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1. Which is the innermost layer of atmosphere?

a) Lithosphere.
b) Stratosphere.
c) Troposphere.
d) Biosphere.

2. When traveling by air, your airplane flies through this zone of atmosphere:

a) Higher part of the Troposphere not beyond.
b) Mainly the lower part of the Stratosphere.
c) Lower part of the Mesosphere.
d) None of the above.

3. Ozone molecules useful in blocking UV rays of the sun are dispersed at this altitude
from the surface of earth:

a) Only near the surface.
b) From surface to 11 Kms.
c) From 11 Kms to 30 Kms.
d) From 31 to 50 Kms.

4. The temperature in the Stratosphere increases with height as compared to
Troposphere because:

a). Both contain Ozone but concentration of ozone is higher in Stratosphere than
in Troposphere
b) Sun is closer to stratosphere compared to troposphere.
c) Clouds are present in Troposphere which cool the later.
d) None of the above.

5. How much of the earth’s air is found in the atmosphere inner most layer (troposphere)

a) 75 %
b) 80 %
c) 65 %
d) 57 %

6.Which layer of the atmosphere is known as global sunscreen?
a) Troposphere.
b) Stratosphere.
c) Mesosphere.
d) Thermosphere

7. Which are the chemical constituents found in Exposphere? A. Helium.
a) Ozone.
b) Oxygen
c) Methane
d) Helium.

8. The transitional region between the the atmosphere and vacuum of inter planetary
space is called?
a) Troposphere.
b) Stratosphere.
c) Mesosphere.
d) Exosphere.

9. The layer of the earth the reflects radio wave back to earth is called?

Increased infiltration capacity and greater base flow contribution B. Travels laterally through the soil 5. The intense nature of rainfall events causes rapid runoff and high flood peaks 7. Increased precipitation input 8. Dry lands are characterized by rare but intense rainfall events B. Which of the following statements is not correct with respect to river flow in dry land environments? A. Most of the water is stored above ground to maintain base flow until the next flood event C. Rating Curve D. Percolates into bedrock B. Reduced infiltration capacity and greater infiltration-excess overland flow generation C. Large snow/ice melt input in early winter causes high flood potential . g/m² C. Reduced annual river flow D. Velocity-Area Method 3. Which of the following does not apply to infiltration excess overland flow? A. In the context of river flows in glacial regions. Which of the following is not one of the major paths for water entering the soil? A. m³ 2. a) Ionosphere b) Radiation zone c) Aurora borealis d) Ozone layer 10. Atmometer readings C. Variations in river discharge over time C. Variations in snowfall over time 6. In the atmosphere. Rare in areas subject to extreme rainfall events C. Which of the following is the most likely impact of deforestation and increased grazing intensity? A. Variations in sediment concentration against river discharge D. Rare in many temperature areas because infiltration capacity is too high 4. Precipitation is usually expressed in which of the following units? A. Which of the following is not a method of estimating river discharge? A. Taken up by plants and transpired D. mm D. Dilution Gauging B. ml B. Coarse and sandy soil often results in high infiltration capacities D. which of the following is not correct? A. C. Common in semi-arid areas where soil surface crusts develop B. tiny solid or liquid suspended particles of various composition are called? a) Aerosols b) Carcinogens c) Greenhouse Gases d) Microbes Hydrosphere 1. Common where the surface is often frozen D. What does a 'hydrograph' display? A. Infiltration-excess overland flow C. Variations in water temperature against discharge B.

Prevailing winds B. Groundwater D. All the sediment carried by a river is called the A. Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide will cause which of the following changes in oceanic chemistry? A. Approximately what percentage of the earth's surface is covered by oceans? A. Runoff D. Salinity gradients B. Stream load D. Solid to liquid B. Which two features together control the density of seawater? A. precipitation. Salinity and plankton concentration 13. Temperature and salinity D. Prevailing winds C. Deposition 17. Dissolved load . 90% 11. Discharge can be extremely low over winter C. Liquid to gas 18. Biosphere C. Surface ocean currents are driven mainly by which of the following? A. Bed load C. Discharge is lower at night than during the daytime 9. Liquid to solid C. Increased precipitation of calcium carbonate 12.B. In which of the following through flow pathways does water travel through the finest soil pores? A. Deep ocean currents are driven mainly by which of the following? A. Atmosphere B. Condensation C. Lake and Rivers 16. Salinity and depth B. Temperature and salinity gradients C. Decreased pH C. Macropre flow 10. Decreased salinity D. The main parts of the water cycle are evapotranspiration. Warm Air 14. Suspended load B. Increased salinity B. Outputs in the water budget often do not equal inputs due to a large amount of long term water storage D. Temperature and sea depth C. Evaporation B. 71% D. Matrix flow C. 10% B. 35% C. Temperature gradients D. Stomatal pore flow B. Pipe flow D. Gas to liquid D. Which of the following reservoir contains the most water? A. Earth’s rotation 15. Condensation is a change in water from a A. and A. Mid-ocean ridge volcanism D.

C. Cohesion C. but the water cannot be removed easily with an ordinary well. Cannot be used for drinking B. Low permeability C. Porosity D. such as soil. Damages appliances due to the buildup of mineral deposits 25. Watersheds D. Water is called the universal solvent because A. D. A and B D. Groundwater can be replenished by pumping sea water into the ground. Contaminates groundwater aquifers D. Cohesion properties of water allow A. Zone of saturation D. Water to cool out bodies 30. Only next to the shore. The water table forms the upper surface of the A. Decreases in volume B. One of the major disadvantages of hard water is that it A. None of the above 29. B. which causes ice to float. Groundwater can be conserved by recycling used water. When water freezes it A. Properties that make water feel wet are A. Artesian formation 21. C. Water to dissolve sugar D. On the bottom of a lake C. Groundwater is a nonrenewable resource. This is most likely due to sediment and rock characterized by A. Poor sorting D. Wood to float C. Gradient C. Which of the following statements about groundwater is true? A. Some spiders to walk on water B.19. Water dissolves more substances than any other solvent. Whirlpools C. Becomes denser causing ice to sink C. Because water become less dense when the temperature moves from 4o C to 0o C water that is near the freezing point will be found A. Low porosity B. Artesian wells 23. None of the above 28. Capillary action 24. At the mid-level of a lake D. Water dissolves everything D. Cap rock layer B. Permeability B. Once groundwater is polluted it can never be used again D. is called A. On the surface of a lake B. Contour surface C. Drainage basins are also called A. Inhibits the flow of water up through artesian wells C. Water dissolves nothing B. Adhesion and cohesion properties . 27. Increased in volume. High iron content 20. The attraction of water molecules to other materials. An aquifer contains a great deal of water. No phase change occurs 26. Adhesion B. Floodplains B. 22. Capillary action of water is caused by A.

100 degrees C 39. Baltic Sea D. Sediments 38. The unique properties of water are mostly the result of? A. Liquid changes to steam D. What is transported through the ocean in turbidity currents? A. Solvent properties of water D. Energy is lost from water when A. All of the above 32. Salts D. 2-4 billion tons D. Liquid changes to ice B. and oceans B. The unique properties of water are important to? A. 0 degree C. 32 degrees C D. 2-4 trillion tons . Continental shelf C. 35. The water temperature increases D. Ionic bonds B. streams. Point bars 40. Mediterranean Sea B. B. 2-4 million tons C. Ice changes to liquid C. Liquid changes to steam C. About how much dissolved materials do rivers transport each year? A. A river flows into a quiet lake and begins to form a __________________? A. Water's specific heat 31. Steam changes to liquid 33. At what temperature does fresh water have its maximum density? A. 4 degrees C C. Ice changes to liquid B. Ecology of lakes. Plants the use water to transport nutrients C. Black Sea 36. Delta B. Hydrogen bonds D.B. Submarine canyon D. Covalent bonds 34. All of the above. Phase changes of water occur when A. 2-4 thousand tons B. Continental rise 37. Which feature is at the greatest depth in the ocean? A. Oxygen C. Natural levees D. Animals whose blood must contain water to move all chemicals they need to survive D. Abyssal plain B. Red Sea C. Atomic bonds C. Adhesion properties only C. Which body of water has the highest salinity? A. Nutrients B. Alluvial fans C.