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SMART WHEELCHAIR WITH

HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR


PARALYZED PEOPLE
Dissertation submitted to
Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management, Nagpur
In partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of

Bachelor of Engineering
In
Electronics and Communication Engineering
By
Shweta Indoriya
Tanushree Panpalia
Tejashree Vaidya
N V V Lalitha Guru Jyothi

Guide
Prof. Nishant M. Borkar

Electronics and Communication Engineering


Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering & Management,
Nagpur- 440013
(An Autonomous Institute Affiliated To Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj
Nagpur University, Nagpur)

May 2017
SHRI RAMDEOBABA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING &
MANAGEMENT, NAGPUR
(An Autonomous Institute Affiliated to Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur
University Nagpur)

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Thesis on Smart wheelchair with health monitoring system
for paralyzed people is a bonafide work of Shweta Indoriya, Tanushree Panpalia,
Tejashree Vaidya and N V V Lalitha Guru Jyothi, submitted to the Rashtrasant Tukdoji
Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur in partial fulfilment of the award of a Bachelor of
Engineering, Electronics & Communication Engineering has been carried out at the
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Shri Ramdeobaba College of
Engineering and Management, Nagpur during the academic year 2016-2017.

Date:

Place: Nagpur

Prof. Nishant M. Borkar


External Examiner Project guide
Department of E&C Engineering

Dr Sanjay B. Pokle Dr. R. S. Pande


H.O.D Principal
Department of E&C Engineering SRCOEM, Nagpur

ii
DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the thesis titled Smart wheelchair with health monitoring
system for paralyzed people submitted herein, has been carried out in the Department
of Electronics & Communication Engineering of Shri Ramdeobaba College of
Engineering & Management, Nagpur. The work is original and has not been submitted
earlier as a whole or part for the award of any degree / diploma at this or any other
institution / University.

Date:

Place: Nagpur

Shweta Indoriya Tanushree Panpalia


(Roll No.28, Sec- A) (Roll No.31, Sec- A)

Tejashree Vaidya N V V Lalitha Guru Jyothi


(Roll No. 32, Sec- A) (Roll No.35, Sec-A)

iii
APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis/dissertation/report entitled Smart wheelchair with health monitoring


system for paralyzed people by Shweta Indoriya, Tanushree Panpalia, Tejashree
Vaidya and N V V Lalitha Guru Jyothi is approved for the degree of Bachelor of
Engineering in Electronics & Communication Engineering.

Name & signature of Supervisor(s) Name & signature of External.


Examiner(s)

Name & signature of HOD

Date:

Place: Nagpur

iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We take great pleasure in presenting this project on Smart wheelchair with health
monitoring system for paralyzed people. The development of this project has been a
great journey. Since the conceptualization of this project, four of us have been working
hard to achieve the desired goals.

We sincerely acknowledge the efforts taken by our project guide


Prof. N. M. BORKAR. Thus we would like to thank him for his valuable suggestions
and support.

We are highly indebted to Head of the Department Dr. Sanjay B. Pokle and also the
Principal Dr. R. S. Pande and the members of the management committee for providing
necessary facilities required & also for their support in completing this project.

We owe our profound gratitude to the esteemed staff of the Electronics and
Communication Department who have helped us directly or indirectly in our endeavour.
Our thanks are also to all those who have shown keen interest in this work and willingly
helped out with their abilities.

NAME OF STUDENTS:
Shweta Indoriya
Tanushree Panpalia
Tejashree Vaidya
N V V Lalitha Guru Jyothi

v
CONTENTS
Page No.

ABSTRACT iii
LIST OF FIGURES iv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

CHAPTER 3 DESIGN
3.1. BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM
3.1.1. WHEELCHAIR MOVEMENT SYSTEM
3.1.2. HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM
3.2. FLOWCHARTS

CHAPTER 4 TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY


4.1. TOOLS
4.1.1 ARDUINO UNO
4.1.2. ACCELEROMETER ADXL335
4.1.3. OBSTACLE DETECTOR SR04
4.1.4. MOTOR DRIVER IC L293D
4.1.5. MOTOR-BO2-R60
4.1.6. PULSE SENSOR
4.1.7. TEMPERATURE SENSOR DS18B20
4.1.8. DATA TRANSMISSION NRF24L01
4.2. TECHNOLOGY
4.2.1. ARDUINO SOFTWARE (IDE)
4.2.2. PLX-DAQ

CHAPTER 5 HARDWARE AND PROGRAMS


5.1. HARDWARE
5.1.1. TRANSMITTER
5.1.2. RECEIVER
5.2. CIRCUIT DESIGNS
5.2.1. TRANSMITTER
5.2.2. RECEIVER
5.3. PCB DESIGN
5.4. PROGRAMS
5.4.1. TRANSMITTER
5.4.2. RECEIVER

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

ANNEXURE

REFERENCES

vi
ABSTRACT
The main problem faced by paralyzed people is their dependence on others for
mobility. Continuous supervision is also necessary to keep check on the health of the
patient. External help is needed to perform the daily activities. Electric wheelchairs are
now available for paraplegics but are of no use to quadriplegics. Health monitoring, if
needed, should be done externally for the patient.

The main idea is to design an automated wheelchair system for paralyzed people
along with continuous health monitoring. The proposed method uses head movement to
decide the direction of motion of wheelchair. Health monitoring system continuously
monitors pulse rate and temperature of the patient. The monitored data is wirelessly
transferred to a remote device to keep track of patients health.

vii
LIST OF FIGURES

Serial No. Description Page No.


Figure 3.1 Basic block diagram
Figure 3.2 Wheelchair Movement System
Figure 3.3 Health Monitoring System
Figure 3.4 Flowcharts
Figure 4.1 Arduino UNO R3 Specifications
Figure 4.2 Arduino UNO R3 Pin Configuration
Figure 4.3 Accelerometer
Figure 4.4 Accelerometer Flowchart
Figure 4.5 Ultrasonic Sensor Flowchart
Figure 4.6 Ultrasonic Sensor
Figure 4.7 Motor Shield
Figure 4.8 L293D Pin Configuration
Figure 4.9 Motor-BO2-R60
Figure 4.10 Pulse Sensor Circuit Diagram
Figure 4.11 Temperature Sensor DS18B20
Figure 4.12 Data Transmission NRF24L01
Figure 4.13 Arduino Sketch
Figure 4.14 PLX-DAQ
Figure 5.1 Prototype Wheelchair - Transmitter Front view
Figure 5.2 Prototype Wheelchair - Transmitter Top view
Figure 5.3 Prototype Wheelchair Receiver
Figure 5.4 Receiver Excel Sheet
Figure 5.5 Circuit Design (Transmitter)
Figure 5.6 Circuit Design (Receiver)
Figure 5.7 PCB Design (Arduino)
Figure 5.8 PCB Design (Pulse sensor)

viii
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1
INTRODUCTION
Quadriplegia is a paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in partial or total loss
of use of all four limbs and torso. Paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms. The
loss of sensation is usually sensory and motor, which means that both sensation and
control are lost. Statistics show that Spinal cord injury affects 30 to 60 people in 1 million
each year: 27.9% have total paraplegia, and 18.5% have total tetraplegia or quadriplegia.
Hereditary paraplegia is rare, with only 3 individuals in 100,000 estimated to be affected
in most populations. Quadriplegics completely depend on others for movement. To make
them independent, we are proposing a system for wheelchair which moves in the direction
of motion of head of the patient.
Cardiovascular sickness has demonstrated that heart beat rate assumes a key part in the
danger of heart assault. Coronary illness, for example, heart assault, congestive heart
disappointment, and intrinsic coronary illness is the main source of death for men and
ladies in numerous nations. More often than not, coronary illness issues hurt the elderly
individuals. A continuous track of pulse rate should be maintained to avoid cardiovascular
sickness. In this proposed system, the pulse rate of patients is recorded by sensors and the
record are maintained.
Body temperature is one of the main vital signs that must be monitored to ensure safe and
effective care. Despite its applications in all healthcare environments, wide variations
exist on the methods and techniques used to measure body temperature. It is essential to
use the most appropriate technique to ensure that temperature is measured accurately.
Inaccurate results may influence diagnosis and treatment, leading to a failure to identify
patient deterioration and compromise patient safety. In the proposed system, temperature
sensor is used to keep continuous track of the patients body temperature.

2
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
LITERATURE SURVEY
1. The paper Head Motion Controlled Robotic Wheelchair published in
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Innovative Engineering-
Volume I, Issue 3, March 2015 by Vignesh S N, Vivek Kumar A and Bharti
Kannan K, presents the model of an automatic wheelchair that moves with respect
to the patients head movement. Here, an accelerometer is used to decide the
direction of motion of the head of the patient and special features in the model are
added using an eye blink sensor that differentiates the voluntary and involuntary
head movement. In our proposed model, we are using the accelerometers ability
to detect a jerk to accept commands from the patient.
2. A Smart Chair with various functionalities for people with restricted mobility
published in Proceedings of International Conference on Research in Electrical,
Electronics & Mechanical Engineering, Dehradun, 26th April-2014, ISBN: 978-
93-84209-11-7, by Akash S A, Akshay Menon, Arpit Gupta, MD Waheeb
Wakeel, P Meena and Praveen M N, describes an automatic wheelchair that
moves according to the patients head tilt direction using Raspberry Pi as the
control unit of the project. In our proposed model, we are using Arduino as the
control unit, as it is very economical and, as this system does not need heavy
processing, use of Raspberry Pi would be wastage of resources.
3. Hand Tracking and Head Movement Detection: A State-of-Art Survey
published in International Journal of Computer and Advanced Engineering
Research (IJCAER)Volume 01 Issue 02, August 2014 by Pragati Singh and
Rashmi Singh Lodhi, explains the importance of gesture recognition system for
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). This work concentrates on vision based
gesture recognition techniques. It gives a comprehensive review on hand gesture
recognition and head gesture recognition techniques. According to the authors,
movement of head can be tracked by tracking the movement of nose. To locate
and track nostrils of nose and to identify the movement of head, Viola- a cascade
object detector function, which itself uses the Viola-Jones algorithm to detect
people's faces, noses, eyes, mouth, or upper body is used.
4. The paper- Controlling a Wheelchair according to the Head Movements-
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri
Lanka by Dimutu Upeksha, Chameera Wijebandara, Chamila Dilshan
Wijayarathna, Sameera Nilupul Wijayarathna,Milinda Fernando, Akila Pemasiri,
Suneth Vijaindu Gamage and Madhushi Niluka Bandara, explains the conversion
of battery powered motorized joystick controlled wheelchair to a wheelchair that
uses tilt sensor as control element (instead of joystick) which can be attached to
the head of the patient. This control element is interfaced with the control unit of
the wheelchair using Arduino.
5. Tongue Operated Wheelchair for Physically Disabled People published in
International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)
Vol. 4 by Monika Jain and Hitesh Joshi, suggests a tongue operated Assistive
Technology (AT) developed for people with severe disability to control their
environment. Tongue Drive consists of an array of Hall Effect magnetic sensors
mounted on a mouthpiece to measure the magnetic field generated by a small
permanent magnet secured on the tongue. The sensor signals are transmitted
across a wireless link and processed to control the powered wheelchair. The
permanent magnet has to be pierced in the tongue of the patient which is painful.
6. Reference - [10] Raspberry-Pi Based Health Monitoring System published in
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and
Instrumentation Engineering- Vol. 4, Issue 8, August 2015 by Chetan T. Kasundra
and Prof. A. S. Shirsat, focuses on the measurement and evaluation of vital
parameters, e.g. ECG, heart rate, heart rate variability, pulse oximetry,
plethysmography and fall detection. It presents a personal healthcare system that
is both flexible and scalable. Employing embedded wearable low-power sensors,
the system measures health parameters dynamically. For wireless transmission,
these sensors are connected to a sensor node through IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee or
Bluetooth. Raspberry-Pi is used as a Controller. This paper served as an
inspiration for real time heath monitoring and wireless data transfer in our
proposed system.
The three main areas where various authors differ from each other are:
a. Control Unit- Two mainly used control units are Arduino and Raspberry Pi.
Another central idea used for implementation is Image processing. In our
proposed model, we chose Arduino as it is a cost efficient device. It controls
various modules with great simplicity. Raspberry Pi may be used when there is
large amount of data processing contrary to the idea we proposed.
b. The basic sensor components vary in almost every proposed idea. For example,
in health monitoring systems, we usually find that LM35 is used for temperature
detection. In our project, we preferred the water resistant DS18B20 which has
many advantages over the other one. And as for data transmission, ZigBee, RF
and Bluetooth may be used. Here, we are using NRF transceiver which has good
range at low cost.
c. Our proposed idea has both movement of wheelchair and Health monitoring with
wireless data transmission. Usually, we find these two as individual ideas. We
tried to bring both the ideas together and execute them as a single unit.
CHAPTER 3
DESIGN
DESIGN
In this project, we are trying to design a prototype wheelchair whose direction of
movement depends on the tilt of head. It also has a battery that supplies power for motion
of the wheelchair. An additional feature of this smart wheelchair is that it provides real
time health monitoring that keeps track of basic health parameters like temperature and
pulse rate and transmits it to a remote device where the data is stored for future reference.
Whenever these health parameters cross threshold parameters, a specified family member
or a doctor is notified and an emergency alarm is turned on. The Arduino receives signals
from various input modules and moves the
wheelchair accordingly with respect to the movement of head and also monitors the health
of the patient using wheelchair. This project is basically divided into three parts:
1. Wheel chair movement
2. Real Time Health monitoring
3. Wireless Data Transmission

3.1. BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure 3.1. Basic Block Diagram


3.1.1. Wheelchair Movement System

Figure 3.2. Wheelchair Movement System

The wheel chair will move based on the head movement of the user. The recognized
gestures are used to generate motion control commands from the controller so that it
can control the motion of the wheel chair according to the users intention. The head
movement is a gesture which can be performed by quadriplegic patients. The
wheelchair includes the accelerometer sensor which detects the movement of head
and the controller will process the signal and will transmit to the wheel chair for its
navigation. The wheel chair is implemented in a cost effective way which reduces the
complexity in the design. It is intended to be used as a user friendly interface for
elderly and disabled people to operate wheelchair using their head gestures rather than
their hands. This autonomous navigation ensures mobility, obstacle avoidance and an
intelligent interface for the users.
The inputs to this system are Accelerometer, Ultrasonic Sensor. Battery is used to
power the Arduino. The output from Arduino drives two motors through motor driver
IC.
3.1.2. Health Monitoring System

Figure 3.3. Health Monitoring System


Timely measurement of heart rate and body temperature is important as they are the
vital indexes of the human health. In emergency situations, time should not be wasted
so continuous assessment is necessary. Therefore, an automated system for
continuous measurement of heart rate and body temperature is essential.
The proposed system provides the information about both pulse rate and body
temperature and is useful for monitoring condition of patients.

3.2. FLOW CHART


Figure 3.4. Flowcharts
CHAPTER 4
TOOLS AND
TECHNOLOGY
4.1 TOOLS

4.1.1. Arduino Uno

Arduino's microcontroller is pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading


of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared to other devices that typically need
an external programmer. This makes usage of Arduino more straightforward by allowing
the use of an ordinary computer as the programmer. Arduino IDE (integrated
development environment) is used to program Arduino boards in C and C++
programming languages over a serial connection. In this project, we are using Arduino
Uno to control various modules. The Uno is a microcontroller board based on
ATmega328P. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM
outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an
ICSP header and a reset button. There is a built-in LED driven by digital pin 13. When
the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, its off.

In our project Arduino UNO is used as the main control unit that receives the sensors
output as input and take action accordingly. Various sensors are connected to the Ardiuino
UNO like, Temperature sensor (DS18B20), Pulse Sensor, Ultrasonic sensor (HC-05),
Accelerometer. The output from control unit i.e. Arduino UNO is given to Motor driver
IC which controls the movement of wheels of the wheelchair.

Figure 4.1. Arduino UNO R3 Specifications


Figure 4.2. Arduino UNO R3 Pin Configuration

4.1.2. Accelerometer ADXL335


Accelerometer is an integrated device that measures proper acceleration, the acceleration
experienced relative to freefall. Single and multi-axis models are available to detect
magnitude and direction of acceleration as a vector quantity, and can be used to sense
orientation, acceleration, vibration shock, and falling. The accelerometer used in this
automated system is ADXL335. It is a three axis accelerometer, which senses the tilt in
two directions only. The supply voltage ranges from 2V to 3.6V. The wheel chair is
controlled by the accelerometer, mounted on the head of the patient. The accelerometer
detects the direction of tilt of the head of the patient. The output is received by Arduino
as co-ordinates which decide the movement of the wheel chair.

Figure 4.3. Accelerometer


Figure 4.4. Accelerometer Flowchart

4.1.3. Obstacle Detector SR04

The obstacle sensor in the chair helps to stop the wheel chair if there is any wall or any
other obstacle in front of the wheel. Here ultrasonic module SR04 is used as the obstacle
detector. The obstacle sensor stops the wheelchair completely and it must be reset to
operate again. This ultrasonic rangefinder SR04 can measure distances up to 4.0 meters
at an accuracy of 1 centimeter. The ultrasonic module sends a signal to the object, then
picks up its echo and outputs a wave form whose time period is proportional to the
distance. Arduino processes the input received and sends command as required.
Distance of obstacle from detector is continuously measured and sent to the control unit.
A certain distance limit is set according to which the control unit decides if the wheelchair
can move or not.

Figure 4.5. Obstacle detector flowchart Figure 4.6. Ultrasonic Sensor


4.1.4. Motor Driver IC L293D

Motor Driver IC allows DC motor to drive on either direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC


which can control a set of two DC motors simultaneously in any direction. It works on
the concept of H-bridge. H-bridge is a circuit which allows the voltage to be flown in
either direction. Voltage needs to change its direction for being able to rotate the motor
in clockwise or anticlockwise direction. Hence, H-bridge IC is ideal for driving a DC
motor. In a single L293D chip, there are two built-in H-Bridge circuits which can rotate
two DC motors independently.

Figure 4.7. Motor Shield

Figure 4.8. L293D Pin Configuration

4.1.5. Motor-BO2-R60

The motor drives the wheels of the prototype wheelchair. Here, we use an offset motor
with speed 60 RPM and weighing 40gms. It is manufactured by Robospecies, India. The
model number of the motor is BO2-R60.
Figure 4.9. Motor-BO2-R60

4.1.6. Pulse Sensor

The Pulse sensor measures the change in volume of blood through any organ of the body
which causes change in the light intensity through that organ (a vascular region). In case
of applications where pulse rate is to be monitored, the timing of the pulses is more
important. The flow of blood volume is decided by the rate of pulses and since light is
absorbed by blood, the signal pulses are equivalent to the heart beat pulses. The basic
pulse sensor consists of a light emitting diode and a detector like a light detecting resistor
or a photodiode. The heart beat pulses cause a variation in the flow of blood to different
regions of the body. When a tissue is illuminated with the light source, i.e. light emitted
by the LED, it either reflects or transmits the light. Some of the light is absorbed by the
blood and the reflected light is received by the light detector. The amount of light
absorbed depends on the blood volume in that tissue. The detector output is in form of
electrical signal and is proportional to the heart beat rate. Then, Arduino calculates the
pulse rate according to the frequency of the signal and data is transmitted wirelessly.

Figure 4.10. Pulse Sensor Circuit Diagram


4.1.7 Temperature Sensor DS18B20

The core functionality of the DS18B20 is its direct-to-digital temperature sensor. The
resolution of the temperature sensor is user-configurable to 9, 10, 11, or 12 bits,
corresponding to increments of 0.5C, 0.25C, 0.125C, and 0.0625C, respectively. The
default resolution at power-up is 12-bit. The DS18B20 output temperature data is
calibrated in degree Celsius. For Fahrenheit applications, a lookup table or conversion
routine can be used.

Figure 4.11. Temperature Sensor DS18B20

4.1.8. Data Transmission NRF24L01

The NRF24L01 modules performing at 2.4GHz frequency are radio frequency


transceivers. This transceiver module has 8 pins: GND, Vcc, CE, CSN, SCK, MOSI,
MISO, IRQ. This module is designed by Nordic Semiconductor. This module is used in
applications that need ultra-low power for wireless data communication. Its interface to
the microcontroller is done via SPI interface. These modules send the data to the
microcontroller. Also, microcontroller sends commands as well as data which is
processed and ready to be transmitted. Microcontroller is responsible to put these modules
in different modes of operation. These are operated with the power supply of 1.9 - 3.3
volts. Very less power is consumed in standby mode.

Figure 4.12. Data Transmission NRF24L01


4.2 TECHNOLOGY

4.2.1 Arduino Software (IDE)


The Arduino project provides the Arduino integrated development environment (IDE),
which is a cross-platform application written in the programming language Java. It
originated from the IDE for the languages Processing and Wiring. It includes a code editor
with features such as text cutting and pasting, searching and replacing text, automatic
indenting, brace matching, and syntax highlighting, and provides simple one-click
mechanisms to compile and upload programs to an Arduino board. It also contains a
message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttons for common functions and a hierarchy
of operation menus.

A program written with the IDE for Arduino is called a sketch. Sketches are saved on the
development computer as text files with the file extension .ino.
The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules of code
structuring. The Arduino IDE supplies a software library from the Wiring project, which
provides many common input and output procedures. User-written code only requires two
basic functions, for starting the sketch and the main program loop, that are compiled and
linked with a program stub main() into an executable cyclic executive program with the
GNU toolchain, also included with the IDE distribution. The Arduino IDE employs the
program avrdude to convert the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal encoding
that is loaded into the Arduino board by a loader program in the board's firmware.

Figure 4.13. Arduino Sketch


4.2.2 PLX-DAQ

Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical
conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be
manipulated by a computer. Data acquisition systems, abbreviated by the acronyms DAS
or DAQ, typically convert analog waveforms into digital values for processing. The
components of data acquisition systems include:

a. Sensors, to convert physical parameters to electrical signals.


b. Signal conditioning circuitry, to convert sensor signals into a form that can be
converted to digital values.
c. Analog-to-digital converters, to convert conditioned sensor signals to digital values.

Parallax Data Acquisition tool (PLX-DAQ) software add-in for Microsoft Excel acquires
up to 26 channels of data from any Parallax microcontrollers and drops the numbers into
columns as they arrive. PLX-DAQ provides easy spreadsheet analysis of data collected
in the field, laboratory analysis of sensors and real-time equipment monitoring.

The wirelessly transmitted data (Temperature and Pulse rate) is recorded real time in a
computer using PLX-DAQ at receiving end. The data can be plotted and used for analysis.

Figure 4.14. PLX-DAQ


CHAPTER 5
HARDWARE AND
PROGRAMS
HARDWARE AND PROGRAMS
5.1. HARDWARE
5.1.1 Transmitter:

Figure 5.1. Prototype Wheelchair Transmitter Front view


Figure 5.2. Prototype Wheelchair Transmitter Top view

5.1.2 Receiver:

Figure 5.3. Prototype Wheelchair Receiver


Figure 5.4. Receiver Excel Sheet

5.2. CIRCUIT DESIGNS


5.2.1. Transmitter

Figure 5.5. Circuit Design (Arduino)


5.2.2. Receiver

Figure 5.6. Circuit Design (Arduino)

5.3. PCB DESIGN

Figure 5.7. PCB Design (Arduino)


Figure 5.8. PCB Design (Pulse Sensor)

5.4. PROGRAMS

5.4.1. TRANSMITTER:
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Mirf.h>
#include <nRF24L01.h>
#include <MirfHardwareSpiDriver.h>
#include <OneWire.h>
#include <DallasTemperature.h>
#define ONE_WIRE_BUS 2

#define m11 3
#define m12 4
#define m21 5
#define m22 6
#define trigPin 10
#define echoPin 9
int xPin=0;
int yPin=1;
OneWire oneWire(ONE_WIRE_BUS);
DallasTemperature sensors(&oneWire);
int value;
void forward()
{
digitalWrite(m11, HIGH);
digitalWrite(m12, LOW);
digitalWrite(m21, HIGH);
digitalWrite(m22, LOW);
}
void Stop()
{
digitalWrite(m11, LOW);
digitalWrite(m12, LOW);
digitalWrite(m21, LOW);
digitalWrite(m22, LOW);
}
void left()
{
digitalWrite(m11, HIGH);
digitalWrite(m12, LOW);
digitalWrite(m21, LOW);
digitalWrite(m22, LOW);
}

void right()
{
digitalWrite(m11, LOW);
digitalWrite(m12, LOW);
digitalWrite(m21, HIGH);
digitalWrite(m22, LOW);
}

void setup()
{
Serial.begin (9600);
pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(echoPin, INPUT);
pinMode(m11, OUTPUT);
pinMode(m12, OUTPUT);
pinMode(m21, OUTPUT);
pinMode(m22, OUTPUT);
sensors.begin();
Mirf.spi = &MirfHardwareSpi;
Mirf.init();
// Set own address - unique 5 character string
Mirf.setRADDR((byte *)"ABCDE");
Mirf.payload = sizeof(value);
Mirf.channel = 90;
Mirf.config();
}

void loop()
{
int xval=analogRead(xPin);
int yval=analogRead(yPin);
// Set remote address to send to
sensors.requestTemperatures();
Serial.println(sensors.getTempCByIndex(0));
long duration, distance;
digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW); // Added this line
delayMicroseconds(2); // Added this line
digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);
delayMicroseconds(10); // Added this line
digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);
duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);
distance = (duration/2) / 29.1;
Serial.println(distance);

Serial.println(xval);//Use xval to determine threshold for


different directions

if (distance <10 ) {
digitalWrite(10,HIGH);
Stop();
}
else if(xval>390)
{
left();
}
else if(xval<=300)
{
right();
}

else if(xval<=390 && xval>300){


forward();
}

Mirf.setTADDR((byte *)"FGHIJ");
value = sensors.getTempCByIndex(0);
Serial.println(value);
Serial.println();
Mirf.send((byte *)&value);
while(Mirf.isSending()) delay(1);
}

5.4.2. RECEIVER:
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Mirf.h>
#include <nRF24L01.h>
#include <MirfHardwareSpiDriver.h>

int value;

void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);
Serial.println("CLEARDATA");
Serial.println("LABEL,Time,Temp,Pulse");
Mirf.spi = &MirfHardwareSpi;
Mirf.init();
// Set own address - unique 5 character string
Mirf.setRADDR((byte *)"FGHIJ");
Mirf.payload = sizeof(value);
Mirf.channel = 90;
Mirf.config();
Serial.println("RESETTIMER");
}
void loop()
{
if(Mirf.dataReady()) {
Mirf.getData((byte *) &value);
Serial.print("DATA,TIME,");
Serial.println(value);
}
}
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
In the race of man versus machine head motion controlled system comes as an example
of companionship of man and machine. The prototype we developed provides a very good
solution to problems faced by Quadriplegics. This is aimed for people going through
quadriplegic condition, who cannot help themselves. Considering the whole world, it has
been estimated that there are more than 50,000 individuals who dont have use of their
arms and legs (quadriplegics). As this invention is a safe, reliable and economical, these
people would be able to upgrade their living standard by at least some extent using this
product.
Remote and portable advancements are key segments that would empower patients
experiencing unending heart diseases to live in their own homes and lead their ordinary
life, while in the meantime being observed for any cardiovascular occasions.
This model of a wheelchair that is controlled using accelerometer. The accelerometer is
controlled by the head tilt motion and is used to steer the wheelchair. In addition to
automated wheelchair, we have included health monitoring system which monitors
patients pulse rate and temperature and sends the real time data to a nearby device
through wireless transmission. We have tried to make quadriplegics or paraplegics
independent for movement along with health care.
ANNEXURE
Conferences /Presentations
1. Presented under the name- Smart Wheelchair with Health Monitoring System for
Paralyzed people, in the event- Paper Fest of Technovision 10.0 held during 6th
-8th March 2017 in Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management,
Nagpur.
2. Presented a paper titled- Automated wheelchair with Real Time Health
Monitoring and Wireless Transmission in National Conference on Recent
Trends on Engineering and Technology- 2017 (NCRTET- 2017) held on 31st
January, 2017 conducted at Vidarbha Institute of Technology, Umrer Road,
Nagpur.
REFERENCES
Bibliography
1. www.arduino.cc
2. https://www.edgefx.in/arduino-uno-board-tutorial-and-its-applications/
3. https://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/ArduinoToBreadboard
4. https://arduino-info.wikispaces.com/
5. http://www.instructables.com/id/Getting-started-with-Arduino-Nordic-
NRF24L01-Radio/
6. http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-use-DS18B20-Temperature-Sensor-
Arduino-Tuto/
7. https://www.netram.co.za/7527-thickbox_default/waterproof-temperature-
sensor-ds18b20.jpg
8. http://www.instructables.com/id/Interfacing-ADXL335-with-ARDUINO/
9. http://www.instructables.com/id/Ultrasonic-Range-detector-using-Arduino-and-
the-SR/
MEMBERS
Name Designation Signature

Assistant
Prof. Nishant M. Professor,
Borkar Electronics and
(Project Guide) Communication
borkarnm1@rknec.edu Engineering

Shweta Indoriya B.E. (Electronics


Section-A and
Roll No. 28 Communication
indoriyass@rknec.edu Engineering),
Final Year

B.E. (Electronics
Tanushree Panpalia and
Section-A Communication
Roll No. 31 Engineering),
panpaliats@rknec.edu Final Year

B.E. (Electronics
Tejashree Vaidya and
Section- A Communication
Roll No. 32 Engineering),
vaidyatp@rknec.edu Final Year

N V V Lalitha Guru B.E. (Electronics


Jyothi and
Section- A Communication
Roll No. 35 Engineering),
nandirajuln@rknec.edu Final Year