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. &. 1 & 8 : G -: & 9-1. JJG -7 37 1 & 8 % : 7 % ( 7 & = G -9 . I G/ JI G/ π < I G/ $ G/ G & = G -./ . 1 & 8 : G -: & 9-1. G G/ H G/ G . 1 & . . - ( = = ! G -6 3 .

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6 ( / . ( ( / 7 ( # .< E ( & < N . & 7 4 .

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. 7 . @ ( : .. ( # + ( 7 ) G/ G ) 7*E . N. . 6 %6 ( <) G/ I G # / K) G I G ( K) G A .

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/ρ) * # ( . D @ ( .. 3 <R # L 6 - N . ! N .- L 6 . /. ./ρ 6 . 6 . * ) 01&2 L( 6 # 7 -.V 4 4 .. 6 7 =( .

D @ ! # N 6 ρ = −* . = {πρ } ( )= { ( )} − (* ρ )* L( 6 ( 8 9 L 6 #/ 6 4* . .

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9 -2 10 L! G / L*3 / . 10 -4 6 .− 9 . L! G / = -8 10 9 9 = / 9 = − . 6 .* / -10 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 4D DH A : 9 =* − > E -E − . 9 E ( E>6E 0 10 % . A 4E . . M=4 16 64 256 ( -6 10 .

# G ( 3 * / ∆ N . 7 ≈ $ %E∆ F 3$ 3I∆ 3J∆ 3K∆ 3∆ %∆ %K∆ %J∆ %I∆ GGG GG4 4G4 444 G44 G4G 44G 4GG $ # ( N / 6 : & ( N % / : G & ( ) N 4K . 6 .9 E.-1 H 3 % ' / : .

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" A 3 3. ! . 3∆ % %# # . 3 K∆ % %# # <. $ . . $ F ∼ * -4∆ > 8 . . $ . %∆ % %# # J $ ( .-1 . $ .D) . % K∆ % %# # N& % 7 .

( . σ * −∞ σ * * −∞ σ * .-1 3 ( . . .W . * − 6* * E− * − 6* − − * − E− ∞ *σ * *σ * ∞ *σ * * 6 6 − 9 E= * = *σ * −∞ σ * .< ∞/ * < / 4 < / E < . σ * − 9E 9 = R 6 . ( N / 7 ( G % : . = 9 .9 E. = 9∈E ! G 3 9 E 9 E = 9 . : H 7* E 7 ( / 7: 7 < .

σ* −∞ σ* * * − 6* − E− ∞ *σ * * 6 − 9E = *σ * −∞ σ* . * − 6* * E− ∞ − − * *σ * *σ * 6 9 E= * −∞ σ* . σ* − 9E 9 = R ( H 7* E <* .-1 H 3 9 E = 9 .< ∞/ * < / 4 < / E < . = 9 . 9 E.W .

$ ." A 3 L3. %I∆ % %# # N& % 7 . .-1 . %J∆ % %# # J $ ( ' N . ! . 3I∆ % %# # <4 . $ . $ F ∼ * -E∆ > 8 .

≈ − − *> * = *> * σ σ 9 = 9. .= 9.= − 9. ( H . .E 9-1. 0 10 Φ 9 -2 10 -4 10 =$ M=2 4 8 16 32 64 128 -6 D 10 φ -8 10 -10 10 << 0 10 20 30 40 << H$ DH A : . . . . * * ≈ > * = > *D * (π E) 7* E σ A. I! . .

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9 E− AD ! G 9 = / 9 =* > E -E * − . . <E . . A 9 D 6*< 6*< I G 9 = / 9 = *> = *> = *> -9 6 # = * A *A A < G/ <I! *! G. 7* E −∞ 9 4D I! 9 = / 9 = − . Q . .− 9 .* / 9 = * − > E -E − . 6 # 9 ≅9 9 . A G 9 = 9 / 9 = *> *D (π E) A * − 6* − E− ∞ − 9E * *σ * 6 − G 9 = / 9E = *σ * σ σ* * . ( 7 H / . . " < E ( & < .