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Structural organization of the Mexican Educational System

The political constitution of the Mexican United States declares in Article 3.

Everyone has the right to education. The State - Federal, State, Federal District
and Municipalities - will provide preschool, primary, secondary and upper
secondary education. Preschool, primary and secondary education make up basic
education; This and the upper half will be mandatory.

Structure of the National Educational System (SEN)

Types, levels and grades

The General Education Act establishes three types of education: basic, upper and
upper secondary.

Basic education consists of three levels: preschool, primary and secondary. In its
three grades, preschool education covers children from three to five years.1 The
primary level has six grades. According to the official data incorporates children
from six to 12 years. The completion of this level is accredited by an official
certificate that is an indispensable requirement to enter secondary school.
Secondary education is taught in three grades. It covers youths from 13 to 15
years. Its conclusion is also credited with an official certificate which is an essential
requirement for entering upper secondary education. According to article 3 of the
Constitution and the General Education Law, the three levels of education are
compulsory, and therefore, the coverage would have to be universal.

Higher education comprises the baccalaureate level and technical vocational

education. The baccalaureate is generally taught in three grades, although there
are two- and four-year study programs. The high school certificate is mandatory to
enter higher education. In technical vocational education there are programs from
two to five years, although the majority are three degrees. It is oriented to training
for technical work and almost all programs are of a terminal nature.2 Article 3 of
the Constitution states that this type of education is mandatory as of February 9,
2012 and states "to achieve full coverage in its Different modalities in the country
no later than in the school year 2021 to 2022. "3

The education of superior type is formed by three levels: superior technician,

bachelor's and postgraduate. The superior technician is oriented to the formation of
professionals trained for the work in a specific area. The programs are of two
years, are of terminal character and do not reach the level of degree. It forms
professionals in various areas of knowledge with programs of study of four years or
more. It is taught in university, technological and teacher training institutions and is
of a terminal nature. High school studies are required to enter any of these two

The postgraduate includes the studies of specialty, masters and doctorate. It is

oriented to the training of researchers and professionals with a high degree of
specialization. The postgraduate degree is compulsory entrance of the degree and
is accredited with the title of specialty, masters or doctorate.

Structural organization of the United States Educational System

In the United States, the exercise of government is fairly decentralized and control
of many public functions, such as school education, depends primarily on states
and local communities. They have retained control of the content of curricula and
educational methods; In fact, federal law prohibits the US government from
interfering in these areas. However, the federal government creates and
implements legislation related to education and has an impact on the
implementation of laws and regulations through state funds for public education

Broadly speaking, we can say that the American educational system comprises 12
years or "grades" (from 1 to 12) of education prior to entry to higher education.
These are divided into three stages:

Elementary school. Five grades from 6 to 11 years

Middle school. Three grades from 12 to 14 years old

High school. Four grades from 14 to 18 years old

After completing grade 12, students can continue with higher education, which can
be vocational and / or technical (2 years), professional and university (4 years).
Some careers such as law or medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, etc ...
require postgraduate studies in professional faculties.

At universities (also called colleges) students can earn a bachelor's degree, and
students who earn it are considered undergraduates. Post-graduate studies are
masters, and students who do so are considered graduates. Then, you can also do
a PhD, which usually lasts three years or more and is based on the research and
presentation of a doctoral thesis (thesis) the result of research in a specific and
specialized area.

He is between five and eleven and is taught in primary schools. It is divided in two
cycles (key stages) ranging from 5 to 7 and 7 to 11 years and basic subjects such
as English, mathematics, science, geography, history, physical education, music

From the age of two and a half to five you can go to nursery school but it is not


It is the last stage of compulsory education and goes from 11 to 16 years of age. It
is taught in institutes and is divided into two cycles, ranging from 11 to 14 and from
14 to 16 years. The first cycle contains subjects such as mathematics, English,
science, music .


At this point, students who wish to continue studying have two ways. They can
choose between vocational qualifications or academic qualifications. On the
website of the Universities & Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS)

Vocational training offers practical education for those who want to start their
professional career in a trade. They are two years and the main titles that are
obtained are the BTECs (qualifications of the Council of Education in Business and
Technology) or the NVQs (technical qualifications of Professional Training). It is
studied in institutes, specialized schools and universities.

Academic training is a two-year cycle that prepares students to enter university. It

is called 6th Form and can be studied in the same institutes where secondary
education has been carried out or in specialized colleges. These two years focus
on passing two exams: the half AS-levels at the end of the first year and the full A-
levels at the end of the second. Students are usually tested in three or four subject
areas in A-levels, and the higher the score, the better the college entrance options.
Alternatively, you can choose other exams similar to A-levels such as Cambridge
Pre-Us or Baccalaureate.


About one-third of young Brits choose to pursue some form of higher education.
This is divided into two levels: degree and postgraduate.
The main studies of degree are the undergraduate studies that grant the titles of
licensee, engineer or architect. Their duration varies between three and four years
(some centers have introduced accelerated programs that concentrate the
curricula in two years) and the title to which they give place is the one of Bachelor's
Degree. Grades are divided into Ordinary (minimum knowledge not achieved) and
Honors (sufficient grade has been obtained to approve). Honors can be first class,
second class or third class; Being the first class the best rating.

The degree titles can also be:

Foundation degree. It is equivalent to the first two years of a Bachelor Degree

and includes academic education with practical training in a company.

Diploma of Higher Education or Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE). It is a two-

year career and upon completion it allows access to the third year of a Bachelor

Certificate of Higher Education or Certificate of Higher Education (CertHE). It is a

year of specialized studies that at its conclusion allows access to a DipHE or
Bachelor degree.

National Higher Diploma or Higher National Diploma (HND). It is a two-year

career and upon completion it allows access to the third year of a Bachelor

The main postgraduate degrees are:

Master (Ma). It is an education of one year (sometimes two) that allows to acquire
specialized knowledge of a subject. Includes academic training and a final
research piece called dissertation thesis. There are also other research-only
masters, which generally prepare students to take a PhD.

Postgraduate. They are titles and diplomas that allow students to expand the
training obtained in the degrees of degree without reaching the level of a master.
Generally it is a year to part time or several months to full day.

PhD. It is a research project on a specific topic. Generally it is necessary to have

completed a master related to the subject to be able to access, but in some cases
it is