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Metal Oxide Antibacterial Properties (Biofilm


Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) and their applications are an expanding domain of
technology as the use of these materials is constantly on the rise. Exploration of
nanomaterials that exhibit functionality is the key to nanotechnology [28]. Recent advances
in the field of nanotechnology, particularly the ability to prepare metal oxide nanomaterials of
any size and shape, have led to the development of new biocidal agents. One of the most
studied aspects of nanotechnology nowadays is their ability to offer the opportunity to fight
microbial infections via the synthesis of nanoparticles [29].

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a nontoxic material and has been applied in environmental
treatments such as water and air purification, water disinfection and sterilization because of
its unique properties such as strong photocatalytic activity and chemical stability [30].
because its good mechanical properties, remarkable corrosion resistance and excellent
biocampatibility ,Titanium and its alloy also widely used in orthopedic and dental implants,
bone tissue engineering, and medical application[31-33]. Titanium have a weak antibacterial
properties which make the titanium don’t have strong resistance toward microbial infection
[32,33]. The TiO2 antibacterial properties came from its photocatalytic properties[34]. The
scheme of antibacterial properties from TiO 2 photocatalytic activity involes several steps.
First, the photoexcited TiO2 catalyst produces electron-hole pairs that migrate to the TiO 2
surface, and then photogenerated holes in TiO2 can react with adsorbed H2O or OH- at the
catalyst/water interface to produce the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals and the electrons
can react with oxygen vacancies to form superoxide ions, and finally the various highly
active oxygen species generated can oxidize organic compounds/ cells adsorbed on the
TiO2 surface, resulting in the death of the microorganisms[35]. The TiO 2 antibacterial
mechanism is make oxidative stress to bactery cell from generation of ROS (Reactive
Oxygen Species), it will cause a damage to the moleculer cell structure[36]. To enhance its
antibacterial properties, TiO2 was modified with another metal oxide nanoparticles. Recent
studies show that modified TiO2 with another metal oxide enhance its antibacterial
properties. This property also depends on its nanostructure, size, shape purity of its metal
oxide use [34,36]. Table 1 show the recent studies about modified TiO 2 with another metal
oxide with antibacterial properties

Table 1. Modified TiO2 with another metal oxide with enhance of TiO2 antibacterial properties
Modification Bacterial test against Result
TiO2 co-doped with Zn2+ and
98% inhibit growth of S.
AgO using Micro-Arc Staphylococcus Aureus
Table 1. Modified TiO2 with another metal oxide with enhance of TiO2 antibacterial properties
Modification Bacterial test against Result
TiO2 modified with
Show more than 96%
Cu/Zn/Cu-Zn using sol-gel Escheria Coli
antibacterial activities
method [37]

TiO2 decorated with ZnO Streptococcus mutants
Bacteria growth reduce
using simple hydrothermal Porphyromonas 45%-85%
treatment [32] Gingivalis

Staphylococcus Aureus thermal decomposition Aureus method [40] ZnO is an interesting material because it has vast applications in various areas because of its excellent optical.55]. Coli and K. Pneumoniae increased with an increase of nanoparticle concentration. E. The antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles also dependent on its size and shape [60]. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in many fields such as sunscreen products. The Ag2O nanoparticles might be demonstrated as a novel antibiotic. a Generation ROS on the surface of particles. The silver nanoparticles has many application in production of injection mould plastic materials. Membrane dysfunction. dan Vibiro parahaemolyticus [59]. piezoelectric. and ZnO internalization on membrane cell [47]. ZnO has antibacterial activity to the many Gram positive and Gram Negative bacteria [43]. In another studies. et al evaluated the antibacterial activities of ZnO to Campylobacter Jejuni. Streptococcus Mutans [58]. state that the smaller particle of Ag nanoparticles have more high antibacterial properties because more easily penetrated the cell wall [61]. These findings suggest that ZnO NPs may potentially prove useful as nanomedicine based antimicrobial agents at selective therapeutic dosing regimes [45]. The decreasing of ZnO nanopaticle size also increasing the antibacterial effect of ZnO. In many studies show that silver nanoparticles is the most popular inorganic nanoparticle to be used for inhibiton of microbes [51-53]. The previous study reported the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against gram-negative bacteria (E. Xiee. textiles. because smaller particle more easily to penetrated the baacteria membrane cell causing disorganization of the cell membrane [46]. There are many proposed mechanisme of antibacterial properties of ZnO like. According to Azam. their results show that ZnO antibacterial mechanism due to disruption of the cell membrane and oxidative stress in C. Coli. Jejuni [48]. studies show that ZnO have most bactericidal activity to both gram postive and negative bactery [44]. In. This photocatalytic properties make the ZnO have ability to produce ROS under UV light [50]. Many studies shows that silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties to many pathogens like Bipolaris-sor Okiniana and Magnaporthe Griseria [57]. magnetic and gas sensing properties. Zinc ion release. These nanoparticles can be damaged the DNA of E. et al. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs increased with reduction in NPs size. Salmonella typhimurium.42]. Silver nanoparticle antibacterial properties come from the release of its silver ions which can destroy the the cell structur by disrupting the membrane cell and the disulphide linkages present on the various protein in the transmembrane layer [56]. paintings. TiO2 coatings with AgNPs Bacteria growth reduce using Magnetron sputtering Staphylococcus Aureus 50%-75% method [38] Ti-6Al-4V with nanospike Viability reduction of structure using thermal Escheria Coli bactery up to 40% oxidation method [39] TiO2-silica-iron oxide nanocomposite using 95% inhibit growth of S. another study shows that ZnO antibacterial activity against E. Ag2O nanoparticle is a nanoparticle that have great antimicrobial activity[62]. industrial coatings and antibacterial agents [41. in the form of coatings and in textiles also in biomedical application [54. coli). coli and it can terminate the cell cycle at . ZnO Nanoparticle also exhibit photocataytic properties that enhance membrane antibacterial properties [49].

a three most widely accepted. surface chemistry. Although the detailed mechanism of metal oxide antibacterial activity is under discussion. 5a). are generated in CuO water suspensions with the smaller sized particles generating a larger amount of the radicals. Coli. defects. solar energy transformation. and C. adhesion and spreading [68]. The mechanism of this action through oxidative stress [63]. . Further suggestions for the bactericide achievement are the inhibition of energy metabolism. The CuO nanoparticle showed antibacterial activity toward gram positive bacteria such as S. Among the large family of metal oxides. Albicans [66]. The internalization is controlled by the particle size. it is clear that oxy radicals. et al show that Si nanoparticles can inhibited the bacterial adherence to oral biofilms [65]. sensors. and (iii) changes in bacterial membrane permeability (progressive release of lipopolysaccharides.72]. Enterococcus faecalis. The CuO NPs also induced intracellular ROS generation driven from the cellular response to the antibacterial treatment [71]. Several reports also showed that Si nanowires have high antibacterial and also biocompatible nanomaterial [67]. The antibacterial mechanism proposed in the recent studies is the Si nanoparticle influencing the cell function such as cell differentiation. pneumoniae. Cupric oxide is cheaper than silver. and functionalization. electronics. and Proteus vulgaris [43. Therefore. namely superoxide anions. S. Shigella flexneri.aureus and B. membrane proteins. batteries and catalysis. Nanoparticles are bactericidal and thus disrupt membrane causing membrane dysfunction. This property makes them very effective antimicrobial agents[70]. resulting in their internalization into the bacteria (Fig. Beside that with 23 nm size CuO nanoparticle also showed antibacterial properties to K. (ii) ROS generation from NPs metal oxides and ions with subsequent oxidative damage to cellular structures [75]. Coli. cupric oxide (CuO) is an interesting multifunctional material due to its promising applications in magnetic storage media. and intracellular factors) and dissipation of the proton motive force as a result of accumulation and dissolution of NPs in the membrane [76]. The combination of Ag/SiO2 nanoparticle show antibacterial properties to E.the G2/M phase due to the DNA damage. typhimurium. these nanoparticles demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity with high toxicity [64]. These mechanisms were illustrated at Figure 5 below. Subtilis and gram negative bacteria such Pseudomonas Aeurginosa and E. The studies from Cousins. Cu NPs can easily penetrate across the cell membrane and bring considerable damage to the enzymatic processes of the cell. and reported hypothetical mechanisms in the literature [73] are: (i) metal ions uptake (translocation and particle internalization) into cells followed by depletion of intracellular ATP production and disruption of DNA replication [74]. Antibacterial properties of SI nanoparticles can be improved by combination the Si nanoparticles with another metal nanoparticles such as silver and gold [66]. S. Aureus. easily mixed with polymers and relatively stable in terms of both chemical and physical properties [69]. once NPs have internalized bacteria.

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