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“Weldless” Pipe Spool Fabrication

Includes : Designer’s Guide
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TABLE OF CONTENT

0. PREFIX.......................................................................................................................................... 3

1. REASONS FOR SELECTING “WELDLESS” SPOOLING.......................................................... 5

1.1 REDUCED FABRICATION COST ...................................................................................... 5

1.2 REDUCED FABRICATION TIME........................................................................................ 5

1.2.1 Start of the fabrication............................................................................................... 5

1.2.2 Fabrication time ........................................................................................................ 6

1.3 REDUCED NUMBER OF EXPANSION U-BENDS ............................................................ 6

1.4 OPPORTUNITY TO OBTAIN ANY ANGLE OF BEND AND ANY RADIUS DIRECTLY .... 6

1.5 REDUCED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT ............................................................................ 6

1.6 REDUCED MAINTENANCE INSPECTION COST ............................................................. 6

2. LIMITATIONS ON THE MINIMUM BEND RADIUS ..................................................................... 7

3. WALL THINNING.......................................................................................................................... 8

4. DESCRIPTION OF THE INDUCTION BENDING PROCESS ...................................................... 9

5. NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION........................................................................................ 13

6. ECONOMICS .............................................................................................................................. 14

DESIGNER’S GUIDE ............................................................................................................................ 15

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0. PREFIX

Induction bent pipe spools ("weldless" pipe spools) is common practice today in :

∗ Power stations (traditional and nuclear - primary and auxiliary circuits)

∗ Gas and oil pipelines (onshore and offshore)

The reasons for this development include :

∗ System integrity

∗ Flow characteristics

∗ Power requirement considerations

∗ Reduced turbulence

∗ Reductions in maintenance requirements

∗ Reductions in “Life-Time” costs

The Quality and Inspection Standards demanded and imposed by these industries are of the
highest order and are completely satisfied by the fabrication and testing methods adopted by
FABRICOM. Beyond the questions of Quality and Safety, we have been able to provide a cost
effective and economical service.

The rate of take-up of Induction Bending within the land based Petrochemical Industry has
been slow in comparison to other industries.

The principle reasons for this are :

∗ A lack of information on the product

∗ A lack of knowledge regarding potential cost savings

∗ Standardisation on welded fittings

∗ Code requirements

∗ The convention on minimum bend radii of “1.5 D” and previous difficulties in achieving this
figure

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It is also possible that the existing form of contract covering fabrication works, which tends to
separate the designer from the fabricator does not promote the best medium for co-operative
thinking and the achievement of “best” results. FABRICOM believes that the closest
association of the contributing parties during the design and procurement phases can effect
the lowest total installed cost.

This booklet, together with the Designer's Guide, tries to answer these subjects and make the
reader more familiar with both technique and application.

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..........(See § 1......................4) ∗ Reduced material management.2....................................................... a general study of savings on standard carbon steel has been given....... 1........1 START OF THE FABRICATION Successful fabrication and resulting costs are depending upon material availability....... obviously there is no reliance upon the availability of elbows.........(See § 1... ∗ Reduced fabrication cost ....... 1.. In case of “weldless” spool fabrication........................................Revision 2 ........... bending can start immediately upon the receipt of the pipes..... ∗ The start of the fabrication ∗ The actual fabrication time 1............. The savings...........doc .......(See § 1........gse ...............................2 REDUCED FABRICATION TIME Two elements define the delivery of the fabricated isometrics to the site.... using commercial forged elbows...................... Experience shows that commercial forged elbows are one of the items (fittings) which are frequently missing and delay the fabrication of an isometric and/or involve additional costs in double handling...(See § 1.. Furthermore...........(See § 1............1) ∗ Reduced fabrication time ..... depending on the quantity of welds eliminated by bending.. Page 5 D:\Weldless_HCH.........1 REDUCED FABRICATION COST A case study (available on request) demotes significant savings on selected CS and SS materials.... fabrication and NDE) vary from 2 to 47 %.................3) ∗ Opportunity to obtain any angle of bend and any radius directly ... expressed in percentage to the total cost (material supply............5) ∗ Reduced maintenance inspection cost.....2) ∗ Reduced quantity of expansion U-bends... REASONS FOR SELECTING “WELDLESS” SPOOLING In this section we consider the main advantages of the fabrication of machine bent pipe spools versus the conventional fabrication..........(See § 1.....6) 1..............

Similarly any radius (See Designer’s Guide. the fabrication time is reduced to : ∗ 1 to 2 weeks in case no further welding has to be performed ∗ 2 to 4 weeks in case further welding has to be performed The reduction of the fabrication time is due to the reduced quantity of butt welds : In the case study. Page 6 D:\Weldless_HCH.2. 1. and consequently. instead of commercial forged elbows.5 REDUCED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT By reducing the need for elbows.gse .2 FABRICATION TIME The fabrication time (NDE included) for conventional pipe spool fabrication varies from 3 to 6 weeks depending on complexity. for expansion U joints offers the possibility to reduce the total number of U-joints. 1. 1. 1. For bent pipe spools. This 70 % reduction in quantity of butt welds will certainly result in savings on the cost of maintenance inspection. This shows savings in both material and project manhour costs. the total number of stations (Pipe supports).Revision 2 . 1.4 OPPORTUNITY TO OBTAIN ANY ANGLE OF BEND AND ANY RADIUS DIRECTLY Bend angles other than the conventional 45 degrees and 90 degrees can be obtained directly avoiding cutting conventional fittings. the requisitioning. bidding. the quantity of butt welds is reduced from 159 to 48. ordering and delivery costs are eliminated. the quantity of butt welds is reduced from 159 (conventional fabrication) to 48 (bent fabrication).3 REDUCED NUMBER OF EXPANSION U-BENDS The use of bends.doc . Part 4) can be obtained providing the designer limitless flexibility. diameter and wall thickness.6 REDUCED MAINTENANCE INSPECTION COST In the case study.

in case of bending. 2.gse .doc .4) Page 7 D:\Weldless_HCH.5 or 3 D. is 1. the designer has more freedom and possibilities due to the fact that any radius above the minimum can be obtained without limitations. 2. On the other hand. LIMITATIONS ON THE MINIMUM BEND RADIUS The Designer has to take into account that the minimum bend radius.5. (See § 1. 2.Revision 2 . depending the application and as shown in Tables 2a → 2f of Part 1 of the Designer’s Guide.

3. pipes defined as suitable for straight lengths can also be used for the bends in that pipe.doc . (Difference between calculated minimum required wall thickness and commercial available wall thickness) Our experience is such that normally.gse .Revision 2 . Page 8 D:\Weldless_HCH. WALL THINNING The Designer will need to verify whether the additional wall thickness required in bending is compensated for by the wall over-thickness of the supplied straight pipe.

and the bed of the machine. movable on rails. When this temperature is reached. 4. the pipe may be either forced or naturally cooled. After passing through the ring. an induction heating system and a cooling system.2 and Fig. as required by the applicable qualified bending procedure.gse .3) Page 9 D:\Weldless_HCH. are set to obtain the required radius.1. a radial arm. Fig. The induction heating system heats a narrow circumferential zone around the pipe to the appropriate bending temperature.Revision 2 . A straight length of pipe is placed in the machine bed and the front tangent is clamped on the radial arm. DESCRIPTION OF THE INDUCTION BENDING PROCESS The induction bending equipment is composed of four basic components : a bed. (See Fig. 4. A clamp. 4. the pipe is continuously moved through the heating ring while a bending moment is applied to the heated area. 4. movable on the radial arm.doc .

4.doc .Revision 2 .1 INDUCTION BENDING MACHINE : BASIC COMPONENTS Page 10 D:\Weldless_HCH.gse . Fig.

doc . 4.2 Page 11 D:\Weldless_HCH. HEATING AND COOLING RINGS Fig.gse .Revision 2 .

gse .doc . INDUCTION BENDING MACHINE Fig.3 Page 12 D:\Weldless_HCH.Revision 2 . 4.

which are performed on pipes or fittings. is indicated in Part 5 of the Designer’s Guide.Part 5. NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION All standard NDE. It has to be noted that the extrados (external axis of bend) is the most critical area. For more details. can also apply to bends.Revision 2 . In some cases.gse . The NDE. 5.doc . Page 13 D:\Weldless_HCH. usually required per category of severity. we refer to the Designer’s Guide . inspection will only be performed on this area.

gse .doc . ECONOMICS The following section will compare the total cost. 6. of the fabrication of pipe spools (ex-works. material supply included. no surface treatment) for : ∗ Traditional fabrication incorporating commercial forged elbows ∗ Fabrication of machine bent pipe spools COST AFFECTING ITEMS CONVENTIONAL MACHINE BENT SPOOLS SPOOLS Welding Cost * Quantities of butt welds (considerably reduced in Higher Lower case of bent spools) * The unit rate per weld will increase with about 20 % in Lower Higher case of bent spools (less automatic welding) Handling Cost Equal Equal NDE Cost on Welds Higher Lower Post Weld Heat Treatment Higher Lower Material Cost Higher Lower (Elbows are replaced by meters of pipe) Cost of Bending Zero Higher Page 14 D:\Weldless_HCH.Revision 2 .

doc .Revision 2 .gse . DESIGNER’S GUIDE for INDUCTION BENDING and PIPE SPOOL BENDING Page 15 D:\Weldless_HCH.

...........................................................................Page 34 Capability of Bending at FABRICOM PART 5 ...............................................Page 17 Possibilities and Limitations on Wall Thickness .................................................................................Page 38 Acceptance Criteria Page 16 D:\Weldless_HCH.Page 27 Maximum Ovality after Bending PART 3 .............................................................................................doc ...................................................................................................Page 29 Wall Thinning ..........................................................................................Diameter ...........................Radius PART 2 .........................Page 36 Dimensional Control and NDE Requirements PART 6 ................................................................................gse .........................................Thickening PART 4 ........ PART 1 .........................................................Revision 2 ...............................................................

gse .doc .5 D) TABLE 2e Recommended minimum Radius in function of Diameter and Wall Thickness for SS (3 D) TABLE 2f Recommended minimum Radius in function of Diameter and Wall Thickness for SS (5 D) Page 17 D:\Weldless_HCH.DIAMETER . PART 1 POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS ON WALL THICKNESS .5 D) TABLE 2b Recommended minimum Radius in function of Diameter and Wall Thickness for CS (3 D) TABLE 2c Recommended minimum Radius in function of Diameter and Wall Thickness for CS (5 D) TABLE 2d Recommended minimum Radius in function of Diameter and Wall Thickness for SS 1.Revision 2 .RADIUS TABLE 1a Recommended minimum Wall Thickness in function of Diameter and Radius for CS (Up to 8 % Cr) TABLE 1b Recommended minimum Wall Thickness in function of Diameter and Radius for CS (8 % Cr and up) TABLE 1c Recommended minimum Wall Thickness in function of Diameter and Radius for SS TABLE 2a Recommended minimum Radius in function of Diameter and Wall Thickness for CS (1.

10 Sch. 40 Sch. 10 5 Sch. 30 Sch. 20 Sch. 40 Sch.0 Page 18 D:\Weldless_HCH.0 Sch. 20 Sch.0 Sch. N. S = 17. 40 Sch. N.5 4 5 3 XS XS STD STD STD STD Sch.A. 40 Sch.0 S = 12. 20 Sch. TABLE 1a CS AND CrMo (UP TO 8 % Cr) MINIMUM SCHEDULES OR WALL THICKNESS REQUIRED FOR INDUCTION BENDS NOMINAL BEND RADIUS. N. 40 Sch. S = 18.0 48 N. N.A. 10 16 Sch. 20 Sch. 20 Sch. N. 30 Sch.0 S = 20.A.0 Sch. 10 28 S = 19.0 S = 17. S = 22.0 56 N.0 S = 16. 20 Sch.A.A.0 60 N. 30 Sch. 30 STD Sch.0 64 N. 40 Sch.0 Sch. 30 Sch. 30 Sch. 10 8 Sch. 30 Sch.0 S = 11. 20 Sch. N. 30 Sch.0 S = 19.A. 30 Sch. F x OUTSIDE DIAMETER PIPE SIZE (INCHES) 1.A.0 Sch. 30 Sch. 30 Sch. 20 Sch. 20 STD STD Sch. 30 Sch. 40 Sch. 20 Sch. 10 26 S = 19. 20 Sch. 40 STD Sch. 40 Sch. 20 Sch. 20 Sch.0 66 N. 20 STD Sch. 10 Sch. 40 Sch. 30 Sch. 30 Sch. 40 Sch.0 S = 16. 20 Sch. 10 20 Sch. 10 22 Sch. 20 Sch.0 S = 14.0 S = 15.A. 20 Sch. 20 Sch. 20 Sch. N. 40 STD STD STD STD Sch. 40 Sch.0 42 N.A.A. 10 32 S = 22.0 S = 19. S = 20.A.0 S = 18.0 S = 15.0 S = 15. N. 10 18 Sch. 40 XS Sch. N. 10 4 Sch. 20 Sch. 10 14 Sch. 10 Sch. 20 Sch.0 S = 18. N.0 S = 13. 40 Sch.A. 30 Sch.A. 40 STD Sch. 40 Sch. 10 Sch.0 Sch. N. 20 Sch. 20 Sch.5 3 3.A. 20 Sch. 40 Sch.0 S = 16. 20 Sch. 10 30 S = 20. 40 Sch. 20 Sch. N. 10 Sch. 40 STD Sch.0 S = 10.A. 30 STD Sch.A. 20 STD 40 S = 26. 10 6 Sch. 10 10 Sch.A. 10 24 Sch.0 S = 14. S = 18. 20 Sch.0 S = 14. 20 Sch.0 S = 17.5 2 2. N. 10 34 S = 22.A. 20 Sch. 40 STD STD STD STD Sch. 20 STD 36 S = 24. 20 Sch.0 S = 13.A.A.gse .Revision 2 .0 S = 16. 20 Sch. 20 Sch. 60 Sch. 40 STD STD STD STD Sch. N. N. 10 12 Sch. 20 Sch.A.doc . 20 Sch. S = 23.

0 S = 28.0 60 N. 80 Sch.0 S = 26.0 32 S = 30. 60 Sch. N. 120 Sch. 120 Sch. 80 Sch.A.0 S = 20. 80 Sch. 120 XS XS XS XS XS 6 Sch.A.0 S = 25. 40 Sch.0 S = 18. N.0 S = 28. 60 Sch.0 42 N. 60 Sch. N.0 S = 24.A.0 S = 22.A.0 S = 25.0 S = 26.A. F x OUTSIDE DIAMETER PIPE SIZE (INCHES) 1.0 S = 20. 60 Sch.0 48 N.A.0 S = 16.0 S = 20.0 S = 17. 80 Sch.0 S = 18. 60 Sch.0 S = 22. N. 60 Sch.0 S = 26. N.0 S = 30.0 S = 18. 60 Sch. 64 N. 40 Sch. 60 Sch. 40 Sch.0 S = 16.0 S = 28. 60 Sch. N. 66 N.0 S = 30. 40 26 S = 24.0 S = 18. 60 Sch. TABLE 1b CS AND CrMo (8 % Cr and up) MINIMUM SCHEDULES OR WALL THICKNESS REQUIRED FOR INDUCTION BENDS NOMINAL BEND RADIUS. N.A. N.0 S = 24.0 28 S = 26.0 S = 22. 60 Sch.A.A. N. 160 Sch.0 S = 28. 60 Sch. N.A. 60 Sch. S = 30.A.A. 60 Sch. 60 18 Sch.A.0 S = 28.0 S = 26. 40 20 Sch. 160 Sch.0 S = 24. N.A. 160 Sch. 80 Sch.A.0 S = 20.0 S = 18.doc . 60 Sch.0 S = 22. Page 19 D:\Weldless_HCH. 120 XS XS XS XS XS 8 Sch. 80 Sch. 60 Sch. 40 22 Sch. 60 XS XS 16 Sch. N. 80 XS XS XS XS XS 12 Sch.0 S = 19.0 S = 22.gse .A.0 56 N.0 S = 26.5 4 5 3 Sch. 60 24 Sch.0 S = 24. N.A.0 S = 26.A. S = 30. 120 Sch.A.0 S = 28. 60 Sch.0 S = 28. N. 60 Sch. 80 Sch. N. 60 Sch.A.Revision 2 .0 34 S = 30. 60 Sch.0 40 S = 35. 60 Sch. 80 Sch.0 S = 17. 80 Sch.A. 120 Sch.5 2 2.A. 60 Sch. 80 XS XS XS 4 Sch.0 S = 26. 60 Sch.0 S = 22. 60 Sch.0 S = 22. N.A. N.0 S = 31.0 S = 22.A.A. 80 XS XS XS XS XS 10 Sch.0 S = 26. 120 Sch. S = 30. 80 Sch. N.0 S = 24. 60 Sch.0 S = 24. N. N. 60 Sch.A. 60 Sch.0 S = 18. N.A.A. 120 XS XS XS 5 Sch.0 36 S = 30.0 30 S = 28.A.5 3 3. N. N.0 S = 26. 80 XS XS 14 Sch.0 S = 28. N.A.

A.5 2 2.Revision 2 .0 S = 13.A.0 Sch. 40 Sch.0 Sch.5 4 5 3 XS XS XS XS STD STD STD 4 XS XS XS XS STD STD STD 5 XS XS XS STD STD STD STD 6 XS XS XS STD STD STD STD 8 XS XS XS STD STD Sch . S = 18. TABLE 1c STAINLESS STEEL MINIMUM SCHEDULES OR WALL THICKNESS REQUIRED FOR INDUCTION BENDS NOMINAL BEND RADIUS.0 42 N.0 Sch. S = 17. S = 22.doc .0 56 N. S = 16. 30 XS XS XS Sch .A. 20 16 Sch.0 Sch.20 Sch. S = 19.20 Sch. 30 Sch.0 S = 15.A. 40 XS STD STD Sch .gse .A. 40 Sch. N. 20 18 N.A. S = 18.0 Page 20 D:\Weldless_HCH.A. 20 32 N. N.A. 20 26 N.A. S = 19. S = 20. 20 12 Sch. N.5 3 3.A. 20 40 N.A.A. 30 Sch.A. 40 XS XS STD Sch .20 Sch.0 S = 15. 20 24 N. 20 34 N.A.0 Sch. 30 Sch. Sch. 60 XS XS STD STD Sch . 60 XS XS STD STD Sch . 40 Sch.0 48 N. 30 XS Sch. 30 XS Sch. S = 17.0 S = 18.20 Sch.A. 30 Sch. 20 10 XS XS XS STD STD Sch . 30 14 Sch.A.0 S = 17. N. N. N. 30 Sch. F x OUTSIDE DIAMETER PIPE SIZE (INCHES) 1. 20 22 N.A.20 Sch. N.A. 20 36 N. 40 Sch. 40 Sch. XS XS STD STD Sch .0 XS XS XS XS STD 28 N. 60 XS XS STD STD Sch.20 Sch.20 Sch.A.0 S = 19. 20 20 N. N. 20 30 N. Sch. N.A.A. N. 20 Sch.20 Sch.0 S = 13. Sch.A. 30 XS XS Sch.0 S = 19.0 S = 16.A. 30 Sch. S = 20.0 S = 18.A. 30 Sch. 30 Sch.

TABLE 2a Page 21 D:\Weldless_HCH.doc .gse .Revision 2 .

TABLE 2b Page 22 D:\Weldless_HCH.Revision 2 .doc .gse .

gse .doc .Revision 2 . TABLE 2c Page 23 D:\Weldless_HCH.

gse .doc .Revision 2 . TABLE 2d Page 24 D:\Weldless_HCH.

Revision 2 .doc . Page 25 D:\Weldless_HCH.gse .

Revision 2 .gse .doc . Page 26 D:\Weldless_HCH.

1 Maximum Ovality as a function of Bending Radius (R/D) and the Ratio Diameter / Wall Thickness Page 27 D:\Weldless_HCH.doc .gse . PART 2 MAXIMUM OVALITY AFTER BENDING FIG.Revision 2 .

Fig.doc . 1 Page 28 D:\Weldless_HCH.Revision 2 .gse .

Revision 2 .Wall Thickness achieved FIG.THICKENING WALL THINNING AND THICKENING FIG.doc . 3 Over-thickness required Page 29 D:\Weldless_HCH. 2 Comparison Wall Thickness required .gse . PART 3 WALL THINNING .

5 % 3.5 % 2.7 % 4.4 % --.8 % 5.0 % 0. As a result of many series of tests.0 % 2. which is necessary to obtain the same strength at the extrados of the bend and the straight pipe.5 % 5. 13.0 5.5 % 20.0 4.3 % 7.0 % 9. 11.7 % --.7 % --.0 % 26.0 % 18.5 D” Overthick Fabricom Overthick * Stoomwezen Alternate Pipe “Weldless” Pipe Pipe Techn.0 % 3. R = Centre line radius of bend D = Nominal outside pipe diameter ∆ WT = Actual wall thickness prior bending minus actual wall thickness post bending = wall thinning WT = Actual wall thickness prior bending Interpolation is allowable for bending to intermediate radii.6 % 13.3 % --. 7.3 % --.0 7. 8.2 % 5. WALL THINNING Wall thinning occurring during induction bending is much less than that occurring during other forms of bending.doc . 10.2 % --. Fabricom have developed special techniques to keep the thinning within the limits required to meet Stoomwezen or German code standards for a radius equal or greater than 3D and to limit the thinning for bends with a radius smaller than 3D (See table 3).3 % Table 3 (*1) This is the over-thickness. Acceptable ∆t Thinning as per Anticipated Wall Thinning x 100 % Ratio t * TRD 301 R/D * DIN 2413 Fabricom Overthick “1.0 % 3.6 % 2.5 % 9.0 % 11.5 8.0 % 5.3 % 6.4 % 6.Revision 2 .5 % 12.1 % 4.0 10.5 % 9.0 % 0. Page 30 D:\Weldless_HCH. (*1) Pipe Spools Standard (*1) 1.4 % --.0 % 7. it has been established that the strength of the piping system (straight pipe and bends) is not weakened by the bending. compared to the allowed minimum wall thickness of the pipe. 5.2 % --. 6.5 6.0 % 0.5 13. 4.0 % 4.gse .5 % 16.5 % 2.0 % 15.

It can not be used for TMCP steels (Thermo Mechanical Controlled Process).5 % 35.0 % 32. CrMo Steel and Stabilised Stainless Steel.0 % 18.0 % 16. Pipe Spools Standard 1.0 % 2.0 7.0 % 5. The anticipated thickening is : Required ∆t Thickening as per Anticipated Wall Thickening x 100 % Ratio t * TRD 301 R/D * DIN 2413 Fabricom “1.5 D” Fabricom * Stoomwezen Alternate “Weldless” Techn.0 % 2.Revision 2 .0 % 43.0 % 28. WALL THICKENING Wall thickening is always greater than the minimum required to achieve the same strength as in the straight pipe.gse .0 % 13.0 % 3.0 % 20.5 12.0 17.5 % 26.0 6.5 % 15.0 % 12.3 % 18. Alternate bending techniques with reduced thinning can be used for most conventional materials like : CS.0 % 20.0 10.0 % 16.6 % 40.0 % 24.0 % 17.0 % 4.0 % 30.doc . Quenched and Tempered steels (QT Steels) and duplex.0 % 14.0 % 23.0 % Page 31 D:\Weldless_HCH.0 % 3.3 % 46.5 26.5 8.

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gse . Page 33 D:\Weldless_HCH.doc .Revision 2 .

PART 4 CAPABILITY OF BENDING AT FABRICOM Page 34 D:\Weldless_HCH.Revision 2 .doc .gse .

Page 35 D:\Weldless_HCH.Revision 2 .doc .gse .

PART 5 DIMENSIONAL CONTROL AND NDE REQUIREMENTS Page 36 D:\Weldless_HCH.gse .Revision 2 .doc .

gse . a choice can be made. Page 37 D:\Weldless_HCH. NDE is performed by qualified personnel and in accordance with approved procedures.doc . In accordance with design requirements and materials.Revision 2 . DIMENSIONAL CONTROL AND NDE REQUIREMENTS Considering the different services and material in use. we can divide the inspection into 4 categories.

doc .Revision 2 .gse . PART 6 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Page 38 D:\Weldless_HCH.

..gse .. 1 % Page 39 D:\Weldless_HCH....... Max..........5° ∗ Radius ....... of 8 % or in accordance with Client’s spec.... 4tr ∗ Ends ..... ± 0..............doc ......... 5 mm for diameters ≥ 16” NDE In accordance with the applicable code....................... 1 + with a max.......................Revision 2 ...................... 3 mm for diameters < 16” ∗ End to end .... Max... ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA DIMENSIONAL .................................. standard or agreed Customer’s stipulation (See Part 5 of our Designer’s Guide) OVALITY D² ∗ Body .............. ± 1 % with a minimum of 5 mm ∗ Centre to end.....TOLERANCES ∗ Angle .......

the Netherlands.254.5 D Bends / "Weldless" Pipe Spools Fabrication of High Pressure Pipe Fabrication of Tubular Equipment Spools and Manifolds Address Industrieweg 16.254.251.&20*5.2.doc . B-1850 Grimbergen (Belgium) Fax +32. De Prez.be FABRICOM PIPING has workshops / yards in Belgium.17.66") Induction Bending Machines ("Weldless" Pipe Spool Fabrication) Bending Radius 1. UK.90 Contacts * Mr.Revision 2 .2. +32.(62) abcde )$%5.gse . Page 40 D:\Weldless_HCH.03 E-mail bendpiping@fabricom. J.58. Prefabrication Section Manager Tel.be * Mr. 7+(63(&.7. Norway and France.58. C. +32.50 E-mail prefabpiping@fabricom.0%(5*(1 Induction Bending Fabrication of Pipe Spools on the 4 Machines (Range 2" .2. Claessens.$/. Bending Section Manager Tel.