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# List of Formulae-Thermodynamics

First law closed system Availability Relations Energy Balance
dE = dQ-dW W1− 2− max = A1 − A 2 = (E − U 0 ) −  V2 
T0 (S − S 0 ) + p 0 (V − V0 ) c p dT + d   = 0
Ideal Gas Law  2 
2
 T 
pV = mRT ∆A = ∫ 1 − dQ − (W − p 0 ∆V ) − T0Sp Differential Variations
0

Ru = 8.314 kJ/kmol-K 1 T dp dV
= − γM 2
d (A CV − p 0 VCV ) p V
Open system =
dt dT dV
Mass balance ∴ = −( γ − 1)M 2
 T
& 1 − 0  − W  & − T S& + T V
dM CV Q CV CV 0 p
=m& i −m &e  T
dt dρ dV
 Vi
2
 = −M 2
m& i hi + + gz i − T0 Si  − ρ V
First Law  2
  dV
=−
dA 1
E& CV = Q & −W & +
CV CV  Ve
2
 V A (1 − M2 )
 2
 m& 
e eh + + gz − T S
0 e

V e
m& i  u i + i + gz i + p i v i  −  2  Isentropic Relations
 2 
 
T0  γ −1 2
 Ve
2
 Mixtures = 1+  M
m 
& e ue + + gz + p v  T  2 
 2
e e e m p 1
  ω = v = 0.622 v ρ 0   γ − 1  2  −1 γ
ma p − pv = 1+  M
ρ   2  
Definitions
Q p
COPHP = H φ= v
W γ

Q p g T ,p p   γ − 1  2  γ −1
0
= 1+  M
p   2  
COPREF = C
W
Air-N2(28.2), O2(32) γ +1

Clausius Inequality Mole ratio of N2/O2 = 3.76   γ − 1  2  2( γ −1)
1+  M
A 1   2  
dQ Mass ratio of N2/O2 = 3.31 =  
∫ ≤0 A *
M  γ −1 
T  1 +  2  
h (p, T ) = h o + ∆h f
 
γ +1
Closed System II-Law Compressible Flow  2  2( γ −1)
Sonic speed & max
m = A t ρ 0   γRT0
dQ  γ + 1
dS = + dS P
T c = γRT
Normal Shock Relations
Open System II-Law Momentum Eq. (Steady) 0.5
r r r r   2 
dS CV Q CV &  M12 +  
= +m & isi − m &
& es e + Sp 0 = m& i V i − &
m e Ve + FS + FB   γ − 1  
dt T M2 = 
Mass Balance  2γ  2 
T-dS Relations   M1 − 1 
dV dA dρ   γ −1  
=− −
TdS = dU + pdV V A ρ γ −1 2
TdS = dH − Vdp 1+ M1
T2 2
Momentum Balance =
Definitions T1 γ −1 2
h − he dV 1 ∂p 1+ M2
ηs −Turbine / Nozzle = i 0=V + 2
h i − h e* dx ρ ∂x 2
p 2 1 + γM 1
h − hi =
ηs −comp / pump = e* p 1 1 + γM 2 2
h e − hi

= −1 = ∂y z ∂z x ∂x y ∂p s ∂s p d ln(p) h fg = Property definitions ∂p ∂s dT sat RT 2 = a = u − Ts g = h − Ts ∂T v ∂v T Other Properties du = Tds − pdv 1 ∂v ∂v ∂s β= dh = Tds + vdp =− v ∂T p ∂T p ∂p T dg = vdp − sdT 1 ∂v κ=− da = − pdv − sdT v ∂p T 1 ∂v α=− v ∂p s ∂T µ=− ∂p h . y)dy ∂a ∂a ∂h ∂g = −p.Property Relations Thermodynamic Props. = −s = Partial derivative rules ∂p T ∂T p ∂T v ∂T p ∂x 1 Maxwell Relations Clapeyron Eq. Auxiliary Relations ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂h Van-der-Waals = T. y)dx + N( x . = ∂y z ∂y ∂T ∂p dp h fg =− = = ∂x z ∂v s ∂s v dT sat Tv fg ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂T ∂v Clausius-Clapeyron Eq. =v ∂v s ∂v T ∂s T ∂p s Exact Differential dz = M ( x . = −s = ∂M ∂N ∂v T ∂T v ∂p s ∂p T = ∂y ∂x ∂g ∂g ∂a ∂g = v. = −p = ∂s v ∂v s ∂s v ∂s p  a   p + 2 ( v − b) = RT ∂u ∂a  v  ∂h ∂h =− = T.