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CS 6301 PROGRAMMING AND DATA STRUCTURES II

UNIT-I

OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS


C++ Programming features - Data Abstraction - Encapsulation - class - object - constructors
static members constant members member functions pointers references - Role of this
pointer Storage classes function as arguments.
PART-A

1. What is object oriented paradigm?(Nov/Dec2007)


Object oriented programming is an approach that provides a way of modularizing programs by
creating partitioned memory area for both data and functions that can be used as templates for
creating copies of such modules on demand.
2. What are the main characteristics of OOP language?(May/June 2007)
Programs are divided into objects
Emphasis is on data rather than procedure
Data Structures are designed such that they characterize the objects
Functions that operate on the data of an object are tied together
Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions
Objects may communicate with each other through functions
New data and functions can easily be added whenever necessary
Follows bottom-up approach.

3. What are objects and classes?


Objects: Objects are the basic run-time entities in an object oriented programming. They may
represent a person, a place, a bank account or any item that the program has to handle. They
may represent user-defined data such as vectors, time and lists.

Classes: Class serves as a blueprint or a plan or a template. It specifies what data and what
functions will be included in objects of that class.

4. What is an encapsulation?(May/June2010)
The wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit is known as data encapsulation. Here
the data is not accessible to the outside world. The insulation of data from direct access by the
program is called data hiding or information hiding.
5. Define data abstraction? NOV/DEC 2014
Abstraction represents the act of representing the essential features without including the
background details or explanations. Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a
list of abstract attributes such as size, weight and cost and functions to operate on these
attributes. The attributes are called data members and functions are called member functions or
methods.

6. What is dynamic binding or late binding?


Dynamic Binding (late binding) means the code associated with the given procedure call is not
known until the time of the call at run-time. It is associated with the polymorphism and
inheritance.
7. Write down the advantages of OOPS.
Through inheritance, we can eliminate redundant code and extend the use of existing classes

The principle of data hiding helps the programmer to build secure programs that cannot be
invaded by code in other parts of the program.
It is easy to partition the work in a project based on the objects.
Object oriented systems can be easily upgraded from small to large systems
Software complexity can be easily managed.
Object oriented systems can be easily upgraded from small to large systems.
It is possible to map multiple instances of an object to co- exits without any interference.

Message passing techniques for communication between objects make the interface
description with external systems much simpler.

8. List out the applications of OOPS.


Real time systems
Simulation and modeling
AI and expert systems
Neural networks and parallel programming.
Decision support and office automation systems.

9. What are the valid types of data that the main( ) can return in C/C++ language?
(May/June 2007)
Auto, bool, break, case, catch, char, class, const, const_cast, continue, default, delete, do, double, dynamic cast, else,
enum, explicit, export, extern, false, float, for, friend, goto, if, inline, int, long, mutable, namespace.

10. What are keywords?


Keywords are explicitly reserved words which have special meaning in programming language.
catch new template
class operator this
delete private throw
friend protected try
inline public virtual

11. What are data members and member functions?


Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes such as
size, weight, and cost and uses functions to operate on these attributes.The attributes are
sometimes called as data members because they hold information. The functions that
operate on these data are called as methods or member functions.
Eg: int a,b; // a,b are data members
Void getdata ( ) ; // member function

12. What is the use of the scope resolution operator : : in C++? (Nov/Dec2007)
A variable declared in an inner block cannot be accessed outside the block. To resolve this
problem the scope resolution operator is used. It can be used to uncover a hidden variable.
This operator allows access to the global version of the variable. It takes the form,
:: variable-name

13. What are different data types supported by C++? (April/May 2007)
Primitive Built-in Types:
Boolean bool

Character char

Integer int

Floating point float

Double floating point double


Derived datatype
Array, pointer, structure

14. What are reference variable?


A reference variable provides an alias(alternative name) for a previously defined variable. sum
total For example , if make the variable a reference to the variable , then sum and total can be
used interchancheably to represent that variable.
Syntax :
Data-type &reference-name = variable-name
Eg:
float total = 100;
float sum = total;
14. What is an inline function?
An inline function is a function that is expanded in line when it is invoked. That is compiler
replaces the function call with the corresponding function code.
The inline functions are defined as Inline function-header
{
function body
}

16. What is a default argument?


Default arguments assign a default value to the parameter, which does not have
matching argument in the function call. Default values are specified when the f unction
is declared. Eg : float amount(float principle,int period,float rate=0. 15)
Function call is
Value=amount
(5000,7);
Here it takes principle=5000& period=7
And default value for rate=0.15
Value=amount(5000,7,0.34)
Passes an explicit value 0f 0.34 to rate
We must add default value from right to left

17. What are constant arguments?


keyword is const. The qualifier const tells the compiler that the function should not modify
the argument. The compiler will generate an error when this condition is violated. This
type of declaration is significant only when we pass arguments by reference or pointers
eg: int strlen( const char *p);

18. How the class is specified ?


Generally class specification has two parts
class declaration
It describes the type and scope of its member
class function definition
It describes how the class functions are implemented
The general form is
Class class_name
{
private:
variable declarations;
function declaration;
public:
variable declaration;
function declaration;
};

19. How to create an object?


Once the class has been declared, we can create variables of that type by using the classname
Eg: classname x; //memory for x is created

20. How to access a class member? Object-name. Function-name (actual arguments)


eg:x.getdata(100,75.5);

21. How the member functions are defined?


Member functions can be defined in two ways
outside the class definition
Member function can be defined by using scope resolution
operator:: General format is
Return type class_ name::function-name(argument declaration)
{
}
Inside the class definition
This method of defining member function is to replace the function declaration by the actual
function definition inside the class. It is treated as inline function
Eg:class item
{
int a,b ;
void getdata(int x,int y)
{
a=x;
b=y;
}
22. Give the significance of declaring a member of a class static. (NOV/DEC 2015)
Data member as static
Static variable are normally used to maintain values common to the entire class.
It is initialized to zero when the first object is created. No other initialization is permitted.

only one copy of that member is created for the entire class and is shared by all
the objects

It is only visible within the class, but its life time is the entire class type and scope of each
static member variable must be defined outside the class
It is stored separately rather than objects
Eg: static int count//count is initialized to zero when an object is created.
int classname::count;//definition of static data member
Member function as static
A member function that is declared as static has the following properties
A static function can have access to only o
A static member function can be called usin classname ::function_name;

23. How the objects are used as function argument?


This can be done in two ways
A copy of the entire object is passed to th
Only address of the objects is transferred

24. Define constant member.


If a member function does not alter any data in the class, then we may declare it as const
member function as
Void mul(int ,int)const;

25. What are Friend functions? Write the syntax.


A function that has access to the private member of the class but is not itself a member of the
class is called friend functions.
The general form is
friend data_type function_name( );
Friend function is preceded by the keyword

26. Write some properties of friend functions.


Friend function is not in the scope of the
Hence it cannot be called using the object of that class.
Usually it has object as arguments.
It can be declared either in the public or
It cannot access member names directly. It operator with each member name. eg: ( A . x )

27. Define local classes.


Classes can be defined and used inside a function or a block. such classes are called local
classes. It can use global variables and static variables declared inside the function but cannot
use automatic local variables.
Eg;
void test(int a)
{
.
}
class student
{

};
student s1(a);}

28. Define constructor.


A constructor is a special member function whose task is to initialize the objects of its class.
It is special because its name is same as class name. The constructor is invoked whenever
an object of its associated class is created. It is called constructor because it constructs the
values of data members of the class
Eg:
integer Class
{

public:
integer( );//constructo r

}

29. Define default constructor.


The constructor with no arguments is called default constructor
Eg:
Class integer
{
int m,n;
Public:
Integer( );
.
};
integer::integer( )//default constructor
{
m=0;n=0;
}
the statement
integer a; invokes the default constructor

30. Define parameterized constructor.


constructor with arguments is called parameterized constructor
Eg;
Class integer
{ int m,n;
public:
integer(int x,int
y) { m=x;n=y;
}
To invoke parameterized constructor we must pass the initial values as arguments to
the constructor function when an object is declared. This is done in two ways
1.By calling the constructor explicitly
eg: integer int1=integer(10,10);
2.By calling the constructor implicitly
eg: Integer int1(10,10);

31. Define default argument constructor.


The constructor with default arguments are called default argument
constructor Eg:
Complex(float real,float imag=0);
The default value of the argument imag is 0
The statement complex a(6.0)
assign real=6.0 and imag=0
the statement
complex a(2.3,9.0)
assign real=2.3 and imag=9.0

32. What is the ambiguity between default constructor and default argument constructor?
The default argument constructor can be called with either one argument or no arguments.
when called with no arguments ,it becomes a default constructor. When both these forms are
used in a class ,it cause ambiguity for a statement such as A a;
The ambiguity is whether to call A::A() or A::A(int i=0)

33. Define dynamic constructor.


Allocation of memory to objects at time of their construction is known as
dynamic constructor. The memory is allocated with the help of the NEW operator
Eg:
Class string
{
char *name;
int length;
public:
string( )
{
length=0;
name=new char[ length +1];
}
void main( )
{
string name1(Louis),name3(Lagrange);
}

35. Define destructor.


It is used to destroy the objects that have been created by constructor. Destructor name
is same as class name preceded by tilde symbol(~)
Eg;
~integer()
{
}
A destructor never takes any arguments nor it does it return any value. The compiler upon
exit from the program will invoke it. new Whenever operator is used to allocate memory in
the constructor, we should
use delete to free that memory.

36. Define multiple constructors (constructor overloading).


The class that has different types of constructor is called multiple constructors
Eg:
#include<iostream.
h> #include<conio.h>
class integer
{
int m,n;
public:
integer( ) //default constructor
{
m=0;n=0;
}
integer(int a,int b) //parameterized constructor
{
m=a; n=b;
}
integer(&i) //copy constructor
{
m=i. m;
n=i.n;
}
void main()
{
integer i1; //invokes default constructor
integer i2(45,67);//invokes parameterized constructor
integer i3(i2); //invokes copy constructor
}

37. Write some special characteristics of constructor.


They should be declared in the public sect
They are invoked automatically when the ob
They do not have return types, not even vo
They cannotnherited,though beaderived class can call the base class
They can have default arguments
Constructors cannot be virtual f unction

38. How does constructor differ from normal functions?(Nov/Dec 2007)


1.Functions have return type but constructors don't have a return type. 2.Name of the
constructors must be similar to class where as function don't have such kind of restrictions.

39. What are the difference between default and parameterized constructors? (May/June
2007)
Constructor without arguments is called default constructor.
Constructor with argument is called parameterized constructor.

40. What is the purpose of default constructor.(May/June 2010)


Default constructor refers constructortothat isaautomatically generated in the absence of
explicit constructors (and perhaps under other circumstances); this automatically provided
constructor is usually a null array constructor.
In specification or discussiondefaultconstructormayof additiosomelanalg to any constructor that may be
called without arguments

41. What is dynamic initialization of objects? (Nov/2012,Nov/Dec 2015)


Dynamic initialization is that in which initialization value isn't known at compile-time. It's
computed at runtime to initialize the variable.
Advantage:- various initialization formats can be used using overloaded constructor.
42. Write the types of
constructor? Default
constructors Parameterized
constructors. Copy constructor.
Dynamic constructor

43. Define interthis.(Nov/Dec 2015)po


The this pointer is passed as a hidden and is available as a local variable within the body of all
nonstatic functions.
this pointer is a constantressofthe currentpointerobject. that this pointer is not available in static

be called without any object (with class name).


this pointer is used in the following situat
When local variablesembersnamenameis same as m
To return reference to the calling object

44. Write a member function to find the grea pointer.(NOV/DEC 2014)

class max
{
int a;
public:
void getdata()
{
cout<<"Enter the Value :";
cin>>a;
}
max &greater(max &x)
{
if(x.a>=a)
return x;
else return *this;
}
void display()
{
cout<<"Maximum No. is : "<<a<<endl;
}
};
main()
{
clrscr();
max one,two,three;
one.getdata();
two.getdata();
three=one.greater(two);
three.display(); getch();

45. Which is used for achieving Data Hiding in C++? List its types (APR/MAY 2015)
Access Specifier are used for achieving Data Hiding in
C++ There are three types of access specifier.They are
Private : Within the block.
Public: Whole over the class.
Protected: Act as a public and then act as a private

46. With which concept, visibility and life time of the variables differ in C++? List its
types (APR/MAY 2015)
The visibility and lifetime of the variables differs in C++ in Storage
classes. Auto
Extern
Static
Register
Mutuable
PART-B

1. Describe the advantages and applications of OOPs technology. (May/June 2007)


2. Explain the following concepts of object oriented programming in detail with an example.
Or
3. Brief on features of C++ programming Language.(APR/MAY 2015, NOV/DEC 2014,
Nov/Dec2007, May/June2010)
4. What do you understand by static member and static functions? How to declare them?
Illustrate with an example program. (APR/MAY 2015) Or Briefly explain the concept
of static members with simple example programs. (NOV/DEC 2014)
5. Explain the concept of Friend Function with its characteristics.
6. What are the differences between pointers to constants and constant pointers? (May/June
2007)
7. Explain in detail about inline function, friend function, constant function, volatile function
with suitable illustrations. (May/June 2012)
8. Explain the concept of constructor with suitable C++ coding.
9. What are the various types of constructors? Write a program to illustrate the use of different
types of constructors. (May/June 2012, Nov/Dec2012, NOV/DEC 2014,Nov/Dec 2015)
10. Explain the ways in which member functions of a class can be defined and called using
a suitable example. (NOV/DEC 2014)
11. What are the differences between pointer to constant and constant pointers? Give an example
program with a suitable program. (APR/MAY 2015)
12. Explain the role of thispointerwith a suitable program. (APR/MAY 2015)
13. Describe the types of storage classes(Nov/Dec 2015)
14. How can you specify a class (Nov/Dec 2015)
15. Describe the different mechanisms of accessing data members and member functions in a
class with suitable examples. (Nov/Dec 2015)