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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND

DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)

SITE SURVEYING [QSB60103]

FIELDWORK I
LEVELLING REPORT

LECTURER: IR CHAI VOON CHIET

PREPARED BY:

LIM XIAO SHI 0324410

LOH WEI TING 0328314

LOW WAN JING 0329214

MELVIN TAN TENG HUNG 0324938
TABLE OF CONTENT

Content Page

Objective 2

Introduction of Levelling 3–6

Field Data 7 – 10

Summary 13

Group Members 14

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| LEVELLING REPORT 1
1.0 OBJECTIVE

 To provide an overview of surveying and to develop understanding of levelling theory
and practice
 To enhance the students’ knowledge in the levelling procedure
 To enable students have a hands-on experience in setting up and working with
automatic level, tripod, levelling staff and collect the data of the relevant fieldwork
 To allow students to learn the correct method in doing levelling measurements
 To allow students to apply the theories taught in class to a hands-on situation
 To determine the difference in height of discrete points and identify the spot of
relative height
 To identify the reduced level of each staff station
 To identify the error of misclosure in order to determine if the levelling is acceptable

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2.0 INTRODUCTION

Levelling
Levelling is a general term which is applied to various process by which elevations of points
or differences in elevation is determined. Levelling is a process of determining the height of
one level relative to another. It is used to establish the elevation of a point relative to a datum
or to establish a point at a given relative to a datum.

Reasons for levelling:

 Elevations of new facilities such as roads, structural foundation and pipelines can be
designed.
 To determine the proper slope of a road, elevation of a building, required cutoff
elevation of a foundation pile, inverted elevation for a sewer etc.
 It provides data to determine the shape of the ground and for the use of topographic
maps.
 Designed facilities are laid out and marked in the field by construction surveyors.

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2.1 Terms

Elevation:
The vertical distance of a point either above or below a given reference surface is called
the elevation of a point.

Level surface:
A level surface is defined as a curved surface which at each point is perpendicular to the
direction of gravity at the point. The surface of a still water is a truly level surface. Any
surface parallel to the mean spheroidal surface of the earth is (a level surface)

Datum:
Datum is any surface which elevation is referred. The mean sea level affords a
convenient datum world over, and elevations are commonly given as so much above or
below sea level. It is more convenient, however, to assume that some other datum,
especially, if only relative elevation of points is required.

Bench-mark (BM):
It is a relatively permanent point of reference whose elevation with respect to some
assumed datum is known. It is used either as a starting point for levelling or as a point
upon which to close as a check.

Temporary Bench-mark (TBM):
TBM is a marking or a location with a known elevation. These markings are usually
permanent. They are used by a person doing levelling work as intermediary points when
carrying a known elevation from one point to another.

Reduced Level (RL):
A reduced level is the vertical distance between a survey point and the adopted level
datum.

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2.2 APPARATUS

Automatic Level

An automatic level, or commonly known as auto level is an optical instrument used
for levelling purposes. It is used to establish or prove points in the same horizontal plane.
Used for surveying or building purposes for construction site and general survey tasks, it is
quickly set up and accurate measurement of horizontal planes and angles at long or short
distances can be achieved. Along with a vertical staff, height differences can be measured
and the transferring, measuring and setting of heights could be done as well.

Auto Level Tripod

The auto level tripod is a device used as a support platform for surveying instruments
like theodolites and levels. The tripod stand ensure a stable and reliable reading when taking
measurements. With adjustable legs that are pinned to the ground, instruments placed on

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Levelling Staff

A levelling staff is a tool for elevation measurements. It can be shortened and
lengthened depending on the use, whether for storing or using purposes. Along with a
levelling instrument, it is used in measuring vertical distance between required points to
obtain the relative heights of different points in the surveyed area.

Bubble Level

The spirit bubble is an instrument used to determine whether a surface is level. Used
in our levelling and traversing measurements, it helps to get an accurate reading by ensuring
that the bubble stays in the middle of the given circle. It can be found on automatic levels
and also attached to levelling staff.

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3.0 FIELD DATA

SITE

BM101:
+100.00

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3.1 Height of Collimation Method

BS IS FS HEIGHT OF REDUCE REMARKS
COLLIMATION LEVEL

1.283 101.283 100.000 BM 101

1.337 3.557 99.063 97.726 TP 1

1.327 1.358 99.032 97.705 TP 2

1.252 1.336 98.948 97.696 TP 3

1.455 1.322 99.081 97.626 TP 4

1.223 1.178 99.126 97.903 TP 5

1.197 1.256 99.067 97.870 TP 6

1.230 1.372 98.925 97.695 TP 7

1.194 1.201 98.918 97.724 TP 8

3.810 1.212 101.516 97.706 TP 9

1.330 1.505 101.341 100.011 TP 10

1.303 100.038 BM 101

16.638 16.600 100.038

-16.600 -100.000

0.038 0.038

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3.2 Rise and Fall Method

BS IS FS RISE FALL REDUCE REMARKS
LEVEL

1.283 100.000 BM 101

1.337 3.557 2.274 97.726 TP 1

1.327 1.358 0.021 97.705 TP 2

1.252 1.336 0.009 97.696 TP 3

1.455 1.322 0.070 97.626 TP 4

1.223 1.178 0.277 97.903 TP 5

1.197 1.256 0.033 97.870 TP 6

1.230 1.372 0.175 97.695 TP 7

1.194 1.201 0.029 97.724 TP 8

3.810 1.212 0.018 97.706 TP 9

1.330 1.505 2.305 100.011 TP 10

1.303 0.027 100.038 BM 101

16.638 16.600 2.638 2.600 100.038

-16.600 -2.600 -100.000

0.038 0.038 0.038

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Accuracy check:

Mis-closure:
The error of closure:
100.038m - 100.000m
= 0.038m (or 38mm)

Maximum allowable error of closure:
12√(k), where k=number of set-ups
= 12√11
= 39.80mm

Hence, the accuracy of this work is acceptable.

Correction per set-up:
0.038/11
= 0.00345m

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4.1 Height of Collimation Method

COLLIMATION LEVEL MENTS REDUCE
LEVEL

1.283 101.283 100.000 100.000 BM 101

1.337 3.557 99.063 97.726 -0.003 97.723 TP 1

1.327 1.358 99.032 97.705 -0.007 97.698 TP 2

1.252 1.336 98.948 97.696 -0.010 97.686 TP 3

1.455 1.322 99.081 97.626 -0.014 97.612 TP 4

1.223 1.178 99.126 97.903 -0.017 97.886 TP 5

1.197 1.256 99.067 97.870 -0.021 97.849 TP 6

1.230 1.372 98.925 97.695 -0.024 97.671 TP 7

1.194 1.201 98.918 97.724 -0.028 97.696 TP 8

3.810 1.212 101.516 97.706 -0.031 97.675 TP 9

1.330 1.505 101.341 100.011 -0.035 99.976 TP 10

1.303 100.038 -0.038 100.000 BM 101

16.638 16.600 100.038

-16.600 -100.000

0.038 0.038 ARITH.
CHECKED

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4.2 Rise and Fall Method

LEVEL MENTS REDUCE
LEVEL

1.283 100.000 100.000 BM 101

1.337 3.557 2.274 97.726 -0.003 97.723 TP 1

1.327 1.358 0.021 97.705 -0.007 97.698 TP 2

1.252 1.336 0.009 97.696 -0.010 97.686 TP 3

1.455 1.322 0.070 97.626 -0.014 97.612 TP 4

1.223 1.178 0.277 97.903 -0.017 97.886 TP 5

1.197 1.256 0.033 97.870 -0.021 97.849 TP 6

1.230 1.372 0.175 97.695 -0.024 97.671 TP 7

1.194 1.201 0.029 97.724 -0.028 97.696 TP 8

3.810 1.212 0.018 97.706 -0.031 97.675 TP 9

1.330 1.505 2.305 100.011 -0.035 99.976 TP 10

1.303 0.027 100.038 -0.038 100.000 BM 101

16.638 16.600 2.638 2.600 100.038

-16.600 -2.600 -100.000

0.038 0.038 0.038 ARITH.
CHECKED

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5.0 SUMMARY

In this fieldwork, the reduced level (RL) of Benchmark (BM) 101 is given to be
100.00m. For each turning point (TP), the reading of back sight (BS) and foresight (FS) is
collected and recorded. The automatic level will be shifted to another point by following the
staff stations set on the plan of the car park. After shifting 11 points, we get back to BM 101
which is the beginning to obtain its FS to calculate the error of mis-closure.

The reduced level is being calculated by both Rise and Fall method and Height of
Collimation method after all readings had been taken. In this report, the data we collected,
the Final Reduced Level is slightly more than the initial Reduced Level. Therefore, some
misclosure error had occurred during our levelling process. If there is error, we must apply
the loop misclosure method, which is ±12√K to adjust the reduced level. At first, we must go
through the accuracy check to determine whether the error of closure is beyond or is staying
in the maximum allowable error of closure. After we found the error, we applied correction
per set up to adjust the reduced level reading we got from our levelling fieldwork process.

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6.0 GROUP MEMBERS

From left to right:
Melvin Tan, Loh Wei Ting, Lim Xiao Shi, Low Wan Jing

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