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46 LOWLAND, TIDAL & SMALL ISLAND DRAINAGE

46.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. 46-1

46.1.1 Problems of Design in Low -lying/Flat Areas .................................................. 46-1

46.1.2 Scope of this Chapter .............................................................................. 46-1

46.2 DEVELOPMENT IN THE T IDAL ZONE....................................................................... 46-1

46.2.1 Land Reclamation, Filling and Grading......................................................... 46-2

46.2.2 Minimum Floor Levels for New Development ................................................ 46-2

46.2.3 Integrated Measures for Small Islands......................................................... 46-2

46.2.4 Polluted Stormwater................................................................................ 46-2

46.2.5 Levees or Bunds..................................................................................... 46-3

46.2.6 Saline Wetlands...................................................................................... 46-4

46.2.7 Detention/Retention................................................................................ 46-4

46.2.8 Peat Soils .............................................................................................. 46-4

46.2.9 River Aggradation................................................................................... 46-4

46.3 TIDE LEVELS...................................................................................................... 46-4

46.3.1 Tidal Effects........................................................................................... 46-4

46.3.2 Flood Level in Estuaries............................................................................ 46-5

46.3.3 Pressure Effects...................................................................................... 46-5

46.3.4 Storm Surge Setup Effects........................................................................ 46-5

46.3.5 Climate Change due to Greenhouse Effect ................................................... 46-7

46.3.6 Subsidence............................................................................................ 46-7

46.3.7 Saline Wedge Intrusion............................................................................ 46-7

46.4 SETTING DESIGN TAILWATER LEVELS AT DRAINAGE OUTFALLS ................................. 46-8

46.4.1 Design Tailwater Levels for Sea and Estuary................................................. 46-8

46.4.2 Design Tailwater Levels for Tidal River and Stream........................................ 46-8

46.4.3 Design Tailwater Levels for Non-Tidal Outfalls .............................................. 46-9

46.5 WATER SURFACE PROFILES IN AREAS OF COMBINED FLOODING................................ 46-9

46.5.1 Background ........................................................................................... 46-9

46.5.2 Recommendation.................................................................................... 46-10

46.6 DESIGN AND PROTECTION OF TIDAL OUTLETS........................................................ 46-11

46.6.1 General Principles ................................................................................... 46-11

46.6.2 Tidegate Design ..................................................................................... 46-11

46.7 DESIGN AND PROTECTION OF NON-TIDAL OUTLETS................................................ 46-12

46.7.1 General Principles ................................................................................... 46-12

46.7.2 Floodgate Design.................................................................................... 46-12

Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-i

Lowland, Tidal & Small Island Drainage

46.8 TIDEGATES AND FLOODGATES.............................................................................. 46-12

46.8.1 Types of Tidegate and Floodgate................................................................ 46-13

46.8.2 Combined Gates and Pumping Systems........................................................ 46-15

APPENDIX 46.A WORKED EXAMPLE FOR TIDEGATE DESIGN.................................................. 46-17

46-ii Urban Stormwater Management Manual

2 DEVELOPMENT IN THE TIDAL ZONE Runoff HAT Development of land in the tidal zone may result in a LAT number of drainage and stormwater management problems.2 Urban Drainage Design Considerations in Tidal Areas Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-1 . Low -lying Areas 46. High velocities and scouring will not normally be a problem. Because of the difficulties of designing gravity systems in low-lying areas it may be necessary to use floodgates. Figure 46. Coastline 46. Pumped drainage systems are discussed in Chapter 45. This Chapter describes these effects.2 Scope of this Chapter Controlled upstream catchment Potential The scope of this Chapter is to cover the issues directly flows flooding associated with urban drainage system design in low -lying during and/or tidal areas. • storm surge. and/or pumped systems.1. high tide This Chapter includes sections on tidegates and floodgates.1 and 46.1 Urban Drainage Design Considerations in tidegates. • flood effects in river/estuaries.1 Problems of Design in Low-lying/Flat Areas Many low-lying tidal areas are characterised by flat gradients. as well as potential for groundwater depletion. • the combined probabilities of different modes of Plan flooding. larger conveyance systems than would otherwise be the case are Estuary needed to carry stormwater flows.1. Among the issues to which designers must pay attention are the following (see Figures 46. Section 46. Small islands have special problems that are also discussed. paying particular attention to the selection of appropriate tailwater levels. Pump Stormwater quality can also be influenced by the presence of salt water and saline groundwater in coastal areas. Drain • greenhouse effect . Lowland. In flat areas.1 INTRODUCTION Urban drainage and stormwater system design in low-lying Low-lying area and tidal areas involves a number of special considerations. Tidal & Small Island Drainage 46. • tidal effects. These problems need to be fully considered when preparing any proposals for such development.2): River • the hydraulic effects of flat grades and high tailwater Catchment levels. Tide Limit All such systems must be checked by hydraulic grade line calculations (for pipe systems) or backwater analysis (for Drain Sea open channels). This creates particular difficulties in hydraulic Plan design. Figure 46.

46. The development in coastal areas. Tidal & Small Island Drainage Lowland and coastal areas may be environmentally extraction causes problems of saline groundwater sensitive. concrete/lined drains can be omitted Associated with reclamation is the need to extend drainage entirely and all fresh water should be directed to systems. provide more detention storage facilities for non-potable water reuse.1 Minimum Platform Levels for New storage recovery.2 Minimum Floor Levels for New Development and protecting fresh water.5%. In sandy areas.3 Integrated Measures for Small Islands impact on coastal areas. would be well aware of the local issues. potential water problems. • in clayey zones. such as silt curtains. Point sources should be controlled by a sewerage system that is These areas must be protected against storm and wave designed to minimise water use and maximise re-use. Every effort needs to positions of existing drainage outfalls.1 Land Reclamation. Surface supplies are limited because of difficult in coastal areas. These measures should be specifically targetted to the local community who. a number of specialised technical publications. as The surface levels of reclaimed land should be raised. flatter gradients and the need to adopt large cross- sectional areas to handle the design flow. Coastal areas. Typically these areas are environmentally sensitive. it For new development s. should be used for non-point sources. This shoreline protection is outside the scope of Polluting industries.2.2. Filling and Grading Development on these islands needs to maximise freshwater retention and minimise saltwater intrusion. gradients. The preferred be made to protect the quality of the water resource arrangement is to reclaim a section of coastline between on islands. Improved design of integrated drainage and stormwater They form important fish breeding grounds. recreation and aesthetic benefits. Proposals for development of sensitive areas will intrusion. Pulau Pangkor. to ensure good drainage and to limit the extent of The following SWM practices should be adopted: tidal encroachment.Lowland. however appropriate guidance can be found in consumption. • enhance freshwater runoff capture and retention. • non-structural measures including community education to emphasise the importance of conserving 46. Additional measures to Minimum platform levels for Highest Astronomical those listed in Part H. in particular. action. may be new development (including Tide + 0. management systems can greatly help to address water particularly beaches. because construction is carried out in close proximity to (or even in) the receiving waters. which may already have very low longitudinal suitable infiltration basins to recharge groundwater.2.4 Polluted Stormwater Design Criteria Erosion and Sediment Control during construction is at Condition least as vital in tidal areas as elsewhere. stormwater reuse for supplementary the predicted Greenhouse Effect and thus compensate for water supply should be considered. or those with high water this Manual. if at all possible reclamation should avoid the • protect and treat water quality. This produces even Use retention measures wherever possible. while groundwater GPTs must be protected from backflow by means of 46-2 Urban Stormwater Management Manual . Structural quality controls (see Part G) drainage outfalls. Therefore. further towards the sea. shown in Figure 46. Pulau Tioman and Pulau need to comply with all applicable legislation and Perhentian are examples of islands with existing or regulations (see Chapter 5). the relevant Local Authority to establish an appropriate minimum floor and/or site filling levels taking into account In extreme cases. graded and designed with a minimum gradient. with a range of wildlife habitats. possibly more so. Greenhouse effect) Polluted stormwater runoff can have a significant adverse 46. are highly valued by the public for problems on small islands. Control works such as booms and the lack of suitable catchment areas. Offshore islands. should not be allowed on these islands. or by aquifer Table 46. the designers should confer with is hoped. preferably 0. Table 46. usually suffer from water Design of structural water quality control measures can be supply problems.1 shows the stormwater can be used for non-potable or even potable recommended minimum floor levels design for new purposes to reduce demand on the water supply. Treated and reclaimed the predicted rise in tailwater level.2.5 m required.3. potable water supply can also be supplemented by using tanks to collect roof runoff for drinking water. Development 46. leaving the outfall areas untouched.

Usually this will require possible option is the inclusion of saline wetlands. which is prone to mechanical or power discussed later in this section.salt water DEVELOPMENT . A enclosed by the levee.WITH RECOMMENDED PRACTICE Figure 46.3 Stormwater Measures on Small Islands Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-3 .2. This is to prevent material trapped in the device 46. It may be suitable systems.5 Levees or Bunds from being washed out by tides. with storage. known about the pollutant removal efficiency of these wetlands Impervious areas promote runoff and reduce Excessive infiltration extraction Runoff is drained rapidly to the sea Sea level water table ρf Rising saltwater/ ρs freshwater interface ρf .freshwater ρ s . as pumping. The high water table and possible water salinity problems • the difficulty of removing stormwater from the area limit the opportunities for providing ponds or wetlands. Tidal & Small Island Drainage tidegates. If the available head is limited it may be • the enclosed low -lying land will have flat gradients and necessary to adopt pumped or combined pump/gravity will be boggy and difficult to drain. Levee systems can to include trash racks or GPTs because the additional head cause the following problems: loss in the drainage system may increase flooding upstream. Lowland. However very little is supply failure. Levees or bunds may be considered as a means of allowing The high tailwater levels due to tides may make it difficult development in low-lying or tidal land. for agriculture but will generally be unsuitable for urban development.WITH CURRENT DRAINAGE PRACTICE Impervious roof areas used to collect potable water Increased Runoff directed to infiltration infiltration basins Water tanks Sea level water table ρf ρs Falling saltwater/ freshwater interface DEVELOPMENT .

which cannot easily be moved. including atmospheric pressure brackish to nearly fresh. which could lead to rapid flooding of large areas with A designer who needs to consider constructed saline a risk to life and property.2. The designer should preferred method of land reclamation for new examine the possibility of river aggradation (a rise in bed development .3. and the plants are adapted to suit variations and wind and wave set-up. In such cases either the development should be modified to avoid exposing the soils to the One of the most obvious factors in low-lying.8 Saline Wetlands The actual water level at a given location in tidal zones at a Chapter 35 on Constructed Wetlands. Tidal & Small Island Drainage • the potentially catastrophic effects of overtopping. coastal and atmosphere. design procedure. At difficult to provide drainage. If levees have to be used because of levels. and in the range of plant species that are present. expertise in this area. and high water table making it be regarded as infinite. Runoff infiltration appropriate starting tailwater level as an initial step in the facilities are. In tidal areas overtopping wetlands should seek advice from biologists with specialist could be caused by wave and storm action. possibly requiring the use of additional planning and design precautions are necessary. Backwater neutralisation will be required. however.1 Tidal Effects (PASS) are present. levees are not generally recommended in flow velocity.Lowland. The lists of plant period of one month at a given location may differ by 46-4 Urban Stormwater Management Manual . discussed the saline given time will depend upon: wetlands that occur naturally in some coastal areas. subsidence.4 shows the definition of terms for tidal levels in have multiple purposes. the joint probability of simultaneous runoff events Any proposal for development in coastal areas containing occurring in both catchments needs to be assessed. Development in coastal areas with peat soils can cause a The determination of an appropriate starting tailwater level number of drainage and other related problems. Sediment can be deposited from coastal rivers when they enter the tidal zone. no detention storage is zone will normally involve the determination of an required except for water supply. events in each system must be considered. 46. high tailwater levels. the backwater effects 46.2.3). River aggradation leads to existing development. Filling is the caused by contact with salt water. the effects of coincident storm can impact on the environment causing fish kill. low bearing capacity. encouraged (see Section 46. Some examples exist overseas of constructed saline wetlands for water quality control. and where the channel area can difficulty of consolidation. • the effect of surface gradients associated with the flow pattern in the estuary. Certain types of peat soils locations where the proposed channel outlet discharges can produce acid runoff when exposed to air. or where obstructions to the flow are present. These is facilitated at channel cross-sections where the flow include environmental impacts. and these particular environmental conditions. such as a lake. velocity is effectively zero. to ensure that the vary cyclically: the mean sea level determined over a correct wat er levels are achieved. The mean sea level (the average level habitat. peat soils will require specialised study including soil testing to identify whether Potential Acid Sulphate Soils 46.2. species in Chapter 35 are not applicable to saline wetlands. but also to chemical action (precipitation) for use in low-lying and coastal areas. These wetlands often Figure 46. or preventative measures such as estuary areas is the rise and fall of tides.3 TIDE LEVELS Detention storage is of little or no value for runoff control in a tidal area. This runoff into a drainage system. Water quality in saline wetlands varies within a range from • meteorological effects.1).2. effects caused by tides and other factors can have a dominant influence on nearby drainage systems. These • astronomical effects caused by the gravitational action differ from conventional wetlands in their water salinity of the sun and the moon.7 Peat Soils of an elevated tailwater level could be extensive. In general for sites less than 500m from The design of stormwater channels in or near the tidal the coast or estuary shoreline. including landscaping and wildlife tidal affected areas. 46. due to sedimentation).9 River Aggradation main cause of overtopping for levees protecting low- lying and alongside rivers. Flooding is the 46. dam or the sea. or by sea level rises due to the greenhouse effect (see Section 46. This is due not only to the reduction For these reasons. The hydraulic design of constructed saline over a specified time period) at a given location tends to wetlands requires considerable care. floodgates or pumped outfalls.2. Where the topography is flat.6 Detention/Retention 46. In such cases.

and Ports Authorities responsible for port be considered. The magnitude of the (b) Precautions when using Tide Data setup is likely to vary with the wind strength and duration. In storm surge may cause actual extreme tidal levels to be particular. particular locations. together with data for the calculation of this information. and the length of open sea in the direction of the The reliable estimation of probable extreme tidal levels at a prevailing wind (the 'fetch').2 Flood Level in Estuaries each day of the year. that include Royal Malaysian Navy. and that the history of many gauges Tide data is available from various government agencies in is poorly documented: the possibility of undocumented Malaysia. it should be borne in (a) Sources of T ide Data mind that the relations between local datum planes are often poorly defined. Flood levels in estuaries may be affected by river flows and these must be taken into account in setting tailwater In hydraulic investigations.5).1 m or more from the mean level determined over one will generally require the examination and analysis of local year at that location. particular location will generally require specialist advice.4 Storm Surge Setup Effects variations in meteorological conditions. low-pressure systems such as cyclones and higher than the HAT or lower than the LAT. the estuaries. as a result of 46. the times and heights of predicted high were tabulated for 46.3. Fortunately however.3 Pressure Effects which can be predicted to occur under average meteorological conditions and under any combination of If changes in atmospheric pressure persist for some time. Consequently.3. wind. Predicted tidal levels take into account the astronomical because of global air circulation patterns Peninsular effects. actual tidal levels may differ significantly from the predicted levels. These are defined respectively as the highest and lowest levels.4 Tidal Variations Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-5 . Meteorological effects such as they will cause corresponding changes in sea level. In the Malaysian National Tide Tables. it Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT) Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) Mean Lower High Water (MLHW) Mean Sea Level (MSL) Mean Higher Low Water (MHLW) Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) Figure 46. management. it is necessary to estimate the levels. The user should also have regard to the Astronomical Tide (LAT) are tabulated for the standard discussion on combined flooding in Section 46. The Royal Malaysian Navy and port to ensure that it is adjusted to the same datum as the authorities in the various States publish tidal predictions for datum used for terrestrial levels. In some location. The combined effect of surge and greenhouse effect is shown in Additional to the effects of air pressure. Strong persistent onshore winds will push up sea levels in an effect known as 'set-up'. Survey changes in the datum or in the location of a gauge should Department.3. and in many cases the collection of further data. In dealing with historical records. astronomical conditions. ports on the Malaysian coast (see Figure 46.5. but are based upon average meteorological Malaysia does not normally experience these storms. conditions. are the effects of Figure 46. Each individual situation is different and flood levels probable extreme tidal levels likely to occur at a given will need to be derived from local studies. Lowland. The likely rise is in the order of 0. extreme ocean levels will dominate over any Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT) and the Lowest local floods. Tidal & Small Island Drainage 0. typhoons cause a rise in sea level. 46. 1987).3 m (AR&R. In the Malaysian National Tide Tables. Care must be taken when using tidal data. records.6.

Tidal & Small Island Drainage Figure 46.5 Locations of Standard Ports on the Malaysian Coast 46-6 Urban Stormwater Management Manual .Lowland.

Lowland. Asada and Zhang (1999). is 20 mm/hr 46. Therefore. This may be because there are few these matters should consult with the Meteorological statistically valid rainfall intensity datasets. which will have an expected life of 50 years or more. For minor studies where the effort of specialised is that by Kawaguchi. The investigation is not warranted. an allowance of 0. for example. This may be due as much to the 'heat island effect' in large cities as to The term Greenhouse Effect refers to measured increases the global Greenhouse effect.3. Interaction between the two water bodies may cause flocculation and settlement of (b) Other Possible Effects suspended material. The saline seawater will have a density about for storm surge. Tidal & Small Island Drainage The forecasting of storm surge and set-up requires At the time of writing.6). There would be significant over the life of a drainage system.6). These effects. centres. The recommended allowance for sea level rise is 0. The likely impact of climate changes caused by the together with the reduction in flow velocities. (AR&R.7 Saline Wedge Intrusion the greenhouse effect in setting minimum floor levels. Tide levels are expressed relative to the adjacent land level. and may cause chemical precipitation of materials dissolved in the river water. to provide information. Users requiring detailed information on been published. For new development . Surge and Greenhouse Effect Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-7 . and in mean global temperatures. specialist advice should be sought from appropriate authorities. EXISTING FUTURE (PREDICTED) Tide level + Greenhouse + Surge Tide level plus storm surge Tide Level + Greenhouse Tide Level 300 mm (typical) 300 mm (typical) Figure 46. given in the previous section.3. If there is reason to regional variations. Some coastal areas in some countries are known to be subject to long-term Based on the findings of the IPCC Scientific Assessment subsidence. greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase at the currently projected rate. oil extraction. or in some coastal areas. at least in large urban coastal areas of Peninsular Malaysia (see Figure 46.3. it is anticipated that "should extraction. Note that this rise is additional to that seawater. few long-term trend analyses have specialist advice.5 Climate Change due to Greenhouse Effect between the first and latest 20-year periods. It has been suggested that these effects 46. Subsidence can be caused by water Working Group (1992). contribute to Greenhouse Effect on storm rainfall magnitudes and the soft muddy bed deposits often found in estuaries intensities is difficult to predict. One recently reported study of data for Yokohama. in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. it is considered appropriate to allow for 46. an average rate of global mean A detailed discussion of land subsidence is outside the sea level rise of between 3 and 10 centimetres per decade scope of this Manual. 3% greater than the river water. 1987). the urban stormwater is predicted over the next century resulting from thermal designer should be aware of the possibility that it will occur expansion of the oceans. Japan. river water meets and interacts with (see Figure 46.30 metres In an estuary. if the land subsides the effect will be (a) Effect on Sea Level equivalent to a rise in sea levels." suspect that subsidence may be a problem.6 Subsidence will cause a worldwide rise in sea levels. or with maritime authorities that may also be able sufficiently long period to allow meaningful trend analysis.6 Tides. climate change and an increase in storm severity. which cover a Service. However. The reported increase in rainfall intensity for a 20-minute duration storm.3m results appear to provide evidence for a significant increase should be made for combined pressure and storm setup in in rainfall intensities in recent years.

to the relevant tide level (including Greenhouse Effect) 46.3. occurs in the river. Tidal & Small Island Drainage The difference in density of the two water bodies causes Whilst it is not possible here to provide specific them to be relatively resistant to mixing. 46-8 Urban Stormwater Management Manual . The density recommendations. the design tailwater level should be regarded as infinite. based upon probability of occurrence of the design storm. Higher High Water(MHHW) Major storm * Range from Higher High 46. ARI for the drainage system (see Chapter 4) and its the joint probability of simultaneous runoff events relationship to the catchment size and flood behaviour of occurring in both catchments needs to be assessed. At include an appropriate flood surcharge in addition to a high locations where the proposed channel outlet discharges tide level. Therefore. For channel.2 Design Tailwater Levels in Coastal Areas For further information on the hydraulics of estuaries. including at the time of maximum tidal level. These design procedure. or an existing or proposed stormwater drain or level occurring in conjunction with the major storm. the appropriate design tailwater in the main stream except that backwater effects of an elevated tailwater level could be the tailwater adopted should be that obtained by adding extensive. Designers should confer with the relevant Local Authority Alternatively the Local Authority may determine to establish and appropriate level for outfalls to tidal appropriate tailwater levels or discharge conditions for waters.3 permit zone will normally involve the determination of an corresponding critical discharge in the side drain (from the appropriate starting tailwater level as an initial step in the outfall) and main stream to be assessed. Under favourable conditions. Design Design Tailwater Level Condition (see Figure 46. and where the channel area can reach of a river or stream. The procedure for calculating the hydraulic grade catchments less than 10 km2. Where the topography is flat. or where procedures should be applied to the determination of the significant obstructions to the flow are present.4 SETTING DESIGN TAILWATER LEVELS Water (MHHW) to Highest AT DRAINAGE OUTFALLS Astronomical Tide (HAT) The discharge point. the receiving waters. These suggestions should in no way replace seawater tends to flow upstream on the riverbed forming a the need to confer with the Local Authority and for the "saline wedge". the reader should refer to specialised publications. Minor storm Range from Mean Lower The use of corrosion-resistant concrete and steel is always High Water (MLHW) to required in coastal areas. the surcharge corresponding to the combined discharges. such as a lake. These levels should not and storm surge together with allowance for the be any less stringent than the levels set out in this Greenhouse Effect in determining the tailwater level for Chapter.5. In such cases. river flow tends to flush the saline wedge out of the estuary and fully mixed conditions will occur. Table 46. can be either a natural river NOTE: * the user should assess the probability of this or stream. or outfall.1 Design Tailwater Levels for Sea and Estuary determined in accordance with Section 46.4. tide level local experience and knowledge. The design of stormwater channels in or near the tidal The procedures outlined in Section 46. Adoption of any surcharge above tidal levels for into a drainage system.2 Design Tailwater Levels for Tidal River and Stream The determination of an appropriate starting tailwater level is facilitated at channel cross-sections where the flow In cases where the drainage outfall is located in the tidal velocity is effectively zero.2. application of engineering judgement. However when a flood time.4. the probability of joint line or backwater analysis through a storm drainage occurrence is likely to be low.4) The consequences of saline wedge intrusion include the exposure of drainage structures to salt water corrosion. consideration of outfall conditions is an important part of storm drain design. 46.Lowland. some suggested levels are provided in difference tends to cause stratification and consequently Table 46. the saline wedge may extend This approach recognises that local runoff can occur at any several kilometres upstream. design. Consideration should be given to the joint particular reaches of tidal streams their area. the effects of coincident storm the design tailwater involves consideration of the design events in each system must be considered. dam or the sea. system begins at the outfall.4.

when the flow P C = P1 × P 2 (46.000 hectares and the storm drainage system has a catchment area of 20 hectares. a lake. • The tailwater level corresponding to the combined peak discharge. The appropriate maximum tailwater 10 5 100 25 derived after consideration of each procedure should be 10 to 1 10 10 50 100 adopted. rural).5 WATER SURFACE PROFILES IN AREAS • The critical combination of tailwater level and OF COMBINED FLOODING discharge. use similar receiving waters. the ratio of catchment If the two flooding modes were statistically independent. The problem arises of how to interpret and assign the correct joint probability to a combined flooding For example. 46. From Table 46. calculate for should be the maximum of: both cases and develop the envelope curve of flood levels. Lowland.3. ratios. 1 to 1 10 10 100 100 The tailwater level or backwater envelope to be adopted NOTES: * where two numbers are shown.000 to 1 2 10 10 100 for each catchment will occur simultaneously . 10 2 100 10 Various procedures. the the 5 year ARI peak flow. 46. In situations where the 10.000 to 1 1 10 2 100 external catchment is relatively large in comparison with the catchment area of the drainage system. 2. stream or river. Flood lowland areas should follow the recommendations in peaks from the two sources may occur separately or Table 46.1 Background If the outfall is a river.1) rate in the river reaches its 10 year ARI peak flow rate. it may be necessary to consider the joint probability of two hydrologic events occurring at the A problem likely to be encountered in drainage design in same time. Usually.3 Design Tailwater Levels for Non-Tidal The designer should prepare water surface profiles (or Outfalls hydraulic grade lines) for both cases. This may occur at sites evaluated by comparing the catchment area of the river subject to flooding from different catchments (urban and and the catchment area of the stormwater drain. non-tidal outfall e.1: when the drainage system flow rate reaches its 10 year ARI peak flow at the outfall. Conversely. areas is 100 to 1. together. meteorological events that lead to flooding in an urban Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-9 .g. open channel. Tidal & Small Island Drainage 46. in general. should take into account the expected tailwater level in the For other minor or major design flood ARIs. In cases where the tailwater level is affected by stormwater runoff from an external/upstream catchment. which permit the assessment of the 100 to 1 5 10 25 100 most critical combination of flow and tailwater. the flow rate in the drainage system will have fallen to that of However this is rarely the case. Clearly the procedure providing the most appropriate result will depend upon the sizes of the 100 50 catchment involved and their relative sizes. is where a location is affected by from the stork drainage system can be qualitatively two different modes of flooding. it will be 10 1 100 2 inappropriate to assume that the peaks of the flow rates 1. These two flooding modes Design tailwater levels for urban drainage design in will. the flow rate in the the joint probability P C is the product of the respective main stream will be equal to that of a 5 year ARI storm probabilities P 1.3.5. or affected by flooding from combined tidal/ocean effects and stormwater runoff. The relative independence of the discharge tidal or lowland areas. have very different response times. are described below. The maximum water level to be used in setting minimum floor levels. P 2 as given by Equation 46. is given by The design of a drainage system which discharges to a the envelope of the two profiles. Table 46. if the receiving river has a drainage area of event. In such cases.3 Frequencies for Coincidental Occurrence the critical design situation for surcharging of the drainage system may occur when the flow rate in the drainage system is less than the design flow rate.4. 10 year ARI Design 100 year ARI Design the critical tailwater level and the drainage discharge Catchment should be determined by an investigation of the joint Area Ratio Main Tributary Main Tributary probabilities of flooding in both the subject drainage River River system and its receiving waters.

Lowland.2 Recommendation In cases where the tailwater level is affected by The design flood level to be adopted at any point is the stormwater runoff from an external catchment. Dahl.2. The critical combination flooding in both the subject drainage system and its of tailwater level and discharge is derived as set out below. using continuous historical time series as two profiles derived in (i) and (ii). for the design storm in the stormwater joint probability of flooding led to damaging consequences. In such cases. can be regarded as incorrect to assume that the peaks of the flow rates for independent.5. Figure 46. this is now the flooding on adjacent catchments. In the case study quoted. Harramoes and Jacobsen (1996) discussed the problem in the context of urban drainage (ii) Perform hydraulic calculations. receiving waters. If this is not the case the designer must each catchment will occur simultaneously. Tidal & Small Island Drainage catchment will also contribute to high ocean levels or improvements in modelling techniques. such as backwater or systems. and therefore the preferred approach. With the recent increases in computer power and LEGEND: Envelope curve of Local catchment storm Possible profile for water surface governs in this area combined flooding profiles: ZONE OF POSSIBLE HAT governs in COMBINED FLOODING this area HAT MHHW MSL MLLW Local catchment storm Desirable range for water surface profile. an analysis on the basis of a simulation of runoff from both (iii) the required design flood level is the envelope of the catchments. drain using a starting water level selected in The authors recommended that the solution is to carry out accordance with Table 46. less than the design flow rate.7. it is storm for the stormwater drain. 46. assumption that the events are statistically independent is not valid. failure to consider the HGL analysis. input. In situations where the catchment area of the receiving waters is relatively large in comparison This procedure assumes that the tide level and the design with the catchment area of the drainage system.7 Envelope Method for Combined Flooding Analysis 46-10 Urban Stormwater Management Manual . the critical higher of the HAT level. consider the joint probability of the two events. or the level in the stormwater design situation for surcharging of the drainage system drain due to a local storm. outfall invert level MHHW tailwater level SEA STORMWATER DRAIN Figure 46. (i) Project the level of the selected design tide level along The need to consider envelope curves is shown in the profile of the stormwater drain. the critical tailwater level and the drainage discharge should be In either case consideration should be given to the rules determined by an investigation of the joint probabilities of for determining start of tailwater. These calculations are most may occur when the flow rate n i the drainage system is easily done by computer analysis.

Land upstream of the gates may be subject to receiving water. Structures provided that an adequate channel (or pipe) is installed to subject to wave action must be designed to withstand convey flow to the tidegate. compartment during periods of high tides. This low-lying land can be A tidal outlet which will experience severe wave action may used for open space. debris and sand blockage. so high that the outfall will cause excessive scour unless measures such as a dissipator chute are provided to Detention storage is usually not required upstream of convey the outflow down to the general level of the tidegates. and it is therefore unsuitable for urban development unless it is filled. wave attack. The occur in the channel/pipes leading to the outlet especially procedure comprises the stages as shown in Figure 46. Tidal & Small Island Drainage 46.2 Tidegate Design • All areas below MHHW . as OUTLETS manual operation is usually not practical. The tidegate should have wave loadings. longshore littoral drift. channel whose tidal fluctuations are known. routed through the selected gate into the tidal channel. Advice should be sought from the Local Authority in regard to the local beach behaviour and The method involves the initial estimation of the required littoral processes in each instance. vandalism. 46. However. This Filling of land upstream of a tidegate is acceptable may require the construction of breakwaters. A rational approach to the location. to the risks of sand blockage and to facilitate inspection and provide storage for the stormwater within the maintenance of the channel/pipes. depending upon performance of the gate.6. It is therefore necessary. unless pump Tidal outlets should be sufficiently evaluated to minimise drainage is incorporated. type. to protect its operation from the requirements of a number of statutory authorities. Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-11 . The outlet should not be section. • Area controlled by a Port Authority. Deposition may also runoff should be discharged within the tidal period.6. these include: 46. level in the drainage system within the compartment. gates are closed during periods of high tides when the tide level outside the compartment is higher than the water • Marine Parks. should be located stormwater runoff out of the compartment into the outlet and designed with respect to possible morphological scour.6 DESIGN AND PROTECTION OF TIDAL Tidegates must be designed to operate automatically. are closed. the discharge of • Area controlled by a Waterways Authority. The design of an outlet in the beach zone must also consider the possible undermining of the structure by wave A comprehensive description of the design method is action and longshore currents as well as the lateral loads provided in the DID Publication “Design of Tidegates” that might be allied by differential sand levels caused by (Unpublished draft report). the flap gate should be fitted in a chamber just Works constructed in tidal areas may need to comply with upstream of the outlet.8. These • National Parks. aesthetic considerations may dictate that outlets hydraulic design of such tidegates is provided in this be located below low tide level. waterway area (in the case of culverts) or the required width (in the case of flumes) to discharge the design An outlet discharging to a tidal estuary. stormwater out of the compartment can only be effected for a certain duration of each tide cycle. The hydraulic design of such tidegates which are either culvert or flume The invert of the outlet should preferably be above LAT. entails careful consideration to ensure effective between MLLW and MSL. If Outlets may be prone to siltation by beach sand the gate is adequate the whole of the design stormwater accumulating against the outlet. For this reason flap-type gates are preferred. stormwater from reclaimed tidal compartments. Tidegates are outlet structures for the discharge of • Tidal Wetland Reserves. need to be extended through the beach zone to discharge beyond the breaker line and below the low -tide level. when high tailwater levels cause velocities in the channel/pipes to be reduced. Owing to the cyclic nature of the tides. • Fish Habitat Reserves.1 General Principles Generally. during high tide. Based on this often best determined by reference to past maps and a suitable gate is selected and the design storm inflow is photographs (including aerial photographs) of the site. The There are a number of areas of particular concern and design of flap gates is discussed below. The obvert of the outlet should normally temporary storage of runoff and flooding when the gates be below HAT. Lowland. sufficient capacity to discharge the design major flood from the local catchment.

Estimate the Gate Size Siltation by sediments which enter the channel/pipe system from the receiving waters can be controlled by locating the Route the Design Inflow through outlet as high as possible. but the chamber in such cases should be located within or on the riverside of the levee. in the Estimate the Design Inflow Hydrograph from the Catchment case of discharge through a leveed riverbank) and to control siltation within the channel/pipes from the receiving waters. in the case of discharge through a Outlets should be located high enough to facilitate leveed riverbank) into the drainage system at periods of inspection and maintenance of the channel/pipes at low high floodwater profiles at receiving water. An energy-dissipating there are many similarities in the design details of outfall should be provided where the velocity of the tidegates and floodgates.9. The procedure comprises the steps as shown in Figure 46.g. For urban stormwater Compute the Runoff Volume under drains. The area available for discharge should Number required preferably be equivalent to the wetted area of the drainage channel. Rock mattresses or other flexible facing materials should be provided to counter local scour around Develop Stage-Storage Curve of the outlet. it is often sufficient to assume that the floodgate is Controlled Flow and Closed Gate Condition closed for the duration of the storm. In practice. if required for protection of at upstream side of proposed gate their operation.Lowland. No For areas where temporary storage is not available Is Size of the Gate flooding upstream of the gate would be unacceptable (in adequate ? particular built -up urban areas) and where space for detention storage is not available. discharge from the conveyance system to the receiving water could cause scour of the receiving channel around 46-12 Urban Stormwater Management Manual .1 General Principles prevent intrusion of backflooding from rivers or other receiving waters (e. result that flooding may occur during storms. These tidal waters decrease the storage capacities of the drains with the 46. TIDAL OUTLETS Floodgates may be used in low-lying urban areas to 46. design is normally based on routing methods.2 Floodgate Design Identify when the Flows are under Controlled Flow and Gate Closed Conditions For the larger-size floodgates. Tidal & Small Island Drainage the out let.7. gates should provide as Yes large an area as possible for discharge after periods of Finalise the Gate Size and high river level. 46. the selected gate and storage 46. An outlet discharging to a river should also be located and designed with respect to possible changes in stream morphology. Flap gates/Floodgate may be fitted in a chamber Identify the Lowest Ground Elevation just upstream of the outlet. the Drainage System Flap gates or floodgates may be fitted to an outlet to prevent backflooding from the receiving waters (e. often best determined by reference to Preparation of Tidal Variation Curve at past maps and photographs (including aerial photographs) the Outlet of Proposed Gate of the site.8 TIDEGATES AND FLOODGATES Tidegates may be used in low-lying urban areas near the Figure 46.8 Tidegate Design Flowchart coast to prevent intrusion of tidal water into the drainage system at periods of high tide.7.g.7 DESIGN AND PROTECTION OF NON. which require a fairly detailed knowledge Superimpose Tidal Variation Curve of the topography of the catchment area discharging and Inflow Hydrograph through the gate in order to be able to assess accurately storage effects throughout the design flood hydrograph of the downstream receiving water. water level in the receiving waters.

The gate normally works automatically flap and the seat at low flow .1 (Chapter 20). at upstream side of proposed gate Equation 20. Standard open flumes have much larger capacities than the culvert-type gates and are more reliable. are manufactured at the JPS workshops in Ipoh. can be used to cope with Number required discharge flow. or when maintenance is being carried out. usually made of fibreglass. can be used to calculate the discharge capacity through the gate. The penstock gate is Preparation of Flood/stage Hydrograph at provided as a back-up that can be manually operated the Outlet of Proposed Gate should the automatic gate jam. (c) Other Types Flap gates. the gate closes to prevent backflow. This type of gate is suitable generally for fairly low discharge and has the advantage of having Develop Stage-Storage Curve of the Drainage System minimal operation requirements but does.8. cast iron or cast Figure 46. of either type. Estimate the Design Inflow Hydrograph from the Catchment The downstream outlet is normally maintained in drowned condition to prevent the high velocity jet from occurring Identify the Lowest Ground Elevation and endangering the outlet channel stability. The seat or ring Two types of tidegate are at present in widespread use of the flap gate is attached to a headwall or directly to the throughout Malaysia (see Figure 46. The peak flow will occur at the maximum differential head. Yes Finalise the Gate Size and Multiple gates.11). necessitate regular inspection and clearing since the flap gates are liable to obstruction by debris. Superimpose Flood/Stage Hydrograph and Inflow Hydrograph However they put a greater burden on operating personnel.60. square. The value of C is Estimate the Gate Size usually assumed as 0. which exceed the capacity of a single bay.1 Types of Tidegate and Floodgate on the front side of the gate rises above that on the back side.10 and 46. and also in the urban areas cast in the headwall or other structure through which flow is to pass.9 Floodgate Design Flowchart steel. Flap gates can act as a the downstream side and a vertical penstock gate on the skimmer and cause brush and trash to collect between the upstream side. The discharge curve during controlled flow approximates a Is Size of the Gate adequate ? parabola and the gate discharge can be computed using weir formula given in Equation 20. Both these types of gates. principles are used for floodgates for agricultural drains Larger flap gates are often mounted to a cast iron thimble. (a) Culvert Type Flap gates are available for round. Similar pipe that forms the opening through which flow passes. in a range of sizes. are used to permit flow in only one direction. and rectangular Which has an aluminium flap gate with counterw eight on openings and in various designs. which is applicable under all stages of tide/flood levels.2 (Chapter 20). When water 46. In the case of flume type weir behaviour occurs whenever Compute the Runoff Volume under Controlled Flow and Closed Gate Condition the differential head between the water level in compartment and that of the outlet channel is equal to or No greater than one third of the upstream head. Tidal & Small Island Drainage with outlet discharge taking place when the water level is higher on the landward side. however. Route the Design Inflow through the selected gate and storage (b) Open Flume Type Consists of a vertical aluminium sliding gate that can either Identify when the Flows are under Controlled Flow and Gate Closed Conditions be mechanically operated or hand operated for the smaller sizes. allowing discharge in the desired direction. Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-13 . A small differential pressure on the back of the gate will open it. Lowland.

11 Typical Flume Type Outlet Structure 46-14 Urban Stormwater Management Manual .10 Typical Culvert Type Outlet Structure Figure 46.Lowland. Tidal & Small Island Drainage Figure 46.

material. when compared with the home-manufactured tidegates. the gate must outlets (see previous sub-section) and for pumps (see be protected from damage by floating logs during high Chapter 45). there is a large range in tailwater levels. Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-15 . Lowland. When this clearance is not available. This allows at the bottom for floating material to pumped when the tailwater level is high. Design principles for a combined For those drainage structures that have a flap gate outlet are a combination of the principles for tidegate mounted on a pipe projecting into a stream. A detailed analysis of the storage and pump flows. Tidal & Small Island Drainage Rubber flap gates and "duck bill" types. which are less 46. throughout the world and which might be developed for use in Malaysia. there may be advantages in combining the water flowing through the gate carries floating a tidegate or floodgate outlet with a pumped discharge. work its way through the gate. and There are several other types of tidegate presently in use the calculation should be performed by computer methods. in particular cost (notably foreign exchange component).0 metres or more. typically 2. and to be gate. for the purpose of the manual. However. it should This would allow water to drain by gravity when the be mounted 300-450 mm above the apron in font of the tailwater level is low.8. Periodic inspect ion and cleaning should be scheduled when In some locations. If the gate is to be kept clear of debris. requirements will require data on the stage hydrograph of the tailwater. are also being used. more frequent inspection and cleaning must be A combined outlet system will be most practical where provided. whether it be a river flood or tide cycle.2 Combined Gates and Pumping Systems susceptible to this sort of clogging. saving on pumping costs. the conventional types described above are preferred rather than on the newer types which are as yet untried in the country and which suffer from certain disadvantages at present.

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If the storage capacity is inadequate design the flap tidegate including pumping facilities if required.2 0. (a) High Tide Level = 1. Maximum tide cycle at spring tide from the observed tidal cycle as show in Figure 46. Lowland.A WORKED EXAMPLE FOR TIDEGATE DESIGN Problem: The problem of flooding in the low -laying areas upstream of the Parit Jalan Bakti outlet during exceptional high tide occurs frequently every year.8 1.A1 Variation of Tide Levels at Proposed Outlet Gate Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-17 .9 m LSD (f) Downstream Bed Level = -1.0 m LSD (c) Invert Level at Downstream of the Gate = -1.4 0.A1.1: Prepare the Tidal Variation Curve at the Outlet of Proposed Gate Data for hourly tidal levels are obtained for Muar and the variation can be seen in Figure 46. A tidegate is proposed to be constructed to solve the tidal problems.2 m LSD (e) Upstream Bed Level = -0.6 0.2 m LSD (g) Average Slope of the Drain = 1 in 1500 (h) Width of the Rectangular Drains = 5 m (i) Average Depth of the Drains = 2 m Check adequacy of the available storage capacity of the drainage system in the case when a high tide coincides with a heavy rainfall. The upstream area is fully urbanised and considered to be the most important area of the town and drains to an outlet.0 0.5 m LSD (b) Low Tide Level = -1.0 m3/s.A1.4 1.0 -0.2 Water Level above LSD (m) 1.8 -1.2 -0.6 1. Solution: Step .6 -0.4 -0. The summarised design data for the area is given below.07 m LSD (d) Average Ground Level = 1.8 0. which is situated in the town centre close to the main market.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (hour) Figure 46. Tidal & Small Island Drainage APPENDIX 46.0 -1. The peak discharge from the 5 year ARI critical duration design storm is 17. Time of concentration at the proposed gate site is about 60 minute. 1.

1.A3 as hydrograph ‘abc’.00 Stage (m.Lowland.A2.80 -1. a number of different inflow hydrographs should be trialled.2: Develop Stage-Storage Curve of the Drainage System The stage-storage relationship is developed based on the double-end area method described in Chapter 20 and shown in Figure 46.10 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 3 Storage (m ) Figure 46.A2 Stage-storage Relationship of the Existing Drainage System Step .20 -0. LSD) 0.10 -0. However. Hydrograph ‘abde’ is an assumed trial hydrograph to give the critical storage situation.50 -0.40 0. 20 18 b d 16 14 Inflow (m 3/s) 12 10 8 6 4 2 a c e 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (hour) Figure 46.60 1.30 1. this will not be the critical storm when storage is considered during the tide period when the tidegate is closed.A3 Design Inflow Hydrograph at the Proposed Tidegate 46-18 Urban Stormwater Management Manual .3: Estimate t he Design Inflow Hydrograph from the Catchment The runoff inflow hydrograph for the critical storm in the catchment of 60 minute duration is shown in Figure 46.90 1. Tidal & Small Island Drainage Step .70 0. Note: In practice.

Lowland.3. In other words the controlled flow situation will start from 0.e. from Equation 20.63 cumec/m width So the differential head at which maximum discharge will occur at controlled flow condition is.5 = 5.2) and 3.2 m LSD.11.2).6: Route the Design Inflow through the Selected Gate Assuming culvert properties during controlled flow condition discharge through per unit width of the gate is (Equation 20.3x H0.3xH0.85x2.A4) to determine the period of fully open gate condition. From the tide cycle (Figure 46.5 (here H = average GL – U/S Bed Level) = 1.2 hours.4: Identify the Lowest Ground Elevation at Upstream of Proposed Gate Lowest ground level at the tidegate site is 1.85x3. Tidal & Small Island Drainage Step .5xH0.2 – 0. Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-19 .1 – 3.95 m).9 (i.85xH1. Step – 5: Estimate the Gate Size Assume a 3. respectively. Q m = 1.81) 0. Step .25 m As such with respect to the lowest safe ground level of 1.2 maximum discharge per metre width is. Step .5 m wide and 3.5 = 5.25 = 0.2 m LSD maximum discharge may occur until the tide level rises at elevation of 0.1). duration of fully open gate is 8.2 m LSD.A1) period of controlled and no release are 0.8 hour (12 . Q c = 0.95 m and 1.0x(2x9.0 m high gate.8: Superimpose Tidal Variation Curve and Inflow Hydrograph The critical inflow hydrograph is superimposed on the tide cycle (Figure 46. Assuming that the stored runoff will be released within one tide cycle (12 hours). Step .5 = 11. 11. 4.95 m level. As such.7: Identify when the Flows are under Controlled Flow and Gate Closed Conditions The gate is partially and fully closed when the tide level rises at elevation 0.95 m LSD (1.5 cumec/m width of gate Maximum flow through the gate will occur during weir flow condition and when the differential head between the upstream and downstream water level will be maximum. respectively.63 H = 0.

Step .748 m3) will be released due to the hydrostatic balance of the gate during partially controlled flow condition.9x60x60x3.0 c 1. runoff volume during controlled flow is the summation of the areas ‘a’ and ‘d’.4 2. For actual release through the tidegate. Tidal & Small Island Drainage 2. at water level of 0.10: Is Size of the Gate Adequate? Size of the gate should be such that it can safely release the assumed 8.6 -0. 46-20 Urban Stormwater Management Manual .007 m3 So.180). Assuming 1/3 of the inflow runoff (8.5x(7.A2).07 m) -1.5)}.4 -0.000 m3 (from Figure 46.129 m3.453 m3 Area ‘c’ = 17x159x60 = 162.2 -0.237 m3 and Area ‘d’ = 0.A4.8 -1.496 m3 So. total runoff volume to be released during uncontrolled condition = 17. runoff volume during zero flow condition is the summation of the areas ‘b’ and ‘c’ (Figure 46.7+17)x33x60 = 24.9 hrs.7x60 = 6.4 1.2 Tide Level b d 2.95 m LSD is 40.e. Area ‘a’ = 0.9: Compute the Runoff Volume under Controlled Flow and Closed Gate Condition From Figure 46.237+20.633 = 204.6 Water Level above LSD (m) Safe Flood Level (1. Storage at controlled gate condition.77 m3/m width {8.633 m3 (24.748/(0.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (hour) Figure 46.A4 Superimposed Inflow Hydrograph on the Tide Level Graph Step .5x27x7.2 No Flow (Gate Closed) 3.496 + 186.244 m3 (6. Volume during controlled flow = (2/3)x26.5 m) 1.007).0 Invert Level (-1. the stage-discharge curve should be prepared from the hydrostatic balance of the gate during the tide and that curve should be followed to estimate the runoff volume released during the controlled flow.2 hr 1.748 m3 of water within 0.8 Inflow Hydrograph a (Peak = 17 cumec) 1.0 Free Flow (Gate open) -0. i.453+162. So. So.4 0.180 m3 So total stored runoff during closed gate condition is 186. the runoff volume trapped upstream of the gate is 2/3 of the runoff during the controlled flow.A4).95 m) 4. the average release rate is 0.Lowland.0 0.8 Controlled Flow (0.6 (Gate Partially Open) 0. Area ‘b’ = 0.5x(7.7+17)x27x60 = 20. total controlled runoff volume is 26.2 0. Similarly. That is.1 hr 0.244 = 17.

000 m3 (87.3 m wide (2.40. So.129 – (56. the average required pumping rate during the controlled flow condition {4. Thus. Assuming that rise of another 300 mm of water at upstream of the gate will not cause any severe problems/losses at the commercial areas. So.9 hr (12 – 4.1) is 2.129/(3.129 m3/(7.A2). So.37 No.2 m to 1. the gate opening should be 8. The excess volume of water to be pumped is 155. the required discharge rate per metre width of the gate during 7.81 cumec 155.000)}. The procedure followed here is an approximate method.A2).000 – 54. which allows the rapid testing of a number of design storms and tidegate and pump configurations.5 m LSD (from Figure 46. As such.x3.65 hr} is 11. gate size and number should be determined to safeguard against such critical conditions so that the runoff can be released without potential flooding at upstream of the gate.05 cumec/m w idth {204. volume of stored runoff to be pumped is 188.389 m3 (40. Lowland.129 m3 {204.11: Finalise the Gate Size.2 m LSD (from Figure 46.05x3. etc. Thus. For actual simulation of tide and flap gate it is recommended that the designer use available hydraulic computer software with tidegate outlet and pumping options. Corresponding water level at this storage will spill over the banks where the ground levels are 1.9/2) = 3.000 . Tidal & Small Island Drainage If no pump is used then water volume stored in the drains from the beginning of the controlled flow condition is 155.1 – (0.000). may occur during the storms and when the floodgate is closed.5 m)}. Number of gate required to release peak inflow is 2. pump breakdown.9 hr x60x60x3.000 m3 (From Figure 46. three (3) large submersible pumps with effective capacity of 4 cumec is proposed to discharge the flood volume safely. Step .000 + 204.129 m3 (188129 – 33. For detail please refer to Chapter 45.129).5)}. In this case 2 gates of 4. {17/(2.5 m).A2) Storage at safe water level in the drain (1.65x60x60). Any critical situation such as power failure. Urban Stormwater Management Manual 46-21 .37 Nos. 33. The pumps can be operated at different stages (water level at the upstream side of the gate).000) of water can be stored safely within storage level from 1. Pump Capacity and Number Required So.5 m wide are recommended.2 m LSD) is 56.