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**Three-dimensional ﬁnite element analysis of tightening
**

and loosening mechanism of threaded fastener

Satoshi Izumi *, Takashi Yokoyama, Atsushi Iwasaki, Shinsuke Sakai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan

Received 28 June 2004; accepted 2 September 2004

Abstract

Threaded fasteners are widely used in mechanical structures largely because the disassembly for maintenance is easy

and low cost. However, vibration-induced loosening due to dynamic loading has remained problematic over the past six

decades. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms of the tightening process and the loosening process due to shear

loading using the framework of the three-dimensional ﬁnite element method (FEM). Results are compared with those

of conventional theories based on material mechanics and with experimental results. We found some new aspects of

threaded fastener theory. Previous theory overestimates the tightening torque in the relation between preload and tight-

ening torque. Because we modeled the protrusion of bolt from nut and the stiﬀness of the clamped component unlike

previous theory, the load distribution of 1st pitch decreases and that of 4th pitch turns to be the minimum. Good qual-

itative agreement was observed between FEM and experiments with respect to the behavior of loosening under condi-

tions of shear loading such as hysteresis loop of transverse displacement and shear load and critical slip width for

complete bolt-head slip. It was found that loosening is initiated when complete thread slip has occurred prior to head

slip, which has previously been considered the initial point of loosening. Therefore, modiﬁcation of the design of the

threaded fastener is needed.

Ó 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Finite element analysis; Threaded fasteners; Failure analysis; Joint failure; Vibration induced loosening

1. Introduction

**Threaded fasteners used to assemble mechanical products and structures are widely used due to their
**

ease of disassembly for maintenance and their relatively low cost [1]. However, when the threaded fasteners

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 3 58416413; fax: +81 3 38180835.

E-mail address: izumi@fml.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp (S. Izumi).

**1350-6307/$ - see front matter Ó 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
**

doi:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2004.09.009

0. The detection of the real friction coeﬃcient is very diﬃcult. Notably. The grade and position of crossover is 6H/6g (expression in Japanese standard units). Our study aims at providing the veriﬁcation and modiﬁcation of the classical theories regarding the threaded fastener. and 35 mm. rather. [3] and Pai and Hess [4. outer radius. In this context. with 10-pitch internal thread and 5-pitch external thread and a cylindrical clamped component whose inner radius. In this study. respectively. bolt body surface. We used ANSYS 7.5] exper- imentally showed that slight loosening appears prior to the bolt-head slip. as shown in Fig. and it is well known that the friction coeﬃcient varies locally during the tightening and loosening process. It is noted that the comparison with experimental results involves inherently qualitative aspects. 24 and 10 mm. Pai et al. which has been real- ized by recent advances in computational power. and thermal loadings. Here. and thickness are 18. is used. such as those of tightening and fracture. and thread surface. . given that the Japanese standard for threaded fasteners is based on those theories. vibration. Izumi et al. 1. helical modeling of external and internal threads must be taken into account. which realizes surface–surface contact between three-dimensional objects and can handle the Coulomb friction. this study does not aim to obtain detailed stress distribution. a theory that the loosening starts with the transverse slip on the bolt-head bearing surface has been proposed. S. Research on loosening due to dynamics loading acting on the threaded fastener has been mainly per- formed by experiment.821. Tightening analysis of threaded fastener The relation between preload and tightening torque under the elastic tightening process and the load dis- tribution of thread are evaluated by three-dimensional FEM. but. In contrast to the classical works. loosening results in the failure of engineering products such as railway cars. the control of loosening is a crucial unresolved problem in the ﬁeld of mechanical engineering. we employed a threaded fastener involving an M16 screw (diameter and pitch of thread. diameter and height of bolt head. and construction machines. clariﬁcation of the mechanical mechanism based on contact analysis. The detailed shape of the bolt head and curvature of the bottom of thread are not taken into account. Pai and Hess [4] per- formed the three-dimensional ﬁnite element calculation for loosening. As a standard model. found that loosening due to external loading per- pendicular to the thread axis (shear loading) is more predominant than that due to other vibration modes. Therefore. Results are compared with the theories based on material mechanics [6–9] and experimental results. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 605 are subjected to dynamic external loads such as impact. He proposed that the slight loosening prior to the bolt- head slip is caused by localized slip of thread surface. respectively. 1. several accidents still take place in Japan. 50. Three pitches of internal thread protrude from the nut. which is general pur- pose ﬁnite element method software. those of Kasei et al. Analysis method 2. 16 and 2 mm. respectively). With regard to the nut. The contact element pair TARGE170 and CONTA174.946 and 12. vehicles. the hexagonal corner used to apply the tightening torque is not modeled. In recent years. Junker [2]. a pioneer in this ﬁeld. Pai compared his FEM results only with experiments. respectively. nut bearing surface. The FEM analysis will provide a deep understand- ing of processes other than loosening. the primary aspects of the tightening and loosening mechanism of the threaded fas- tener have been investigated. Based on how diﬃcult it is to understand in detail the contact states of bolt head and thread surfaces quantitatively. The total number of nodes and elements are 23. The FEM model is shown in Fig. In order to reproduce the loosening process. 2. paid attention only to the loosening process. Comparison with material-mechanics based theories is very important.1. Contact elements are used on the bolt-head bearing surface.

The FEM model is shown in Fig. He clariﬁed the loosening process subjected to vibration normal to the axial direction through the measurements of preload. . and bolt axial torque originated from elastic torsion. While such an eﬀect can be incorporated into FEM analysis.3. Because the vibration frequency of this experiment is low. Izumi et al. An M10 screw (diameter and pitch of thread. diam- Fig. In this study. the system can be treated as a quasi-static process. The tightening analysis is performed by applying the constrained circumferential displacement on the side surface of the nut.5 mm. All analysis is restricted to low preloads (elastic range) to avoid the inﬂuence of yielding. The friction coeﬃcient of the contact surface is set at 0. The Young modulus and Poisson ratio of all materials (bolt. 2.2. Loosening analysis due to shear loading Yamamoto and Kasei [6] performed experiments regarding shear-loading induced loosening by using his loosening test machine. Finite element model for loosening of threaded fastener subjected to quasi-static transverse load. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 Fig. the value is treated as a constant here because this study aims to investigate the primary aspects of the tightening and loosening process. 2. Unit is mm. Finite element model for tightening process (1/4 of nut and clamped component is visually removed). nut. 1. followed by removing it.606 S. respectively. The side surface of the bolt head is ﬁxed and the contact of the bolt-head bearing surface is completely stuck in order to avoid rigid rotation. we modeled the threaded fastener on that in YamamotoÕs experimental system. 10 and 1. Roller bearings are placed between the top plate and the ﬁxed base to minimize sliding fric- tion. 2. and clamped component) are 205 GPa and 0.15. which consists of a top movable plate clamped to a rigid ﬁxed base through a threaded insert. nut turn angle. The friction coeﬃcient might vary during the tightening proc- ess given that it depends on the state of the contact surface.

5 pitches of internal thread protrude from the nut. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 607 eter and height of bolt head. 3. S. 16 and 6.17.1. it can be said that two results show good agreement with each other below the preload of 60 kN. initial tightening force is generated by making the length of the bolt body slightly short and allowing its interference with the movable plate under the constraint of the side surface of the nut.9 mm. The load of the ﬁrst pitch is largest in both cases. The details of all analytic equations based on the material-mechanics are shown in the Appendix A. we applied 0. The external force normal to the axial direction is modeled by applying the constrained displace- ment with 0. 3. 6.769 and 14. Though the tightening torque of FEM is slightly smaller than that of the analytic equation.6°. The preload and friction coeﬃcient are set to 9. Unlike the model of Pai and Hess [4]. Though the maximum displacement of the movable plate in the experiment is 0.3. Relation between preload and tightening torque The relation between preload and tightening torque is shown in Fig.3 mm amplitude to the edge surface of the movable plate. . and all the axial-direction displacements of the bottom of the movable plate are ﬁxed. Analytic Eq. In contrast with the load distribution of Eq.2. The total number of nodes and elements are 29. the protrusion of thread from the nut is taken into account. the increase in the mesh number will realize an increase in calcu- lation accuracy. The tightening torque is calcu- lated by the reaction force on the side surface of the nut. which gradually decreases 200 tightening torque [Nm]. In addition. Izumi et al. From the viewpoint of calculation cost. It is generally known that the thread closer to the nutÕs contact surface sustains a larger load.4 mm. Load distribution of thread Preload acting on a bolt must be sustained by the thread.(A-1) 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 Pre load [kN] Fig. Because the friction between the movable plate and the ﬁxed plate can be ignored. (A. 3.1) is also shown for comparison.. 3. based on the experimental condition of Yamamoto and Kasei [6]. where the nut turn angle is 24. Here.3 mm in order to reduce the computational cost as described later. Relation between preload and tightening torque. the load distribution (ratio) of each thread pitch num- bered from the nut-bearing surface is shown in Fig. (A.241. 4. respectively. Analysis results 3. respectively) with 15-pitch internal thread and 4-pitch external thread is employed. as also pointed by Pai. respectively.8 kN and 0. respectively. for all materials. This additional modeling will aﬀect the loosening behavior because the load distribution of thread depends on the mode- ling. Young modulus and Poisson ratio are 205 GPa and 0. only the movable plate is modeled in FEM. The diameter of the insert hole is 12 mm.3). FEM 150 Eq.

The slope provides an indication of the joint stiﬀness in the trans- 2000 E A B transverse load [N] 1000 O’ D’ O 0 B’ -0. point B and D are right and left dead points. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 30 FEM load distribution [%]. Hysteresis loops of transverse displacement and load: (a) FEM result.3 -0.1 0. It is noted that transverse displacement of the FEM is terminated at 0. 5(a).3.3 0. the slope region can be classiﬁed into steep slope (OO 0 . 3.5 -1000 D C -2000 (a) transverse displacement [mm] 2000 transverse load [N] 1000 0 -0. YamamotoÕs experimental result is also shown in Fig. D 0 E) regions. no additional loosening takes place and no inﬂuence is exerted on other behaviors except that line EB and CD are extended in the horizontal directions.608 S.3 -0. 4. respectively.1 0. 5(a). .3 mm in order to reduce computational cost. B 0 C.3–0.(A-3) 20 15 10 1 2 3 4 5 Pitch number Fig. DE) and ﬂat regions. Moreover. In Fig.45 mm. Loosening due to shear force The relation between transverse force (shear force) and transverse displacement during ﬁve cycles is shown in Fig. 25 Eq. as the distance from the nut-bearing surface is increased.1 0. 5(b) for comparison. (b) experimental result by Yamamoto and Kasei [6]. During the transverse displacement of 0. The hysteresis loop involves slope (OA. BC.5 -0.1 0. Load distribution of thread. the load distribution of FEM result reaches min- imum at the fourth pitch.3 0. BB 0 . DD 0 ) and gradual slope (O 0 A. Izumi et al.5 -1000 -2000 (b) transverse displacement [mm] Fig. 5.5 -0.

at the contact surface. 3. The angle at the top of the bolt body (*) corre- sponds to the loosening turn angle. 6 in the case of steep slope (OO 0 ). The diﬀerence in turn angle between the top and lower points indicates Fig. respectively. The bolt body is forced to bend in response to the transverse displacement of the movable top plate. Evolution of contact state during loosening process. the preload is gradually decreased due to loosening. Constant transverse force at the ﬁrst cycle of the ﬂat region is equal to the product of preload (9. gradual slope (O 0 A).4. 6. verse direction. Izumi et al. Initiation of loosening and transverse bolt-head slip In order to investigate the initial point of loosening (bolt head turn). Finally. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 609 Fig. 7. and ﬂat regions (AB). complete slip at the bolt head occurs (complete head slip). In the steep slope region. the variation in the turn angle of the bolt body with respect to cyclic period is shown in Fig. Evolution of turn angles at three points located along a bolt body. Transverse slip at the bolt head induces transverse displacement of the movable plate with constant transverse force. in the gradual slope region. . The contact states at the thread and the bolt head surface are shown in Fig. respectively. the bolt-head surface and thread surface partly stick (localized thread slip and localized head slip). Therefore. Next. n top of threaded part. the entire thread surface undergoes complete slip (complete thread slip). However. The reduction in slope is a sign of slip at contact. S. 7. as the vibration proceeds. The black and gray regions indicate stick-contact and slip-contact regions. h bottom of bolt body).17).8 kN) and fric- tion coeﬃcient (0. (* bolt head surface. rotation or transverse bolt-head slip never occurs. Rotational displacement at the thread region results in torsional deformation of the bolt body.

Therefore. 4. At the points of O 0 and B 0 . However. because the sticking region at the left dead point transforms into a slip region at the right dead point. where the transverse slip at the bolt head (head slip) starts. 5. this phenomenon must be incorporated into the design of the joint. because the exter- nal thread of the nut is subject to the preload. It can be seen that the maximum pressure appears at a diameter of 19 mm. . which ﬁnally results in the transverse bolt-head slip. Nonlinearity of the relation between preload and tightening torque From Fig. the resulting tightening torque becomes Tf = 188 Nm. and the resulting tightening torque is estimated to be 198 Nm by using Eq. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 the torsion of the bolt body. the equivalent diameter Dv of the friction torque is estimated under the assumption of uniform contact-pressure distribution at the nut-bearing surface. Therefore. (A. From those results. In contrast to that result. Symbols such as O 0 and A are used in the same manner as those in Fig. (A. the relation between preload and tightening torque shows weak nonlinearity. the contact pressure at the inner side is thought to be higher than that at the outer side. (A. complete thread slip and torsional deformation of the bolt body take place.610 S. which agrees with the FEM result. Here. Discussion 4. as predicted by the conventional theory.3 kN) is shown in Fig. Fig. Accumulation of such a small turn would induce the decrease in preload. a slight turn of the bolt-head surface begins. 3. Here.2). 8. (A.1). the resultant variation in deformation states (strain release and accumulation) would induce the small turn angle.1). That devi- ation from Eq.2). In Eq.1 mm by using Eq. After reaching points A and C. Izumi et al.6° and preload is 62.1. originates from the variation in the local- ized head slip region from the right dead point to left dead point (and vice versa). The resulting tightening torque is 188 Nm.1) is mainly attributed to the non-uniform distribution of pressure at the contact sur- face. It is noted that slight loosening appears prior to trans- verse bolt-head slip. the equivalent diameter of friction torque is estimated as Dv = 21. The pressure distribution at the nut-bearing surface (nut turn angle is 24. the location of maximum pressure greatly aﬀects the tightening torque. This phenomenon. (A. Thus. the result of only 3/4 cycles is shown. in fact. it is found that the tightening torque can be predicted precisely through consideration of the contact-pressure distribution. Subsequently. ﬁrst indicated by Pai and Hess [4]. if Dv = 19 mm is assumed in Eq. Contact pressure distribution on nut-bearing surface. 8. which are the transition points from steep slope region to gradual slope region. the turn angle rapidly increases as the bolt-body torsion is released.

04 0 0.3) is thought to be originated from the assumption in Eq.04 0. which includes large scattering due to coarser mesh. the loos- ening behaviors prior to the bolt-head slip are deeply investigated. . it is clariﬁed that the helical three-dimen- sional model demonstrates a similar tendency. As can be seen in Fig. 9.08 angle [deg.3 to 0. As a result. in Eq. that of the ﬁrst pitch increases. (A.3. Load distribution of thread The diﬀerence in the load distribution between FEM analysis and Eq. the clamped component is assumed to be a rigid body. n top of thread part. 9. This assumption would increase the load distribution ratio of the ﬁrst pitch. subsequent loosening can be clearly identiﬁed. Izumi et al. another assumption concerns eliminating the protrusion region of thread.3 to 0. 10. In contrast to the transverse bolt-head slip. (A. the ratio of the ﬁfth pitch de- creases. complete thread slip induces loosening prior the transverse bolt-head slip. In Fig.06 0. In contrast to PaiÕs calculation. 4. there is no ﬂat slope and two kinds of slope appear. The behavior of only the bolt-head turn angle (loosening angle) during three cycles is shown in Fig. the loosening starts as the bolt body is torsionally de- formed (torsional deformation due to the tightening process is partially released) in the gradual slope region (complete thread slip region). In addition. Here the maximum displacement of the movable top plate is changed from 0. 10. 10) is largest. Here. 9 and 10. 11. The relation of transverse displacement and transverse force and time history of the turn angles are shown in Figs. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 611 4. Thus. h bottom of bolt body) when the transverse displacement is set to 0.06 mm. the torsional deformation of bolt body does not get released even if the loosening process proceeds. Loosening prior to transverse bolt-head slip In Section 3.08 -0.] 0.11].3).2.4. our model involving the ﬁner FEM model can provide clear loosening 1200 transverse load [N] 600 0 -0. which decreases the stiﬀness around the ﬁfth pitch.3). A Hysteresis loop when maximum transverse displacement is changed from 0. In this study.02 0 1 1/4 2/4 3/4 cycles Fig. Those phenomena have already been investigated by the axial-symmetry model of Tanaka [10. Subsequently. S.06 mm. Evolution of turn angles at three points located along a bolt body (* bolt head surface. (A. given that the stiﬀness round the ﬁrst pitch increases.06 mm. 0.08 -600 -1200 transverse displacement [mm] Fig.04 0. Though the loosening at the ﬁrst cycle (Fig.

However.006 angle [deg. 5. According to Pai. 11. 4. If Eq. there is a slight roughness on the contact surface.4.] 0.4 mm. Thus.004 0. (A. the FEM result and YamamotoÕs experiment evaluate Scr to be 0.25 and 0. are incorporated into Eq. Therefore. Those eﬀects. 12. the loosening process cannot be observed.002 0 0 1 2 3 cycles Fig. 0. it is proved that the loosening occurs prior to bolt-head slip. respectively.0003 0.14 mm.612 S. Izumi et al. Evolution of turn angle when maximum transverse displacement is set at 0. the localized thread slip would not initiate the loosening. Evolution of turn angle when maximum transverse displacement is set at 0. the loosening turn angle in response to the movable plate displacement of 0. at which the transverse head slip occurs.8) regarding the inclination of the bolt head was ﬁtted to the experimental results. it can be said that FEM results qualitatively agree with the experi- mental results. and external force will promote further wear. It is noted that Eq.0001 0 0 1 2 3 cycles Fig. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 0.] 0. from our precise calculation. while the nut side surface is completely constrained in FEM anal- ysis.7).02 mm is shown in Fig. which is slightly smaller than the FEM result. which is not taken into account in FEM modeling. 12.02 mm. the resulting Scr turns out to be 0.8) through the bolt inclination term of (A. In particular.7) is neglected. 5.42 mm from Eq. The diﬀerence in Scr between FEM and theory might be due to the stiﬀness of the test machine and the roughness of the contact surface. (A. Next.7).0002 0. loosening proceeds in this localized thread slip and localized head slip region. In contrast. Thus. Comparison with YamamotoÕs experiment From the hysteresis loop of Fig. How- ever. which was ﬁrst proposed by Pai. from Fig. is widely used to evaluate the loosening initiation in the design of the joint. We estimated it to be 0.06 mm. In addition. which would provide slightly higher stiﬀness of FEM results. behavior with less scattering. (A. FEM analysis involves a slightly steeper slope. It is concluded that although further consideration of experimental constraints and boundary conditions is needed for . The critical slip width Scr.0004 angle [deg. (A. this constrained region is elastically deformed in a real experimental system. the transverse loads when the slope changes show quantitative agreement.

Other results such as loosening angle and decrease in preload are compared with the results of experi- ments. which conventional theory has considered the initiation point. the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Relation of preload and tightening torque shows good agreement between the two theories. Decrease in pre- load shows some deviation (1.8 and 0. which is written as . it is noted that because the experimental measurement in preload involves large scattering as shown in Fig. 5. (3) Behavior of loosening subjected to shear loading shows qualitative agreement between the FEM and experimental results. (2) Protrusion of internal thread from the nut and the stiﬀness of the clamped component result in vari- ation in the load distribution. and dp is the eﬀective diameter of the thread. These ﬁndings suggest that mod- iﬁcation of the design of the threaded fastener is needed.8 kN). Gifu University (previously aﬃliated with the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. However. Hitachi Ltd. 1 P Tf ¼ Fs þ 1:155ls d p þ lw Dv . Appendix A A.25. ls and lw are the friction coeﬃcients on the thread surface and nut bearing surface. Based on a comparison with classical material-mechanics based theories and exper- imental results. a nut with a nylon ring. given that the FEM results (0. Hattori. Dv is the equivalent diameter of friction torque on the nut-bearing surface. Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering.1. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 613 quantitative comparison. respectively. Izumi et al. Relation between preload and tightening torque [7] Relation between preload Fs and tightening torque Tf in the elastic tightening region can be expressed by the balance between the friction force on the contact surface and tightening torque. The load distribution of the fourth pitch reaches the minimum and that of the ﬁrst pitch decreases as compared with those in conventional theory.). ðA:1Þ 2 p where d and P are the diameter and pitch of thread. (4) Loosening due to shear loading is initiated when complete thread slip is achieved prior to bolt-head slip. Acknowledgements We greatly appreciate many useful discussions with Prof. 5. the quantitative detection is very diﬃcult. T. Such FEM modeling can also contribute to the selection of anti-loosening fastener components such as a nut with a ﬂange.14 mm (no inclination term). and a spring washer. S.25 mm) lie between 0. respectively. experiment 1.4 (ﬁtted inclination term) and 0. the two methods show qualitative agreement. The ﬁnal loosening angle gives closely similar values (FEM 1. Conclusion The tightening and loosening processes of the threaded fastener were investigated by a three-dimensional ﬁnite element method. A small deviation originates from the underestimation of the equivalent diameter of friction torque on the nut-bearing surface due to the non-uniform distribution of contact pressure at the bolt-bearing surface.15°).

the nut-bearing surface is subjected to shear loading Fr and the thread is subjected to reaction force moment Mn. A and E indicate the cross-sectional area normal to the axis and the Young modulus. (A. Eqs. respectively. (A.3) involves the assumptions that the plain-stress condition holds. (A. b is the lead angle. Deformation of bolt caused by shear loading [9]. Eq. A. ðA:2Þ 3 d 2w d 2h where dw is the diameter of the nut bearing surface and dh is the diameter of the bolt insert hole. load distribution F/Fb of nth pitch numbered from nut-bearing surface is expressed by Eq. F sinhðknP Þ ¼ : ðA:3Þ Fb sinhðkLÞ Here.2. When the shear loading Fr acts on the movable plate close to the nut. vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ u 1 1 u A E þA E k ¼ t b b n n : ðA:4Þ kb Eb þ Eknn tan b Here. For the nut with a height of L.1) and (A.614 S. that the clamped component is treated as a rigid body.3). Further. The schematic of the deformation of the threaded fastener subjected to external force normal to the axis is shown in Fig. Critical slip width Scr for loosening The loosening mechanism proposed by Yamamoto was that loosening due to shear loading is initiated when complete slip between the movable plate and the bolt head surface has occurred. and that the protrusion of the internal thread from nut can be ignored. As a δ Fr lp dp Mn d ln lg k w(F r l n -M n ) Fig. 13. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 2 d 3w d 3h Dv ¼ .3. 13. Load distribution of thread [8] Load distribution of thread can be expressed by stiﬀness k of the bolt (index b) and nut (index n). Izumi et al.2) involve the assumption of uniform contact pressure and the rigid-body approximation of the clamped component. Here. Yamamoto proposed the expression for the evaluation of critical slip width (critical transverse displacement of the movable top plate) Scr for bolt-head slip [9]. A. .

67(Part C):2976–80. Theory and calculation of threaded fastener. Trans Jpn Soc Mech Eng 1982. ðA:6Þ 4 cos2 a where ls is the friction coeﬃcient of the thread surface and a is the half angle of the thread. Principle and design of screw joint. [9] Yamamoto A.43:470–5. where lw is the friction coeﬃcient of the nut- bearing surface. 1995. Analysis was conducted for three sizes of bolt and three kinds of clamped component. Hess DP. the bolt body is bent. [8] Yamamoto A. dis- placement in the thread can be written as ! ! l3g l3p lg lp ln 2 l2g l2p lg lp d ¼ Fr þ þ þ k w ln M n þ þ þ k w ln . Estimation of back-oﬀ loosening limit for bolted joints under transverse cyclic loading. Analysis of threaded fastener by the ﬁnite element method.253:585–602. References [1] Yoshimoto I. [5] Pai NG.7) ( ! !) l3g l3p lg lp ln 2 m ls l2g l2p lg lp S cr ¼ 2F s lw þ þ þ k w ln þ þ þ k w ln : ðA:7Þ 3EI g 3EI p EI g 4 cos2 a 2EI g 2EI p EI g Nakamura et al. The resulting formulation of kw is as follows. lp and ln are described in Fig. Umeki T. (A. [10] Tanaka M. [in Japanese]. [2] Junker GH.9:383–402. editor. New criteria for self-loosening of fasteners under vibration. Trans Jpn Soc Mech Eng 2001. [12] performed the ﬁnite element analysis in order to obtain the inclination coeﬃcient of the bolt head. Ig is the moment of inertia of the bolt body and Ip is that of the thread.54:1381–6. / Engineering Failure Analysis 12 (2005) 604–615 615 result. Points of the design of threaded fastener. On self-loosening of threaded joints in the case of absence of macroscopic bearing – surface sliding – loosening mechanism under transversely repeated force. p. Application of the ﬁnite element method to threaded fastener.46 (Part C):1491–503. 1995. Tokyo: Yokendo Ltd.. Three-dimensional ﬁnite element analysis of threaded fastener loosening due to dynamic shear load. [in Japanese]. [in Japanese]. Moreover. [6] Yamamoto A. [in Japanese]. ðA:5Þ 3EI g 3EI p EI g 2EI g 2EI p EI g where lg. Japanese Standards Association. Bull Jpn Soc Precision Eng 1988. [3] Kasei S.48(Part C):1607–13. [in Japanese]. J Sound Vib 2002. Eq. Finally. SAE Trans 1969. [4] Pai NG. the reaction moment Mn acting on the thread can be approximately written by m ls F s Mn ¼ . 1970. Investigation on the self-loosening of threaded fastener under transverse vibration – a solution for self- loosening mechanism. In addition. 1992. Kasei S. S. Experimental study of loosening of threaded fastener due to dynamic shear loads. Hess DP. Ohashi H.. Hongo K. The relative slip on the nut bearing surface is considered to occur when the shear loading Fr reaches the maximum static friction force lwFs on the nut bearing surface. Bull Jpn Soc Precision Eng 1977. 30–4 [in Japanese]. [7] Yamamoto A. Tsujimoto S. p. Izumi et al. Principle and design of screw joint. . (A. [11] Tanaka M.78:314–35. Hongo K. Eng Failure Anal 2002. Hattori T. 13. Asaba H. 3 1 k w ¼ 0:168 ½1=ðkN mmÞ: ðA:8Þ d In this study. the inclination of the bolt head surface can be obtained.8) proposed by Nakamura is used as the inclination coeﬃcient of bolt head kw. Ishimura M. 120–7 [in Japanese]. p. Tokyo: Yokendo Ltd. Trans Jpn Soc Mech Eng 1980. [in Japanese]. Therefore. p. critical transverse displacement of movable plate Scr for relative slip can be writ- ten by Eq. 43 [in Japanese]. under the assumption that elastic deformation of the bolt head is proportional to the applied moment. Tokyo: Yokendo Ltd. [12] Nakamura M. 13.

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