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# SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY
OF QUANTITY SURVEYING
SURVEYING (HONOURS)

(HONOURS)

SITE SURVEYING [QSB60103]
FIELDWORK 2

FIELDWORK II
TRAVERSE REPORT

LECTURER: IR CHAI VOON CHIET

PREPARED BY:

LIM XIAO SHI 0324410

LOH WEI TING 0328314

LOW WAN JING 0329214

MELVIN TAN TENG HUNG 0324938
Table of Content

Content Page

Objective 3

Introduction to Traversing 4 -– 7

Raw Field Data 8 -– 9

Field Data 10

Angular Error and Angle Adjustment 11 -- 12

Course Bearings or Azimuths 13 — 14

Horizontal Distance Calculation 15 – 19

Course Latitudes and Departures 20

Determine Error of Closure and Accuracy 21

Adjustment of Course Latitudes and Departures 22 -- 23

Computation of Station Coordinates and Graph 24 -- 25

Summary 26

Group Members 27

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 2
Objective

 To understand the principles of running a closed field traverse and apply

theory into practise.

 To be familiar with methods and procedures of traverse surveying.

 To understand traverse computation.

 To experience setting up and working with all related instruments and the

proper way of using them.

 To know the precautions when using to get accurate readings.

 To determine area enclosed within a boundary using traversing.

 To form positions of boundary lines.

 To find the coordinates of given fieldwork

 To understand the checks and errors in a closed field traverse.

 To adjust errors in data collected and compute accuracy.

 To enhance collaboration and working skills within team members.

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 3
1.0 Introduction to Traversing
Traversing is a form of a control survey that involves setting up of a series of stations
that connected together by angle and distance. A traverse is developed by measuring
the distance and angles between points that found the boundary of a site. The angles
are often measured by using total stations or theodolites, while the distance can be
measured by calculating the stadia readings or measure using steel tape, total
stations or electronic distance measuring (EDM) equipment.

Traversing is used in control survey to determine a network of horizontal reference
points called control points. The control points serve as fixed reference positions from
which other surveying measurements are made later on to design and build the
project.

1.1 Type of Traverse

Open Traverse
An open traverse is a series of measured straight lines and angles that do not
geometrically close or a surveying traverse that does not terminate at the
starting point thus does not form a closed polygon. It terminates to a point
whose position is not previously known. It is not recommended to be used as
it provides no check on fieldwork or starting data.

Figure 1: Open Traverse

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 4
Closed Traverse
A closed traverse is one enclosing a defined area and having a common point
for its beginning to end or end at a point whose relative position is known.
Closed traverse is the primary method used in checking surveying field work.

There are two types of closed traverse:

 Loop Traverse: A loop traverse starts and ends at the same point,
forming a loop or a polygon

Figure 2: Loop Traverse

 Connecting Traverse: A connecting traverse looks like an open
traverse, however it begins and ends at point of known position at
each end of the traverse.

Figure 3: Connecting Traverse

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1.2 Azimuths

The azimuth of a line defined as the clockwise horizontal angle between the line
and a given reference direction or meridian. North is generally used as the
reference direction, although sometimes south can be used reference surveying
that covers large area. Any azimuth angle will have a positive value between
0° and 360°.

1.3 Bearing

The bearing of a line is the angle from the north (N) or the south (S) end of the
meridian. A line may fall in one of four quadrants: northeast (NE), south-east
(SE), southwest (SW), or northwest (NW). Depends on which quadrant the line is
in, a bearing may be measured either in a clockwise or in a counter-clockwise
direction. A bearing angle is always less than 90°.

Figure 4: Azimuth and Bearing

1.4 Apparatus used

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Theodolite

A Theodolite is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles, as
used in triangulation networks, and geo-location work. Levelling is accomplished with
the help of a spirit level while the crosshairs in the telescope allow accurate
alignment with the object sighted. The two accompanying scales, vertical and
horizontal are read after the telescope is adjusted accurately.

Figure 5: Theodolite

Tripod

Tripod provides sturdy support for precision surveying instruments. They provide a
level base to easily mount and securely hold the instrument. This support system
helps to ensure accurate data.

Figure 6: Tripod

Levelling Staff

A levelling staff is used with a levelling instrument for measuring differences of level
between points. They are sectional and can be shortened for storage and transport
and lengthen for use.

Figure 7: Levelling Staff

2.0 Raw Field Data
First try raw data – unusable to obtain right acceptable accuracy

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 7
VERTICAL
STATION LEVELLING ANGLE, HEIGHT
ANGLE
STAFF HL
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM

B 2.082 1.917 87°50'20"
126°40'00"
D 2.187 1.808 88°47'00"
A 2.000 1.243
B 2.089 1.918 267°53'00"
133°03'00"
D 2.193 1.813 268°47'00"

C 2.263 1.735 89°21'20"
61°06'00"
A 2.087 1.915 87°54'00"
B 2.000 1.483
C 2.265 1.740 270°31'40"
61°05'00"
A 2.086 1.915 272°06'20"

D 2.137 1.873 88°05'40"
71°55'00"
B 2.268 1.748 89°14'20"
C 2.000 1.382
D 2.125 1.877 268°05'40"
71°51'40"
B 2.266 1.733 269°15'20"

A 2.182 1.805 89°17'40"
94°16'00"
C 2.128 1.875 89°15'00"
D 2.000 1.228
A 2.190 1.812 270°44'00"
94°15'40"
C 2.125 1.875 270°44'40"

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 8
2.0 Raw Field Data
Second try data – usable data

STATION LEVELLING ANGLE, ANGLE, HEIGHT
STAFF Hθ Vθ
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM

B 2.085 1.915 87°57'40"
132°53'00"
D 2.190 1.812 88°48'40"
A 2.000 1.296
B 2.084 1.915 272°02'40"
132°55'20"
D 2.190 1.812 271°11'40"

C 2.260 1.735 89°18'00"
60°59'40"
A 2.085 1.915 87°17'00"
B 2.000 1.305
C 2.267 1.740 270°42'40"
60°59'20"
A 2.085 1.916 272°43'20"

D 2.128 1.876 87°59'00"
71°49'40"
B 2.260 1.732 89°13'40"
C 2.000 1.330
D 2.128 1.876 272°01'40"
71°52'40"
B 2.267 1.733 270°47'20"

A 2.195 1.816 88°55'40"
94°15'40"
C 2.127 1.877 88°43'00"
D 2.000 1.228
A 2.190 1.810 271°04'20"
94°14'20"
C 2.128 1.872 271°17'40"

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3.0 Field data

Horizontal Angles, Hθ Average, Hθ
Stations
Hθ1 Hθ2 = (Hθ1 + Hθ2) /2

A 132°53'00" 132°55'20" 132°54'10"

B 60°59'40" 60°59'20" 60°59'30"

C 71°49'40" 71°52'40" 71°51'10"

D 94°15'40" 94°14'20" 94°15'00"

SUM = 359°59'50"

52.8411 B
C
60°59'30"
71°51'10"
Field data

701
25.2

132°54'10" 16.9
79 2

94°15'00"
A
37.8852
D

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3.1 Compute the angular and adjust the angles

Sum of interior angles

= (n – 2) (180°)

= (4 – 2) (180°)

= 360°

Total angular error

= 360° – 359°59'50"

= 00°00'10"

Therefore, error per angle

= 00°00'10" / 4

= 00°00'2.5"

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Stations Field Angles Correction Adjusted Angles

A 132°54'10" + 00°00'03" 132°54'13"

B 60°59'30" + 00°00'02" 60°59'32"

C 71°51'10" + 00°00'02" 71°51'12"

D 94°15'00" + 00°00'03" 94°15'03"

SUM = 359°59'50" 360°00'00"

52.8411 B
C
60°59'32"
71°51'12"
Field data
25.2

16.9

132°54'13"
927

94°15'03"
A
37.8852
D

3.2 Course Bearings or Azimuths
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10°

A—B N 10° E

A

10°

10°00'00"

+ 180°00'00"
B 190°00'00"
B—C S 70°59'32" W
60°59'32" + 60°59'32"

? 250°59'32"

- 180°00'00"

70°59'32"

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70°59'32"
70°59'32"
C
+ 71°51' 12"
71°51'12"
142°50' 44"
C—D S 37°09'16" E
70°59'32"
180°00'00"
?
- 142°50' 44"

37°09'16"

94°15'03"

?
94°15'03"

- 37°09'16"
D
D—A N 57°05'47" E 57°05'47"

37°09'16"

3.3 Calculate the vertical & horizontal distances

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The horizontal distance between survey points and theodolite stations can be
calculated using the equation:

D = [ K x S x cos2(θ) ]+ [ C x cos(θ) ]

where,

D = horizontal distances between survey point and instrument

K = multiplying constant given by manufacturer of theodolite (normally = 100)

S = difference between top and bottom stadia

Θ = vertical angle of telescope from the horizontal line when capturing the

C = additive factor given by manufacturer of theodolite (normally = 100)

3.3.1 Vertical Angle, Vθ

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POSITIONED LEVELLING
STATIONS VERTICAL ANGLE
STAFF
B 87°57'40"
D 88°48'40"
A
B 272°02'40"
D 271°11'40"

C 89°18'00"
A 87°17'00"
B
C 270°42'40"
A 272°43'20"
D 87°59'00"
B 89°13'40"
C
D 272°01'40"
B 270°47'20"
A 88°55'40"
C 88°43'00"
D
A 271°04'20"
C 271°17'40"

SUM = AVERAGE = 90° -
Vθ1 Vθ2 = 360° - θ
Vθ1 + Vθ2 (Vθ1 + Vθ2) /2 AVERAGE

AB 87°57'40" 87°57'20" 175°55'00" 87°57'30" 02°02'30"

BA 87°17'00" 87°16'40" 174°33'40" 87°16'50" 02°43'10"

BC 89°18'00" 89°17'20" 178°35'20" 89°17'40" 00°42'20"

CB 89°13'40" 89°12'40" 178°26'20" 89°13'10" 00°46'50"

CD 87°59'00" 87°58'20" 175°57'20" 87°58'40" 02°01'20"

DC 88°43'00" 88°42'20" 177°25'20" 88°42'40" 01°17'20"

DA 88°55'40" 88°55'40" 177°51'20" 88°55'40" 01°04'20"

AD 88°48'40" 88°48'20" 177°37'00" 88°48'30" 01°11'30"

3.3.2 Top & Bottom Stadia

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STATIONS
STAFF TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM

B 2.085 1.915

D 2.190 1.812
A 2.000
B 2.084 1.915

D 2.190 1.812

C 2.260 1.735

A 2.085 1.915
B 2.000
C 2.267 1.740

A 2.085 1.916

D 2.128 1.876

B 2.260 1.732
C 2.000
D 2.128 1.876

B 2.267 1.733

A 2.195 1.816
C 2.127 1.877
D 2.000
A 2.190 1.810
C 2.128 1.872

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TOP BOTTOM S=
TOTAL AVERAGE TOTAL AVERAGE
TOP –
TOP TOP BOTTOM BOTTOM
BOTTOM

TOP1 TOP2 BOTTOM1 BOTTOM2

AB 2.085 2.084 4.169 2.085 1.915 1.915 3.830 1.915 0.170

BA 2.085 2.085 4.170 2.085 1.915 1.916 3.831 1.916 0.170

BC 2.260 2.267 4.527 2.264 1.735 1.740 3.475 1.738 0.526

CB 2.260 2.267 4.527 2.264 1.732 1.733 3.465 1.733 0.531

CD 2.128 2.128 4.256 2.128 1.876 1.876 3.752 1.876 0.252

DC 2.127 2.128 4.255 2.128 1.877 1.872 3.749 1.875 0.253

DA 2.195 2.190 4.385 2.193 1.816 1.810 3.626 1.813 0.380

AD 2.190 2.190 4.380 2.190 1.812 1.812 3.624 1.812 0.378

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 18
3.3.3 HORIZONTAL DISTANCES

D = [ K x S x cos2(θ) ] + [ C x cos(θ) ]

K S cos2(θ) C x cos(θ) SUM AVERAGE
A cos² 0 x (cos 16.9784
100 0.170 =
B 02°02'30" + 02°02'30") 33.9401 16.9701
B cos² 0 x (cos 16.9617
100 0.170 =
A 02°43'10" + 02°43'10")

B cos² 0 x (cos 52.5920
100 0.526 =
C 00°42'20" + 00°42'20") 105.6821 52.8411
C cos² 0 x (cos 53.0901
100 0.531 =
B 00°46'50" + 00°46'50")

C cos² 0 x (cos 25.1686
100 0.252 =
D 02°01'20" + 02°01'20") 50.4558 25.2279
D coS² 0 x (cos 25.2872
100 0.253 =
C 01°17'20" + 01°17'20")

D cos² 0 x (cos 37.9867
100 0.380 =
A 01°04'20" + 01°04'20") 75.7704 37.8852
A cos² 0 x (cos 37.7837
100 0.378 =
D 01°11'30" + 01°11'30")

SUM = 132.9243

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 19
3.4 COMPUTE COURSE LATITUDE & DEPARTURE

LENGTH LATITUDE DEPARTURE
STATIONS BEARING, β COS β SIN β
,L L COS β L SIN β

A
N 10° E 16.9701 0.9848 0.1736 +16.7122 +2.9460
B
S 70°59'32" W 52.8411 0.3257 0.9455 -17.2103 -49.9613
C
S 37°09'16" E 25.2279 0.7970 0.6040 -20.1066 +15.2377
D
N 57°05'47" E 37.8852 0.5432 0.8396 +20.5792 +31.8084
A

Sum of Sum of
Perimeter (P) = 132.9243 latitude departure
= ∑∆ y = ∑∆ x

= -0.0255 = 0.0308
= -0.03 = 0.03

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 20
3.5 DETERMINE ERROR OF CLOSURE & ACCURACY

Error in departure
∑∆ x = + 0.03m
A
Error in latitude
∑∆ y = - 0.03m
Ec

Total error
= 0.04m
A’

Accuracy = 1: (P/ Ec)

For average land surveying, an accuracy about 1:3000 is typical.

Ec = √ [ (sum of latitude)2 + (sum of departure)2 ]

Ec = √ [ (-0.03)2 + (0.03)2 ]

Ec = 0.04m

P= 132.9243m

Accuracy

= 1: (P/ Ec)

= 1: (132.9243m/ 0.04m)

= 1: 3323

Hence, the traversing is acceptable.

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 21
3.6 ADJUST COURSE LATITUDE & DEPARTURE

a. The Compass Rule
- [∑∆y ] / P x L or – [∑∆x ] / P x L

Where,
∑∆y and ∑∆x = the error in latitude or in departure
P= the total length or the perimeter of traverse
L= the length of a particular course

LATITUDE CORRECTION

– [∑∆y] / P x L

CORRECTION TO THE LATITUDE OF COURSE:

A – B: – (-0.03)/ 133 x 17 = +0.0038

B – C: – (-0.03)/ 133 x 53 = +0.0120

C – D: – (-0.03)/ 133 x 25 = +0.0056

D – A: – (-0.03)/ 133 x 38 = +0.0086

DEPARTURE CORRECTION

– [∑∆x] / P x L

CORRECTION TO THE DEPARTURE OF COURSE:

A – B: – (+0.03)/ 133 x 17 = –0.0038

B – C: – (+0.03)/ 133 x 53 = –0.0120

C – D: – (+0.03)/ 133 x 26 = –0.0056

D – A: – (+0.03)/ 133 x 38 = –0.0086

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 22
LATITUDE DEPARTURE LATITUDE DEPARTURE LATITUDE DEPARTURE

A
+16.7122 +2.9460 +0.0038 -0.0038 +16.71 +2.94
B
-17.2103 -49.9613 +0.0120 -0.0120 -17.20 -49.97
C
-20.1066 +15.2377 +0.0056 -0.0056 -20.10 +15.23
D
+20.5792 +31.8084 +0.0086 -0.0086 +20.59 +31.80
A

∑ -0.03 +0.03 +0.03 -0.03 0.0 0.0
CHECK CHECK

3.7 COMPUTE STATION COORDINATES

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N2= N1 + Lat1-2

E2= E1 + Dep1-2

Where,

N2 and E2 = the Y and X coordinates of station 2

N1 and E1 = the Y and X coordinates of station 1

Lat1-2 = the latitude of course 1-2

Dep1-2 = the departure of course 1-2

N E
STATIO
COORDINATE*LATITU COORDINATE*DEPART
N
DE URE
A 120.59 147.03
+16.71 +2.94
B 137.30 149.97
-17.20 -49.97
START/ RETURN
C 120.10 100.00 (assumed) here for dep. check
-20.10 +15.23
START/ RETURN
D 100.00 (assumed) 115.23 here for lat. check
+20.59 +31.80
A 120.59 147.03

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X-axis Y-axis Final Coordinates

A 147.03 120.59 (147.03, 120.59)

B 149.97 137.30 (149.97, 137.30)

C 100.00 120.10 (100.00, 120.10)

D 115.23 100.00 (115.23, 100.00)

A 147.03 120.59 (147.03, 120.59)

The adjusted loop traverse plotted by coordinates B
140 N 137.30
E 149.97
C
N 120.10
120
E 100.00 A
N 120.59
E 147.03
100 D
N 100.00
E 115.23
80
Y axis (north)

60

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

X axis(east)

QSB 60103| SITE SURVEYING| TRAVERSE REPORT 25
4.0 Summary

Closed loop traverse is being used in this fieldwork. And the fieldwork was
done at car park same as fieldwork 1. For our first attempt, we used theodolite and
using the pacing method to obtain our length of each course, but we failed to get an
accuracy of at least 1:3000. So for our second attempt, we did all four stations again
and compute all data for the second round.

Our error in latitude is -0.003 while error in departure is 0.03. Using the formula, we
had calculated the accuracy of our traverse survey such as:

Accuracy = 1: Perimeter / Error closure

We get an accuracy of 1:3323 as the average land surveying an accuracy of 1:3000
is typical. Therefore, our traverse survey is acceptable.

For the adjustment of latitude and departure, we used the compass rule by using the
formula:

Correction = - [Σ∆y] ÷ P x L or -[Σ∆x] ÷ P x L

Where,Σ∆y or Σ∆x = error in latitude and departure P = total length or perimeter of
traverseL = length of the particular traverse

Throughout this fieldwork, we have learned that team work and
communication are important because this is not a work that can be done
individually. This fieldwork had helped us to get to know more practical knowledge
that could not be obtained in books. We appreciate our lecturer, Ir Chai, who had
patiently taught us on how to carry out theodolite and help us out when we were in
trouble.

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5.0 Group Members

From left to right:
Melvin Tan, Loh Wei Ting, Lim Xiao Shi, Low Wan Jing

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