. coming to the brink of the slope. thou art quite righ t. Peta having seen her coming from the hillock. be free from committing sin. Our aunt.” ‘ When I had sung this song. she lifted away the little bridge which spanned the yawning chasm between the slope on the opposite side and the front of my cave. “ It is quite clear that thou wilt not do any­ thing such as I wish thee to do. to some extent. from the very core of her heart. She had been first to Brin. There she deposited the things. at least. A t last. she was about to go away. Therefore. wishing to turn her heart towards religion. A s long as she thus lived with me. saying.” To this. mine aunt. ‘ A t about this time. repenting the wrong they had done me. do not lift up the bridge. See not the need to hold to codes of shame conventional. also came in search of me. . said. and bitterly. bringing a yak-load of things.' “ Those hermits who have given up the worldly life And taken to the practice of the Spiritual Truths. she would for that much time. O Peta. I succeeded in turning her heart towards the Faith. and recognizing her. she sullenly handed over to me the provisions. and I will do what I can to obtain more. said.

left us. “ I have given up all attachment to relatives generally. we were scattered then. I sang to her a song recalling the cruelties and persecutions with which they had pursued m e: * “ O Kind and Gracious Father. I thought that it would not become me. but even when I had taken to a religious career and happened to come to your door to beg. and pleaded earnestly that she might be allowed to meet me. this song of mine will refresh thy memory. Attentively give ear to it. and brought us unto misery. O aunt.” So saying. and my sister gone. compassionate to all. ‘ Just then. but I must first speak plainly to her about her cruelties and per­ secutions. mine aunt and uncle. . And found my mother dead. if thou wilt not do this. Anxious to behold my sister and my mother. I returned home. Y e were not satisfied with greatly persecuting us in our child­ hood and youth. a widowed mother and two orphans. Mine aunt bowed down several times from the other side. And. at least. O Marpa the Translator. ‘ “ Thereafter. Yet. recallest thou all that thou hast done ? I f thou can not. and by our uncle. So our attachment unto kith and kin was sundered. to refuse her the interview in the end. then. Our noble father dying. who am bereft of kindred! ‘ “ O aunt. the three. but especially to you. tell thy brother that I have come here. ye assaulted me so cruelly that I ceased to think of you at all as relatives. which thou wilt listen to. Of all our wealth thou didst defraud us. I arrived there. too. to meet both of y o u . So I said. I will briefly recall those circumstances in this song.bitterly repenting of my deeds. I bow down at Thy F e e t! Be Thou a Kindred unto me. as peas are by a staff.” pleaded our aunt. and seated myself on a little knoll on this side of the bridge. as a devotee. B y thee. 1 “ There in the wretched land of Kyanga-Tsa. when in distant lands I wandered long. and in repentance be sincere. so lower the bridge.

‘ Disgrace unto my Clan \ With these rude words my heart was wounded. Compelled by lack of food to seek for alms. He called the neighbours forth to help in killing m e. Malicious thoughts. With a malady incurable he filled my heart. The life religious thenceforth chose. my kinsfolk were more cruel to me than enemies. O butcher’s heart in an uncle’s form ! A ll my respect for an uncle I lost then. ‘ “ When I was poor and helpless. defraud me of my house and field. My breath was stopped and I was speechless. words abusive uttering. A s though I were a sheaf of corn for threshing. when I reached mine uncle’s door. where I was meditating. I fell face downward in a pool of water. My constant Zesay came to see me. O aunt. And sought to transfix me with a rain of small keen arrows. to the hill. the helpless devotee. And likewise. in the body of an aunt. O aunt. Before thy door. I sought religion. . Amidst thy fury. Thou didst. although I had no need of them. And thou. I came to beg. out of love. Thereafter. That sundered me from all my love for thee. thou didst call me ‘ Trafficker in L ives’ . Didst burst forth in a storm of spiteful anger. injurious acts. too. too. and finding it my sole solace. And then. in recognizing me. With thy tent-pole thou didst belabour me most heavily. ‘ “ Thereafter. With cries of *Cho! Cho ! ’ thou didst set thy dogs upon m e. A demoness thou art. He pelted me with showers of stones. vile words I met. by various wiles.’ was his c r y . With anguish pierced. Wherein I almost lost my precious life. There. I almost lost my life. And. ‘ The destroying demon of the country cometh. And. with despair and misery overwhelmed.

with pleasant words. mine aunt. and. Please grant me the interview which I seek. if we do so. while there is still the time. I lowered it nevertheless. 'Tis better to go early.” Being unable to harden my heart any further. was bound to be forgiving. and. is she. indeed. far less I need to meet thee. eventually obtained Emancipation. and how persevering and energetic in carrying on devotion and meditation in lonely hilly solitudes. or I shall surely commit suicide. Return e’en now. but be patient. however. bowing down several times. more kind than I can s a y . And she. devoting herself to penance and meditation. O my nephew.’ Then Shiwa-wod-Repa addressed Jetsiin in these words: * O Jetsiin. Besides. Mine aunt was thoroughly converted by the sermons. so I laid the bridge across. She comforted my sorrow-stricken heart. I was about to lower the bridge when my sister whispered many reasons to withhold me from doing so. it is beyond our comprehension when we hear how constant in thy faith and purpose thou wert in obtaining the Truths from thy Guru j how meek and faithful throughout thy terrible ordeals. mine aunt shed many tears. She said. but the present case was not. . Y et since e’en she is not devoted to religion.” Then she began to entreat me. a breach of faith in a spiritual matter. and had come to ask my forgiveness.” * When I had sung thus. And from starvation saved me then. I myself being of the Religious Order. Little need I see to meet her when she cometh. granted the desired interview. I have come here. I saw that she was really sincere in her repentance. and that. in the manner thou hast com e. She brought me nourishing and tasty food . And as for thee. said. “ Thou art right. Kind. thus far thou art right. some obscuration and defilement will occur. consoled m e. I pray thee. “ Not being able to overcome the desire to see thee. It is said to be undesirable to live in the same country or to drink of the same fountain [or well of water] with a person with whom a breach of faith hath taken place. and preached several sermons on the Law of Karma.

and a man who realizeth the nature of Voidness necessarily becometh more subtle. at first. These [latter folk] always appear not to believe even in the simplest and most generally accepted [or self-evident] of karmic laws. then. ‘ When we think of the pains and troubles endured in the Sangsara and in the Hell-Worlds. I exhort you all to pass your lives in strict asceticism. I. and distinguisheth the quali­ ties of actions both good and bad with a much finer power of perception. the Voidness. What. he becometh more strictly conscientious. it is of the highest importance to believe in the Doctrine of Karma. will be able to put forth similar zeal and energy. and believe in. once having heard about the Doctrine of Karma. as. my Guru. and believing in it. I could not help doing. will not emancipate us from the Sangsara. A ll piety consisteth in observing and believing in the Law of K arm a . meditating upon the Sacred Mystic Truths. But when once one believeth in the Voidness. In short. although they devote themselves to various expositions of the Voidness (Shunyata). Thoughtful persons. and. my faith and zeal do not really appear to have been so very great either. and faith in. did not understand the nature of the Voidness. not having realized the truth of it. but I believed firmly in the Law of K a rm a . Thus. in deep solitudes. and carrying into . our devotion seemeth to be mere sport— done at leisure. by fits and starts. its very self becometh manifest in the intricate workings of the Law of K arm a . Jetsiin answered. he wept bitterly. But those who understand only the wordings of the Doctrine. is far more difficult to comprehend. are unable to renounce the Eight W orldly Aim s and Objects. are we to do ? * Having uttered these words. and such devo­ tion [we fear]. being conscious of having committed deep and heinous sins. as found in the Scriptures and Gospels. So I entertained the deepest reverence for. therefore it is of the utmost importance to be very persevering in adopting pious acts and rejecting impious acts.When we think of those deeds. indeed. being more subtle and intricate. Therefore. and exerted the utmost energy and zeal during my meditation. I believed that I richly deserved to go to the three miserable states of Hell.

2 yet. Those of us who have thus been favoured are sure of obtaining Deliverance* although we be not able to pursue our devotions so earnestly. either a Bodhisattva or a Buddha in the p a st. and the various H ells. Padma Sambhava. I f ye do so. or as any other Deity. even to our hearts. 1 Namely. come in human shape. ye will obtain the grace and blessing of such Deity. ‘ Precious G u ru 1 (cf. 5). in virtue of your faith. appear quite incomprehensible. It is commonly applied to G reat Gurus and Yogis. and we are blest in having seen thy face and heard thy voice. the W orld of Unhappy Ghosts (or Pretas). at least. but even though I be an incarnation of a being formerly existing in one of the Three States of Misery. is popularly called Guru Rinpoch’e. thy meekness and constant and unswerving faith during the time that thou wert under thy Guru. Thou hast been ready to sacrifice life itself for religion. assure you of emancipation from the Sangsara * Then Ngan-Dzong-Tonpa Budhi-Raja addressed Jetsiin in this eulogistic style: *0 Jetsiin Rinpoch’e. Personal love and regard make ye think that 1 Rinpoch’ e. who would be able to do so ? And even if any one had the will and hardihood to attempt to do so. Be pleased to reveal to us what Bodhi­ sattva thou wert in the past. and the hard­ ships which thou didst bear. And if not that. the old man. I.1 thou must be the great Buddha Dorje-Chang Himself. A ll the signs of an Incarnate Buddha are to be found in thy life. So it is quite certain that Jetsiin must be. or must have been. meaning ‘ P reciou s’.practice the teachings of the Doctrine.’ To this Jetsiin replied: ‘ I myself am not sure whose incarna­ tion I am . For to beings like us. . and obtained the state of such a Great Being— one who will not return again to the Sangsara. to show those acts for the benefit of the sentient beings of this world. and persisted zealously in the pursuit of devotional meditation. the physical frame would not be able to bear it. p. the three miserable planes of existence : the W orld of Brutes. if ye regard me as Dorje-Chang. is a Tibetan term of great respect. for example. thou must have acquired much merit in countless Kalpas. then. It would be impossible for us to think of undergoing all those hardships for the sake of the Truth. who live for the in­ dividual self.

giving up all thoughts of this life and world. And when any one obtaineth these spiritual developments. Actually this is disbelief in the Short Path of the Mantrayana. But if one pass a lifetime here doing nothing but committing the ten impious acts and the five unlimited sins. the thought of the miseries in the Three Lower States is sure to fill one with dread and inspire one with the intensest desire to obtain Buddhahood. mu Hh . and em­ powered me to meditate on these Truths in the right way. would alto­ gether equal mine in every point. For it is by the great power of the Sacred Dharma alone that I have been able to attain such spiritual advancement as to be very near Perfect Buddhahood in the latter portion of my years. finally. I exhort you all to establish your belief in the Law of Karma firmly. but towards the Dharma ye commit the great sin of doubt and scepticism. the worldly proudly attribute it to his being an Avatara of some Buddha or Bodhisattva.1 conferred on me the necessary Initiations. one lacketh zeal in the pursuit of his devotional studies. flow ery rhetoric and parables. and. who was able to give me those very Truths and Texts which were most adapted to me. and continued to meditate on them. Then one's faith and meekness towards the Guru. consider.I must be an Incarnation . He gave me the Truths divested of all superfluous adornments and clothing. if one believe firmly in the Law of Karma. was I fortunate in being taken in hand by a perfected Guru. more especially. And. and weigh deeply 1 That is. and which enabled me to follow the Short Path of the Mystic Mantrayana. Meditate upon. It was because I firmly believed in the reality of the Law of Karma that I applied myself zealously to the Truth. zeal and energy in the meditation on the Truth. If one do not believe in the Law of Karma. there is not the least doubt that such a one will fall into the most miserable of the Hells. there is not the least doubt about his obtaining perfect enlightenment within one lifetime. This is because ye have not the power of earnest devotion. although I had been guilty of such heinous sins in my youth and early man­ hood. If any one else had obtained these. the way in which one beareth the experience of the spiritual growth and knowledge. Therefore.

name. . and name. having weighed these in your minds. and. the Law of Karma. I devoted myself to meditation in the most unfrequented and solitary places.the serious facts contained in the biographies of previous saintly lives. comfort. and practise devotion as I have done. which telleth how Jetsiin. obeyed his Guru's commands by devoting himself to incessant meditating in the most unfrequented hills and solitudes. devote yourselves to the study and practice of the Manirayanic Doctrines. Thus did I obtain knowledge and experience. Inspired with zeal in my heart. and thus passed his whole time in devotion. I have obtained spiritual knowledge through giving up all thought of food. the difficulties of obtaining the boon of a well-endowed human life. and the certainty of death and the uncertainty of the exact time of death. I bore every hardship and inured myself to all sorts of priva­ tions of the b o d y. do ye also follow in the path trodden by me. clothing. and fame. after giving up all thoughts of worldly ease. the inconveniences and miseries of all sangsaric states of existences.’ This is the Sixth Meritorious A ct.

it is so pathetic. which exciteth laughter. those that had come with intent to torment me. and. ‘ Master. I pray that thou wilt be pleased to tell us now of those incidents which would excite laughter.’ Then Seban-Repa asked. Then came the Goddess Tseringma. I gained a few human disciples. . and o f the Recorded Writings concerning Jetsiin. as I now perceive.1 Master. that one cannot help shedding tears. yet. on the whole. in Nepal. Afterwards. Sub­ sequently. who were thy first disciples. *Another of my hermitages was Yolmo- Kangra. ‘ Master. Ten-mas). where else hast thou medi­ tated ? ’ Jetsiin replied. ‘ No more true cause for laughter could ye expect than the account of the success attending the zealous devotional efforts which enabled me to save both well-endowed human and non-human beings. will be promulgated by Tseringma among non-human beings.1 to test me by displaying various super-normal powers. Jetsiin answered. Tseringm a (a Tibetan name meaning 1 Long-Life ’) is probably a form of the Indian Goddess D u rgi. besides thy chief hermi­ tage in the Cave of Lapchi-Chubar. the God of the Himalayas. and thus to serve the Cause of the Buddhist Faith. THEN Rechung said. were they human or non-human beings?’ To this. T H E H E R M IT A G E S A N D S E R V IC E R E N D E R E D T O S E N T IE N T B E IN G S Telling of Jetsiin's Disciples and Places o f Meditation . In addition. and some hermitages in the caves previously mentioned. and to place them on the Path of Emancipation. ‘ Non-human beings were my first disciples. I had six outer well-known 1 A deity o f the Kail&sa Mountain— one o f the tw elve guardian goddesses of Tibet called Bsten-mas (pron. and by Upa-Tfinpa among human beings. My teachings. although there is a vein of humour. thy history could not be excelled for its wonderful humour and interest.’ And Jetsiin said. other human disciples began to gather round me. the Spouse of Shiva. running through the whole narrative.’ Again Rechung asked.

that is. enjoy the benefit thereof. (3) Khujuk-Enpa-Dzong (Castle of the Solitary Cuckoo). by thy having attained the final goal of Dharma and exhausted [its Treasures]. with a view to leaving them some guidance thereto. at last. had forgotten the process. (4) Ragma-Changchup-Dzong (Perfect Castle of Rag- m a). no longer needing to think how to meditate. eighteen. Besides these. (5) Kyang-Phan-Namkha-Dzong (Castle of the Banner- Adorned S k y ).and six inner unknown caves [in high cliffs]. Again. ‘ Lord. a JetsUn seems to apply the name o f Dzong (Castle or Stronghold) to those caves which w ere situated in high cliffs. But future disciples may wish to acquire merit [by visiting the caves wherein thou didst meditate]. thy humble disciples. so. we. and the meditator were so interwoven with each other that now I do not know how to meditate. meditation had become so second nature to Milarepa that he. for thou impartest the Doc­ trine to us in such an easy and impressive manner that we can. (6) Dragkya-Dorje-Dzong (Indestructible Castle of Grey Rock). grasp the true meaning. I medi­ tated in various other smaller caves and solitudes wherever necessaries appeared to be plentiful— till. and attain firm­ ness in our belief without any fear of misconception. (3) Lingwa-Dragmar-Dzong (Block Castle of Red R ock). (a) Min- khyut-Dribma-Dzong (Castle Lying in Shadows to the Eye­ brows) . (4) Shelphug-Chushing-Dzong (Plantain Castle of the Crystal 1 That is to say. making altogether twenty castles. the object of meditation. (3 ) Khyipa-Nyima-Dzong (Joyful Sun Castle). there are four larger well-known caves and four larger unknown caves. the act of meditation.’ Then Jetsiin replied. This feeling of security in our belief is due to thy kindness and divine grace. to caves in the face of cliffs and rocks at a dizzy height. .’ 1 Then Rechung said. and six secret [or hidden] caves— in all. as follows: ‘ The six well-known caves [in high cliffs]2 are: (i) Dragkar-Taso-Oma-Dzong (Central Castle [or Cave] of Rock White Like Horse T eeth). I pray that thou wilt be pleased to name each of them. with very little effort. which are included among those named before. Then there were two more caves. The six inner unknown caves [in high cliffs]are: (i)Chonglung-Khyungi-Dzong(Castleof Chonglung- K h yu n g).

e. Kailasa). and (6) Tsigpa-Kangthil-Dzong (Castle of the Rock- Foot’s Sole). 1 A s to the Clear Light. Lapchi). (3) Tagphug-Seng^-Dzong (Lion Castle of the Tiger’s Cave). water. (3) Brin-Briche-Phug (Yak-Cow Tongue Cave. (4) Laphug-Pema-Dzong (Lotus Castle of the Grotto). T here is probably an esoteric significance attached to each name . roots. and herbs] and will be inspired by the grace of the previous Masters of the Apostolic Succession. And the six very secret caves [in high cliffs] a re : Gyadrak-Namkha-Dzong (Sky Castle Filled with Awesome Symbols). (5) Langno-Ludut-Dzong (Naga Castle of the Ele- phant-Door). The other two are: Kyiphug- Nyima-Dzong (Sun Castle of the Happy Grotto). 1 This w as the cave behind Milarepa’s own house. (5) Bektse-D 3y<3n-Dzong (Castle of the Savoury Cab­ bages). p. of ambition and affluence. after arriving at the true apprecia­ tion of the Sacred Dharma. that they became inseparably 1 M. Therefore go there to meditate. and (6) Trogyal-Dorje-Dzong (Castle of the Victorious Bronze Vajra). the whole assembly of disciples— celestial and human. Bacot’s renderings o f the place-names in this paragraph have. One meditating in these caves will find in plenty the necessities of life [i. and (4) Phuron-Phug (Pigeon Cave) uf Kuthang. The four unknown larger caves are: (i) Tsayi-Kangtsu-Phug. and so touched their hearts that they renounced the Eight Worldly Pursuits. fuel. 2 (2) Odsal- Phug (Cave of the Clear L igh t)3 of Ron. been followed. (3) Bayphug-Mamo-Dzong (Castle of the Hid­ den Cave). in Kyanga-Tsa) . or Kangtsu-Phug of JCyanga-Tsa (Cave wherein he [Milarepa] was set upon his feet in devotion.Grotto). and (4) Tis^-Dzu-Triil-Phug (Miracle Cave. A ll of them found such complete satis­ faction in the religious life. in Brin). The narrative excited them to deep and fervent faith. in part. and Potho- Namkha-Dzong (Castle of the Sky of Peaks). were profoundly moved.1 ‘ Then. 145".’ On Jetsun’s saying this. (3) Zawog-Phug (Cave of Silk) of R a la . (%) Lapchi- Diitdiil-Phug (Cave wherein Demons were Defeated. see p. in Mt. . a ia 1. the four well-known larger caves are: (1) Nyanam- Tropa-Phug (Stomach-like Cave of Nyanam ). male and female— who had come to hear the Dharma preached.

The second part treateth of the human disciples. who were eventually defeated and con­ verted. The whole of the above history. both lay and initiated. And many of the most spiritually developed among the human lay-disciples. and to the F aith . The third part treateth of various other disciples. When these historical facts which form the chief subject-matter of his life-history are set forth in more expanded form. . term applied to devotees who practise or. spent their time in meditation. in caves and solitudes. recorded herein. forsook the worldly life and. both male and female. following Jetsiin wherever he went. whence originated the 1 Yogirit is the feminine. and they vowed to pass their whole life in undisturbed and immovable meditation and penance. Thus was the entire congregation successfully saved. Thus several became Yogis and Yoginis. they are commonly divided into three princi­ pal parts. The more highly advanced among the human disciples resolved to devote their body. and to practise some particular pious act. to whom Jetsiin preached the Dharma. the King of Sprites. the life-history goeth on to narrate the manner in which the first non-human beings were conquered and converted. If further expanded.1 Those of lesser spiritual insight took vows to devote a certain number of years and months to devotion. heart. are proficient in Yoga. Then Jetsiin went to Lapchi-Kang. is what Jetsiin himself narrated— an autobiographical narrative taken down in writing. The least among the lay-followers vowed to give up some particular impious act for the remainder of their life.attached to it. in obedience to his Guru's injunction. was conquered by the singing of the song called ‘ Lama-Dren-Drug' (‘ The Six W ays in which he [Mila­ repa] yearned for a sight of his G uru’). and speech. Vinayaka. as here. There he converted the great deity. Ganapati. and came to realize the True State. Yogi the masculine. to the service of all sentient beings. The non­ human disciples promised and vowed to maintain and protect the Faith. The first part treateth of the malevolent attacks by the non-human beings. at Dragmar-Chonglung Cave. Thus. of whom many of the most fortunate were led to perfect [spiritual] development and Emancipation.

he returned to Gungthang. * O r Kam a Tantra. The next year. 5 Tib. and this resulted in the production of the well-known Song about the great snow-fall [and Jetsun’s triumph over the snow]. again. and spent some time there. and dwelt in the [Pigeon] Cave of Kuthang. in the vicinity of Mount Palbar. Do-rje-Nal-jor-tna): Skt. he did good to a great many human and non-human beings. the Divine Mother (Vajra-YoginI)2 told Jetsun that many disciples would come to him.1 in Nepal. Jetsun penetrated into the interior of Lapchi. where he met Rechung. he did good to a number of both human and non-human beings. where lieth the Perfect Castle of Ragma.e. After his coming back cured. This is described in the Chapter concerning their con­ version. So Jetsiin went to Tibet. too. there is the account of how Jetsun first met his disciples.Chapter on Lapchi-Chuzang. while Jetsun was staying at the Castle of the Banner-Adorned Sky. and doing good to a great many sentient beings. The Chapter on the malignant demoness of the Lingwa-Cave was the result of this sojourn. he dwelt with 1 This is a place about tw o days’ journey north o f Khatmandu. Then. While at this place. when Jetsun was at the Indestructible Castle of Grey Rock. Thus. It was there that he chanted the Hymn to the Pigeons. Jetsun received a Divine Admonition telling him to go to Tibet and to meditate there for the good of all sentient beings. 148s. Then. Jetsun went to Gungthang and sat meditating in the Silk Cave of Rala. Secondly. leprosy]. and to Yolmo-Kangra. Vajra-Yogim. one o f the esoteric treatises on Tantric Yoga. Accordingly. (S ee p. Jetsun next visited Y6lmo-Kangra. jetsun defeated and converted a fairy god­ dess and the local deities of Ragma [by chanting a hymn to them]. Then. Rechung went to India to be cured of a malady [i. 3 The very place where he would be found was made known to Jetsun. which he sang on his emerging from the snow. Thereafter. Rdo-rjt-mcd-Kbyor-ma (pron. and lived for some time in the Singala Forest. There. intending to go to Mount Palbar. in the depths of which lay the Lion Castle of the Tiger’s Cave. in Mangyiil.) . and particularly one [Rechung- Dorje-Tagpa] who would bring to Tibet from India the Dakini Tantra. where he felt attracted by the Rock Cave of Ling- wa.

and the goal of the famous Kail&sa Pilgrimage. A t Chim-lung. he met the female lay disciple. he met Rong-Chung-Repa. and lived in it for a few days. he went to meditate in a mountain called Gyalgyi-Shri-La. From Lapchi. While begging alms. who followed him and became a very prominent Yogi. he delivered the sermon called the ‘ Bamboo S ta ff’ to Ngan-Dzong-Repa.and met Bri-Gom-Repa. The account of this constituteth the Chapter on Tis£ [or Mount Kailasa]. known as Lugdzi-Repa (Shepherd Repa). set out for Mount Tis^. during the autumn. the H oly Mount o f both Buddhism and Hinduism. near the Purang Hills. by the display of his magical powers. when he was going to Choro-Dri-Tsam. at Chungi-Ketpa-Le-sum. Paldar-Bum. he encountered a shepherd. he met Sangyay-Kyap-Repa. coming back to the Indestructible Castle of Grey Rock. he came across the Castle of the Hidden Cave. and triumphed over [the magician] Naro-Bon-chung. Then* at the Perfect Castle of Ragma. he met Rechungma. he met Shiwa-Wdd-Repa. he encountered Tarma-Wangchuk-Repa. Next. in Latot. While there. Then he met Shan-Gom-Repa. Proceeding thence. being reminded of his G urus injunction by the Dakinis. While approaching [the Mount] he met Khar-Chung-Repa at the Lowo-Kara Pass. Jetsun. who had been a lay believer for some time previously. Then. he met Seban-Repa. while going to Chang-Tago. at a public rest-house of Yeru-Chang. From there. he preached the Dharma.1 and met Dampa-Gya-Phupa. where Tsa-Phu-Repa joined them. as directed by the Dakinis. at the Lotus Castle of the Grotto. During the ensuing Spring. Jetsun went to [Mount] Tis^. . and initiated Tonpa- Shakya-Guna. A t Nyishang-Gurta- 1 Mount Tisd is the Tibetan name for Mount Kail&sa. Having gone on to the Stomach-like Cave o f Nyanam. in the vicinity of the Dritse Peak.Jetsun in the Clear-Light Cave of Rdn. On his return thence. when in winter retreat. Then. This disciple supplied Jetsun with excellent food and other necessaries as long as Jetsun thereafter dwelt in the Naga Castle of the Elephant-Door and the Castle of the Hidden Cave. [a female disciple]. and set him on the Path of Perfection and Eman­ cipation. at Chumig-Ngulbum. Then.

and the Song about the Wild Asses.8 He became the most favoured and eminent among the disciples of Jetsun. This produced the Chapter concerning the Y ak ’s Horn. Coming down thence to the interior of Brin. at the foot of Lapchi. visited Jetsun and bowed down to him.the great Indian Yogi. having gone into retreat on the summit of the Red Rock. record is made of this in the Chapter on Rechung and Tiphoo [another Great Indian Yogt]. he met Khyira-Repa (Hunter Repa). A t Chubar he met Tagpo-Lan-Gom-Repa. This led to the fame of Jetsun spreading far and wide towards Nepal. Then Jetsun. The next year. saw Rechung return­ ing [from India]. Then Rechung and Shan-Gom-Repa entreated Jetsun to return to L ap ch i. Me-Gom-Repa joined JetsUn. he came across Dorje-Wangchuk-Repa. Then when Jetsun and his disciples were livinginthe Stomach-like Cave of Nyanam. It was at Trode-Trashi-Gang. This circumstance. Jetsiin met Salewod-Repa. Dharma-Bodhi. . as a follower. and Jetsun dwelt in the Nyen-y6n Cave. and he proposed some metaphysical questions to Jetsiin. having added to the respect and veneration felt for Jetsun. Again. who is imaged in numerous forms and colours. The Yogi's visit led to Rechung’s visiting India again . which Jetsun easily answered by a display of siddhi [or occult power]. and went to receive him. He was a fully ordained priest. that he met with the Maha-Purusha (Great Saint). Coming thence to Chubar. near Khatmandu. and the Raja of Khokhom1 was directed by the Goddess Tara 2 to send some religious offerings to Jetsun.) * The National Goddess-Protectress of Tibet.La. the Great Saint w as one of those who are reputed to have lived on for centuries. so Indians and Tibetans believe. in Brin. at Nagtra. still exist on Earth as the Guardians of the Human Race. (C p . excited the envy of a Lama well versed in metaphysical discourses. There is one Chapter which treateth of this contest. at the Cave of Drot [in Nyanam]. During this time. he preached the three sermons regarding Tseringma. 16. Jetsun lived in the rock-cave at Chong -1ung. Nepal. and a Guru of the Vajra-Dhara 1 Khokhom is the modern Bhatgaon. * To judge from this. p. and who. in Nyanam. who has been mentioned by the Buddha in His apocryphal sayings.

A t the Sun Castle of the Happy Grotto. There are also the narratives of how Jetsiin preached the Dharma and granted initiation to the people at N yanam . On Jet­ sun’s manifesting certain super-normal powers. dating from the time when Gampopa was with Jetsiin. and the Song containing Jetsun’s exquisite expressions of delight at the prospect of death. who has taken birth as a human being in order to benefit all sentient creatures. and their four sisters in the Faith.1 a Great Bodhisattva.School. at Tsarma . during the intervals of his encounterings with the spiritual sons. otherwise known as the Vajra-Yana (* Immutable [Vaj'ra] P ath ’) School. at Thong-La. there is the Chapter recording the Songs of the Mountains of Bfinpo. which occurred while Jetsun dwelt in the secret caves. There is a Chapter recording how Jetsun met each of them. and of a pleasure trip. with regard to various other meetings and inci­ dents. and about Jetsiin’s meeting afterward with Dampa-Sangyay. by the special arrangement o f the Lion-faced Goddess. Likor-Charuwa was moved to discipleship. now became his disciple. by name DawOd-Shyonu (Youth­ ful Lunar Light). 1 That is. the thirteen spiritual sons. although antagonistic to Jetsun formerly. records have been made. . then the Songs about Jetsun’s being ac­ companied by Rechung to Lapchi and their sojourn in the Cave of the Demons’ Defeat. of Brin. the Songs about Shendormo and Lesay-Bum. there are some [records in the form of] answers to [disciples’] questions. A t Chubar-Wom-Chung. but better known as the Peerless Doctor of Tagpo. and of Ramding-Namphug. Then. but without any accuracy as to the time of their occurrence. became Jetsun’s disciple. and these a re : The eight most favoured sons. Then come the Songs about Rechung’s departure to the Province of U. Jetsun made a proselyte ofLoton- Gediin. The Dakinis had foretold that Jetsun would have twenty- five Saints among his human disciples. who. Again. the School o f which Vajra-Dhara is the Celestial G u ru . [born of the heart]. Dreton-Trashibar. whence Jetsun was invited by the people of Nyanam to the Stomach-like Cave of Nyanam. where he narrated his own life-history. Thirdly.

and sympathetic towards it. quite a large collection of other religious discourses. and Khujug. a narrative of Jetsun’s performance of a Bonpo-rite. This constituteth the Seventh Meritorious A ct of Jetsun. as showing that Jetsiin was familiar w ith the pre- Buddhistic religion o f Tibet known as Bon. the Chapter on the second de­ parture of Rechung to U . even those whose karma denied them the share of the Most Price­ less Boon had an inherent and habitual love of goodness im­ planted in their hearts. of D in-Lhado. A ll of this is recorded at length in the Gur-Bum (' One Hundred Thousand Songs ’) of Jetsun. 1 This is interesting. at D in-D ag-K har. in addi­ tion. the Chapter on the lay-donor. In this way did Jetsun emancipate a countless number of fortunate beings. the least among them had their hearts thoroughly converted and inclined towards the Noble Path of Righteousness. his discharge of filial duties to his deceased mother. on the summit of the Red Rock . out of compassion for a dead person. the final testament to the lay-disciples. some well known. . when on his way to Chubar. Jetsun made the Buddhist Faith as luminous as the light of day. the Dialogue with the Magician . There are still other records : of a funeral ceremony per­ formed by Jetsun. The most highly developed of them attained perfect [spiritual] development and Emancipation.1 at Tingri. wherein is related how he rendered service to all sentient creatures by the fruits of his devotion. and the display of his super-normal powers for the benefit of his disciples and lay-followers. the Chapter on Zesay-Bum. atT sarm a. at Lay-Shing. and other female disciples. There is. saving an innumerable number of beings from Sorrow. the Chapter on his triumph over the four Maras [or Evil Spirits]. those of lesser ability were set firmly upon the Path of Emancipation . Thus. some little known. Tashi-Tseg. through his infinite love and grace. thereby winning the blessing of celes­ tial and human happiness for their immediate future.

it is equivalent to the Indian term Paitfit. o f the Last W ill. nor returned the obeisance of. This man feigned great rever­ ence for Jetsun. In this wise he asked Jetsun many and various questions. o f the Marvellous Events Connected with the Crema­ tion and the Reliques. expecting that Jetsun would bow down to him in return. and the Answer. and the GeskJ2 Tsaphuwa was seated next to him. 1 T h e title Gtsfu implies a learned L im a . o f His Final Testamentary Teachings. did not do so . while at heart he was bursting with envy of him. A t the time when Jetsun had fulfilled the various duties mentioned above. by putting difficult questions to Jetsun in a public gathering of his own supporters. there lived. who was accustomed to take the highest seat in the as­ semblies of the people of Brin. however. in the interior of Brin (Drin). and concerning his Disciples. all the while pretending that it was for the clearing of his own doubts. o f the Passing away in Samadhi. Jetsun. C H A P T E R X II TH E N IR V A N A Telling o f how Jetsun came to take Poisoned Curds from Tsaphuwa's Concubine . 5a1. o f Jetsun’s Discourse on Illness and D eath. the Gesh/ thought to himself. Much chagrined. o f the Execution o f jetsu n ’s Last W ill. any person save his own Guru. he did not depart from his usual custom on this occasion. and desirous of exposing what he took to be Jetsun’s ignorance. in the first month of the autumn of the Wood-Tiger year. o f the Last Assembly o f Jetsiin's Fol­ lowers and the Attendant Marvels . for never having bowed down to. o f the Conversion o f Tsaphuwa .1 there happened to be a grand marriage feast to which Jetsun was invited. The Geshi bowed down to Jetsun. . Then. and he was placed on the highest seat at the head of the first row of guests. a learned Lama named Tsaphuwa. o f Rechung's Late Arrival and Prayer to Jetsun. very rich and influential. ‘ What 1 1 This is the forty-eighth year of the sixty-year cycle described on p.##*/ the Resultant Super-normal Phenomena.

17 11. but to realize their true import it is necessary to re­ nounce the Eight Worldly Ambitions.’ 1 And then Jetsun sang this son g: ' Obeisance to the honoured Feet of Marpa the Translator! May I be far removed from arguing creeds and dogmas. I pray that thou wilt give ear to the song which I am about to sing. Jetsun answered. to subdue the illusion of belief in the personal ego. and he not condescend to return the salutation! I shall certainly do my best to lower him in the esteem o f the public/ And. lopping off their heads. and. producing a book on philosophy. I have never valued or studied the mere sophistry of word-knowledge. * E ’er since my Lord’s Grace entered in my mind. M y mind hath never strayed seeking various distractions. 3.* I have forgot all those who rule by power and by prestige. and if ever I did know it. re­ garding Nirvana and Sangsara as inseparable. he addressed Jetsun thus: ‘ O Jetsiin.' Upon this. ‘ Accustomed long to contemplating Love and Pity. and also L uke (xviii. ‘ Accustomed long to meditating on m y Guru as enhaloed o’er my head. 1) : ‘ Put aw ay scholarship (pamfitya) and be like a child ’ . set down in books in conventionalized form of questions and answers to be committed to memory (and fired off at one’s opponent). 17 ): ‘ W h o­ soever shall not receive the Kingdom o f God as a little child shall in no w ise enter therein. the teaching o f the Brthadaranyaka Upamskad (3. to conquer the spiritual ego by meditation in mountain solitudes. please be so good as to dissipate my perplexities by going through this book and explaining it to me word by word. thou thyself art sufficiently ex ­ pert.' * See p. to show my reasons for forgetting book-learning. . O f such word-knowledge I am ignorant. 1 Cf. I have forgotten it long ago. I have forgot all difference between myself and others.shall so learned a pandit as I am bow down to an ignoramus like him. these lead but to mental confusion and not to such practice as bringeth actual realization of Truth. ‘ A s for the mere word-by-word explication of these dialectics.

Nirvana. which is the state o f mind o f the Dharma-Kaya. and the Nirmana-Kaya. as I ’ve been.‘ Accustomed long to meditating on my Guardian Gods as from myself inseparable. ‘ Accustomed. that is. nor negation.2 I have forgot all definitions of this or that particular Goal. I have forgot to think of hope and fear. . all by myself. ‘ Accustomed long to meditating on all visible phenomena as the Dharma-Kaya. to meditating on this life and the future life as one. and the Unabiding.8 I have forgot conventional and artificial usages. the unmodified or natural state o f mind. I have forgot all tnat is said in written and in printed books. nor p lace'. the Inde­ structible. ‘ Accustomed long to meditating on the Unborn. (See p. ‘ Accustomed long to keep my mind in the Uncreated State of Freedom. Knowledge of erring Ignorance I ’ve lost. to the study of the Common Science. as I’ve been. 1671. ‘ Accustomed long to studying.) 1 O r ‘ That w hich hath neither commencement. ‘ Accustomed. 5 That is. I have forgot the dread of birth and death. I have forgot all mind-made meditations. as I’ve been. mine own ex­ periences. the Sambkoga- Kdya. I have forgot all creeds and dogmas. ‘ Accustomed long to meditating on the Whispered Chosen Truths. I have forgot the lowly fleshly form. £Accustomed. I have forgot the need of seeking the opinions of friends and brethren *Accustomed long to application of each new experience to mine own growth spiritual. to contemplating the Three Bodies 1 as inherent in myself. 1 The Tri-Kaya (or ‘ T h ree B o d ies’) : the Dharma-Kaya.

the people (especially his own sup­ porters) showed displeasure. such religious discourses lead nowhere [i. at the head of our row. the whole lot of you are not equal to the smallest downy hair on Jetsun’s body. which she did. by promising her a valuable turquoise. ‘ Accustomed long to regard my fleshly body as my hermitage. to go and offer Jetsun some poisoned curds.e. cried. show no real attainment of understanding]. and however many professors like thee the world may hold. * O Geshi Tonpa. the Geshi said. while Jetsun was at Brin- . and the wealthiest and most influential person in the place. I have forgot the way to trace the roots of verbs and source of words and phrases . May thou. A s for religion. and. whereas I.’ When Jetsun had sung this song. I have forgot the ease and comfort of retreats in monasteries.' The Geskd was much angered by this. which tend to overthrow the Buddhist Faith. by mere display of eccentric doings and sayings and telling of lies. he induced a concubine of his. nor able to fill the tiny pore containing it. though so learned in book-learning. and so he merely sat in sulky silence. he could not show fight. but as the whole party were unanimously against him. and do what thou canst to add to thy wealth by usury. thou art not in the least permeated with its perfume. I have forgot the pride and haughty manner of the mighty. I bowed down to thee imagining thee to be a highly advanced person 1 * Upon his saying this. Milarepa. however learned thou mayst be. Thou hadst better be satisfied with the seat assigned to thee. ‘ This ignoramus. count for less than a dog despite my religious attainments. but. ‘ Accustomed long to know the meaning of the Wordless. of body and of mind. Something must be done to put an end to this. O learned one. * A ll this may be very well according to thy yogi creed. following our metaphysicians. as though with one voice. thinking to himself.’ Acting on this resolve.‘ Accustomed long to humbleness. trace out these things in standard books. is able to delude the people into making him numerous alms and gifts.

' The Geshi replied. if thou undertake to offer him the food again. relating to him the whole incident at length. and succeed in getting him to eat it. in virtue of clairvoyance. not being conversant with the Scriptures. and she said. returned to the Geshdyand. thereupon— seeing that we two have already lived together. telling thee to take it th yself. A s we thus have the grudge in common. they are duped by his trickery. but. ‘ I f Jetsun possessed this power he would not have asked thee to take the food to him later on.’ Thinking that perhaps Jetsun knew her intention. “ No differ­ ence is there in taking a big or a little bite of garlic.1 Illiterate folk believe that he possesseth the power. but would have handed it back. I am too much afraid to go to him again. Then not only will the turquoise be thine. The Scriptures describe a person possessed of clairvoyance as quite different from a person such as he i s . I will not accept the food thou offerest me. had detected her evil design and refused the poisoned food. and we will share weal and woe together. But foreseeing that unless the woman procured the turquoise now she would not procure it afterward [ the proverb sayeth. Thou mayst now have the turquoise. and most certainly I will not go. but thou wilt be the mistress of all that I own . said. I do not want thy turquoise. Now. I am convinced that he doth not possess it. much embarrassed and distressed. since garlic it is ”— we will thenceforth live openly as husband and wife. even if he did not take the poison.' . ' For the present. he said to her. e. but be sure that he taketh the poisoned food. ‘ That Jetsun doth possess clairvoyant power is commonly believed. trying to embolden her. But her seducer.’ Then he gave her the turquoise . this is proof that he doth not possess clairvoyance. the woman. Bring it later on and I will then accept it. do thine utmost to bring the attempt to a successful issue. and. Dragkar (Rock of Brin). I am satisfied that he will refuse the food the second time. after the commission of the crime]. said that Jetsun. Having fulfilled his duty of setting his karma-iavoured disciples upon the Path of Emancipation and Perfection. Jetsun knew that his term of life was almost ended. and his refusal of the food the first time proveth it.

‘ Thou hast procured the turquoise as thy fee for doing this deed. at least avoid committing such heinous sins. and she thought that the Geshd was perhaps right in asserting that Jetsun did not possess clairvoyance. the woman. A s regardeth the many promises for the future which he hath made to thee on condition that this crime be successfully accomplished. and. Moreover. I refused it at first. Jetsiin took her offering in his hand. I have procured the turquoise'. when he was at Trode- Trashi-Gang. my life hath almost run its course. again mixed poison and curd together and took the mixture to Jetsiin as a food-offering. I should be transgressing the vows of a Bodhisattva. even though your very life be 1 Jetsun is 1to go to another world w hence he w ill return to this world. in quavering sob-choked voice. tempted to try a second time. Jetsun spoke and said. ‘ First of all. the woman began to trem ble. When that time cometh. but if unable to do so much. she begged him not to par­ take of the poisoned food. thou needest place no reliance on them . in accordance w ith his V o w not to enter Nirvana (the Final R elease from sangsaric existence) until all sentient creatures are led to Salvation. in order to enable thee to gain the turquoise. Smilingly. The time shall come when both thou and he will deeply repent of all these things. Taking the Geshd at his word. Jetsiin answered. There is no truth at all in any o f the many things which he hath said against me.‘ Y es. on any account. my work is finished. Just then. m y compassion for thee is too great. I will take the poisoned food. Were I to do so. »«« K k . to continue his work as a Teacher. to penance and devotion. prostrating herself at his feet.1 T h y poisoned food would have no effect upon me whatsoever. but to give it back to her who was guilty of so heinous an intention [that she might drink it]. however.’ Overcome with remorse and fear. I cannot. the time hath come for me to go to another world. if possible. Nevertheless. for he will disappoint thee. give it back to thee to drink. ye will devote yourselves wholly. which was promised to thee as the fee for thy crime. Now that the turquoise is thine. confessed. to satisfy the desire of the Geshi and to secure thee in possession of the coveted turquoise. and thus incur the heaviest of spiritual penalties. L ord. and.

male and female. as in physics tw o equally balanced opposing forces neutralize one another.But I command thee to keep this affair secret for as long as I am a live. Many others felt [intuitively] that in the skies and on the earth there was an innumerable congregation of divine a? of 1 E vil kamta. bear this well in mind. Now take heed and keep thy mouth shut. greatly impressed by its ominous nature. yet in this affair thou wilt have an opportunity of believing in me [or of being convinced]. the Law of Karma] and the Real Truth [ stake. so. and await its fulfilment.” 2 Enough for me that he hath taken the poison. He sent a like invitation to all who had a wish to meet him. the time will come when it will be known to every one. and suffering would thus be your lo t.e. Left unassisted. initiated and uninitiated. Then for many days Jetsun preached to them con­ cerning the Apparent Truth [i. During these days. 351.’ Then Jetsun partook of the poisoned food. 1 Everything that is spoken is not necessarily true. sin. pp. It can only be neutralized by an equal amount o f merit or good karma. ‘ A ll that is said is not to be believed in keeping with the co n text . the Dharma-Kaya\. for this once. 953. Also to all his disciples the message was proclaimed. acquainted and unacquainted with one another. the more spiritually gifted of the hearers beheld the skies filled with gods listening [to the Master]. " Not everything that is cooked is fit [for food]. and 367 following. but had never done so. When the woman had reported these things to the Geshi. and. each of them.’ Then Jetsun sent word to the people of Tingri and Nyanam. JetsUn’s promise to see if he can absolve the evil karma is probably intended merely to console the repentant woman. i. I will see if I can absolve your evil karma?. to come to see him. Jetstln’s teaching concerning the expiation o f evil karma. and pray to me and my disciples in deep and humble faith. ye two would be cut off from happiness for countless ages. cannot be absolved. he said. 1 T h e sense of this seem s to be. and to all who had known him and had faith in him. Cf. each with a small offering. Therefore. assembled in a great assembly at Lapchi- Chubar. e.e. Although thou mayst not believe other sayings of mine upon hearing them. [According to the proverb].

‘ Among human beings. which every person present saw. is not great. joy and cheer­ fulness of mind. should the divine beings be invisible to [most of] u s ? ’ Jetsun replied. 33s. that degree of spiritual development which makes it no longer necessary to be reborn on Earth . And. filled the air. Those of moderate spiritual development who experienced these phenomena of good omen. ‘ Why. fill the very skies and are offering to me in worship the five celestial objects of enjoyment. all joyfully listening to the preaching of the Dharma. they asked him. it is necessary to be endowed with the perfected vision and the highest zeal in the acquirement of the two kinds of merit. and different offerings. . * See p. of different colours.human beings. Thus do ye feel thrilled with gladness. to all alike. and banners. 2 That is. such as rainbows arching a clear blue s k y . and perceive the joyous and favourable signs. There was heard by all the most exquisite music from various musical instruments.’ Thereupon.3 If the chiefs among the gods be seen. Jetsun replied. to be able to see them. inclusive of both the initiated and the uninitiated. and they felt a joyfulness pervading the whole gathering. inquired of Jetsun why there was the feeling of wondrous communion between the celestial auditors filling the skies and the human auditors assembled on the earth. assuming the shapes of [royal] umbrellas. whereas those piously inclined among the divine beings. then.1 and radiating. Thereupon. and free from the two obscuring impurities born of Ignorance. Whosoever desire to see these divine beings. and the most fragrant odours. had occurred. ‘ Many there are among the gods who have attained the Anagami State? and various other degrees of holiness. must devote themselves to acquiring merit suffi­ cient for the expiating of all evil karma. one may 1 These are such as may be enjoyed by the five senses. the number who are spiritually developed. then. will their followers be seen. and showers of variegated blossoms. who are ever eager to hear the Dharma. there appeared various phenomenal signs. such as none had ever before enjoyed. too. and. to every one present. [then again] clouds. Anagam i meaning ‘ T h e Non-Returning One ’. and why the various auspicious pheno­ menal signs.

in most cases. Celestial beings.see in oneself the highest and holiest of all gods [which is the Pure Mind]. and happiness. Celestial showers of sweet-smelling blossoms fa ll. capable of seeing the human world as w ell as their ow n. Give ear attentively to this. and fragrance of incense en joy. ‘ The heavens are filled with radiance of rainbows. in addition to the normal human eyes o f limited vision. like those o f birds and beasts o f prey. my hym n: 1 And so uphold the KargyQtpa H ierarchy. the common folk behold them not. the Saints broadcast their spiritual influences. Milarepa. They offer reverence unto me. in like manner. with heavenly offerings. capable o f seeing. pervade the whole assembly. * That is. possess greater range o f vision than normal human e y e s . and these phenomena result. (3) E yes o f Truth. and the past and future births o f beings in both w orlds throughout many lifetim es. like the eyes o f Bodhisattvas and Arhants. For the good of all the congregation. throughout eternity. Y et I myself without impediment see each of them. (a) Celestial E yes. Thy fill all quarters of the skies.1 ‘ T o me. 1 A ccording to lamaic teachings. there are. Such are the [fruits of] Grace-Waves of the Kargyutpa Saints. come to hear my sermons. such as the gods possess. .2 Can behold them . A ll beings alike hear harmonies melodious. from Tushita Heavens. and (5) E yes o f W isdom o f Buddhas. which. capable o f seeing throughout hundreds o f world-periods (or Kalpas) backwards and in the fu tu re. that they may multiply. (4) Divine E yes. And other Holy Regions. the Devotee. o f the most highly advanced Bodhisattvas. I f ye desire to see the Gods and Angels. capable o f seeing throughout millions o f world-periods that which has been and that which will be . Love divine.’ Then Jetsun chanted a hymn on the way to see the gods: ‘ Obeisance at the Feet of Gracious Marpa! Bless T h y Spiritual Descendants. But only those [among my human followers] enjoying the five kinds of vision. five kinds o f eyes : ( i) E yes of Instinct (or E yes o f the Flesh).3 * Taking to yourselves the Gracious Refuge of the Faith.

But the holiest and highest of all gods. ‘ Repenting and confessing of all previous sins. Avoid. ye delight in sin­ ning. E ’en till ye are grown old. *The greater part of sinners are sharp-witted . one-pointedness o f mind. doth signify that they are sin-obscured. accumulated by you in past lives. as attained through practice o f the science of mind-control called Yoga. 2 And unendowed are they with love of the religious life : This. A t the feet of the Guru and the Deities. 1 That is. and th ey continue to be bound to the W h eel o f the Sangsara. Are the shortest path to rapid expiation of all evils done. . Then know that it is neutralized by desire for goodness. with zeal. then. your nature is perverse : Thus surely must ye garner the results of evil actions. being lacking in them . ‘ If pain and sorrow ye desire sincerely to avoid. in itself. ‘ If ye wonder whether evil karma can be neutralized or not. Yet presume to pose as guides for others. Do injury both to themselves and others. And vowing never more in future to commit a wrong. And need repentance and confession o’er and o’er. *But they who knowingly do evil deeds. T o expiating sins and winning m erit.1 ‘ They who knowing not whither they themselves are bound. 1 This is similar to the saying that for a mess o f pottage one selleth his birth­ right. Exchange a mouthful of food for infamy. in their attachment to the pleasures o f life. not only shall ye see The Dharma-\o\\x\% deities celestial. The moment ye are of your mother born. *Do ye each give yourselves. {Because of evil karma. [Of mind] unstable and unfixed. The doing of the good and merit-bringing deeds ye like n o t. If thus ye do. they delight in various dis­ tractions . doing harm to others. are m entally unstable. the worldly.

and in this life we have established a purer and holier relationship by religious communion. The Dharma-Kaya of your own mind ye shall also see. in your daily lives. If ye do this. ye shall be the first body of disciples to receive the Truth that I shall then preach. they asked of one another whether the Master meant that he was about to leave this world in order to go and benefit some other w orld. I exhort you to preserve the religious discourses which I have delivered to you. The Vision Infinite.’ Upon Jetsiin’s chanting this hymn. the Round o f Birth and Death. no certainty is there of our being able to meet again [in this lifetime]. (Cf. and men. or. and not to neglect them. and said that. 36». p. and the State of Freedom \ s This is one o f the states experienced in the yogic trance called Santadfti. Now that I am grown very ag&d. if this were his meaning. if that could not be. And not one of all the others who were there but was desirous of gaining the Great Emancipation. and all who are assembled here to-day. in so far as ye can. and. but to carry their teachings into practice. ye shall have seen the All. gods. saying. those of the assembled deities and human beings who were highly developed spiritu­ ally. Then Jetsun addressed the congregation. Those of moderate development obtained experience of the super-sensuous divine state of Ecstatic Bliss and Voidness2 such as they had never before known. obtained the right view of the Dharma-Kaya [or Nirvanic] State. and were helped thereby to enter upon the Path [of the Realiza­ tion of Nirvana]. clasping his feet. Therefore rejoice in this. the Sangsara and Nirvana? Then shall your karmic actions cease. So they went to Jetsun. at least to bless Nyanam by a final visit.’ When those present from Nyanam heard these words of the Lord Jetsun. they should entreat him to ascend to the Paradise Realm from Nyanam. in whatever realm I may arrive at the Perfection of Buddhahood. And seeing That. entreated him with tear-filled eyes and in fervency of 1 O r ‘ The Vision Infinite. ‘ My dis­ ciples. our coming together is the result of good karma from past lives .) .

at least. here assembled. Meet in the Realm of Happiness.1 ‘ Y e donors of alms. see p. Therefore. if J etsiin were unable to visit their countries. and. I have preached the Dharma to you. hearken unto me. and listened to his preaching. 44s. seeing that I am a Yogi who hath realized the Truth. that not upon them alone [should these blessings be]. but upon all sentient creatures throughout the universe. whereby. Am aravati). Jetsun said: ‘ Grateful am I for the faith which ye have manifested in me. and be e’er prosperous . 1 Or 1Ngon-gah' (Skt. . both temporal and spiritual. through obligation. a mutual bond hath been established between us. it is my duty to utter for you a good-wish for peace and hap­ piness. Kind. or heard his voice. To this entreaty. and.’ Then they prayed that. I bow down at T h y Feet! ‘ O my disciples. I will await death at Brin and Chubar. I will meet all of you in the Sacred Paradises. in short. In like manner did the disciples and lay-followers from Tingri entreat Jetsun to go to Tingri. And. May ye live long. have ye been unto and love to grant their prayer. for the present time and for all eternity. Thou Who hast Thine Own Good-Wishes realized. I have shown my thankfulness in having ever wished you w ell. indeed. to do good to you. utter a blessing upon each of the places which he had visited. he might. and a spedial good-wish for those people who had seen his face. To these entreaties Jetsun made reply : ‘ I am now too far advanced in years to go to Nyanam or T in gri. now.’ Then Jetsiin sang the following good-wishes in verse : ‘ O Father and Protector of all Creatures. each of ye may give me your parting good-wishes and return home. Translator Marpa. who here are seated. thus bound together by ties of mutual helpfulness. May we. and for the necessities of life with which ye have kept me supplied. And kind have I been unto you .

gratitude. Meet me in the Realm of Happiness. To them who hear the story of my life. and increased yield of grain. . attain Deliverance. narrate. 1 May those who make a study of my life And emulate it. And all who have my history known. as soon as they shall hear [my history]. And all who have but heard my name and story. May all your thoughts e'er pious be and lead to your success religiously.1 ‘ To them who for devotion’s sake endure hardships. In virtue of mine own austerities Be free from all impediment and error. May every being. such as Milarepa herein becomes to all who follow and venerate him. May it b« ever free from maladies and w ar. M ay no perverted thought find entry to your minds . ‘ May every being in future time Who hath the will to meditate. and borne it in their heart. And [True] Success as soon as they shall contemplate [it]. ‘ May all who have beheld my face and heard my voice. Or whosoe’er shall read and venerate it. Or take it as their rule of conduct. May every one delight in righteousness. the beginner is apt to meet w ith so many impediments and so much error as to prevent all true spiritual progress on the Path. Boundless gratitude is due. ‘ May peace harmonious bless this land . And each who shall transcribe. There cometh boundless m erit. Meet me in the Realm of Happiness. and. 1 In Dhyana (or Meditation) there are many subtle dangers. and dedicate themselves to meditation. unless guided by an experienced Guru. and grace. T o them who shall lead others to the treading of the Path. There cometh boundless grace : B y the power of this boundless merit. or listen to my history. M ay there be harvests rich.

Accordingly. the heavenly rainbows and the other pheno­ mena automatically vanished. And every little thing which hath been mine. Nagas. should make haste to present them. and to listen to his religjous discourses. and the Spirits of Eight Orders. and there Jetsun continued his preaching to his lay-disciples of Brin. ‘ And may the Devas. or perplexities to be cleared concerning the special teachings which they have received. Do not the least of harm . so that those of Nyanam and Tingri were all the more eager to seek his grace and blessings. Jetsun went to dwell in a hermitage which had been built on the top of a rock known as ‘ Poisonous- to-Touch ’.’ So the assembled disciples gathered together offerings for »«» L1 . * Those who have points to be elucidated. the water. But may they each fulfil these wishes in accordance with the Dharma.‘ May the places of my sojourn.’ A t these words. and the objects whereon I have rested. the lay-disciples showed great joy. the hermitage having been built there in order that the Serpent-Spirit should be subjugated [in virtue of hermits dwelling therein]. and air. ‘ The earth. But may I be empowered to save them all. through Shiwa-Wod-Repa and other advanced disciples. And all the local genii and the sprites. Now the people of Brin earnestly begged Jetsun. Bring peace and gladness wheresoe’er they be. When he had completed his sermons. Be bound unto sangsaric life. for the rock was believed to be the serpent-hood crowning the malignant Serpent-Spirit of Brin. fire. to preach to them. A s soon as the congregation had dispersed and every one had gone home. for I am not sure of living much longer. for they now doubted whether Jetsun meant to pass away. And the ethereal spaces wheresoever they pervade— May I be able to embrace them all. not one of them . he said to them. none e’en of insects. nay. ' May none of living creatures.

and. * See p. I have changed into the Bliss of the Five Divine Wisdoms. the Devas. phy- 1 These are interruptions and misfortunes whilst following the religious life.4 The time hath come when the visible. 4 Namely. Nor do I need exorcisms or propitiatory rites to any demons. asked. Milarepa. nutmeg. saffron. Marpa. The Maladies born of the Five Poisons.performing a puja. A s for me. listened to the completion of the special teachings [as Jetsun made the elucidations and cleared the perplexities].’ A few days later. ‘ My life and mine influence in converting others have reached their completion. Jetsun showed signs of illness.2 who will perform all the four kinds of ceremonies. illusory. cardamom. ever ready to meet suffering. so I need not the making of prayers or expiatory offerings. ‘ O Jetsiin. born of the religious life. I have. he begged Jetsun to take medical and other treatment He was about to summon all the laymen and disciples to complete the neces­ sary preparations. cloves. sandalwood. p. Then Bri-Gom- Repa and Seban-Repa. and he ought not to have any special prayers offered up for his recovery. and even death. and the fiakinis. 3 there­ fore do I need not medicines compounded of the six chief spices. I have made mine enemies 1 to be bosom friends. but Jetsiin said. and dried ru ta : cf. It cannot be that thy life hath run its course?’ Jetsun replied. and Ngan- Dzong-Repa began preparations for making propitiatory offer­ ings in the worship of the Gurus. 371. I554. He should utilize illness as an aid to progression on the Path. from what thou hast [just] said we have come to fear lest thou intend to pass away into Nirvana. on behalf of the disciples . and having performed the puja. ‘ It is commonly the rule that illness befalling a yogi is to be looked upon as an exhorta­ tion to persevere in devotion. . at the same time. by the grace of my gracious Guru. completed all special rites for overcoming illness. Therefore must I now meet the consequence of having been born. and now I need neither forces nor mediators. for I have trans­ muted all bad omens and evil presentiments into Guardian Deities of the Faith. addressing Jetsiin. according to his particular method. * These are the Realizations o f Truth.

the mind-evolved form of the Divine Body [the Dharma-Kdya\.sical body. and for this no rites o f consecration are necessary. one should. fascinating. faithful to the commands of an eminent guru. I will do hereafter/ Again Shiwa-Wod-Repa and Ngan-Dzong-Repa addressed Jetsun. and sincerely seek to prevent their recurrence. and are really eager to attain a state of eternal bliss. . in death. A ll worldly pursuits have but the one unavoid­ able and inevitable end. in separation . were thou to regain health. which is sorrow: acquisitions end in dispersion . Knowing this. old age. and building. nor the valour of the hero nor the charming form of the belle. in destruction . and meet­ ing . I possess the secret rite for the attainment thereof. meetings. the Decree of Time. as the result.' When Jetsun had thus spoken. and death. ‘ O Jetsun. and. buildings. Therefore. and Jetsun said. ‘ So be it. or stern. There are no means or methods. Worldly folk who have heaped up evil karma during their lifetime. forget ye not. That alone is the best ritual [or science]. or retard for a moment.1 which can buy off or stop the execution of this unalterable decree. yet in order that we may not have regrets 1 These are the four divine methods o f leading human beings to tread the Path o f Emancipation. in this world. nor the fleetness of the coward. births. nor the oratory of an able pleader. can one ward off. from the very first. be they peaceful. If any there be who are truly fearful of those pangs. and who anticipate reaping. I have yet my last important testament to impart. renounce acquisition and heaping-up. vainly seek to evade or ameliorate the intensity and anguish thereof by means of propitiatory ceremonies and medical treatment. thou couldst continue to do good to many more sentient creatures. illness. nor the wealth of the rich. This. must be merged into the Realms of Spiritual Light . Neither through the power or authority of kings. noble. set about realizing the Truth [which hath no birth or death]. some of the disciples prayed him to impart to them this ritual [or science]. the pangs of birth. saying. even though thou dost not see fit to grant our prayers in full.

and I will not have . if one were to condescend to perform a Tantric rite for the prolongation of one’s life without having. thinking of the good of his lesser developed disciples. now. providing such shall assist one on the Path. Because of such devotion. there is no harm in having recourse to medical treatment and [faith-cure] rituals for one’s recovery. in addition. at the same time. and. lust. the altruistic intention to serve others. my mind knoweth not how to move away from the firm Seat of Truth [in Samadhi]. I should have done as ye have requested. even He. ‘ Were it not that my time had come. this will suffice for the rites for long life. merely to be devotees. in order to benefit all sentient beings. ye must. use trials and tribulations as aids on the Path. held out his hand to have his pulse felt by the physician Jlvaka Kumara. and such act carrieth with it its own penalty. it would be as improper behaviour towards the Divine Deities as it would be towards a king to ask him to perform the menial service of sweeping and scrubbing one’s floor. Thus it was that in former times the Buddha. Recent evils can be warded off by exercising the very might of the correlative and interdependent chain of cir­ cumstances which result [from them ]. passed away into Nirvana. But. the Lord Buddha. too. take some medicine. jealousy]. A s for your­ selves. But when His time had come. hatred.hereafter. stupidity. and even those evils themselves can be transmuted into blessings at such times. my time hath come. though selfish folk [who know no better] are not to blame in so doing. we again pray that thou wilt be pleased to perforin an efficacious Tantric ceremonial of worship for thy recovery. egotism. will not suffice. and took the medicines prescribed. I adjure you never to perform sacred Tantric rites with a view to success in worldly pursuits. Marpa's remedies have eradicated the very roots of the diseases of the Five Poisons [i. I have passed my life in incessant practice of the Highest Tantric Truths. this will serve for medical treatment.’ Jetsun answered. Likewise. as the plea.e. this will serve for religious rites [for warding off evil] now. or to have adopted the religious career. If one’s time have not come. and some evil interruption threaten one’s life. Therefore.

I need not appoint any one to succeed me. there is no certainty that I shall leave a corpse behind me. such as listening [to instruction]. speech. in place of tsha-tshas. how should the bones and reliques be honourably preserved. A ll the sentient beings of the S ix Lokas ye may protect as your children and followers. how should the funeral ceremonies be performed. There is. A s I own no monastery or temple. The three principles of my person­ ality [i. and continue it. abandon it. For periodical ceremonies [in memory of my passing away].’ Thus would Jetsun not allow anything to be done for him. who should be elected as thy successor. know that to be true and holy Dharma. and mind] having been transmuted into the Body of Truth. no need either of stupas or of clay tsha-tshas. too. and how are the ceremonies on the anniversary [of thy passing away] to be conducted? Then. Accordingly. and how should the stupas and tsha- tshas be made ? Again. A s regardeth the method of acquiring practical knowledge. cultivate loving fondness towards all parts of the Dharma. ‘ B y the kind favour of Marpa. all of you may possess and occupy. and. and set up the Victorious Banner of Devotion. body. The bleak. though it may appear virtuous. and to benefit sentient beings. for our good. let there be uninterrupted daily repetitions of the fourfold prayer. sterile hills. offer me earnest prayer from the innermost recesses of your hearts. cogitating. or meditating [in solitude]. therefore. and the other solitary retreats or hermitages. In all these matters we solicit thine own verbal directions.e. which disciple is to follow this or that branch of religious practice. . then. and if any line of action tend to counteract the Five Evil Passions. and the mountain peaks. if ye find a certain practice increaseth your evil passions and tendeth to selfishness.recourse lo medical treatment or any sort of ceremonies for my cure.’ To this Jetsun answered. Instead of erecting stupas. I have fulfilled all the duties of the Sangsara and attained Deliverance [therefrom]. even though it should appear to be sinful [to those bound to worldly conventionalities]. the two advanced disciples entreated him to in­ struct them as follows: ‘ If Jetsun is really passing away to some other realm.

Initiation is worthless unless conferred by a teacher to whom the . and hold fast to this rule.’ Then. If ye do thus. O f me. 1 If. the Father [Spiritual]— I. my disciples. Pleasing unto me and to the Supreme Buddhas. What gain is it to take Initiation ? 2 1 Lhobrak means ‘ Rock o f the South * That is. to the best of your ability. ye can be sure of never disobeying the commands of the Supreme Buddhas.informed such a one may be. after having heard these counsels. Milarepa. in amplification. * Unless one’s Guru be of an unbroken [apostolic] line. the ag£d Milarepa. notwithstanding any conflicting rules which may be found set down in writing. do as I heretofore have bid y o u . and displeasing unto me. howsoever well. Life is short. infringe and trample upon them in defiance of the [Divine] Law.1 Have successfully accomplished all my duties. he will merely be earning a place in the lowest Hell. In short. ‘ I f ye. even at the cost of life itself. can in the least satisfy me. and the time of death is uncertain. my shishyas and my followers. Herein is contained all guidance concerning listening and deliberating. both to­ wards the Sangsara and Nirvana. And thus within this very lifetime ye shall do A mighty service unto others and yourselves. instead. then will your duties be fulfilled. howso­ ever agreeable it may be from a worldly point of view. all other acts are profitless For self and others. Satisfied will this old man’s heart be if ye act accordingly. the Yogi. here in faith assembled. and acquire merit. one fail to follow them and. No other method. so apply your­ selves to meditation. Will my behests obey. Jetsun chanted the hymn concerning things useful: ‘ I bow down at the Feet of Marpa the Translator! ‘ Y e. Avoid doing evil. for if my heart be satisfied. Give ear to this. Who by the Kindness and the Favour of Marpa of Lhobrak. Apart from that. the whole purport may be stated thus: A c t so that ye have no cause to be ashamed of yourselves. the final testament.

What gain is it to suffer sorrow ? Esoteric Lore has been transmitted in such completeness and with such psychic power (or ‘ w aves o f g ra c e ’) as come w ily through an unbroken apostolic succession of teachers. What gain is it to celebrate religious rites ? *If anger be unconquered by its antidote. What gain is it to mould tsha-tshas? ‘ Unless prayer rises from the heart's recesses* W hat gain is it to honour anniversaries ? 4 Unless the Secret Teachings* be retained within one's ear. ‘ Unless the Dharma be with one’s own nature blended. What gain is it to meditate the Chosen Teachings ? ‘ Without attuning body.2 What gain is it to meditate on patience ? ‘ Unless all partiality. and mind unto the Doctrine. What gain is it to offer worship ? * Unless all selfishness be given up. What gain is it to know by rote the Tantras ? 1 *Without renunciation of all worldly aims. 2031. What gain is it to offer alms ? ‘ Unless the beings of the Lokas S ix be known to be one’s parents. Ear-W hispered Doctrines.8 What gain is it to fill a certain seat hierarchical ? ‘ Unless pure love and veneration be innate within one’s heart. the Esoteric. without the spirit o f the Doctrine. . from the very heart’s depths. speech. What gain is it to build a stupa ? ‘ Unless one have ability to meditate throughout the four divisions of the day. 1 T h e sense of this is. that is. all likes and dislikes. 4 O r ‘ Specially-selected Teachings’ . * See p. 1 T he antidote is Love. be abandoned. T h e Ear-W hispered Teachings are unobtainable from one who has never had them thus conveyed to him. o f what profit is the letter of the Tantras.

‘ To the Yogi who hath carried out his mission. Do naught but harm . He said to him. it ought to be distributed among all thy disciples. or. to the former it may seem to be accidental. What gain is it to contemplate his reliques or his image ? 1 Unless repentance and remorse are born in one. so leave them quietly aside.’ The chanting of this left a deep impression upon the hearts of the disciples. if there be means of transferring it. . What gain is it merely from the lips to say. ‘ Unless both faith and love attend the Saint while living. No need is there to undertake fresh duties. then it might be transferred to a person like m yself. what now had best be done ? ’ Jetsun smiled and said. Service to the world must be unbroken. but I had no choice in the matter. ostensibly to present them to Jetsun.’ 1 That is. by fits and starts— between one outburst of worldliness and another. Generally speaking. But in this parti­ cular instance mine illness is to me an adornment. but since it hath come. too. like the flow o f a deep calm river. as thou perhaps knowest quite well. a yogi's illness and that of the ordinary person are not of the same character. What gain is it to say. but really to see [for himself] how Jetsun was. Then Jetsun began to manifest symptoms of serious illness. but since this. “ Renounce and make repentance ? ” ‘ Unless one meditate on loving others more than self. Just about this time the Geskd Tsaphuwa came with a small quantity of meat and chhang. ‘ Such a saintly person as Jetsun should not have been afflicted with so serious an illness . “ O pity [sentient creatures] ” ? ‘ Unless all evil hankerings be overcome. What gain is it to render service now and then ?1 ‘ Unless the GunHs every word e’er be regarded [and obeyed] as being reasonable. * There really was no reason for this disease afflicting me. What gain is it to have a multitude of shishyas ? ‘ A ll actions which bring naught of benefit. if this were possible. is impossible.

If it be caused by malignant spirits. which becometh me so well. sins. A s for transferring the illness. I wish I knew the real cause of thine illness. Jetsun chanted this hymn : *The Round of Birth and Death and the Deliverance are seen [or understood] within the Realm of the Clear L ig h t. and the dedication o f one’s life so as to further the spiritual grow th o f all sentient creatures. When the hands attain their natural posture. but no need is there to do so. not for a moment wouldst thou be able to endure it. attained through practising Yoga. so I will not transfer it/ 1 T his posture. but I have no knowledge of this ailment. And courage knowing not impediment. thou can transfer it.3 This illness. Bodhisattvic renunciation o f w orld ly aims and works. Then he said. and as seed.1 The Great Mudra. ■This couplet refers to the GeshPs gifts to Milarepa and the Gtshe's evil thoughts towards Milarepa. They lie within me. which are the Realization of Truth. May the sins of evil thoughts be expiated. ‘ Jetsun suspecteth me of having been the means of poisoning him. however. I am quite certain that he could do no such thing. * The Doctrine o f the Great Mudra (or Symbol) has in Milarepa produced its blossom and its fruit. due to inequality of the bodily humours. as humours. sym bolizes. If. Gifts I use to ornament the signs of my perfection . Were I to transfer the illness to thee. Such was the demon that caused mine illness. in * M m . even had he good reason for so doing. Having thus spoken.2 Thus is there [in me] greatness of indifference. ‘ Diseases. these should be equalized and set rig h t.’ Jetsun made answer. shaped as nerves. as in Milarepa. upon them placeth its seal. if merely constitutional.’ The GeshJ thought. I could transfer. and that spirit was the Demon of Egotism. please transfer it to me. Neither can the demon be exorcized nor the illness cured. ‘ A certain sentient being became pos­ sessed by one of the most malignant of evil spirits. but is not quite sure about it. and obscurations. they should be exor­ cized . by disturbing the harmony of my constitu­ tion. evil spirits. But tend to beautify me greatly. ‘ O Jetsun.

’ These words being uttered in a spirit of sincere remorse. and asking him what he thought of its intensity. Accept. but to yonder d o o r. movable and immovable. and so never really owned any w orldly estate. all my worldly goods. do transfer i t ! ’ JetsUn replied. A t the same time. Jetsun saw that the repentance was really earnest. and pardon me this crime. on my death-bed. he wailed forth. Sacred Lord. ‘ A h . unwilling to admit his inability to transfer the disease. O G e s h i And Jetsun took back the pain from the door and transferred it to Tsaphuwa. I will show thee a little of its force. Jetsun appeared to be free from pain. it throbbed and vibrated. having thus felt the intensity and anguish of the pain to which Jetsun had been subjected. ‘ Surely this is magical illusion ’ .’ So the Gesht said. he made answer. placing Jetsun’s feet upon his head and shedding tears profusely. Taking back the entire pain. The Geshi thought to himself. most insistently [to Jetsiin]. obsessed by selfishness and jealousy. whereupon the door began to emit sounds o f cracking and splitting. and seemed on the point of crumbling away. ‘ Pray. and gladly granted forgiveness. ‘ During my whole lifetime. and he said. Jetsun transferred it to the door of the meditation-room. and whether it were bearable. telling him that that was only one-half of the pain. did not take possession of the ruined house and the land to which by right o f inheritance he was entitled after the death o f his mother. ‘ Accordingly. ‘ Most wonderful! Pray transfer it to me. ow ing to his renunciation of the world. The Geshi was so overcome with unbearable pain that he was about to faint away. when I have 1 Milarepa. I will not transfer it to thee. . * V ery well then.’ So saying.’ Jetsun said. I pray thee. he repented deeply and sincerely of his e v il. thou mayst merely observe its force. 1 and now. no house or property have I ever owned . Then. The Geshi again thought to himself. that the evil karma thereof may not overtake me. brought upon thee by this creature. this illness hath been. as thy Reverend Self hath said. ‘ O Jetsun. and. he pretendeth that he doth not wish to transfer it.

May none do unto thee. and the future. ‘ May every sentient creature e’er encounter Reciprocal goodwill and the nobleness o f the Bodhisattvic mind. by evil intent. And may the evil karma bom thereof. as in the fourth verse following. Be partaken of by me and thoroughly digested. or his parents . Be taken o’er by me and likewise neutralized. and henceforth refrain from transgressing the precepts of the Dharma. ‘ The evil deeds which in the past I have been tempted to commit were due to my love of wealth and property.1 * Pity have I for him who doeth injury Unto his Guru. Efface the evil karma of all sentient beings: May all thy share of miseries.’ Then Jetsun chanted this hymn : ‘ Obeisance to the Feet of Perfect Marpa ! * Even the Five Heinous Sins. I desire neither houses nor lands nor ' O r literally : ‘ B e partaken o f by me and withal d ig ested ’. too. With respect to thy present transgression.not the least need of possessions. ‘ Mayst thou remain apart from vicious comrades. what should I do with worldly goods ? Take back thy gifts. Henceforth. In the fervour of boundless gladness and faith he vowed that henceforth he would shun all impious deeds and give himself entirely to religious devotion till his death . So may the virtue of my merit and my share of Happiness. the present.’ On JetsUn’s chanting this hymn. If speedily repented. or preceptor. aught Which would exhaust thy store of merit. With that of all the Buddhas of the past. may be neutralized. the Geshd felt greatly comforted. and he said [to Jetsun]. earnestly will I pray that no evil karma may overtake thee and that thou mayst not suffer because of it. limitless [in evil consequences]. . And in all future states of being Mayst thou encounter virtuous friends.

e.’ Thereupon. Seban-Repa replied. a Jetsun appeared. The elder disciples. subsequently. So those who went ahead to Chubar said that Jetsun had . M y mission here thus having been accomplished. but. but they found that Jetsun had already reached the Cave of Brilche (Cow-Yak’s Tongue). Therefore. Another Jetsun was at the ‘ Poison-to-Touch R o c k ’. We will carry thee in a palankeen. again. I will manifest the phenomena of death at Chubar. Then Jetsun said. a hardened sinner hath been converted through repentance and successfully guided towards Deliverance. some of the younger disciples went on ahead. Jetsun refused to accept the Geshd's possessions. and the periodical festivals in­ stituted thereafter to commemorate Jetsun’s passing away. And. who fol­ lowed later. I must go to die at Chubar. it will be too fatiguing for thee to attempt the journey on foot.’ Despite the earnestness of this entreaty. eventually. the disciples took them over and utilized them for defraying the cost of Jetsun’s funeral ceremonies. ‘ Owing to thy present illness. Some of the younger Repas [i. escorted and attended another Jetsun. which continue to be celebrated even now. So I entreat thee to accept them. For this I need no palankeen. Sir. wealth nor worldly goods. I have manifested here the phenomena of illness. And. to every one who re­ mained at home and made religious offering in farewell to Jetsun. they may serve to assist and maintain the disciples and followers who are engaged in devotional studies. While the one Jetsun was being escorted and served by the devout followers on the journey to Chubar. For a yogi to die in a village is like a king dying in the house of a common rustic.’ T o this Jetsun answered. ‘ To me there is no reality either in illness or in death. another was preaching to those who had assembled for a final sermon at the Red Rock. even though Jetsun have no need of my possessions. manifesting the phenomena of illness. no longer is there need for a yogi to remain in a worldly place of abode. Tsaphuwa himself became a very earnest devotee. ‘ As the fruit of my sojourn in this place. Jetsun’s disciples] may go on ahead to Chubar.

269 .M IL A R E P A M A N IF E S T IN G O C C U L T P O W E R S Described on pages x x .

or Sacred Light o f the Buddha) points and is lost in the Voidness. Beyond-Nature Nirvana— beyond the realm o f Ether (the last o f the sangsaric elements). the Elem ent A ir . or Chaityas. also L . p. corresponding to the Chaitya and Stupa (or Tope) o f Indian . stone. rb. the spire. 88. the crescent. 262-4.pp. T h e square base typifies the solidity of the Earth and thus the Element E arth . p. Uncreated. A s to other uses made o f Ch'ortens. 291-301. as found adorning lamaist altars. the Elem ent F i r e . the Element E th e r : cf. Throughout the lands of Lamaism small clay funeral Chaityas (Skt. 279. like the inverted vault of the sky. frequently contain reliques. the acuminated circle tapering in flame into space. see The Tibetan Book o f the Dead. . pp. wood. w hither the flame (known as the Jyotih. l i t ‘ receptacle for offerings ’ : Skt.Buddhism and to the Ddgaba o f the Sinhalese. cf. A . E soterically it symbolizes the W a y to Enlightenment. 178. The Buddhism o f Tibet. Dharma-skarira) are custom arily deposited on the ledges or in specially prepared niches o f Ch’ortens . T H E T IB E T A N CH’O R T E N Ch’orten (Mch’od-rtm). Miniature CKortens. 163®. or clay. W addell. the globular portion. the Element W a te r . Dhatu- garbha. cf. o f metal. 261. 1342. from the Earth (its base) progressively through the Thirteen Bodhisat H eavens (the thirteen step-like segments of its spire) to the Unformed. pp. triangular like a flame. 261. E xoterically the Ch'orten symbolizes the five elem ents into which m an's body is resolved after death. 175*. the water-drop.

on that very day.’ . They further inquired if he had any last injunctions or commands to im part. there will I be in front of each of you. Every one was certain that Jetsun had decided to depart for another world. in Chubar . pray earnestly and with firm faith. Thus every one claimed Jetsun as having been their honoured guest and recipient o f services 01* veneration. 20) : ‘ F or w here tw o or three are gathered together in my name. which had attended his previous sermons. permeated the whole country-side. Then the foremost disciples. Jetsun had been with them at the Red Rock . ‘ A ll of you are right. Others asserted that. one such body in one place or w orld. another in another. I intend 1 The Perfected Yogi possesses the pow er o f reproducing his phenomenal physical body in countless numbers. together asked Jetsun to which Realm he intended going. in one united group.’ 1 Thereafter. Jetsun replied to them. they put the question . ‘ A s to the place or direction whither ye should address your prayers. Therefore. so that the tops of the mountains were made glorious. N gan-Dzong-Repa. the Master of Ngan-Dzong. and whither they should address their prayers [to him]. and his illness continued. It was I who was playing with Jetsun himself. and everywhere there commonly prevailed a feeling of auspiciousness. and those who had offered him worship claimed that he had been in each of their houses at the same time. Jetsun dwelt at the Cave of Brilche. some said that he had been in their house then .preceded them there. there am I in the midst o f them. while the elder disciples who had gone with Jetsun said that they had escorted him. and each prayed for special guidance as to the line of devotion to adopt. Finally. “ That is. Shiwa-Wod-Repa. * Cf. Matthew (xviii.3 and I will fulfil your wishes. In whatever place ye pray with sincerity and earnestness.2 and Seban-Repa. and he said. and could come to no agreement. For the present. Each party of those who separately arrived later claimed to have come along with Jetsun. The Editor has in his possession one o f the yogic treatises concerning the acquirement o f this power. And at this time such phenomena as the feeling of ecstasy and the seeing of rainbows. [I command you to] direct them according to your own beliefs and faith.

To Seban- Repa. And this skull-cup I give to Ngan-Dzong-Tonpa. have amassed during my lifetime lieth hidden here beneath this hearth . Milarepa. they dispense a hundred necessary and unnecessary things in charity. This bone-spoon I give to Bri-Gom-Repa. ‘ A s to how ye are to carry the religious teachings into practice in your everyday life. will soon arrive. e. A fter my departure. is this: To Rechung. hoping thereby to reap a liberal return. these things are of little value. but who. and with it there are written instructions as to how it is to be dis­ tributed among you all. male and female. of which none save my chief disciples and lay followers. fail not to look for it. (Cf. are really devoted to ac­ quiring name and fame in this world . The hat of the Master Maitrl and this black staff of agaru will carry with them success in upholding the Faith by means of deep meditation and high aspiration . ‘ Now hear my principal testament. the control o f the psycho-physical forces o f the human body with a v iew to psychic developm ent and success in Yoga. should be informed : A ll the gold that I. To the other disciples I leave this cotton mantle of mine. is persevered in by selfish beings of obscured vision. p. when I.going to the Realm of Happiness [i. they will serve for him as a sort of success-bringing talisman in his meditation on the control of the Vital Airs. though displeasing to the Divinities gifted with divine vision. Milarepa. at heart. which they may divide among themselves in strips. bear in mind the following: Some there may be among you who are proud of their ap­ parent sanctity. This wooden bowl may be taken by Shiwa-W&d.) . Ngon-gak\ wherein the Bhagavan Akshobhya reigneth. This. while outwardly appearing pious 1 That is. And my last injunction. who. and act according to the instructions found with it. or will. see that they are given to Opa-Tonpa. The hypocrisy of thus hankering after the rich juices of this world.1 Until Rechung arriveth. 194. am dead. From a worldly point of view. but each beareth with it a spiritual blessing. no one is to touch my body. as I foresee. I give this flint and steel. give my bamboo-staff and this cotton raiment which ye all see with me as my sole posses­ sions.

drink not the venom of desire for worldly fame and nam e. which but lead to this desire. is like partaking of delicacies and rich food mixed with deadly aconite. and to erery one cometh the opportunity for such service. ‘ If there be not the least self-interest attached to such duties. and his message must be. ‘ I believe leads but to doubt and mental confusi«n . 3 T o proclaim as the ignorant do. Till the oppcrtunity come. Thus gain knowledge from ex ­ perience. and Jetsun said. for the benefit of others. is the supreme teaching of the Bhagavad-Gita. to be so. Endure bodily penance and mental burdens. I exhort each of you to have but the one resolve. ‘ I k n o w ’ .and devout. and works performed for the good of others seldom succeed if not wholly freed from self-interest. the Teacher must be filled w ith the divine pow er bom o f Knowledge of Trutii. it is with difficulty that works done even in one’s own interest [or selfishly] are successful. It is as if c. namely. That your study and penance be directed towards the right path.1 But such [detachment] is indeed lare. man helplessly drowning were to try to save another man in the same predicament. so long will there be no end of sentient beings for one to serve. Renounce all tkought of acquiring worldly renown. that all actions in the wodd should be done w h olly disinterestedly. it is necessary to hold these injunctions in your hearts’ 1 ThU. and the fruits thereof dedicated to the good of all beings. too. Even without seeking to benefit others. because unable to face the ridicule of the world [which might otherwise come to know of the hankering]. in a small way.’ The disciples then inquired if they could engage in worldly duties. ‘ Be lowly and meek. Clothe yourselves in rags. devote yourselves to sincere and earnest devotion. Therefore.2 A s long as the sky endureth. Be re­ signed to hardships with respect to food and dress. One should not be over-anxious and hasty in setting out to serve others before one hath one­ self realized Truth in its fullness . but casting aside all the fetters o f worldly duties. to attain Buddhahood for the good of all living things. would be like the blind leading the blind. it is permissible.

‘ I f ye do not devote unto Religion all your worldly goods amassed. Jetsun sang this hymn: ‘ Obeisance at the Feet of Lordly Marpa the Translator ! ‘ If ye who would be devotees. Mere renunciation of the worldly life will be but vain self- torture* ‘ If ye subdue not evil passions by their antidote. 1 I f ye do not obtain the Initiation deep and mystic. Mere exercise of zeal will make the Pathway long. will merely serve as fetters. The words alone. ‘ If ye do not acquire contentment in yourselves. ‘ I f ye do not suppress the Demon of Ambition. Heaped-up accumulations will only enrich others. ‘ I f ye know not the Secret and the Subtle Methods. Desire of fame will lead to ruin and to lawsuits.272 TH E N IR V A N A [p a r t ii Having so spoken. sangsaric being will continue. Mere perseverance will bear but little fruit. small will be the Grace. and Wisdom win. Do not procure and serve a Guru wise. Mere external ease and pleasure will become a soiree of pain. Much meditation will not gain much Knowledge. Mere verbal preachings will be but empty sounds. . Though ye have faith and meekness. ‘ If ye know not the Subtle Methods and the Path. A ll practice of the rites will be but many snares. And work for self alone. the Tantras hold. ‘ If ye keep not the Tantric Scriptures as your witness. ‘ If ye do not the Chosen Teachings meditate. ‘ If ye do not acquire great merit. ‘ If ye do not obtain the Light o f Inner Peace.

Compassion will arise within your hearts. entered Pari-Ntrvana in H is eigl^ '-fourth year. Thus did* Jetsun pass away at the age of eighty- four years. Renounce all worldly goals and ye shall reach the highest goal. ye shall attain to Buddhahood. If ye lose all differentiation between yourselves and others. A t his passing. Hasten slowly and ye shall soon arrive . And when in serving others ye shall win success. And then he said. and to the Buddha. Maintain the State of Undistractedness and distraction will fly o ff.’— Sri Nissanka. ‘ Seeing that I may not have much longer now to live. Dwell alone and ye shall find a friend . a This is the forty-ninth year of the sixty-year cycle described on p.’ Thus did Jetsun sing. d . . * If ye tread the Secret Path. too. If ye realize the Void ness. * Hold your peace and no litigation will arise. Take the lowest place and ye shall reach the highest.3 the Devas and Dakinis manifested then much greater and more marvellous phenomena than ever before. 1135]. 1 The Dharma-Kaya.‘ The desire to please exciteth the Five Poisonous Passions . After saying this. without distinguishing one from the other. observe my teachings and follow me. The greed of gain separateth one from dearest friends .1 on the fourteenth day of the last of the three winter months of the Wood-Hare Year [ a . and very many of the people 1 1 The Lord Buddha Gautama. Jetsun exhibited the process of merging the physical body with the Realm of Eternal Truth. and the Brotherhood of my disciples Pray ye earnestly. 521. Jetsun sank into the quiescent state of Samadhi. * T o me. fit to serve others ye will b e .2 at dawn. ye shall find the shortest w a y . The exaltation of the one is the humiliation of the others. then shall ye meet with m e. And finding me.

Thereupon. .2 The people of Nyanam. arranged in a background of geometrically chequered designs. and draperies. and various other objects of worship. each with its head bending towards Chubar. pervaded the air. And a delicious perfume. sometimes exchanging greetings. the human beings upon seeing the nude forms of Devas felt no sense o f shame. but the proposal was rejected. they went to Brin and returned 1 The impure auric emanations o f human beings who have not been purged of worldliness are said to be exceedingly unpleasant to the pure deities. Celestial beings.1 Gods and men met and conversed freely with one another. the people of Nyanam requested that the cremation be postponed until they could go and bring from Brin all the faithful. curtains.’— Sri Nissanka. both Devas and Qakinis. bearing various offerings. some of eight and some of four petals. went to Chubar and proposed to the disciples and lay­ men of Brin that they should have the privilege of cremating Jetsun’s body at Nyanam. The Book o f the Great Decease (Maha-Parinibbana Suttania). in the centre of which were vari-coloured lotuses. The unclouded sky appeared as if it were palpable with prismatic colours. so that. so that every one perceived it. Clouds of varied colours adorned the mountain peaks and assumed the form of stupas. More marvellous yet. for the time being. soon hearing that Jetsun had passed away. so that these could have a last look at their deceased Guru.there assembled beheld the phenomena. There were profuse showers of blossoms. which assumed the form'of [royal] umbrellas and ban­ ners. * ‘ Similar divine manifestations occurred at the passing aw ay of the Lord Buddha Gautama. Upon the petals were marvellously designed mandates [or mystic circular designs] more beautiful than any that could be made by the most skilful artist [among men]. Ravishingly melodious music to the accompaniment of hea­ venly psalms in praise of the departed Saint were heard. as if coming to welcome Jetsun. were seen by many people. o f the Pali Canon. they were carried back to the Golden A ge [or the Sat-Yuga]. Cf. nor did the celestial beings seem to be affected with the unpleasant odour emitted by the human beings. The firmament contained many wondrously tinted clouds. more fragrant than any earthly essence. This being granted.

the best of men. Though the Dharma Kaya hath no birth. Each according to deserts.’ Having sung this. when a Deva appeared from the heavens. They ceased disputing and began to pray. when the chief disciples interposed. and have faith. Milarepa. Y e who are from Nyanam may remain here until the cremation is over. Whilst Jetsun’s earthly form is [likewise] being merged in the Dharma-Kaya. Seeing that Jetsun hath passed away in Chubar. Divine Grace (or Mercy). were about to carry off the corpse by force. it is not fitting that his body be cremated at Nyanam. thinking themselves to be the more numerous and powerful. the Deva vanished like a rainbow. as vouchsafed by the Dhamta-KSya. and will receive a due share of the reliques from the ashes of Jetsiin. and in the voice of Jetsun sang this hym n: ‘ O ye disciples here assembled ! And ye lay-followers. If from the heart's depths ye will pray. A conflict seemed imminent.’ But the people o f Nyanam. Only the stupid would dispute o'er Milarepa’s b o d y . Foolish is it to quarrel about a corpse.with a strong body of men. 1 That is. prepared to carry away the remains of their Guru forcibly. And since there is no form th a t’s real except the mind. If ye do not obtain the Reliques True. Y et by the grace come of good wishes the Unobstructed 1 shineth forth. ‘ Y e people of Nyanam and of Brin! A ll of ye believed in Jetsun. Not likely is it that by quarrelling ye’ll obtain it. disputing o’er a corpse! Give ear unto my judgem ent: I am a deva-follower of Jetsun. And thus shall all of you obtain a portion of the Reliques. and said. and were his fol­ lowers equally. Hath merged his mind in the unbegotten Dharma-Kaya. and the lay-disciples felt as joyful as if they had once more beheld their beloved Guru. . Come to make peace between you by m y counsel. Pray with meekness.

Rainbows arched the skies. and was no larger than the body of an eight-year-old child. this cremation. A s in Sikkim . Most fervently they offered up unbroken prayer until. it was seen that the corpse emitted a halo of radiant glory like that of divine beings. and celestial melodies everywhere resounded in Lapchi and in Chubar. and the people of Nyanam that they possessed another. after every one had been given the opportunity of taking a last farewell look at the face. being attended with many phenomena. Then an attempt was made to set fire to the funeral pyre before daybreak.’— Sri Nissanka. Then the chief disciples said. the Illuminator or Enlightener.2 A t the same moment. those brought by the followers on Earth were laid out modestly and to the best of human ability. too. as from a pulpit. but the pyre could not be made to burn. It would be better to perform the cremation at once. Then the foremost disciples and the people of Brin saw that they possessed one corpse of Jetsun. five Dakinis appeared from amidst a rainbow-enhaloed cloud. and. a funeral pyre was erected on a boulder from which. and in chorus sang the following hym n: 1 This is the funeral matufaia. if we postpone the cremation much longer. at the foot of the Brilche Cave. w ho as the One o f Boundless Light. sym bolizes the F ire which purifies. The corpse at Chubar was attended by the foremost of the disciples and laity. the funeral pyre o f the Lord Buddha Gautama could not be made to burn until K ashyapa arrived seven days late. on the rock called the *Eagle’s E gg ’ . and thus losing our share of the reliques we shall have no object to venerate or worship. The corpse was carried thither in great state. there were showers of blossoms. outlined on the ground with coloured earth or other substance in such manner that the funeral pyre. * 1Sim ilarly. And the latter took the corpse away and cremated it at the Dut-dul Cave of Lapchi. occupies the centre.1 Though the funeral offerings from celestial beings were far more numerous. ‘ Rechung seemeth not to be com ing.’ T o this all agreed. The mandala diagram was outlined in colours. it is likely that there will be nothing left of the b o d y . like the pericarp of a lotus. heavenly perfumes filled the air. even while it was still night. after the sixth day. it is commonly the mandala o f the D h y 5 nl Buddha Am itabha. . Jetsun had preached.

Meditating on His organic body as a shape divine. 1 O r ‘ R a n g ’ . No need is there to-day to offer your burnt incense. the Blja (or ‘ Seed ’ ) Mantra o f the Element Fire. along with Vital Breath.‘ Rom J 1 the divine fire of the Vital Force Having been ever contemplated [by Him]. . What rites then shall ye celebrate to-day ? ‘ The Lords of Wisdom now surround the pyre. 33*. * That is. 1 This refers to the customary food-offerings at the funeral pyre. No need is there for you to touch the sacred form to-day. which is Illusion and Karm a. therefore worship and make prayer. made to the spirit o f the deceased one. ‘ The Four Orders of the Dakinis are chanting. above. What need is there of cakes of cereal ? 2 For Him Who is clad in the Robe of Chastity. let it remain in peace. What need is there of the Mandala outlined on the ground ? For Him Who hath kept the Lamp of Mind Ever burning bright. and perfumes of heavenly offerings. And yet higher Orders of the Dakinis are offering worship. What need is there to leave behind a fleshly corpse ? For the Yogi Who hath the perfect Divine Mandala Well defined in His own body. And Heroes vie each with the other in offering reverence. Unsullied by the Twofold Defilement. the H oly Pot filled with lustral holy-water. What need is there of your petty [worldly] lamps ? For Him Who ever feedeth on Pure Elixirs. as described on p. 5 O r ‘ the Twofold S h ad ow ’. What power hath the fire [of this world] over Him? For Him Who hath long been engaged in devotion.3 What need is there that ye consecrate the H oly Pot ? 4 ‘ The skies are filled with clouds of smoke O f incense. 1 That which is worshipped now by gods and men alike Necdeth not an owner. ‘ The mortal relique of the Man Who hath realized the Thatness Hath no need of rituals conventional.

heed it meekly and with faith. ‘ Milarepa’s spiritual descendants Shall produce many yogic saints. ‘ Upon the people and the cattle of this place No maladies shall come. A re polluted by im piety. . breathing forth the breath of Angels. but practise meditation. so cast all doubts aside. O ye of human kind. ‘ The H oly Chosen Teachings. shatter then your theory of duality. *With reference to the secret and deep words of Gurus and o f Buddhas. so seek ye solitude. enjoined by Devas and by Gurus. ‘ The history of your Teacher Jetsun Hath not need of formal praise.’ When these words had been sung. Appearances external and the mind are one. No need is there to add injunctions. Ngan-Dzong-Tonpa said. O ye of highest destiny. O ye celestial and terrestrial beings. ‘ Before this heap of priceless gems and jewels Utter not “ ’Tis m ine’*. ‘ From the hymns the Dakinis Divine have sung A certain boon shall com e. so perform ye rites in secret. ‘ May every one e’er practise the Sacred Dharma. ‘ Unto the final words which Jetsun uttered ere He passed Give greatest heed and His commands o b ey. ‘ Unto the life which ye have chosen Many interruptions com e.‘ Unto the sacred vows. * For the Mandala of the Thatness. of vast import are they. ‘ For all the beings here to-day assembled No birth in the Unhappy Worlds shall come. ‘ From the admonitions by your wondrous Guru given There shall come a blessing. Give not way to prattling speech. but remain in silence. It bringeth Peace and Happiness to all.

let us seek to appreciate fully this rare pleasure and converse on suitable topics. ‘ May it not be that my Guru hath passed away ? ’ A s this thought flashed through his mind. and one night. too. The offerings were unimaginably magnificent and numerous. he had a dream or clairvoyant vision. all singing and offering worship. the Qakims’ song. just after midnight. But. along with numerous other human beings and a host of celestial beings. A t Chubar he beheld a radiant chaitya (reliquary) of crystal. a feeling o f deep faith was aroused in him. stroking it gently and lovin gly. The skies seemed to be crowded with this multitude. cheering indeed is this encounter of father with son. Meanwhile. while in a state of unobscured super-conscious sleep. though thou didst not come when I bade thee come. as followeth. in the dream. and the fact that the pyre refuseth to take fire all coincide. such as he had never before felt towards Jetsun. Here.’ He was fondly passing his hand over Rechung’s head. there being no cer­ tainty of our meeting soon again. even though we postpone the cremation of the sacred body. nevertheless it is pleasant to meet thee again . Then he saw Jetsun leaning out from the chaitya. let us devote ourselves to prayer. and Rechung was thrilled thereby with rare happiness and fond affection and profound faith. it seemeth likely that it will vanish without leaving behind any substantial relique whatsoever. the thought came to him. Rechung is certain to arrive soon. was bowing down to the chaitya. and overcome b y an irrepressible yearning he decided to set . whose glory filled the skies. A t this time Rechung was staying at the Loro-Dol M onastery. and recalling all that Jetsun had previously said to him. and heard him say. ‘ Jetsun’s own command.‘ The command that none must touch the Lord’s remains until Rechung shall have arrived and the purport of the Dakinis' hymn agree.’ So every one continued praying. so that he prayed . he awoke. It was about to be taken away by a multitude of JQakinis%aided by his brethren in the Faith and the lay-dis­ ciples of Jetsun.’ Then Shiwa-Wod-Repa said. He. ‘ M y son Rechung. But since there is no certainty that Rechung will come at all.

‘ Hast thou. Go thou without delay.1 who dwelt on Earth and is venerated and worshipped by both gods and men.’ A s they spake these words. he shot forth at the speed of an arrow. Much impressed by the vision. and issuing from the midst of them innumerable hosts of celestial beings. and thus askest why all these things are made manifest ? They are made manifest because Jetsun Mila-Zhadpa-Dorje. Rechung felt great misgiving. B y the power derived from his suspen­ sion of his respiration. all alike bearing countless offerings and hastening on. is now departing to the Holier and Purer Realms. Rechung at once arose and started forth on the journey.out at once to find Jetsun. although this was not at the precise moment which Jetsun had indicated. and inquired of the Deities the signification of all the signs and of their own actions. been living with thine eyes and ears closed. and thou wilt not see him more in this lifetime. Thereupon. He beheld the summit of Jov5-Rabzang conspicuously lit up with rainbow radiance. and s^id. called Pozele. the sky was flooded with the glory of rainbows. ‘ Rechung. Therefore it is that those of the celestial beings who honour the Sacred Dharma [or the White Faith] are offering this obeisance 1 Zhadpa-Dorje is a shortened form of Milarepa’s initiatory name. gods and goddesses. the remarkable clearness of the sky and the unusual dis­ play of rainbows and other marvellous phenomena which illuminated the mountain peaks and the entire firmament. He also beheld tent-shaped clouds. The cocks of Loro-Dol were just crowing. While he was resting there for a short time. and filled with great yearning to see his Guru. Some of the goddesses replied. A t this. two JJakinis appeared before him in the heavens. . nodding and making profound obeisance in the direction of Lapchi with most fervent prayer. unless thou now hasten to see thy Guru he will soon depart to the Holy Realms. excited in him gladness and sorrow alternately. Exerting his faith in his Guruand his knowledge of controlling the breathing process. in one morning Rechung had traversed a distance which for travellers mounted on donkeys usually took two months to traverse. O man. and by daybreak reached the top of the Pass between Tingri and Brin.

S419 O O . and prayed most fervently. Exert Thy Kindness. as Rechung had seen Jetsun do in the dream. Having made answer to all of Rechung’s inquiries.’ Upon hearing this. to T h y Feet I fled: T h y Son Unfortunate was fated not to see T h y F a c e . in misery and woe. and refused to let him go near the body. Some of Jetsun’s most recently accepted disciples did not know Rechung. I will go on ahead to prepare some reception for thee. mourning and perform­ ing various acts of worship. Rechung placed Jetsun’s feet on the crown of his head. Rechung in his agony offered to his Guru this hymn. and in a few moments was no longer seen. Thou Refuge of all Sentient Creatures. for whom else shouldst Thou. Greatly grieved at this. On reaching Chubar. I f Thou wilt not T h y Love and Wisdom now exert To shield T h y Son. ‘ Hath my son Rechung come at last ? ’ A t that. 4My son Rechung. of the Seven Branches of Offering: ‘ O Lord. Out of the depths of T h y Great Love and Wisdom Hearest Thou the lamentation of T h y Suppliant Unfortunate. Embodiment of the Eternal Buddhas. proceed thou leisurely. Lord ? ‘ Yearning to behold my Father. grant T h y Grace. I c r y . Overjoyed with the thought that Jetsun had not passed away.’ And Jetsun went on Jetsun. Rechung-Dorje-Tagpa ? ‘ Unto Thee. Jetsun greeted him most cordially. and said. while all the human beings assembled at Chubar are also offering him worship. Rechung felt as though his heart had been torn from his body. Rechung beheld at the cave where Jetsun was wont to dwell all the disciples and lay-followers assembled round Jetsun’s body. When approaching Chubar. stroking him lovingly. Jetsun then said. upon a boulder shaped like the base of a chaitya he beheld Jetsun awaiting him. Jetsun passed his hand over Rechung’s head. O Father. and he hurried on as fast as he could.

my sins of impious doubts. I dedicate. Thou Buddha of the past. Though I may not have power to see Thine Actual Form. And now. May this. ‘ Filled am I with joyous admiration of T h y Great and Noble Deeds. most humbly pray. ‘ And seeing thus T h y Countenance. a la s! not even have I power to behold Thy Body.8 But graciously regard me from the Unseen Realms. O Jetsun. and the future. and from a Great Yogi still in the fleshly form. Essential for o’ercoming doubts and criticisms while studying the Twofold Teachings. . In actuality or clairvoyant vision. who believe in the saving grace o f God. I worship T h ee. by meditation and devotion. formerly T h y Favoured One. directly to the w orshipper or disciple on Earth. I. Bodhisattva. ‘ I was. the present. ‘ Omniscient and with Love endowed. J A s among Christians. O Lord Omniscient. O f the Deep and Mystic Dharma.1 ‘ If thou. to whose else’s shouldst Thou be ? ‘ O Father. be not merciful In answer to T h y Son’s appeal. Y et may I be blessed by seeing e’en T h y Countenance. I beg. the teachings concerning the Sangsara and those concerning Nirvana. O Lord. And pray that Thou continue e’er to turn the Wheel. withdraw Thou not T h y Hook of Grace. 1 A ll virtue which I’ve won. to T h y Happiness. * To T h y Commands obedient. And may I see T h y Countenance. be acceptable. May I obtain the Teachings Rare and Precious. Forgive. or Celestial Guru in a heaven-world. These grace-w aves are figuratively a ‘ book o f g ra c e ' to catch hold o f and thus save the devotee from falling into the illusion o f Ignorance (or sangsaric existence) and set him on the H ighw ay to Emancipation. my dedication. so among Tibetan Buddhists it is believed that grace-waves are emanated from a Buddha. O Guru. the mendicant. and my heresy. T o Thee. 1 That is.

only the Venerable Anu- ruddha.’ Then to Rechung he said. . ‘ O ’er me. Do Thou. Do Thou keep watch. Likew ise. and the funeral pyre immediately took fire and blazed up. take it not so much to heart. compassion have on every sentient being. So great was the force and earnestness of Rechung’s faith that Jetsun. but had been in the Nirodha-Samapaiti trance and could reanimate his body. Rechung. and his clear voice reached the corpse. T h y Witless Suppliant. the greatest of the disciples and possessed o f the Celestial E ye. have mercy. Rechung. Such [a lion] is my son Rechung. reanimated his corpse1 and addressed these words to the most recently accepted disciples: ‘ O ye younger disciples. drunk with the poison of the Passions Five. and other brethren in the Faith. Rechung. Ngan-Dzong- TGnpa. Rechung himself caught hold of Jetsun. but come near to thy Father.’ A t first every one present was startled and filled with wonder. my son Rechung. But he felt so deeply hurt at having been prevented from approaching Jetsun’s body by those disciples who did not know him that he would not move until he had finished his hymn of prayer. Seban-Repa. endowed with the Five Attributes of Divine Wisdom. Permit him to approach me.’ A s soon as Rechung began to give vent to this earnest and mournful prayer. 1 *Jetstln had not expired in the lay sense o f the word. the colour of the corpse. one lion is far more to be preferred than a hundred tigers. became once more bright. act not th u s. O Knower of the Three Times. On me. as well as female lay-disciples. then this feeling gave way to one of gladness. ‘ In general. and so overcome was he with excess of alternate jo y and sorrow that for a while he swooned. A t the same time Shiwa-Wod Repa. and burst forth in a flood of tears . In particular. followed the Master's Nirvdnic Consciousness to the H eavens and back to Earth until it was finally lost in N ir v a n a — S ri Nissanka.* And thou. which had faded. who had already sunk into the state of the Clear Light. compassion have on me. O Father. when it seemed that the Lord Buddha Gautama w as dead. came to welcome him.

‘ the Vajra-Kaya' ( ‘ Immutable or Indestructible B o d y ’ ). The great culprit is the self-born [or created] knowledge. both as a reply to Rechung’s prayer and as his final teachings to his disciples. Hear thou this hymn. and from the midst of this. with his left hand placed against his cheek.’ Then. When Rechung had regained consciousness.2 into which are merged both the spiritual body and the phenomenal body. ‘ Am id the City of Impermanent Physical Forms. perhaps specially erected for the occasion. Jetsun sat up. he found all the disciples and followers seated round about the front of the cremation-house. The great culprit is the impermanent physical b o d y . every worldly thing. my son. ‘ Listen he said. 4 K now led ge born o f experience o f a sensuous universe is (like the personal ego). E ’er on its guard 'gainst accidental [or destructive] mishaps [to itself]. 8 Literally. O Rechung. Busy in its craving search for food and dress.1 Meanwhile. Jetsun had risen in the In­ destructible Body.4 1 H ere w e learn that the funeral pyre is contained within a cremation-hous?. Submissive to the form of flesh and blood. my final testament of precepts: ‘ In the Sangsaric Ocean. O Rechung. From worldly works it findeth ne’er relief: Renounce. . ever fearful o f some untoward accident w hich might entail its destruction. he sang this final hymn concerning the S ix Essential Com­ mandments from the midst of the funeral pyre. ‘ unto this old man’s last testament. like the stamens of the blossom. The great culprit is the unreal mind. one o f his knees half raised and his right hand extended in the preaching attitude pressing down the flames. a Or. when devoid of R ight K now led ge. in a divine voice issuing from the Indestructible B o d y: ‘ O Rechung. of the Lokas Three. ‘ Upon the frontier of the Intellect and Matter. the true nature of the Mind. ‘ the Dha rtna-Dhatu ' the Seed or Potentiality of T ru th ’). The flames of the funeral pyre assumed the shape of an eight-petalled lotus. as dear to me as mine own heart. It findeth ne’er the time to realize the nature of R eality: 3 Discern.

o f things. all opposites are at bottom one. ‘ Amid the City of Illusoriness of the Lokas Six. It findeth ne’er the time to realize the true nature of the Unborn Knowledge [or Truth]: Keep. the Dharma-Kaya. And findeth ne’er the time to know E q u ality: 2 Avoid. * Within a certain unseen region of the Heavens. o f appearances. O Rechung. in the last analysis. * Scientific Truths dealing w h o lly with Nature. O Rechung. and being created (or self-born) is unreal. Nirvana. are in conflict with one another. Therein the being followeth dictates of likes and dislikes. the nature of the Truth Eternal. beyond the transi­ tory and illusory. True K now ledge (or Truth) is o f the Beyond-Nature. And findeth ne’er the time to realize the Truth : Find. for example. apparent Truths. It seeketh e’er a form it hath not. Northern Buddhists believe that the Buddha taught— according to the need or capacity o f H is hearers— various kinds of doctrines* none o f which. And there one findeth ne’er the time to know the Real T ruth s: 3 Avoid. is itself unreal. 0 Rechung. . likes and dislikes. transitory and illusory. beyond the Sangsara (the Round o f Birth and Death). O Rechung. In like manner. * O r ‘ the N on-D uality’— the Truth that. how ever. The great culprit is the [self-born or created] consciousness. and having had no beginning (or creation) is the Unborn or Uncreated. expert in subtle argument. are. The chief factor is the sin and obscuration born of evil karma . subtle argument. T h e Real Truths are those concerning the Voidness. Tantric Buddhists maintain that the Buddha taught Tantricism as a doctrine best suited to one kind o f human beings. like the phenomena w hence it arose. and the better-known Dharma as being more suitable to another kind. The Perfect Buddha. beyond the realm o f phenomena. within the safe stronghold of the Unborn [or Uncreated]. A s suggested in this stanza. namely knowledge o f Phenomena. because Phenomena are unreal. Hath propounded many subtle and profound Apparent Truths . or the Sangsara.1 ‘ Upon the frontier of this and of the future life. because that upon w hich th ey are based. 1 Mundane o r sangsaric knowledge (like the personal ego) being compounded of sense impressions is.

(6) The Precious K ing’s E a rrin g . Than that. curling and unfolding into various designs. no more of Truth is there. O my son. with pedestals for dismounting and other embellishments. subject to incessant transition and change. in H ells. (a) The Precious Royal R o b es. And of my Testament the end . at the base. Thereupon. the next life. (3) T h e Precious [Embroidered] B o ots. such as violins. the meditation.4 Even the sparks assumed the shapes of goddesses bearing various objects o f offering and worship. surmounted by banners and flags. and worship th a t. assumed the shapes of eight-petalled lotus blossoms. l~>dkinis— Combine these in a single whole. 3 These are named on p. . (5) T h e Precious Q ueen’s E a rrin g . and the life which seems to take birth through the womb-doors is in reality one. or in the Intermediate State. and was enhaloed by a glorious rainbow having gleaming and waving curtains of coloured light. and timbrels. The goal of aspiration. having four entrances. the funeral pyre assumed the shape of a spacious Vihara (Mansion). above. The very cracklings of the burning flames sounded tfke the melodious tunings of various musical instruments. or Palace . Devas. 4 T hese a r e : (x) The Precious H ouse. This life. and the life between [in Bar-do\1— Regard these all as one. 1 Existence is to be regarded as an unbroken flux of life. (4) The Precious Elephant’s T u s k . and (7) The Precious Jewel. 33*. and gain Experimental Knowledge.‘ Gurus. treated of in The Tibetan Book o f the Dead.3 and at the top [they formed] into the seven royal insignia. life in the subtle after­ death body in H eaven-W orlds. square in shape. [royal] umbrellas and streamers. The flames themselves. flutes. The 1 T h e Bar-do (‘ B etw een-Tw o ’) is the Intermediate State which intervenes betw een death and rebirth. Roofs and domes appeared. Acquire from it Practical Knowledge. and various adornments. Life in a fleshly form on Earth. and make thyself accustomed to them [thus as one]. Jetsiin again sank in a trance into the Clear Light. such as the eight auspicious emblems. and the practice— Combine these in a single whole.' Having uttered these words. O Rechung.2 ‘ This is the last of my Selected Precepts.

Assuming shapes of lotus blossoms of eight petals. The sounds emitted by the flames Give forth melodious music as of conch-shells. The sky directly above the funeral pyre was full of angelic beings bearing vessels of nectar. and objects of delight for the live senses. Although the disciples assembled there beheld the same funeral pyre. And ornamental shapes of banners and [royal] umbrellas. Who offer offerings most tastefully arranged. respectively. the corpse itself appeared to one as Gaypa-Dorje. inner. and the Good-Luck Diagram. A t such a time of mourning as is this. and to a fourth as Dorje-Pa-mo. O f themselves [unaided] the flames burst out. cymbals. Some weep. And various other beauteous objects of religious offering. . Others bore celestial food and drink. Small drums and double-drums and timbrels. Sham- vara. and most esoteric conclaves. to a third as Sang-dii. G uhya-Kala. H 6-Vajra.very smoke emitted the sweet odour of different kinds of incense. unguents and perfumes. Spring forth various goddesses of the outer. The Eight Auspicious Emblems. emitted by the flames. And from the meteoric sparks. the Lord. and Vajra-Varahl. and some have swooned. through their excessive grief. the Svastika. to another as Demchog. And of the Eight Auspicious Emblems and the Seven Precious Insignia. its eddies assuming various rainbow colours and the shapes of [royal] umbrellas and banners. 1 The Sanskrit names of these four Tantric tutelary deities o f the K argyiitpas (and o f other sects o f Northern Buddhism) are. which they poured down in showers. Harps and flutes and miniature cymbals. with which every human being assembled there was regaled. The smoke itself assumeth varied rainbow-colours.1 And all of them heard the Dakinis chant­ ing the following h ym n : * Because of the departure of that Wish-Fulfilling Gem.

nor doth it ever cease [to b e ]. the Unborn. above. again. of charming shapes.* Various goddesses. of N a tu re . Demchog.' When the chanting o f this hymn was finished. evening had set in . and since death and birth are themselves m erely a pair o f natural illusory opposites. but when the disciples looked into it some saw a great chaitya of light. from the State B eyond Nature. Others. disseminated among the human race by the Compassionate Ones. alone make possible the H igh er Evolution and the Ultimate Deliverance from Nature (the Sangsara). E ’en birth and death are of the Nature of the V oidness:3 Such being the Real Truth. others saw Gaypa- Dorje. Sang-dii. the Uncreated. Your cremation of his form Is finished. 1 A s the emanations o f the planetary sun sustain all physical manifestation of life on Earth. to which no concept o f the limited human understanding can be applied. the Beyond-Nature. being the Dharma-Kaya. th ey. mere phenomenal appearances cast upon the Screen o f Tim e. too. . in the last analj'sis o f the Illuminated Supra mundane Mind. so the spiritual forces. The Shunyatd. Tn-Kaya) . 38®. Whence descend the flowery showers of the Nirmdna-Kdya? These. the Voidness. saw various religious regalia. Nourish and ripen the Harvest of Saved Beings. is like the expanse of the heavens Upon the face of which the Cloud of Good Wishes of the Sambhoga-Kdya gathereth. falling on the I^arth unceasingly. hath no beginning. Enlightenm ent brings with it realization of this. is the Ultimate Source o f the Sangsara. Have borne away from the funeral pyre the charred bones and the ashes O f Him who now hath rendered up his earthly body to the element ethereal. see p. avoid doubts and misgivings [about It]. and Dorje-Pa-mo. The Dharma-Dhdtu. the Shunyatd. are of the Thatness. so that the cremation-house was empty again.2 ‘ That which is of the nature of the Uncreated. such as a dorje and a bell. The multitude could see through it from end to end . ‘ The Guru. 1 These three verses v e ry concisely state the Doctrine of the Three Bodies (Skt. and the funeral fire had burnt itself out. being the Primordial. 3 The Voidness.

*red. these are our own special property. while yet others saw different letters formed into bija-mantras. he demanded of them a portion of the reliques. dressed like celestial Yoginis. and the Dakinis all flew away. or fundamental mantras. like a mass of blazing gold . although he was like the Sun and the Moon.a holy-water pot. the Qakinis remained stationary in the sky above. and blue. and he may possibly grant you something. And the disciples. were worshipping at the funeral pyre and making various offerings. So he went to see. surrounded by many attendants of various colours. They saw not even a particle of dust or ash. If that be insufficient. Then it suddenly occurred to him that the Dakinis might actually be removing the reliques and ashes. others fire burning. The disciples then opened the door of the cremation-house [that the ashes might cool quickly]. ‘ A s for you. Rechung dreamt that five Dakinis. for the benefit of human beings. recognizing the truth of what the Qakinis had said. and. yellow. Early in the morning. in robes of silk and adorned with bone and precious ornaments. and then it was seen that the ashes and bones had been completely swept away. and. fair. A s regardeth the rest of mankind. they have not valued Jetsun as much as a fire-fly. addressing the tyakinis. the chief disciples. began to pray thus: 1 That is sttd (btja) mantras. The five chief Dakinis were taking out a sphere of Light from within the cremation-house. why. by which ye have found the Dkarma-Kaya in your own minds. being in high expectation of precious reliques of wonderful shapes and virtue. some saw a pool of water. Rechung became very sad .’ A fter saying this. ye have obtained the best of all reliques . and so on. he went inside the cremation-house. m i# P p .* Some also saw the cremation-house filled with radiance. The Dakinis. green. for ye have obtained the Truths. and ye must have something more. Calling his brethren in the Faith. in reply. [in it]. and yet others saw nothing. For awhile he was fascinated with the sight. ye had better pray earnestly to Jetsun. said. They do not deserve any of his reliques at a ll. all slept [that night] with their heads pointed towards the cremation-house.

Gracious and kind wert Thou to all alike. Graciously be pleased to grant to us [a portion of] Thy Sacred Reliques. A ll his commands Thou didst fulfil most faithfully and dutifully. ' O Lord. full of Subtle Truths. when Thou wert all alone on solitary hill. to assist all creatures . Graciously be pleased to grant to us [a portion of] Thy Sacred Reliques. With greatest zeal and resolution Thou didst meditate And thus obtain miraculous accomplishment [or siddhi]. And didst save all and set them on the Path. when Thou midst many didst preside.' O Lord. While those most filled with sorrow Thou didst pity specially. Thou wert o’erflowing with the milk of sympathy and love. Graciously be pleased to grant to us [a portion of] Thy Sacred Reliques. Graciously be pleased to grant to us [a portion of] Thy Sacred Reliques. And this hath made Thee famous in all kingdoms of the E a rth . ‘ O Lord. And help all sentient beings in their [psychic] growth. in Thy Kindness and Com­ passion. ‘ O Lord. And thus obtained the entire Chosen Teachings. T o serve as objects of veneration and of faith Unto them who have not zeal and energy [like Thine]. . when Thou wert at T h y Guru’s Feet. To benefit and serve as objects for the faith of Destined Ones. From Thee beamed forth Wisdom and Fore-Knowledge. T h y Disciples helped Thee. when Thou didst dwell with T hy Disciples. To serve as objects of veneration and of faith Unto all T h y Karma-Favoured Followers. To serve as objects of veneration and of faith Unto all who have beheld Thee or have heard T hy Name.

Into the Body of the Truth thou hast transmuted all the Universe. which correspond to the five colours o f the halo of the Buddha and of the Buddhist flag. one part becoming a lotus throne.3 The end of each ray was adorned with an image of a Buddha of the Series of the Thousand and Two Buddhas. The Chaitya emitted brilliant five-coloured rays. But the relique went back again to the firmament. O Lord. o f the Thousand and T w o Buddhas. w hite. and was absorbed in the Sphere of Light which the Dakinis still held in their hands.' When they had sung this mournful prayer. T o serve as objects of veneration and of faith Unto all thy Shishyas here assembled. there descended from the Sphere of Light. Then the Sphere of Light divided itself. and purple. the Sangsara and Ntrv&na have in Jetsfln blended in the at-one- ment o f Dharma-Kaya Mind. which was in the hands of the IJakinis. * These are the Tutelary Deities associated with the four divisions o f the . supported by lions. 4 This is the w ell-know n Series. [a portion of] T h y Sacred Reliques. and moon.® in their 1 That is. with T h y Grace. symbolize the Glorification or E n­ thronement o f a Buddha. It may possibly have taken shape as a result o f influences o f such Hindu ritual treatises as that containing the Thousand Names o f Vishnu. A ll the disciples stretched out their hands eagerly. as published in Tibetan books. 3 These five-coloured rays. are blue. when the Illusory Body Thou didst cast aside.2 and the other part resolved itself into a Chaitya of crystal.‘ O Lord. clear and transparent. sun. Thou didst prove that Thou hadst gained the State Divine of Perfected Saints. each claiming it for himself. The four tiers at the base [of the Chattyd\ were occupied [by images of] the Tutelary Deities of the Four Classes of the Tantric Pantheon. a lustrous relique like an orb as large as an egg. lion.1 And become the Lord of all the Holiest D a kin is. * T he lotus throne. y ello w . about a cubit in height. red. grant. In a streak of light it came down directly upon the funeral pyre. 4 and rays with all these Buddhas surrounded the Chaitya. on the surface of which lay a solar and lunar disk.

who guarded the Chaitya and offered worship to it. to be that relique. (a) Carya-Tantra. . saveth beings from the Round of Birth and Death. about a span in height. where might it remain ? But. Sepulchral ornaments of [human] bone adorning them. A n Object that embodieth in itself all virtues of the Tri-Kdya. A n object o f veneration for all sentient beings it was meant to be. Deva-Kyong. Two Dakinis. in white cotton robed. . and others. the third relates to Yoga-. which is egg-shaped. and the fourth describes the excellent or esoteric significance o f all things. yet ye all clutched at i t . injunctions relating to the sadhaka''s conduct in life . if merely seen. bringeth Buddhahood. Vajra-Ydna (‘ Thunderbolt Path ’) as represented b y the four classes o f Tantras: ( i ) Kriyd-Tantra. Ngan-Dzong-Tonpa. Possessed by vulgar beings. (3) Yoga-Tantra. And which. The inside of the Chaitya was occupied by an image of Jetsiin. bowing down in worship. and Shiwa-W 5d. The Dharma-Kaya— a single sphere its symbol— Brought forth. Out of true faith and great religious fervour. Praying for a relique as an object both of veneration and of faith. It could not be of any one the private property. sang the follow­ ing h ym n : ‘ O Sons. the second. being the door to Adiyoga. the first tw o being the L ow er Tantras.due order. Its Grace and Blessing shall not be diminished: This is the Sacred Promise of all Buddhas. ‘ B y power of the faith and zeal shown by that prayer. Which. if ye pray most earnestly again. if believed in. surrounded by images of fiakinis. and the last two the H igher Tantras T h e first o f the four classes of Tantras contains injunctions as to ritu a l. Disciples of high destiny. * The Father-Mother Tutelary Deities. and (4) Anuttara-Tantra. Demchog in union. Y e called upon your spiritual Father’s Name.

* The Dkarmapdlas are the Spiritual Protectors o f the Dharma or Faith. Have been produced miraculously . Their Grace and Blessing shall not be diminished : This is the Sacred Promise of all Dakinis.'— Sj. Various phenomena have been vouchsafed— A crystal Chaitya. The virtue of that Goodness shall not be diminished : This is the Sacred Promise of all Dkarmapdlas. * In virtue of the Goodness of the Buddha. of the Tri- Kay a. the Dharma-Kayct!s Self. a cubit long. A tal Bihari Ghosh. Who inseparably is the Embodiment. If towards it ye exert your fullest faith and earnest prayer. And the Four Orders of the Tantric Deities. Fill all the skies with their perfect conclaves. Their powers and their [spiritual] gifts grant q u ickly.2 1 The Guru. Its boon of gracious blessings shall not be diminished: This Sacred promise of all the Greatest Yogis ye may trust. That He should manifest Himself Within this small and wondrous work of art is marvellous . The virtue of such Faith will bring its boon. A thousand [and two] Buddha images of stone adorning it. ‘ If ye can cling to Solitudes. In u still more subtle sense they are the Forces which w ork in Nature and upwards to the transcendent Supreme Shakti. These Deities Divine. If ye one-pointedly make earnest prayer. * The Mdtrikds are the Mother-Goddesses. Praying from your hearts’ depths.B y hosts of Heroes and of Yoginis1 surrounded. The Mdtrikds3 and Dakinis are sure to gather round you. ‘ If Sacred Faith ye keep in all these firmly. Doth manifest Himself in every form by super-normal power. In a subtle sense they are the Goddess Kundalinl. 1 ‘ These Yoginis are in a material sense the Shaktis o f the VXra-sadhakas. And if to them ye pray most earnestly. . Sambkoga-Kaya Wisdom per­ sonifying.

The Good and Mutual Faith.— L e t these serve as your portion of the Reliques. ’Twill show that evil sprites and Mara are controlled. is right. A sign ’twill be that your Thoughts are right. the Dakinis still held the Chaitya aloft in the skies. A sign ’twill be that the Good Faith is right. ’Twill show your Views [or A im s]1 are wholly right. ’Twill show that their Relationship is right. A sign of quick success in Yoga it will be. If ye can see both the Sangsara and Nirvana as the Voidness. When they were about to depart. 1401. I f in yourselves ye see no wish for ease. A sign ’twill be that in you evil passions are uprooted. Then they placed it on a throne made of precious metals and gems.' Having chanted this hymn. . Shiwa-Wod-Repa entreated the Dakinis to leave the Chaitya in the care of the 1 H ere. A sign ’twill be that your A cts are right. If from your Guru ye obtain prophetic utterance. that the chief disciples might obtain a good view of it. If ye receive good omens of success and boons divine.' If ye in youf religious practice be sincere. I f ye cling not to self and worldly goods. If the Guru and the Shishya in their hearts agree. If zeal and energy flow from your hearts [spontaneously]. see p. as in the couplets following. If ye have power to serve all sentient beings. in order to transport it else­ where. If difference of caste and creed do not exist among you. the Experience and the Satisfaction. A sign ’twill be that the Result is right. the reference is to the Noble Eightfold Path . too. A sign ’twill be that your Meditation.

Like fleece upon a docile sheep Thou wert. To us. A Yogi immutable in resolution . O Lord. when worldly aims Thou didst renounce. O Master of the Life Ascetic. A Yogi prepared to serve. To Thee we p ra y : Grant to us the Chaitya which the Dakinis now hold. T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth. which in their hands the fyakinls now hold. T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth. O L o rd .2 we pray. To us. 1 Literally. ‘ O Lord. Reality Itself. T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth. f Realms Invisible of the Dharma-Dhdtu \ * Literally. Thou mayst grant The Chaitya. when meditating on T h y Guru's teachings. Thou Who hast assumed the human form. as an object of veneration for all human beings. Like a casket filled with gold Thou w ert. ‘ O Lord. in order to serve others. with the following h ym n : ‘ O Father. A Yogi priceless and peerless Thou wert then. when Thou didst serve T h y Guru. prayer to Thee we m ake: Grant to us the Chaitya which the Dakinis now hold.disciples. O Lord of Mighty Courage. T o us. Like the King of Rishis Wise Thou wert. T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth. when other Perfect Yogis Thou didst meet. Thou dost pervade all Realms Invisible whence Truth is born . That to us. Yogi Divine. One of the Order of Sambhoga-Kayas. T h y Shishyas. To us. 1 the Dharma-Kaya \ . to Thee we p ra y : Grant to us the Chaitya which the Qakinis now hold. to Thee we p ra y: Grant to us the Chaitya which the Dakinis now hold. Like a tigress feeding on the flesh of man Thou wert. O Thou of Mighty Perseverance. O Lord Compassionate. A Yogi from every doubt set free.x To Thee. ‘ O Lord. and helpful unto a ll. ‘ O Lord.

* O Lord, when Thou wert passing through the wilderness,
Like a flawless block of iron Thou wert,
A Yogi evermore unchanging ;
T o Thee, Who hast renounced all vain pretence, we p ray:
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Qakinis now hold,
To us, T h y Shishyas and T hy Followers on Earth.

‘ O Lord, when signs of Thy miraculous siddhiTYvav. didst show,
Like a lion or an elephant Thou wert,
A Yogi fearless and strong of spirit;
To Thee, Thou One Devoid of Fear, we pray:
Grant to us the Chaitya which the IDakinis now hold,
To us, T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth.
‘ O Lord, when Psychic Warmth and [true] Experience1 Thou
didst acquire,
Like the full-grown lunar disk Thou wert,
And sheddest T h y Beams o’er all the world ;
To Thee, Who hast cast off all hankerings, we pray:
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Qakinis now hold,
To us, Thy Shishyas and Thy followers on Earth.

‘ O Lord, when Thou T h y Destined Shishyas didst protect,
’Twas like the meeting of the fire-glass and the sun.
Thou didst create, O Yogi, Masters of S id d hi;
T o Thee, O Thou Benignant One, we p ra y :
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Qakinis now hold,
To us, T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth.
‘ O Lord, when worldly goods fell to Thy lot,
Like drops of mercury upon the earth Thou wert,
Unsullied by all vulgar greed, O Y ogi;
T o Thee, O Faultless One, we pray :
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Pakinis now hold,
To us, Thy Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth.

‘ O Lord, when over congregations vast Thou didst preside,
Like the sun uprising o’er the world Thou w ert;
Thou didst enlighten all, O Yogi;
1 That is, Realization o f Truth born o f Yoga,

T o Thee, Thou Wise and Loving One, we p ra y :
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Dakinis now hold,
To us, T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth.

‘ O Lord, when by the people of the World Thou wert beheld,
Like the meeting of a mother and her son it was ;
O Yogi, all things for their good Thou d id st;
T o Thee, Affectionate One, we pray:
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Dakinis now hold,
T o us, T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth.

*O Lord, when for the Realms Divine Thou art departing,
Like a treasure-urn of boons Thou a r t ;
O Yogi, Thou Who grantest every wish,
T o Thee, Thou Excellent One, we p ra y :
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Dakinis now hold,
To-us, T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth.

‘ O Lord, when Thou didst prophesy,
Like bringing to the mouth the hand [in faultless song] it was ;
O Yogi, ne’er at fault Thou w ert;
To Thee, thou Knower of the Three Times, we p ra y :
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Dakinis now hold,
To us, T h y Shishyas and T h y Followers on Earth.

‘ O Lord, when Thou didst grant a boon,
Like a father endowing a son Thou w ert;
O Yogi, Thou didst not spare or hold back anything;
To Thee, Thou Gracious One, we pray:
Grant to us the Chaitya which the Qakinis now hold,
To us, T h y Shishyas and Thy Followers on Earth.’

When this prayer had been sung, the form of Jetsun that
was within the Chaitya gave Shiwa-Wod Repa an answer in
a psalm, which pointed out the differences between apparently
similar things, as follow s:

‘ O thou, of mighty destiny and faith,
Who prayest unto me with profound earnestness,
Listen unto me, my excellent disciple in white cotton robed.
«i» q q

‘ O f the all-pervading Dharma-Kaya realized by me—
Its true nature being Voidness—
None may say, “ I possess It", or “ I’ve lost I t ” :
When into Space the fleshly body was absorbed,
A n egg-shaped and substantial relique yet remained;
And this became a Chaitya, emitting glorious radiance—
A field wherein all sentient beings might for merits labour.
In a Realm Divine it will now fore’er remain,
Attended by the Dakinis of the Five Orders ;
B y celestial beings and the Dakinis will it be worshipped;
If in the human world it should be left, it would slowly vanish.

* And ye, my spiritual sons and followers, have had your share
of reliques—
The Knowledge that hath made you realize the Dharma-Kaya
in your "Own minds ;
O f reliques and of ashes this is holiest.
When ye shall seek of This the Realization,
These Similarities which lead to Error ye shall know ;
Forget them not, but keep them in your hearts,
And thus hold to the Right, abandoning the W rong:—

‘ The serving of a perfect Guru,
A nd the serving of a person of good fortune,
Appear to be alike, but beware, and confuse them not.

*The true dawning of the Voidness in one’s mind,
And illusory obsessions of the consciousness,
Appear to be alike, but beware, and confuse them not.

‘ The knowing of the Pure, the Unalloyed State, by meditation,
And the fondness for the Tranquil State born of the trance
ecstatic of Quiescence,
Appear to be alike, but beware, and confuse them not.

‘ The Flood-tide of the Deep of Intuition,
And other deep convictions that “ This seemeth right ”, “ That
seemeth true ”,
Appear to be alike, but beware, and confuse them not.

1 The dear perception of the Mind Unmodified,1
And the noble impulse to serve others,
Appear to be alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
' The spiritual boon which shineth on one as resultant of
Connected Causes,
And merit temporal, which bringeth much of worldly goods,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
* Guidance spiritual and commands prophetic of one’s guardian
Mdtrikds and Dakinis,
And temptations from misleading sprites and elementals,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
‘ Good works enjoined by guardian Dakinis,
And interruptions and temptations wrought b y Mara,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
' The Orb of Dharma-Kaya, [blemishless],
And a relique-orb formed of earthly matter,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
* The Incarnated Blossom of the Realm Nirmdna-Kdya,
And the Heavenly Blossom of a Sensual Paradise,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
‘ A Chaitya such as gods miraculously produce,
And a Chaitya such as demons may make manifest,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
‘ The Glorious Halo, symbolizing the phenomenal universe,
And the rainbow born of [common] natural causes,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
‘ The faith resulting from Connexions Karmic of the past,2
And faith produced by artificial methods,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
*The true faith, thrilling forth from the heart’s recesses,
And faith conventional, born of a sense of shame and
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.
1 That is, the yogic state o f mind, the mind in its natural condition, unmodified
by mundane activity.
* That is, in past lives.

* The sincere devotion to religious studies,
And feigned devotion, for the pleasing of one’s Guru,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.

‘ The real success, which one hath realized,
And nominal success, of which rumour speaketh,
Appear alike, but beware, and confuse them not.

‘ This Chaitya, which belongeth to the Mdtrikds Divine and
Doth symbolize the Realm of Buddhas of the Past, the
Present, and the Future ;
A congregational-hall for Heroes and for Yoginis it i s ;
And, for thy Guru Jetsun, is a place of meditation.
It now is being borne to Ngon-gah [the Eastern Paradise],
Wherein all Dakinis assemble,
To the Realm of Happiness,
Wherein the Bhagavan Shamvara,
Lokeshvara, and the Goddess Tara meet.
There, in that blest and happy Realm,
Hosts of Dakinis Divine a welcoming procession form.

1 If to the Chaitya thou whole-heartedly wilt pray,
With welling tears, devotion, and sincerity,
And offerings true, in worship and in veneration,
Strewing blossoms of keen intellect,
Sprinkling on it holy-water of a heart made pure,
Thyself protected and entrenched within a faith immutable,
And dost wish bestowed on thee the power of the Individual
Beneath the Chaitya bow thy head.’

While this hymn was being sung, the JJakinis conveyed
the Chaitya through the skies and held it directly above the
chief disciples, so that it sent down its rays of light on
the head o f each o f them, thus conferring upon them its
power. Most of the assembly saw the form of Jetsun pro­
jecting from the Chaitya. And in the sky there appeared
[the Tantric Deities] Gaypa-Dorje, Demchog, Sang-dii, and

Dorje-Pa-mo, surrounded by innumerable hosts, who, after
circumambulating the Chief Deity, merged in him.
Finally, the whole conclave resolved itself into an orb of
light, and this then sped away towards the East. The
Chaitya was wrapped in various folds of silk by the Dakinis,
and put carefully into a casket of precious metals ; and then
it was transported eastward, amid a peal of celestial music
from various instruments. Some saw Jetsun in the garb
of a Sambhoga-K aya Buddha, mounted on a Lion, each of
whose feet was supported by a Ddkhii of one colour and
order, [white, yellow, red, and green]- The halter was held by
Dorje-Pa-mo herself. Many Heroes, Yoginis, and Dakinis
held over him banners, [royal] umbrellas, and other ornaments
and objects of worship, while many celestial beings bore in
their hands various musical instruments. Some, again, saw
a white Dakini bearing the Chaitya eastward, under an
awntog of white silk. Thus, different spectators saw different
The disciples and all the followers were filled with deep
despondency at not receiving a portion of the reliques; and
wept loudly, still praying for it. In reply, a voice from
the heavens, resembling that of Jetsun, though no body was
visible, said, ‘ O sons, do not take it so to heart. A s a sub­
stantial relique, for your portion ye will find on the Amolika
Boulder four letters [miraculously] produced. Y e may look
upon them reverently, and with faith. Go ye and look for
them underneath the boulder.’
Having searched all round the boulder upon which the
cremation had been performed, they found the place whereon
the letters were visible. Thereby was their grief at having
lost their portion of the reliques lessened. Even until now
this marvellous relique-stone is to be seen— an object of venera­
tion and wonder for all at the Lapchi-Chubar Monastery.
The most prominent of Jetsun’s disciples, although mourn­
ing the unavoidable separation from their Guru, took comfort
in the hope and belief that in whatever realm Jetsun obtained
Buddhahood they would be sure to be the first amongst his
followers. They felt sure, too, that Jetsun’s life and example

since he had made a special mention of gold. It was then agreed that they should look beneath the hearth. and a small manuscript which read as follows: ‘ The cloth and the sugar. A ll who taste of this sugar and touch this cloth will be saved from the lower states of existence. A n y sentient being who heareth the name of Milarepa. And they that have the luck to taste it. the point of the knife-handle being an awl. On digging up the hearth. which Jetsun had worn. none of them expected that he had accu­ mulated any gold. These things have been prophesied by the Saints and Buddhas of the past. and to be per­ fected by each of them. These were the food and clothing of Milarepa when he was in Samadki. will never become exhausted. they all realized that the special teaching and mantra received. the back of the knife arranged as a steel for striking fire. Whosoever shall say that Milarepa possessed hidden gold. Moreover. they read the following verses : ‘ The food which I. will not take rebirth in a lower state of existence during seven lifetimes. and for seven lifetimes will remember past lives. despite the sorrow-stricken state of their mind. the Yogi. but. And with the knife there was a lump of brown sugar. While in Samddhi I remained. and the blade very good for cutting. they resolved to do as he had directed them.had instilled a new spirit and impulse into the religious world and all sentient beings in general. even though it be but once. they found a square piece of fine cotton-cloth. Cut as many strips from the cloth and bits from the sugar as possible and distribute them among the people. Judging from Jetsun’s manner of living. if cut with this knife. Wrapped in it there was a knife. Close tight the door of rebirth in the Preta-Loka. was capable of serving both themselves and others. let pollution be placed in his mouth/ This last passage excited merriment in all the disciples. . ate. A gracious boon of twofold virtue doth possess. A t the bottom of the manuscript. as Jetsun had requested in his will. and have been blessed by all previous Buddhas and Saints.

1 Worn on the body or the neck While one be meditating on the Vital Warmth.‘ A bit of this white cotton-cloth. 1 The white cotton-cloth. And further evermore their good and aim. the cloth was cut into many square pieces. they then cut the sugar into countless pieces. step by step. Those of evil disposition. and each piece was as big as the original piece. a shower of blossoms. During seven lifetimes will recall their previous names and castes. shall gain the goal upon the Bodhi Path. varying in colour.’ Accordingly. yet the original piece was not exhausted. ‘ Those who have formed with me religious bonds. The entire universe hath been transmuted into gold . and from other miseries. . But. Henceforth in lower states shall not be born. ‘ Those who have only heard my name. And the sugar and the cloth lasted a lifetime for each of the recipients. so that they escaped falling into the lower states of existence. or enslaved to evil passions. Milarepa. were cured by the eating of the piece of sugar and the wearing of the piece of cloth as a talisman. Likewise. ‘ And they who eat this food of grace Are saved from the Three Lower Worlds. were converted into faithful. and compassionate followers . earnest. And have been moved to faith thereby. No need have I to tie gold up in packets or in pouches. some blossoms having four or five colours. On the day of the funeral ceremony. in which the Kargylitpa yogis clothe themselves. ‘ For me. Will close the doors of Hells both hot and cold. is emblematic of Spiritual Intellect. ‘ I bid my spiritual sons and followers to follow my commands . and [with the sugar] distributed to as many people as were there assembled. the Energetic One. intelligent. And those of the multitude who were suffering from disease. And thus to them the same accomplishment shall come. without being exhausted.

as soon as the funeral ceremonies terminated. or ‘ O ne W ho Hath Entered the Stream ’ (or ‘ Path ’ ). When the Great Lord of Yogis passed away to the Purer Realms. the one w ho takes this step is called a Sotapanno. or * Entering the Stream ’ . in Sanskrit. and others. and rendered happy for ever and ever. Then. the world enjoyed abundant harvests. Srotapaiti. B y the virtue of his mighty grace and good wishes he left behind him saintly disciples as numerous as the stars in the sky. which were of three colours. On every anniversary of the funeral. In the Chubar Valley the celestial blossoms lay ankle- deep on the ground. and all sentient beings were saved from sorrow. the various phenomena ceased. over all the Earth. and in other places were sufficiently numerous to give a new hue to the earth. Most of the blossoms descended until they were just beyond a man’s reach.2 there were countless numbers. the sky was gloriously clear and there were rainbows and showers of blossoms. Of male and female who had entered the Path [to Arhantship]. The number of those who were never to return to Sangsaric existence1 was like the grains of sand on the Earth. . Those that fell to the ground were seen to be extremely beautiful. Thus was the Buddhist Faith rendered bright like the sun. Thus. those who are hereinafter mentioned [in the Appendix] remained to substantiate this written history of his life. heavenly perfume filled the air and celestial melodies resounded everywhere. 1 O r * those w ho w ere non-returners ’ (or Andgamis). are too numerous to be described at length. 4 The first step on the Path to Arhantship is called. but melted away when touched by human hands. of two colours. Some. The marvellous benefits which flowed therefrom. and no wars or epidemics ravaged the Earth.fell in great profusion. as on the day of Jetsun’s passing away. for example. were as tiny and as delicately formed as the wings of bees. and thence ascended and disappeared. and the rainbow colours in the heavens gradually faded away. This is the Twelfth [and last] Chapter of Jetsun’s Biography. flowers bloomed even in winter.

they had received full priestly ordination. of G ungthang. and Dret6n-Trashibar.2 Then there were thirteen lesser disciples:3 Shan-Gom. of Mus. H e allowed the establish­ ment o f the O rder of Buddhist Nuns (Bhikshurfl-Sahgha) . the disciple who. indicated by the spiritual directing of the Dakinis.Phupa. * It is one o f the outstanding glories o f Buddhism that the Fathers and Saints o f the Buddhist Church have ever extended to wom an the solace o f religious equality with man. Khyira-Repa. Tsa-Phu. not because H e regarded them as morally inferior to man. and these. (See p. Shiwa-Wod-Repa. Eventually. like the moon. Seban-Repa. of Chung. Paldar-Bum. T H E A P P E N D IX Concerning Jetsun’s Disciples O f Jetsun’s shishyas [or disciples]. of Chim-Lung (otherwise known as Ngan-Dzong-Tiinpa). they w ere all so inured to cold that th ey w o re only a thin cotton robe. O f these [twenty-one disciples]. who was Jetsun’s own sister. ‘ sons o f the heart \ ® Literally. s«i» R r . These were the eight chief disciples. and Stag-Gom-Repa-Dorje-Wang- chuk. who [also] were all Repas :* Jo-Gom-Repa- Dharma-W angchuk. and Sangyay-Kyap-Repa. as the recorded Hymns o f the Sisters suggest. was Rechung-Dorje-Tagpa. and those. at the time when Jetsun met Shiwa-Wod-Repa. woman shared with man the glory o f upholding and propagating the Teachings of the Enlightened O ne. of Nyanam.® Among the female disciples there were Cho-nga Rechungma. it perhaps somewhat reluctantly. ‘ related sons 4 That is. of Nyi-shang. would outshine all others. 1 and the disciple destined to be of lesser glory. like unto the constellations. but because H e feared the sex-danger universal among human beings. and Peta-G6n- K yit. Me-Gom.Rong*Chung. of Ragma. Dvagpo-Rinpoch’e and the five last lesser disciples were yogis and bhikskus. of Gyal-Tom-mad. however. D am pa-G ya. 414. Loton-Gedun. Likor-Charuwa.8 There were also twenty-five yogis and yoginis who had made considerable progress on the Path. of Do-ta.) * That is. like unto a sun. Sale-W6d.) 2 Literally. and. through dreams. Khar-Chung. 1 Another form o f this name is Dvagpo-Lharje. otherwise known as Je- Gampopa. was the Peerless Dvagpo- Rinpoch’e . A t first the Buddha hesitated about permitting wom en to enter the Sahgha. Bri-Gom- Repa. 8. were Ngan-Dzong-T6npa- Byang-Chub-Gyalpo. (See p. Kyo-Ton-Shakya-Guna. Lan-Gom.

Gampopa addressed many mournful prayers to the Guru [Jetsun]. and narrated to him all the latest news. although late. On reviving. each to his or her particular cave or retreat.2 Then he 1 L iterally.1 A ll the human disciples who attended the funeral ceremonies of their Lord Jetsun retired immediately afterward. and there Rechung handed over to him Maitri’s hat and the Agaru-staff. So much for the human disciples. there were the Five Sister God­ desses [or Fairies] known as the Five Sisters of Durga. The latter. Rechung set out to take the articles [or reliques which Jet­ sun had bequeathed on his death-bed] to Dvagpo-Rinpoch’e [the chief of all the disciples] . and passed their life in meditation and devotion. including Dziwo- Repa (the Cow-herd Disciple). there were innumerable lay-disciples of both sexes. of orders higher and of orders lower than mankind. . there were a thousand sadhus and sadhunis and yogis and yoginis who had renounced the worldly life and lived exemplary lives of piety. the second o f the disciples. and one hundred and eight Great Ones who had obtained excellent experience and knowledge from meditation. had established a religious relationship with him. had remem­ bered Jetsun’s command . who had realized the Truth. on hearing which Gampopa [or Dvagpo-Rin­ poch’e] fell into a swoon for a while. Countless other spiritual beings there were who had dedicated themselves to the protection of the Buddhist Faith. Then there were one hundred Andgamis. Besides these. 2 O ur version is by R cchung. Again. he met Dvagpo-Rinpoch’e at Yarlung-Phushar. in opposition to the Black Side (or Black Magic) o f non-emancipating religions. ‘ the W h ite S id e ’ . as Jetsun had commanded. as he was proceeding with them towards the Province of U. and these are to be found recorded in Gampopa’s own biographical history [of Jetsun]. having heard and seen Jetsun. Am ong the non-human disciples. and. and thus closed for ever the gate on the pathway to the lower states of existence. and the Rock-Ogress of Lingwa. who.

1 That is. sut Rr % . or at least the only inhabited world. And with the last act came the greatest of all great successes that can ever fall to the lot of mortal man. as b y the Christian Church. each replete with marvellous events. In like manner did Shiwa-Wod-Repa. and the Bestower of the Bliss of Nirvana upon all sangsaric beings alike. leaving their corpses behind for the benefit of the world and of all sentient creatures. yet. Thus did the saintly Jetsun Milarepa perform three worldly acts and nine acts of religious devotion. in the blissful feast of the auspicious gift of eternally increasing blessings. called 4the Ear-whispered T ru th s’. so that he left no corpse behind him on earth]. the attaining in one lifetime of the Fourfold Body and the Fivefold Wisdom of the All-pervading Holder of the Sceptre of Spiritual Power ^Vajra-Dhara). all sentient beings. and to develop. he departed. and Paldar-Bum. for ever and ever. and Sale-Wod. and therein he sat in deep meditation for the remainder of his life. and received from him the complete Karna Tantra1 of Demchog. the esoteric teachings which are alw ays transmitted orally. and entered the Higher Realms. It is prohibited by the Gurus. the Guide to Deliverance and Omniscience. and went on towards the Loro-Dol Monastery.* Thus endeth the history of the Great Yogi named Mila- Zhadpa-Dorje. countless in number and inhabiting worlds as infinite as heavenly space. w ho are the custodians o f these secret doctrines. namely. and. and the four female disciples who were sisters. and had im­ parted to him all the religious teachings which it was necessary to impart. lest the uninitiated and the unw orthy gain access to them. The other disciples all passed away in the normal manner. When Rechung had transmitted to Gampopa that portion of the reliques to which Gampopa was entitled. making in all twelve acts. * T h e conception of a plurality of inhabited w orlds has been held by O riental peoples for thousands of y e a r s . and thus save. And Rechung was translated bodily to the Divine Realm. transmute their physical body into the ethereal body. with it. the power to traverse all the Holy Buddha Realms. [his physical body being rendered ethereal.invited Rechung to his own place of abode. Khyira-Repa. even when this passage w a s w ritten— a little more than eight centuries ago— the theory that the Earth is the centre o f the universe and the-only w orld. to set them down in w riting. w as still believed in by the learned o f Europe.

O f that Lord among men. T he beneficent effulgence of the Gem of History. M ay it thus be a feast of delight to them who uphold the Faith and serve others. The mere hearing of this History moveth to faith despite one’s self. Jetsiin-Mila. the twofold aim s1 are fulfilled. May it thus be a feast of delight to those striving to obtain omniscience in one lifetime. 1 That is. B y the mere touching of this History. May it thus be a feast of delight to all devotees who are sincerely attached to religion. The mere thinking of this History cutteth off one’s attach­ ment to the w orld. May it thus be the best of offerings in veneration of all Buddhas and Saints. Hath made the Faith of the Buddha like the sun. And hath fulfilled the hopes and expectations of all sentient beings. May it thus be a feast of delight to all scholars and lovers of literature. or from the interminable round of death and birth in worlds o f suffering. Its words stir the very hairs of the body. one’s own aims and the aims o f others seeking freedom from sattgsdric existence. M ay it thus be a feast o f delight to all who are of high destiny and endowed with good karma. in faith and hum ility. . This History [or Biography] hath been made beautiful at the beginning and end with ornate language.

The author's real D a m e is that o f the second o f Jetsun's disciples. 1 From this place-name it appears that the History w as either w ritten or completed w hile R echung was on Pilgrim age to L apchi-K ang (Mt. and the eighth day. Rechung-Dorje-Tagpa. besides being sym bolic. [Signed and dated]: Durt<bd-nyul-vai-naljor-rupahi-gyen- chan [or ‘ The Yogi having ornaments of bone who frequenteth cemeteries ’j. every sentient creature shall find relief from all sorrow. cf. too. . the middle autumn month. at the sacred Pilgrimage of Lapchi-Kang. serve the same end. Everest). or else while he w as in hermitage there. May it thus be a feast of delight to all sentient creatures of the Three Planes [or universe]. the place sanctified b y Jetsttn’s meditation. p. The frequenting of cemeteries is a part o f the yogic practice. being o f the bones o f the dead. The orna­ ments.2 1 This designation is that o f a devotee { o t yogi) who has renounced the world. T H IS B O O K ’S V I R T U E S 309 Through one’s study and practice of this History.1 The year o f Phurbu. xvii. In virtue of the Grace of this History. May it thus be a feast of delight to them who uphold the glory of the Dynasty of Gurus by living according to their commandments. the Dynasty of Gurus will be fully satisfied. and intended to impress upon the devotee the transient nature o f sattgsdrtc existence. namely.

4 7 s. 233. Esoteric Teachings. 961. 2131. 2071. 4. — Enthronement of. 42s. Christianity. — Drunkenness and. 300. — Miracles and.19 6 . 7. Buddhas. J — Kenunciatioii of. XVi. * 33> »54» a 7 !» 373» 348. 2031. 2441. Asttra[s]. Confucius. 1334. — Asceticism of. 233: see Incarna­ 200. 8 . 276s. 288. 7 6 . 19 4 . Demon.15 1. 343. 164. 13a®. 38s. 131. 301. — Damnation and. 372. 6 1 1. 173. 20. Buddhism. 40. 4 6 l. 102. Black A rt. 306. — Series of.19 0 . Chenrazee. 131. 2 Q 3 . 45*' s. 3 9 1. 13 ' . 163-4. xvi®. — A d i. of. Chaitya. 29. — Manfala. X V . H 31. and Reliquary. io. Body of. Dhyani Buddhas. 371. 3041. most of which may be used as a Glossary. — Church-Council. facing p. 300. — Sign of a. — H alo. — Fish-Symbol and. 14 3 . 31. Brahmins and non-killing. Aura. D akim {s]. 1911. 16 71. Bodhisattva[s]. Christianity 2R9 ff. — Evolution and. Bon Religion. “ Burial and. tion. — Vow of. 36s. 38. xix. 33*. Curse. 133*. kiteshvara. I 0 3 1. 1 751. 441' 2. *73 ff-» Bhikshu[s] 31°. 442. 112. 2761. 57S 114. Amogha-Siddhi. — Funeral Pyre of. 2741. o f: see 197. 2 6 0 . — Usjntsha of.. 307s. 41s : see 287-8. 293. 142". 154. God*. 291s. — Heavens. 37*. 305. 1901. 291-3. *73 ff” see Brahma-randhra. Brahma-danda. Anthropos. 8. — Tantra. *57. Christ {Christos). 279. 9 6 9 : Am itabha. 9 6 : set 43 .299. 11. of. — Symbolism of. 3 7 1. >67. 120°. State). Buddha. Bkagavad-Gttd. — Yoga and. 78*. 2731. J9£l * 5. 339. — Cosm ology of.N irvan k Consciousness — Cosmology and. 84. A nagam i[s\ 351® . — State of. 311*. 10-12. 6 iff. — Bodies of. 1521. 211. 2. Banner of V ictoiy. i l l . 3 6 *.258. 274*. 80. 169. 307®. 22-3. 3 9 ®. 202. I2 3- 4 a 3. xvi®. 38. xviii. 261. 2. 6. 287. —. ai'> s. Buddhahood. 1 7 11. a 16. 6 . 291*.1 1 4 . Cosmology. 152*. IN D E X Black-type figures indicate the chief references.3 7 Sj 147n. 47s. 305. — Esoteric. 3831. 87-8. 291®. i i£J. xx. 151s. 11. — Illness and Death of.19 3 . Demchog. 44 . it. 311s. . A rab Philosophers. x v i x. 4 4 1. 11. — Duties of.1 0 . 333. Brahma Qualities. 51. Airs (Skt. 193. 1191. — Hymn of. 4-6. 349. 7 . and. 392. IO. 124. A strology. — Hymns of. 249. 161s. xvi®. Charms. 1921. Stupa. 5 a 1-*. 3 7 1. 43®. Asceticism. and 147". Stupa. xx. Clairvoyance. Arhant. — Dynasty of. 243. — Tibetan Schools of. 3 8 6 1. 133*. Buddhahood. Vayu). i6 6~7> i 69 » Bhikshuni. 205. 155®. 1691. 252s. 164. 275. £)evo[s]. Avatara[s]. — Lamaism and. xvi1. — Posture. xv. Atisha. — Samddhi of. 293. 47*. 277. 50.304n. 210s. — Creeds and Anathemas aoi1. 86. 3 9 1. 307®. 12.. Brahmavidya. 151*.265. 3 8 *. 381. 40. 19 11. China and Tibet. xvii. Arhantship. 381. 3 3 l . — Woman and. 282. Am aravatl Heaven. 3651. 3 4 s. Ch'orten. 1141. 18 6 . Avalokiteshvara. 39s. Tibetan. 283*. 77-8. 342. see Chaitya. 279. 38s. 370. — Vows of. 306. 95. Animism of. Akshobhya. — Stimulants and.4» a 7°. 1671. 1. 35®. 39®. — Gnosticism and. 229. Brahma. 232. 133 142“ 144- 2711. — Eyes of. xv. 191. I 431> 3° 7. 2141. Chronology. 48-9. 1. X V 1. Reliquary. — Twelve deeds of. Bar-da (Intermediate — Meditation. 35*. 43. 352*. Deliverance. 31. 145". 46“. 44 '. xvi. x ix . 143°. 305*. 3 0 5 #. 1 9 7 1* 298 f f : see Ch'orten. 156. I 9 1. 37 ’ • see Avalo- Akanish^ha Heaven. 71. Asana[s]. x ix . 145s. x i x . 9®l» I r 9 i *4 5 s>149*. Chhang. a n 5.

xvii. 94. x ix . 93*. 8. — Symbolism of. a88. 9? Io. a a i* . 1 9 5 1. 96l » 106. i i o . Gods. * 3 **. Gampopa. 43-5.163.16 6 . 47 > 84-5. 9. G«rw[j] (cont. God. 36. 394. on. — Lineal.65. 117 -8 . — Damema’s. Aunt. * 7*. — Serving of.xvi. 162*.331. 259.179 . 17-18. * 35*. 48. 385s. 33. — Existence of. 3 6 0 . 501. 2113. n 8 .13. 149 A-. of. 387. 7.1 7 11. 3051. 117.287-8. 257. 4. 87-8. xvi. 298. 145. 75-8. 68‘ . — Manifestation of. Esoteric Teachings. 9. xv1. 138. x v . 3° 5. 18 6 1. 290. 398 : see Samadhi. — Symbolism of. — Gahdan. 158. Maha. — Gnostic. 10. 269. 3191. M4 \ M 5. Dug-pa. 250. — Christhood of. 129. 38 l. 9. 284. 4. 1341. 330. Dharma. 87. 388-9. 134. 1 9 7 ': see Buddha­ 3 141. 140. Illusion.49s. 83. 261. — Kargyutpa. Hallucination. Enlightenment. 245. 353. 208. I I. 45s. 338. * 44 . 274: — KargyUtpa. Hermit. 8. 154.. *9°. 33*. Eight Glorious Emblems. 80 1. 231. Ge-lug-pas. 1 7 0 . 141. 10 31. 33*. 399. 306. — Norbu. 171. 358 . 18. 195. 169®. Dhy&na: see Meditation. 228. 161. hood.19 3. xix-xx. — Symbols of. 145. 377. — Final Precepts. xviii. 10. 134*. on. Great Perfection Doctrine. 1951. 297. i 6 g 4. 307*. 261. 395s. 147". Doije-Pa-mo. 273*. Great Sv mbol (Skt. 6 3 1. 133. 393-3. 38 1. 186. 39. 1 4 6 '. 1931. 290-1. *6*> 3°9- — Symbolism of. 309*. 357. 1339. — Himalayas. 33. — Worship of. 371. 18. 35. 135. 36*. 306. 241. 250-3. 7. 1 4 '. 178.169. 45*. 160. 3221. Guru[s\ x v . xviii. 319% 399. Hymn (or Song). 14 0 .104. x. 108. 173. 3091. i i . — FinnKesolution. 98*. 17. 156*. 3 8 8 . Things. Durga (Kali). x v iii. 30. Doctrine of. 18. xx. 267. 2561. Jfi6*. 15 . 395. 112. 351. Dharma-Raja. I 75I » 308. 339. 114. X X . 137. Dron^-jug Teaching. Dorje-Chang. 354. *93- Dorj 7. 8 . — Apparently Similar Ego. 3:9. 282*. I44l. 346. 1071. Godavari.of. 2 10 1 . 133. X V . 298. — Vajra Order. xv. J47. 6 i '. Dharma-Dhdtu. of. 83-41.1 301. 245. 371.7 .3 0 . 3 9 '. 3p‘ » ®. — Shishya and. 339s. — Saints and. Golden Fish.1 0 . Exorcism. xv. Mt. 8. o f. 14s". xvii. 50. 134. 136 ff. 3° 7*.x v i i l . 292. 5 1. Elixir.. Ganapati. 18. xvi. 363. — Supreme. 87-8. 144. 3oi. 306-7. 285s. — Symbolism of. Gaypa-Dorje. 36®. 43 . X X . 13. Gnosticism. . 335 ff. — Transmission of. — Hook of. l88. 42* — Disciples’ . 7. DI-Knng-pa. xvi1. 8 . Grace. 44s - Dharma-pala\J]. Waves of. 173.i s . 1181. 46s. r 93 >*93 . Dharma-Kaya. 313s . of. 176. 275. 375. Funeral Ceremonies. Ecstasy (Illumination). — Divine. xviii. Dhyani Buddhas. — Himalayan. 333 : see Vajra-Dhara. xvi. 9 . 1081. 141s : see Dreams. 379. 237. 319. Five Poisons. 178. 33*. 3 7 1. 85-6. 373. Enlightened Ones. — Deva s. 3 0 71. 178. 167. I94. 363°. IO. 208®. 346. Hail-storms. Mudra). 311. 14. 3 9 s. — Christian. 21 3 . 3751. 19 *. 286-7. 170. Hermitages.). xvi. 398. 387-8. Heruka. 4a *> ' 5^. 321. 143. xv. — Guru. 13. 165.190 3 u 1. facing p. 185. 333. Prela). 371. Dream Symbols. 263*. Ghost (Skt. 33 *. 17. Hlnayana. 37°. — Forgiveness. — Bengali. xvii. 396. — Guardian. 681. < 7. — Indian and Tibetan. 164. 3a*. 38s. 33s.Dhammapada. 131. 284s. The. 162. Everest. 395. 37". Elements. Druids. 11. 130—1. 4. Elementals. x v . a i. 2^3. 258. 38 *. 39». 194.300. 21. 198. see Deva. 247. — Cloth and Sugar. i6oi. 265. 361. 377. 365*. 41«. 86. Launching 149 . 9 . 14. Hail-tax. 18 1. 1781. — Stages of. 43. 141*. 16. 1611. 138. — H ail. 133. Fairies. r4 9 l > 157. 369. xv-xviii. 135 . 3° 3 . 381.9 1. xvii. 88 : see Vajra.. 33*. of. 283. 45-6. 354. 309®. 35*“ *. — Lotus Order. 151*. — Prayer to. The. xvii.x v i i l . 9 6 1 . 378. H oly Places. xviii. 94. 3951. 9. 333.311*. 173. X V 1. 119. Gur-Bum . Eight W orldly Aims. — Dakinis'. — Tibetan. 385*. to. 331.

of. *5 1» <54. 18. 12. Kuniaimu 1 4 6 1.. 119s. 4 . 42. vi. 15. 239. 215. xvia. 1191. Karma. 61. 25a. on. Mahayana. 147“. on. 272. l 6 l. 151. 201. 43. 133s. 31. a 3 a *t * 33 . 35. on. on. 2o6:. 24-7. Culture — Urgya. — Hymns of. 108. 10. 94-5. Lalita-Vistara. *53*.9 . — Body. i 1. 33*. 8. Mandala. on. 40. 3 5 4 . — Divisions of. I 54“ 7> 164. — Mystical Insight. 4 . 306. xvii. 181- 133* 140. 94. 5.— Final Gifts of. 277®. i 334. 33*. 36. 159. 4. 241*. 188. 30. Matrikd[s\ 3 9 3 s. — Dream Interpretation. 28. Mara. — Civilization of. 179. 8. to the. of. 7. 143. 252. 262. 32s. 3 0 5 '. — Self-reproof. 218. U9». — Good-Wishes. — Place in Literature. xvii. 266. 120. 265. The. M aka-M udra: see Great — Prophetic Dream. 151. 263. 3181. 14.12 9 ff. Jftana). 44*. 277s. 190. 211. — Ego. of. 4. — Virtues of. on. xviii. 209.I4 5 s . 340. 195. Maya. 1071. of. Madhyamika.Iig 1. — Connexions of. 238. 1031. 46. 2 4 0 1.167. of. India. — Evil. t22. 101. io 8~9» 1 i 7» 222. 12 5 -6 . 141*.on Seeing the. Karma-pa. 179. J73. Illusion. 309s. 160. 230. 104.263. and Invocation. — Esoteric T ransmission — Yogi's Race. 1.47s. — Home-yearning. M agic. 94. 82. Initiation 9 . — Shame. — Yogic Satisfactions. Knowledge (Skt. on. 261. xvii. of. 3 9 1. 169. 24. 147“. 8. 248. Islam and India. 8 7 -9 0 . 362. — Marpa’s. 136-7. 187. 91.290. 300. I44-6. n .8. 87. 151. — Gods. 89. on. Lang-Dar-ma. Mantra. xviii. 156. 152*.13 3 s. of. 294. Avatdra. 299. 29. *ff-. 17. Lama. 3° 3- — Impermanence. 2.178. 250 1. 7. Makd-Furusha. 70. 161. KfishBa. — D uality. 206. Lamaist Sects. to the. 160. >7 ^ 175. Marpa. — Science of. a 1. 124 ff. 353» »59. 68‘ . 272. 48. 149. 103. * 55. Indra. 243. 164. 102-3. 48. of. — Band. 43'. 119. 102. 183. — Miserable. Final. 281. *85* by. 158. 3071. 210s. 3501. 123. about. 7 : see Sadkand. 3 5 1. — Maidens. 2071. 13. 253. 3 7 s. 3° 9 . 377*» — Worldliness. 47. 189. 88. Gesht. 86. 261. 270. xvi*. 213*. 324. 14*. 140. — Peta’s Visit. 3 20. 147. 6 11. 162. ■ — Tranquil. 147". iso. 84. — Yogic Precepts. Incarnation. — Mirror of. Kailasa. 119 .12 6 . Kuruialint: see Yoga. 251. of. on. 15 . . — Interdependence. — Yogic Zeal. 132s. M a itn . 7.Levitation. 242.l I » 3° S 86. — Things Useful. xvi*. 135. 184. 159. — Tashi. — Yogic W isdom. vii. 251. 192. — Law of. M t. 184. 155. 7. on. — Sorrowful. 300. 1671. — Gurus of. 10. 299*. 69. Jetsiin-Kahbum. Samadhi. 164. X V . 178. 7. 137. 166. 214. 1341. 299: see 9n. 188. 35<51i 156.) . 37s. 7 . Symbol. 95. Dhyand). x. 284-5. 6 . 13. x i v . * 33.306- 242. 45s. 244 ff. — Philosophy. 227.. 2761. xvi*. 203. 241. 233. 190. — Tsaphuwa. — Textand Translation of. 167. K ali-Yuga. 217-18. x ix . 299. 1. of. 133*. — Dalai. 7. 2415. — Communities. 2351.370. 1141. xx. — Path. 94. 232. 16. 87. Meditation (Skt. 27. 222. 3011. 14 .274. Kargyutpa. — Dawa-Samdup. 123. 51. Jains and non-killing. — Yogi's Illness. — Yogic Vows. 226. 103 l. 302. Karmic Deities. of. Kah-gyur. xvi. 14 0 -4 1. 144S I 48.Hymn (or Song) ( f« / . — Guru. * 33. 108: see Buddhahood. I 34S l6 3.194.186. 162. Kah-dam-pas. 308-9. 289. — Illusoriness. 6 3 1. — Milarepa’s. 33. — Dissenting Sects. 33s. of. Liberation. 161. — Absolving of. 2. — Sisters. 156.Loka[s\. 259. xvii. 36s. 251. 1. — Good. 47*> 76. 14*. 13) 14. The Three. 151. of. on. — Yogis Car. 266 : see Black A rt. — Naropa and. Kusulipas. — Apostolic Succession. to the. 24. on. 3fi7. — Hermits. 3 . 303 . 6. 3. 13-14. 377. Bari-Lotsawa. 266-7. Maung Tun Kyaing. 377-8. — Yogic Comforts. 65-6. 2. 91s. Life on the. on. 35°. 143. — Rechung’s. Lokeshvara. 243.

14 7 . 94-5. 13 . 355S 270. — Tantric Rites. 22off.6 . 20. on Illness. 273. 2 11-13 . 4 4 . 86. 35. x. — Gurus of. 276. 53. 250. — Parting from Marpa. 107. 2991.3 . 14 7 *9 . Ngon-gah Heaven. 266. 33l. Niddnas. 126-7. xx. 201. Bud­ Milarepa ('cont. The Twelve. 43. 239. 87-3. — Stages of. 46 . 57. 172. 221. 286. 5. — Ngogdun and. and. 243. 259. 196-200. 167. 187. 352. 221. Buddhas. 154. 258. Nalanda University. 4 . 283. 3.. 33 s'4. 21. 163-4. — Geshi and. 33 J. 299. 3°7. 160. Final. of. — Vacillation of. Loss of. Death. to. ’ Og-min Heaven. ff. — Science of. 248-9. 272-3. 18 5.3.ju g Teaching — Renunciation of. Naropa. >3. 99 . 61 ff. Primordial. as. 4. Mt. 55. l a 5> r 3 'j Action. — Drong . — Conversion of. 113. 35s. 167'. 85. — Esoteric Transmission — Socrates of Asia. 205.. 611. 209. — Medical Treatmentand. — Father’s Death. 260. J3i» 144. — Home-yearning of.6. — Yogic Comforts of. — Hermitages of. — Worldliuess. 48. 265. 227-30. 232-3. — Clan of. 226-7. 29. 303. 1431. — Naming of. 4 . — Dream Prophetic o f. 1421. 217. 220. on. — Probation and Penance Nirvana. — Marpa and. 244 ff. 49. Occult Powers. on.— Precepts of. 298. 218. 53-5. -— Death of. 90.15 5 -6 . 336-7. 46s. 53. — Mother’s Message. — Hunters and. 222-4. I 334. 87-91. of. — Despondency of. 53. — Spiritual Knowledge of. 354. as. 148s. 6 ff. 46. I0 5> Io3> ” 4. 193. 1511. 145. ^ 21s. 206. 161-3. — Meditation of. Od-sal (Clear Light). 67. x x . xix : see 93 ^ i 45"j J94 > 2° 91> 2463. xvii. 5. 3 9 *. 69. 209. 307. 145 ". Mudrd. 26°> 2831. 237. 48.149. 2 19 2. 93-128. 119. 32-9. 244 ff. Mern. ' 45 .208-9. 16 1-z.. 1521. 288s. xv. on. 1382. 3. 187 47. 235 ff-.'? . 183 ff. 146=. 207-8. 1921. I 43 I- ff. 257- — Arbantship of. Mind. 5 1. 441. 289. — Caves of. 96. — Fame of. 95. 138. 87 ff. 215. I 3*> I 33i Naming Ceremony. 731- 286 ff. 173. Acts of. Mysteries. 52*.). 1141. 127. — Travels of.178 . — Nakedness of. Nepal. 3S2. 161. 36s. 298-300. 289 ff. 241. I r5 ff. — B irth of.).Meditation (cont. — Cemeteries. — Humanity’s Hero. — Occult Powers of. 288. — Vows of. 165. — Reliques of. 46^. — Yogic Satisfactions of. 7 . 271.I7S 1i — Initiation of. 2. — Reformer. x v : see DhyanI o f : see Hymn. 241-3. 201. 8. 16. — Records of. 204. u y . on Karma. xvi. Occult Sciences. Padma Sambhava. 1711. 280. as : see Yogi. 178. — Vengeance of. 245. 258. 3 i . — Aunt and.* ° 3'. 3°°- — Deceit of. 4 4 1. — Resurrection of. see Guru. 2321. as. — Names of. and. 80. 136. 192. 141s. 174-6 ff. 41. — Black Art and.194. 2911. — Translations of.14 9 . 2853. 6 r -8 i. 138s*. 12. — Hardships of. 37 1. 414. 254>3° 4“ 7■ — Poisoning of. vi. 1 4 6 1. 257. — Education of. Milarepa the. 161 : see Milarepa. — Cremation of. and. 155. 294. 42.). Oath-taking.461. Ningma[pa]. — MuJra of. 245 : — Lineage of. 94 ff. 358.. 46. — Bodhi. on Shame. . — Yogic Race of. 214. Zesay dhas of. — Social Ideal of.. 30S. 294.. 11.43. 37a. 245-7 i on 284-6. 225. 9. 171. 261. 363>8. xvii. 13. 46-52. 58-9.15 1. — Incarnation of. — Tests of. 135. 1. — Discourse on Book. 2 11-13 . 6sa> — Guru's Guidance of. 12 j. xix. 163 . Hymns Milarepa (cont. 351. 202-9. — Admonitions. 249. 260. 265 . Omens.9 lS. 65. 40. 262. — Peta and. I 3 I . >60-3. 303. Initiation. 59. 15. 269-71. Nirmana-Kdya. 43. 53. 294. 1 4 . 28-9. 237. 29. 171. 225. 3I01. 2 4 6 “. 175. 115-16. 159. — Disciples of. 307. — Guru. 48. 55-60. 32-9. 2 4 9 1. Ndgas. S3 1 * 233-4 5 on Right — Rechung’s Dream of. 38^. 137. 65.. 136 ff. 73-7- 261-2. — Right. Learning. 83. 84-5. 351. and. 136 ff. 69-70. 12. 3 8 2. — Patrimony. 451.2 5 1. 211s. xvi. Mudrd. 28). M 41. 49.275. 235 — Yogi. 6.