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SPEED CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR

A PROJECT REPORT

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
in
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

by

MUKUND JOSHI13BEE1080

under the guidance of

Prof. Srikanth Gollapudi

SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

VIT UNIVERSITY

APRIL 2017
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project work titled SPEED CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS
DC MOTOR submitted by MUKUND JOSHI is in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY, is
a record of bonafide work done under my guidance. The contents of this project
work, in full or in parts, have neither been taken from any other source nor have been
submitted to any other Institute or University for award of any degree or diploma and
the same is certified.

Signature (Only for External Projects)


Prof. Srikanth Gollapudi
External Project Supervisor Project Supervisor
(Name of the Organization)
(Organization stamp)

The thesis is satisfactory / unsatisfactory

Internal Examiner External Examiner

Approved by

Program Chair
B.Tech Electrical and Electronics Engineering

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This acknowledgement of gratitude by no means assuages that spirit of help granted


to us, but it gives us an opportunity to thank all those who have lent us a helping
hand.

This project has been a product of motivation and encouragement from various
sources we would like to place on record our deep gratitude towards VIT University
for giving us an opportunity to undertake this project and always being a source of
inspiration.

Again we would like to thank Prof. Srikanth Gollapudi (Asst. Professor), Prof.
Angeline Ezhilarasi (Asst. Professor), Prof. Jayapragash (Asst. Professor) and all
those who helped us to complete this project and for their cooperation during this
period.

Last but not the least we would like to thank Mr. Senthil Kumar (Program Chair
SELECT VIT Chennai) who guided us through this project and all the other staff
members of VIT Chennai who helped us a lot and gave us inspiration to pursue this
project.

We acknowledge our indebtedness to all those who helped us and guided us in our
time of need.

MUKUND JOSHI
13BEE1080

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ABSTRACT

The Brushless DC motors are widely used in many industrial and traction
applications because of their high efficiency, high torque, low maintenance, less
noise and low volume. The BLDC motor can act as an alternative for traditional
motors like Brushed DC motor, induction motor, switched reluctance motors etc. The
performance of BLDC motor is analysed using Matlab with motor on no load. The
various performance parameters are analysed by Matlab software. The torque
characteristics of BLDC motor is very important factor in designing BLDC motor
drive system. After development of simple mathematical model of three phase BLDC
motor with trapezoidal waveforms of back emf, the motor is modelled by using
MATLAB/SIMULINK. The speed, phase current, back emf waveforms are also
obtained using this model. In the presented model speed is regulated by PI controller.
In this paper the simulation is carried out for 1200 mode of operation and
Trapezoidal back emf waveforms are considered. The results obtained using Matlab
software are highly acceptable and this gives very important information for
designing BLDC motor drive system.

KEYWORDS: Brushless DC motor, Electro motive force, 1200 mode of operation,


PI controller.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES.....................................................................................................viii
LIST OF FIGURES.....................................................................................................ix
ABBREVIATIONS AND NOMENCLATURE...........................................................x
CHAPTER I..................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................1
1.1 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................1
1.1.1 Motivation....................................................................................................1
1.1.2 Objectives....................................................................................................1
1.1.3 Scope of the Work.......................................................................................2
1.2 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS..........................................................................2
CHAPTER II................................................................................................................4
PROJECT DESCRIPTION...........................................................................................4
2.1 OVERVIEW OF PROJECT...............................................................................4
2.2 MODULES OF THE PROJECT.......................................................................5
2.2.1 BLDC Motor................................................................................................6
2.2.2 Inverter.........................................................................................................9
2.2.3 Driver Circuit.............................................................................................11
2.2.4 Controller...................................................................................................12
2.3 TASKS AND MILESTONES...........................................................................12
CHAPTER III.............................................................................................................14
DESIGN OF SPEED CONTROL OF BLDC MOTOR.............................................14
3.1 DESIGN APPROACH......................................................................................14
3.1.1Codes and Standards...................................................................................14
3.1.2Realistic Constraints...................................................................................14
3.1.3Alternatives and Tradeoffs..........................................................................14
3.2 DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS...........................................................................15
3.3 DERIVATION OF COMMUTATION TABLE FOR BLDC MOTOR.............15
3.4 DERIVATION OF STATE SPACE MODEL....................................................17
3.5 TESTING OF OTHER COMPONENTS.........................................................19
3.5.1 Testing of MOSFET...................................................................................19
3.5.2 Testing of MOSFET driver........................................................................20
3.6 DESIGN OF PCB FOR INVERTER................................................................20
CHAPTER IV.............................................................................................................22
4. PROJECT DEMONSTRATION.............................................................................22

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4.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................22
4.2 ANALYTICAL RESULTS...............................................................................22
Frequency of PWM 500 Hz. Therefore consider 3 kHz for PWM..................22
4.3 SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION.................................................................23
4.3.1 Reference Speed........................................................................................24
4.3.2 PI Controller..............................................................................................24
4.3.3 Converter and Inverter Bridge...................................................................25
4.3.4 BLDC state space model...........................................................................26
4.3.5 EMF generation.........................................................................................29
4.3.6 Gate Pulse Generator.................................................................................30
4.4 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION................................................................31
4.4.1 The Gate Driver Circuit.............................................................................31
4.4.2 Inverter Circuit...........................................................................................32
4.4.3 Arduino Uno..............................................................................................33
CHAPTER V..............................................................................................................34
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.........................................................................34
5.1 SIMULATION RESULTS................................................................................34
5.2 HARDWARE RESULTS..................................................................................37
5.2.1 Hall sensor output......................................................................................38
5.2.2 IR2110 driver circuit..................................................................................39
5.2.3 Inverter Circuit...........................................................................................40
5.2.4 BLDC motor output...................................................................................42
CHAPTER VI.............................................................................................................44
6. CONCLUSION...................................................................................................44
6.1 COST ANALYSIS............................................................................................44
6.2 Future SCOPE OF WORK...............................................................................44
6.3 SUMMARY......................................................................................................45
REFERENCES...........................................................................................................46
APPENDICES............................................................................................................47
Appendix 1: Arduino Uno coding for commutation...........................................47
Appendix 2: IRF540 Datasheet..........................................................................50
Appendix 3: IR2110 Datasheet...........................................................................53
CURRICULUMVITAE..............................................................................................57

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Design Specifications


Table 2. Commutation Table
Table 3. BLDC Motor Outputs
Table 4. Cost Estimation

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. BLDC Motor


Figure 2. Poles of a BLDC Motor
Figure 3. Hall Sensor position in BLDC Motor
Figure 4. Commutation Cycle
Figure 5. Three Phase Inverter
Figure 6. Functional Block Diagram of IR2110
Figure 7. 14 Pin PDIP package
Figure 8. Commutation Table Generation
Figure 9. Phase and Hall Sensor of BLDC
Figure 10. State Space Model
Figure 11. MOSFET driver circuit for one phase
Figure 12. Inverter PCB outline for fabrication
Figure 13. Simulink Model
Figure 14. Reference Speed sub-block
Figure 15. PI Controller sub-block
Figure 16. Converter Inverter Bridge sub-block
Figure 17. State Space model sub-block
Figure 18. Current Generator sub-block
Figure 19. State Equations
Figure 20. Current Generator for Ia
Figure 21. Speed Generator sub-block
Figure 22. EMF generation sub-block
Figure 23. EMF generation for Ea
Figure 24. EMF generation for detecting rotor position
Figure 25. Gate pulse generator sub-block
Figure 26. Gate driver circuit for phase A and B using IR2110

Figure 27. Inverter circuit using IRF540


Figure 28. Speed (in rpm) Vs Time(in seconds)
Figure 29. Back emf (in Volts) Vs. Time (in seconds)
Figure 30. Effect of Load Torque on Back emf
Figure 31. Current (in amps) Vs. Time (in seconds)
Figure 32. Effect of load torque on current
Figure 33. Inverter DC voltage output
Figure 34. Hall sensor output for phase A and B
Figure 35. Hall sensor output for phase A and C
Figure 36. IR2110 driver circuit outputs
Figure 37. IR2110 driver circuit outputs with motor connected
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Figure 38. Inverter output for line voltages AB and AC
Figure 39. Inverter output for line voltages BA and BC
Figure 40. Inverter output for line voltages CA and CB
Figure 41. Inverter outputs AB, AC (in V) and Ia (in Amps)
Figure 42. Inverter outputs BA, BC (in V) and Ib (in Amps)
Figure 43. Inverter outputs CA, CB (in V) and Ic (in Amps)

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ABBREVIATIONS AND NOMENCLATURE

DC Direct Current
PMBLDC Permanent Magnet Brush Less Direct Current
IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
PWM Pulse Width Modulation
FB Feedback
IR International Rectifier
ICSP In-Circuit Serial Programming
RPS Regulated Power Supply
EMF Electromotive Force
Ki Integral Constant
Kp Proportional Constant
W Speed

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Brushless DC motor may be described as electronically commuted motor which do


not have brushes. These types of motors are highly efficient in producing large
amount of torque over a vast speed range. Commutation with electronics has large
scope of capabilities and flexibility. BLDC motors are available in many different
power ratings, from very small motors as used in hard disk drives to larger motors
used in electric vehicles.

1.1.1 Motivation

In this age, as the power requirement increases exponentially, there is a higher need
for the equipment to be more efficient and maintenance free. This is solved by the
use of BLDC motors. The brushes of the mechanical commutator eventually wear
out and need to be replaced. There are other undesirable effects such as sparks, noise,
etc. A BLDC motor lacks the brushes and physical commutator. This means there are
fewer parts that can break or wear out and need to be replaced. Thus they tend to be
more reliable, last longer and be more efficient. The BLDC motors can also operate
at speeds above 10,000 rpm in both loaded and unloaded conditions.

1.1.2 Objectives

To achieve speed control of a BLDC motor by PWM (pulse width modulation)


technique used to control six Mosfet/IGBT switches which gives the supply to the
stator windings of the motor. The rotor position of the motor is detected by Hall
sensors according to which these PWM pulses are generated from a Processor.
Furthermore a gate driver circuit was also designed and implemented to drive the
inverter.
1.1.3 Scope of the Work

The project will control the speed of BLDC motor using PWM technique for which
we need to know how to generate those pulses using a processor using assembly or
embedded C. Motor specification and hall sensor details also need to be analysed to
decide the Mosfet/IGBT rating and the rating for the driver circuit.
Programming for the six step commutation is done using the hall sensor outputs.
Initially the hall sensors signal is being sent to the processor to decide which phases
are to be excited next to keep the motor running. The processor generates the PWM
pulses to the respective drivers which will further switce the respective Mosfet/IGBT
switches. The microcontroller will be used to implement closed loop control of
BLDC. This project will also be simulated in Simulink using state space model.
The Speed control of brushless DC motor circuitry will consist of two main circuits
The Inverter and the Gate Driver Circuit. The pulses given through the processor,
based on the hall-effect sensor values, will allow us to control the speed if the motor,
which can be used in various applications ranging from home to aerospace
engineering.

1.2 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS

The thesis contains six chapters describing the modelling and control approach of a
permanent magnet BLDC motor, and is organized as follows

Chapter 2 discusses the essential background of the project and the analytical
approach to the problem, along with the literature survey of the problem.

Chapter 3 describes, in detail, the approach required for the implementation of the
project.

Simulation modelling, programming techniques, steps, flow charts,


simulation results and verification of the approach followed

Hardware detailed experimental approach followed, measurement setups,


process setups, process steps, experimental setup etc.

Chapter 4 explains how each circuit was fabricated, tested and how the over all
circuitry was operated. It gives a basic idea about the project description.

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Chapter 5 is about the result obtained and the discussions regarding the output
obtained from both hardware and software simulations.

Chapter 6 is about the conclusion obtained by taking into consideration the cost
analysis, future scope and gives the overall summary of the project.

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CHAPTER II

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

2.1 OVERVIEW OF PROJECT

The brushless DC motor is becoming increasingly popular in the industrial and


HVAC sectors as it negates the mechanical commutator used in traditional motors.
The brushless DC motor (BLDC) replaces the mechanical commutator with an
electronic device which improves the reliability and durability of the unit. The
electronics allow for accurate speed and torque control and ensure that the motor
runs at peak efficiency.
This is a relatively new class of motor whose applications have been increasing at a
rapid rate each year, due both to declining costs as well as increasing functionality.
An advantage of the BLDC motor is that it can be made smaller and lighter than a
brush type with the same power output, making it suitable for applications where
space is limited. Although the BLDC requires an electronic control unit, such devices
are available as standard chipsets or modules from most of the major electronics
manufacturers.
Programming and set-up of the controls are very simple. Mass production and wide
market penetration make these devices economical.
In a conventional (brushed) DC-motor, the brushes make mechanical contact with a
set of electrical contacts on the rotor (called the commutator), forming an electrical
circuit between the DC electrical source and the armature coil-windings. As the
armature rotates on axis, the stationary brushes come into contact with different
sections of the rotating commutator. The commutator and brush-system form a set of
electrical switches, each firing in sequence, such that electrical-power always flows
through the armature-coil closest to the stationary stator (permanent magnet).
In a BLDC motor, the electromagnets do not move; instead, the permanent magnets
rotate and the armature remains static. This gets around the problem of how to
transfer current to a moving armature. In order to do this, the commutator assembly
is replaced by an intelligent electronic controller. The controller performs the same

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power-distribution found in a brushed DC motor, but using a solid-state circuit rather
than a commutator. BLDC motors have many advantages over DC motors. A few of
these are:
High dynamic response
High efficiency
Long operating life
Noiseless operation
Higher speed ranges
BLDC's main disadvantage is higher cost which arises from two issues. First, BLDC
motors require complex electronic speed controllers to run. Brushed DC-motors can
be regulated by a comparatively trivial variable resistor (potentiometer or rheostat),
which is inefficient but also satisfactory for cost-sensitive applications.

2.2 MODULES OF THE PROJECT

The goal of the Speed control of BLDC motor is to develop an optimized way for the
speed control of BLDC motor. It includes the following steps:
Obtaining data about rotor position and speed from the hall sensor of the
BLDC motor.
PWM generation from processor.
Driving Mosfet/IGBT from Mosfet/IGBT drivers by the PWM pulses.
Using inverter outputs to operate the BLDC motor.

While BLDC motors are mechanically relatively simple, they do require


sophisticated control electronics and regulated power supplies. There exists the
challenge of dealing with a three-phase high-power system that demands precise
control to run efficiently. For that, a sophisticated and optimized electronically
commutated program has to be written so that the commutation process occurs
without any power loss.
Furthermore, the switching sequence of the inverter switches have to be correct and
in sequence for optimal operation of the inverter.

2.2.1 BLDC Motor

Construction

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Brushless permanent magnet motor operation relies on the conversion of energy from
electrical to magnetic to mechanical. BLDC motors are a type of synchronous
motors. This means that the magnetic field generated by the stator and the magnetic
field generated by the rotor rotate at the same frequency. BLDC motors come in
single-phase, 2-phase and 3-phase configurations. Corresponding to its type, the
stator has the same number of windings.
It is a rotating electric motor consisting of stator armature windings and rotor
permanent magnets whereas in a conventional brushed DC motor the stator is made
up of permanent magnets and rotor consists of armature windings. The conventional
DC motor commutes itself with the use of a mechanical commutator whereas
brushless DC motor needs electronic commutation for the direction control of current
through the windings. Typically, BLDC motors have three phase windings that are
wound in star or delta fashion and need a three phase inverter bridge for the
electronic commutation.

Figure 1: BLDC Motor

The various parts of BLDC motor are:


Stator - Most BLDC motors have three stator windings connected in star fashion.
Each of these windings are constructed with numerous coils interconnected to form a
winding.
Rotor - The rotor of a typical BLDC motor is made out of permanent magnets.
Depending upon the application requirements, the number of poles in the rotor may

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vary. Increasing the number of poles may give better torque, but at the cost of
reducing the maximum possible speed.

Figure 2: Poles of a BLDC Motor

Hall Sensor - If an electric current carrying conductor is kept in a magnetic field, the
magnetic field exerts a transverse force on the moving charge carriers which tends to
push them to one side of the conductor. This is most evident in a thin at conductor. A
buildup of charge at the sides of the conductors will balance this magnetic influence,
producing a measurable voltage between the two sides of the conductor. The
presence of this measurable transverse voltage is called the Hall effect after E. H.
Hall who discovered it in 1879. In a BLDC motor the hall sensors are used to detect
the rotor position. So that the controller can know which pulses has to be switched
on.

Figure 3: Hall Sensor Position in BLDC Motor

Working Principles and Operation

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The underlying principles for the working of a BLDC motor are the same as for a
brushed DC motor; i.e., internal shaft position feedback. In case of a brushed DC
motor, feedback is implemented using a mechanical commutator and brushes. With a
in BLDC motor, it is achieved using multiple feedback sensors. The most commonly
used sensors are hall sensors and optical encoders.
If the direction of the magnetic field is reversed, the voltage developed will reverse
as well. For Hall-effect sensors used in BLDC motors, whenever rotor magnetic
poles (N or S) pass near the hall sensor, they generate a HIGH or LOW level signal,
which can be used to determine the position of the shaft.

Figure 4: Commutation Cycle


In a commutation system one that is based on the position of the motor identified
using feedback sensors two of the three electrical windings are energized at a time
as shown in figure 3.

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In Phase 1 , the GREEN winding labeled 001 is energized as the NORTH pole and
the BLUE winding labeled as 010 is energized as the SOUTH pole. Because of this
excitation, the SOUTH pole of the rotor aligns with the GREEN winding and the
NORTH pole aligns with the RED winding labeled 100. In order to move the rotor,
the RED and BLUE windings are energized in the direction as can be seen in
Phase 2. This causes the RED winding to become the NORTH pole and the BLUE
winding to become the SOUTH pole. This shifting of the magnetic field in the stator
produces torque because of the development of repulsion (Red winding NORTH-
NORTH alignment) and attraction forces (BLUE winding NORTH-SOUTH
alignment), which moves the rotor in the clockwise direction.

2.2.2 Inverter

A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct


current (DC) to alternating current (AC). The input voltage, output voltage and
frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or
circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC
source.
A trapezoidal PM machine gives performance closer to a dc motor. For this its known
as a brushless dc motor (BLDC). It is an electronic motor and requires a three-phase
inverter to the driving side for feeding power into the machine.
The inverter works as an electronic commutation which performs the switching
according to the output from the position sensors. The inverter operates in two
modes:
1) 2/3 angle switch-on mode
2) Voltage and current control PWM mode

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Figure 5: Three Phase Inverter

1) 2/3 angle switch-on mode


In this mode of operation all inverter switching devices (S1 toS6) are switch on-off in
such a way that the current input Is is equally for the 2 3 angle at the centre of each
induced back emf voltage waveform. At an instant only two switches are on, one
from the positive group and one from the negative group. For example, from instant
t1, S1 and S6 are conducting then the supply voltage Vs and input dc current Is are
applied across the AB phase of the inverter such that positive I s will flow in phase A
and negative Is will flow in phase B. Then, after 3m interval S 6 is turn OFF and S2
is turn ON, S1 continues conduction for full 2 3 angle. The conduction pattern
changes every 3 degree, with every switch has a conduction period of 2 3
degree. The switching sequence depends on the output of the position sensors.

2) Voltage and Current Control PWM mode


In the previous mode each switch of the inverter are switched ON-OFF for 2 3
degree angle to generate the commutation function only. In addition to the
commutation function. It is possible to control the voltages and currents continuously
at the machine terminal by controlling the switches in PWM mode. There are
essentially two modes for the current and voltage control operations of the inverter.
These two modes are feedback (FB) mode and freewheeling mode. In both these

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modes switching devices are turned on and off for timing basis to controlled the
machine currents Iav and the machine average voltages Vav.

BLDC Motors are DC in the sense that they are fed from a DC source. Thus, they use
an inverter as an "electronic commutator" to provide an alternating current in
accordance with the rotor position so that it can generate the torque.

2.2.3 Driver Circuit

A gate driver is a power amplifier that accepts a low-power input from a controller
IC and produces a high-current drive input for the gate of a high-power transistor
such as an IGBT or power MOSFET. Gate drivers can be provided either on-chip or
as a discrete module. In essence, a gate driver consists of a level shifter in
combination with an amplifier.
For this circuit, we have used the International Rectifiers IR2110 IC for building the
Gate Driver Circuit. It is the most commonly used driver chip as it is a type of high-
low side MOSFET driver.

Figure 6: Functional Block Diagram of IR2110

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Figure 7: 14 Pin PDIP Package

2.2.4 Controller

For controlling the pulses and thus the speed of the motor, we use Arduino MEGA as
the controller. It is used to send the pulses to the Inverter circuit, which along with
the hall sensor outputs, results in the control of the movement of the rotor. The Mega
2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital
input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4
UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a
power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to
support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or
power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

2.3 TASKS AND MILESTONES

There are three major milestones as well as several smaller tasks that must be
achieved in order to reach the milestones. The three milestones are:

1. To implement the state space model of BLDC motor and Simulation in


Simulink.

2. Learn to program a processor to read the hall sensor outputs and switch the
Mosfet/IGBT accordingly.

3. Fabricate an inverter and the necessary gate driver circuit.

4. Developing a program for closed loop speed control.

Tasks will be split up among group members according to each members level of
expertise or comfort. Each task will have a leader who is responsible for completion

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of that task. However, the other group members are expected to provide assistance if
needed. This way, an engineer can concentrate on a task but still get help if needed.
This enables parallel completion of various sections of the project and thus leads to
faster and more efficient progress.

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CHAPTER III

DESIGN OF SPEED CONTROL OF BLDC MOTOR

3.1 DESIGN APPROACH

The first logical step in the design of speed control of BLDC motor is to derive the
commutation table. Once this has been done, the mathematical model of the BLDC
motor has to be made, from which a simulink model can be designed and simulated.
This will help to understand the working of the BLDC motor and the parameters on
which its different attributes depend. Once this has been done, the hardware
fabrication can begin with the design and testing of a suitable gate driver circuit. This
is followed by the design and PCB fabrication of the inverter circuit. Once these
different circuits have been assembled and tested, the BLDC motor and hall sensor
module can be connected and the motor can be operated with the help of suitable
processor. The processor will analyse the hall sensor outputs and trigger the
MOSFETs accordingly.

3.1.1Codes and Standards

The Autonomous Slot-car system will consist of a special car, sensors on the track
and computer control software.

3.1.2Realistic Constraints

The simulation is done on MATLAB and Simulink and hence, is not a real time
representation of the BLDC Motor. There are also a few assumptions made while the
mathematical model is derived and therefore, the simulation results might not be
100% realistic.
The RPS units available have a fixed power output, therefore restricting the current
that can be drawn at any particular set voltage.

3.1.3Alternatives and Tradeoffs

The BLDC motor while running draws too much current at certain frequencies. The
RPS unit may not be able to supply such currents without a closed circuit error
occurring, therefore the frequencies at which the motor can be operated with the
given RPS is limited.

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The motor did not have correct labels of the phases which willhave to be obtained
using a commutation table. This will also help to realize which phases are excited at
different positions.

3.2 DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

S.No. Part of the Project Rating


1 Motor with Hall Sensor 6000RPM@24VDC
180W, 8A
2 Arduino Mega 2560

3 Power Electronics Devices MOSFET


IRF540
60V / 32A
Table 1: Design specification

3.3 DERIVATION OF COMMUTATION TABLE FOR BLDC MOTOR

Due to the absence of any proper documentation for the motor used, there were a few
problems while beginning to work with it. The main issues and the jobs to be carried
out were:

Pin Configuration of the motor

Find the phase sequence and its respective Hall Sensor outputs

Subsequently, form a commutation table

We started working on the commutation table first, to be able to better understand


and work with the motor. The main steps for the formation of a commutation table
are:

1. Take the three phases and mark them as Ph_A, Ph_B and Ph_C. Dont mark the
hall sensors yet.

2. Now connect the phase as per the sequence given in the figure 9 starting from
A+B-C-and moving anticlockwise.

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Figure 8: Commutation Table Generation

3. After connecting the phases as per the first sequence, note down the hall sensor
readings. Two of the hall sensors will be high and one will be low. Mark that as
Hall_C. Do not mark the other hall sensors yet.

4. Now connect the phases as per the second connection A+B+C- and check for the
change in the hall sensor output. Now one of the hall sensors will change from
high to low from the previous state. Mark this hall sensor as Hall_A. The third
hall sensor is marked as Hall_B. Now after the phases and its respective hall
sensors are marked, we need to derive the commutation table.

5. So starting from Aoff, B+, C- , run anticlockwise and form the commutation
table.

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Hall Sensor Phase Connection
HA HB HC Ph_A Ph_B Ph_C
1 1 0 OFF + -
0 1 0 - + OFF
0 1 1 - OFF +
0 0 1 OFF - +
1 0 1 + - OFF
1 0 0 + OFF -
Table 2: Commutation Table

Figure 9: Phase and Hall sensor of BLDC

3.4 DERIVATION OF STATE SPACE MODEL

In this Simulation, a three phase, 2 poles and Y connected trapezoidal back-EMF


type BLDC motor is modelled. Trapezoidal back-EMF implies that mutual
inductance between stator and rotor has trapezoidal shape. Therefore, abc phase
variable model is more applicable than d-q axis. With the intention of simplifying
equations and overall model the following assumptions are made:

Stator resistance and self-inductance of all phases are equal and constant and
mutual inductance is taken zero.

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Hysteresis and eddy current losses are eliminated.

All semiconductor switches are ideal.

The mathematical model of BLDC Motor is divided into two parts: Electrical and
Mechanical equations.

A. Electrical Equations:

Va = R*Ia + L*dIa/dt + emfa - (1)

Vb = R*Ib + L*dIb/dt + emfb - (2)

Vc = R*Ic + L*dIc/dt + emfc - (3)

emfa = Ke*wm*F(e) - (4)

emfb = Ke*wm*F(e - 2/3) - (5)

emfc = Ke*wm*F(e + 2/3) - (6)

Te = [emfa*Ia+ emfb*Ib+ emfc*Ic]/wm - (7.1)

B. Mechanical Equations:

Te= B*wm + J*dwm/dt+Tl - (7.2)

Taking into consideration the above equations one can develop a state equation
model of BLDC motor. The following matrix algebra will solve for various
parameters of the motor.

- (8)

And

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- (9)

Where Vab=Va-Vb, EMFab=EMFa-EMFb, and Vbc=Vb-Vc, EMFbc=EMFb-EMFc

Thereore, the Simulink block model for the state space model of BLDC can be drawn
as shown.

Figure 10: State Space Model

3.5 TESTING OF OTHER COMPONENTS

After the motor was tested and its commutation sequence obtained, the next step in
the process is to test the remaining components i.e. the gate driver and the
MOSFETs.

3.5.1 Testing of MOSFET

The MOSFETs used in the inverter circuit (irf540) were tested using a digital
multimeter in the diode test range to ensure their working.

Connect the 'Source' of the MosFet to the meter's negative lead.


1) Hold the MosFet by the case, don't touch the metal parts of the test probes with
any of the other MosFet's terminals until needed.

19
2) First, touch the meter positive lead onto the MosFet's 'Gate'.

3) Now move the positive probe to the 'Drain'. You should get a 'low' reading. The
MosFet's internal capacitance on the gate has now been charged up by the meter and
the device is 'turned-on'.

4) With the meter positive still connected to the drain, touch a finger between source
and gate (and drain if you like, it does not matter at this stage). The gate will be
discharged through your finger and the meter reading should go high, indicating a
non-conductive device.

While this tes is not 100% accurate, it is useful to test whether the MOSFETs are in
working condition.

3.5.2 Testing of MOSFET driver

Figure 11: MOSFET driver circuit for one phase

In this project, IR2110 is used as the gate driving IC. For testing purpose the high
input and low input pins of the IC were fed from the Arduino and the output
waveforms were verified before connecting it to the inverter circuit. The waveforms
were analysed to ensure that two switches in the same phase leg are not turned on at
once which wouldve resulted in the short circuit of the MOSFET switches.

20
3.6 DESIGN OF PCB FOR INVERTER

After the components and the gate driver was tested, the next step was to fabricate a
PCB for the inverter circuit. ExpressPCB software was used to design the schematic
for the inverter circuit. Start by inserting the necessary components into the file and
dragging them into their necessary position. The connections are made by drawing
traces according to the figure given below. Once the design is complete, the same is
fabricated.

Figure 12: Inverter PCB outline for fabrication

21
CHAPTER IV

4. PROJECT DEMONSTRATION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

BLDC Motor Driver is MOSFET/IGBT based device which includes all the circuitry
needed to drive a three phase BLDC motor. In this configuration, three hall sensors
are placed at 120 electrical degrees apart around the motor shaft, detects the rotor
position in three phase motor. There are eight possible combinations for three hall
sensors inputs out of which six combinations are valid with 120 electrical degree
sensor phasing. For any Hall sensor input combination logic there is one output
configuration used to drive the motor. Rate of variation for three phase switching
signals depends on the average output voltage of PWM signal. Higher magnitude of
PWM signal allows higher current to flow through the motor which increases the
speed of motor. Therefore, Motor driver perform two tasks: (a) Electronic
commutation and (b) Implement PWM Current controller.

4.2 ANALYTICAL RESULTS

The MOSFET ratings are calculated on the basis of the motor.


Voltage rating > Motor rating = 60V (Standard rating of power Mosfet)
Current rating = Motor current rating *1.5 = 8*1.5=12A (minimum)
Frequency of PWM depends on maximum speed.
Maximum speed of motor = 4600 rpm = 76.667 rps.
Time taken for 1 rotation = 1/76.667 = 0.0130 s (Total time for one commutation
cycle -6)
Time taken for 1 Commutation step to complete (Assuming Uniform rotational
Speed) =0.0130/6 = 0.002174 S = 460 Hz.

Frequency of PWM 500 Hz. Therefore consider 3 kHz for PWM.

22
4.3 SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION

The state space model derived in section 3.4 is implemented by mathematical


modeling of the motor in Simulink.

Figure 13: Simulink model

The above model has 6 main sub-systems which are described in subsequent sub-
chapters.
Initially, the motor is at rest but as the model is mathematical the EMF will start
generating itself using the necessary equations. The motor position is detected and as
a result the gate pulses are generated to drive the gates which in turn drives the
BLDC motor. Here, instead of giving the PWM in the BLDC for speed control an
error controlled voltage sources is used i.e. whenever the error is zero the voltage
source is reduced to zero. This is similar to the PWM method where the average
voltage is varied by varying the on time of the pulse given to the Mosfet. Instead of

23
feeding a PWM to the MOSFET, an error signal is generated and fed to the Voltage
source. Thus the speed of the BLDC motor is controlled. A provision to give an
external load torque is also included in this model. The closed loop control of the
motor will make the speed of the motor to remain at the reference speed.
The simulation allows the user to view the Back Emf of the motor, Current output of
the motor, the speed in RPM, and the increasing value of theta so as to know the
actual position of the motor at any given instant.

4.3.1 Reference Speed

Figure 14: Reference speed sub-block

This block generates a speed signal which changes at specified times. In this
particular model the speed is kept at 2000 rpm for the time period 0 to 0.5 seconds
and at 0.5 second instant, the speed is reduced to 1000 rpm.

4.3.2 PI Controller

Figure 15: PI controller sub- block

The PI controlled produces the Error Signal Cs which is taken from the error
between Wactual and Wreference. The generated error signal is then used to control
the Voltage control source. The trial and error method of loop tuning is employed in

24
this project for the design of PI speed controller. This method is crude but could help
in getting an overview of what the PI parameters could be like and their effects on
the whole system model. In this tuning method: First set the Ki and Kp values to
zero. Increase the Kp until the output of the loop oscillates. Then increase Ki until
oscillation stops.

4.3.3 Converter and Inverter Bridge

Figure 16: Converter Inverter Bridge sub-block

The error signal generated from the PI block is fed into the controlled AC voltage
source. The given AC Voltage source is fed to Universal Bridge which consists of a
rectifier and controlled 3 phase inverter circuit. The Voltages are then converted into
line values and then sent to the output of the block for further calculations. The line
voltages are used as it will simplify the state space model and hence reduce the
computational time. The gate pulses are generated in the external EMF generator
which generates just the reference EMF and hence according to the EMF the pulses
are generated and fed to the 3 phase inverter which is there in the universal bridge.

4.3.4 BLDC state space model

The BLDC Block itself consists of three blocks for implementing the Equation 8 as
stated in the section 3.4. The current generator will generate the current of two

25
phases and the current of the third phase is calculated by the Kirchhoffs current rule.
After finding out the current, the currents are used with Emfs and load torque
provided externally to calculate the value of theta (Position of rotor) and then Wm,
the speed of the rotor. In the speed generator block, the value of theta and Wm is then
used to generate the Emfs value of the motor through the Emf generation block.

Figure 17: State space model sub block

As the Model is a mathematical model and state space equation are used to derive the
model. The real time simulation of the model is not possible through Simulink. This
is the reason the motor does not act as a real motor as the real motor is much more
complex compared to this model and there are many more parameters not included in
this model which are actually present in the BLDC motor.

Current Generator

26
Figure 18: Current Generator sub-block

Figure 19: State Equations

Figure 20: Current generator for Ia

The following current generators for Ia and Ib are mathematically calculated from
the state space equations given in equation 8. The state equations of both the currents
are blocked separately with functions.

F(Ia) = 2*u (1) +u (2)-2*u (3) +u (4) +u (5)-3*2.8750*u (6)


F(Ib) = -u (1) +u (2) +u (3)-2*u (4) +u (5)-3*2.8750*u (6)

27
Where u (1) = Vab, u (2) = Vbc, u (3) = Ea, u (4) = Eb, u (5) = Ec, u (6) = Ia/Ib.
Then the value integrated to give the value of the currents are then added negatively
and as per the Kirchhoffs current rule Ic= -Ia-Ib. is taken out.

Speed generator

Figure 21: Speed generator sub-block


The current and the EMFs are used with external mechanical load is used to find out
the We and then it is converted into Wm by multiplying it with P/2. The W (Speed) is
calculated using the equation 8. The Te is calculated using the equation 7.2.

Emf Generation

Figure 22: emf generation sub-block

The Emf is generated from the equations 4,5 and 6 according to the F(e). The
function is to generate the trapezoidal function to produce the Emf of the phases. A
28
cosine function is used, which is phases shifted by 120 degrees for the three phases.
In addition, a saturation block is included which will saturate the cos at 0.8 which
will give a trapezoidal wave.

Figure 23: Emf generation for Ea

The figure 21 gives the output for Ea, for Eb the Cos (u (1)) will become Cos(u(1)-
2/3) and Cos (u (1) +2/3) for Ec. Then the combined Emf values are sent to the
speed generator block for speed calculations. So BLDC State space model calculates
currents and EMFs of the phases, Theta and Speed in rad/s. This values are then
utilized to find out the position of the motor and hence to generate the pulsed as per
it.

4.3.5 EMF generation

Figure 24: EMF generation for detecting rotor position

[As the state space model doesnt have a hall sensor. The rotor sensor has to be
derived from the Emf of the BLDC motor.]

29
Initially the angle theta is converted to degree using Rad to Deg block. Then the
Reference Emfs of the phases is calculated using the Matlab function.
function y=emfg(u)
if (u>-180)&&(u<=-120)
y=[-1;0;1]; elseif(u>-120)&&(u<=-60)
y=[0;-1;1]; elseif(u>-60)&&(u<=0)
y=[1;-1;0]; elseif(u>0)&&(u<=60)
y=[1;0;-1]; elseif(u>60)&&(u<=120)
y=[0;1;-1]; elseif(u>120)&&(u<=180)
y=[-1;1;0]; end

This function calculates the Emfs and then gives an output for calculation of gate
sequence according to the position of the motor.

4.3.6 Gate Pulse Generator

Figure 25: Gate pulse generator sub-block

The gate pulses are generated as per the commutation tabled attached with the
diagram. It states the commutation sequence for the particular position of the motor.
Emf is generated according to the commutation table and it gives the pulses for the
three phase inverter in the converter and inverter bridge.

30
4.4 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION

The hardware implementation of the project is done using four main blocks i.e.
Controller, Driver Circuit, Inverter Circuit and BLDC motor. The testing of which is
already done using the techniques discussed under Section 3.5 After testing the
complete circuit was assembled and tested again.

4.4.1 The Gate Driver Circuit

The IR2110/IR2113 are high voltage, high speed power MOSFET and IGBT drivers
with independent high and low side referenced output channels. HIN and LIN are the
logic inputs. A high signal to HIN means that you want to drive the high-side
MOSFET, meaning a high output is provided on HO. A low signal to HIN means that
you want to turn off the high-side MOSFET, meaning a low output is provided on
HO. The output to HO high or low is not with respect to ground, but with respect
to VS. A bootstrap circuitry (diode + capacitor) is used to provide the floating supply
to drive the MOSFET. Vs is the high side floating supply return. When high, the
level on HO is equal to the level on VB, with respect to VS. When low, the level on
HO is equal to VS, with respect to VS, effectively zero.
A high signal to LIN means that you want to drive the low-side MOSFET, meaning a
high output is provided on LO. A low signal to LIN means that you want to turn off
the low-side MOSFET, meaning a low output is provided on LO. The output on LO
is with respect to ground. When high, the level on LO is equal to the level of VCC,
with respect to VSS, effectively ground. When low, the level on LO is equal to the
level on VSS, with respect to VSS, effectively zero.
The gate driver circuit receives pulses from the processor to generate the necessary
pulses to drive the inverter switches as per switching sequence.

31
Figure 26: Gate driver circuit for phase A and B using IR2110

4.4.2 Inverter Circuit

The inverter circuit using MOSETs are pulsed from the gate driver circuit and hence,
are driven in sequence to run the BLDC motor. The design for the inverter discussed
in section 3.5 is printed on a PCB and the MOSFETs are soldered.

Figure 27: Inverter circuit using irf540

32
4.4.3 Arduino Uno

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. It has 14


digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a
16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a
reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply
connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or
battery to get started. In this project the Arduino Uno is used as the processor which
reads and analyses the hall sensor outputs and generates the necessary pulses to the
gate driver circuit accordingly.

33
CHAPTER V

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.1 SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 28: Speed (in rpm) Vs Time(in seconds)

The above figure shows the Speed vs. Time graph for the reference input speed [2000
1000] for the time period [0 0.5]. An external load torque is applied at the instant
t=0.2 seconds which counts for the slight dip in speed at that instant. The PI
controller, however makes up for this external torque and brings the speed back to
2000 rpm.
Figure 28 shows the change in back emf as the speed of the motor changes from
2000 rpm to 1000 rpm at the instant t=0.5 seconds. In figure 29, we can see that the

34
on application of the load torque the back emf experiences a slight reduction but this
is almost instantly recovered from.

Figure 29: Back emf (in Volts) Vs. Time (in seconds)

Figure 30: Effect of Load Torque on Back emf

35
Figure 31: Current (in amps) Vs. Time (in seconds)

Figure 32: Effect of load torque on current

In figure 30, the currents of the three phases are depicted. At t=0.5 seconds the speed
of the motor is decreased to 1000 rpm and the subsequent fall in current drawn can be
seen.
In figure 31, the current drawn by the motor increases when a load torque is applied
externally at t=0.2 seconds.

36
Figure 33: Inverter DC voltage output

The Modelling of the BLDC using the state space model is done and simulated in the
Simulink and the related outputs are taken from it. The above simulations are done in
Matlab and not simulated on OPEL RT software. So the above results cannot be taken
as the real time output of the motor. The Model also considers many assumptions due
to which the results are not as expected from the real time motor. The assumptions
include.
1. Stator resistance and self-inductance of all phases are equal and constant and mutual
inductance is taken zero.
2. Hysteresis and eddy current losses are eliminated.
3. All semiconductor switches are ideal.

5.2 HARDWARE RESULTS

Each hardware circuit was separately tested and each output individually verified. This
way any complications that arise in any particular circuit can be rectified easily. This
step is important because as the full setup is completed and then if any problem arises
then it will be difficult to determine where the problem has arisen.

37
5.2.1 Hall sensor output

The Hall sensor module was also tested to see the Hall sensor Voltage outputs
depending on which the inverter MOSFET switches are triggered in the required
sequence.

Figure 34: Hall sensor output for phase A and B

Figure 35: Hall sensor output for phase A and C

38
5.2.2 IR2110 driver circuit

The driver circuit was designed as shown in section 3.5.2 The driver was then fed
from the Arduino and the output pulses were checked.

Figure 36: IR2110 driver circuit outputs

Figure 33 shows the pulses for the high switches of all three phases. The output
pulses generated have a voltage of 12 Volts. Figure 34 shows that there is a slight
disturbance in the pulses when the BLDC motor is fed from the inverter, this is due
to the fact that BLDC motor acts as an inductive load.

Figure 37: IR2110 driver circuit outputs with motor connected

39
5.2.3 Inverter Circuit

The inverter MOSFETs are fed from the driver circuit. Gate current limiting resistors
are added to the circuit to limit the current flowing to gate of the MOSFETs. The line
voltages from the inverter are obtained and shown in the figures below.

Figure 38: Inverter output for line voltages AB and AC

Figure 39: Inverter output for line voltages BA and BC

40
Figure 40: Inverter output for line voltages CA and CB

Figure 41: Inverter outputs AB, AC (in V) and Ia (in Amps)

41
Figure 42: Inverter outputs BA, BC (in V) and Ib (in Amps)

Figure 43: Inverter outputs CA, CB (in V) and Ic (in Amps)

5.2.4 BLDC motor output

Once the motor was operated using the pulses generated from the inverter, the
voltage and current drawn by the motor as well as the speed of the motor was noted
down for different frequencies. The supply voltage was applied such that the motor
shaft rotates at its smoothest operation. The recorded output is tabulated as shown in
the below table.

42
Frequency (in Supply Voltage Output Voltage Current (in Speed (in rpm)
Hz) (in V) (in V) Amps.)
20.80 7.5 16 7.4 612
16.67 5.9 17 7.6 496
13.88 6.2 17.8 13.2 398
11.11 3.8 14 10 300
8.33 4 14.4 8.7 200

Table 3: BLDC motor outputs

43
CHAPTER VI

6. CONCLUSION

6.1 COST ANALYSIS

Reliable cost estimates are necessary for responsible fiscal management at every

stage of the project. Unreliable cost estimates cause significant problems for

budgeting as well as local and regional planning. Unreliable cost estimates may also

lead to staffing and budgeting decisions that use resources incorrectly or inefficiently.

The cost estimate for this project is as follows

S. No Component Cost (in rupees)


1 BLDC motor 12,000
2 PCB Board fabrication 1,500
3 Arduino Uno 600
4 MOSFET 700
5 Driver circuit 1000
6 Miscellaneous 300
16,100
Table 4: Cost estimation

6.2 FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK

As the name implies, BLDC motor does not use brushes for commutation, instead
they are electronically commutated. BLDC motor have advantage over brushed DC
motor and induction motor as better speed and torque characteristic, high dynamic
response, high efficiency, long operation life and noiseless operation. Future scope of
BLDC motor is improvement in speed control using closed loop technique with
predictive control. Predictive control is a predictive control algorithm that uses
variation trend to regulate. Predictive control has a variety of forms in

44
practical application but no matter what form, all can be summarized as predictive
models, rolling optimization, error correcting three basic characteristics. The role of
prediction models is predicting the output in the next period of time. The motor
speed can be changed smoothly by the way of adjusting voltage to control the speed.
Meanwhile, because the electromagnetic torque of the brushless DC motor is directly
proportional to the rotor current, the motor load torque signal feedback is helpful to
improve the load capacity of the motor. In order to improve the speed control system
quickly and anti-disturbance capacity, the design of the speed control system here
takes the structure of double-loop. The other future scope is hybrid integrator back
stepping controller, i.e. proposed for robotic manipulators actuated with brushless dc
motors in the presence of arbitrary uncertain inertia parameters of the manipulator
and the electrical parameters of the actuators. And advancement in it leads to the
study of the control of robots actuated by the BLDCM i.e. relatively recent. In a
robust feedback linearizing control was proposed. By using integrator back Stepping
techniques, robust and adaptive controllers are proposed, respectively. We can also
go for Fuzzy logic controller instead of Arduino

6.3 SUMMARY

Arduino Uno with the help of hall sensor module has been employed for the speed
control of PMBLDC motor drive and analysis of results of the performance of a
controller is presented. The modeling and simulation of the complete drive system is
described in this thesis. Design and testing of the gate driver circuit has been carried
out. Testing of inverter component and PCB fabrication for inverter has been done.
The development of the necessary software coding required for the proposed speed
control BLDC drive has been carried out.

45
REFERENCES

1. U. Neethu; V. R. Jisha, Speed control of Brushless DC Motor: A comparative


study- IEEE-ISBN: 978-1-4673-4506-4.
2. P. Pillay; Dept. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Newcastle-Upon-Tyne Univ., UK;
R. Krishnan, Modeling simulation and analysis of a permanent magnet
brushless dc motor drive, presented at the IEEE IAS Annual Meeting,
Atlanta, 1987.
3. R. Krishnan, Selection criteria for BLDC motor drives, in Proc.IEEE IAS
Annu. Meeting, 1986, pp. 301-308.
4. Mohamad Jamil Hammoud, Drive and Control of a Brushless DC Motor
(BLDC), the Lebanese University, 2013.
5. M.Gopal Digital control and state variable methods Tata McGraw Hill
second edition.
6. Generate your own commutation table part
https://e2e.ti.com/blogs_/b/motordrivecontrol/archive/2013/12/20/generate-
your-owncommutation-table-part-2 .
7. R. Krishna, electric motor drives (modeling, analysis and control), low
price Edition.
8. http://tahmidmc.blogspot.in/2013/05/debugging-bridge-tips-
tosuccessfully.html?m=1
9. Sudhanshu Mitra, R.Saida Nayak, Ravi Prakash; Modeling and Simulation of
BLDC Motor using MATLAB/SIMULINK Environment- International
Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 02 Issue:
08 | Nov-2015
10. Manali P.Chavhan, Sanjay M.Shinde; Modeling and Simulation of a
Controller of Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle Application,(NC-
ITSE'16), Volume: 4,Issue: 7
11. Shivraj Sdudhe, Archana G Thosar; Mathematical Modelling And Simulation
Of Three Phase BLDC Motor Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, International
Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov., 2014.
12.

46
APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Arduino Uno coding for commutation

int HU = 0;
int HV =0 ;
int HW = 0;
int AH = 7;
int AL = 8;
int BH = 9;
int BL = 10;
int CH = 11;
int CL = 12;
void setup() {
// put your setup code here, to run once:
// Serial.begin(8600);
pinMode(CL, OUTPUT);
pinMode(CH, OUTPUT);
pinMode(BL, OUTPUT);
pinMode(BH, OUTPUT);
pinMode(AL, OUTPUT);
pinMode(AH, OUTPUT);
pinMode(A0, INPUT);
pinMode(A1, INPUT);
pinMode(A2, INPUT);

void loop() {
HU=analogRead(A0);
HV=analogRead(A1);
HW=analogRead(A2);

if (HU >= 255 && HV == 0 && HW == 0)


{
digitalWrite(CL, HIGH);
digitalWrite(CH, LOW);
digitalWrite(BL, LOW);
digitalWrite(BH, LOW);
digitalWrite(AL, LOW);
digitalWrite(AH, HIGH);
delay(10);

47
}
else if (HU == 0 && HV == 0 && HW >= 255)
{

digitalWrite(CL, LOW);
digitalWrite(CH, LOW);
digitalWrite(BL, HIGH);
digitalWrite(BH, LOW);
digitalWrite(AL, LOW);
digitalWrite(AH, HIGH);
delay(10);
}
else if (HU == 0 && HV >= 255 && HW >= 255)
{

digitalWrite(CH, HIGH);
digitalWrite(CL, LOW);
digitalWrite(BH, LOW);
digitalWrite(BL, HIGH);
digitalWrite(AL, LOW);
digitalWrite(AH, LOW);
delay(10);
}
else if (HU == 0 && HV >= 255 && HW == 0)
{

digitalWrite(CL, LOW);
digitalWrite(CH, HIGH);
digitalWrite(BH, LOW);
digitalWrite(BL, LOW);
digitalWrite(AH, LOW);
digitalWrite(AL, HIGH);

delay(10);
}
else if (HU >= 255 && HW == 0 && HV >= 255)
{
digitalWrite(CH, LOW);
digitalWrite(CL, LOW);
digitalWrite(BL, LOW);
digitalWrite(BH, HIGH);
digitalWrite(AL, HIGH);
digitalWrite(AH, LOW);

delay(10);
}
else if (HV == 0 && HU >= 255 && HW == 0)
{

48
digitalWrite(CH, LOW);
digitalWrite(CL, HIGH);
digitalWrite(BH, HIGH);
digitalWrite(BL, LOW);
digitalWrite(AL, LOW);
digitalWrite(AH, LOW);

delay(10);
}

49
Appendix 2: IRF540 Datasheet

50
51
52
Appendix 3: IR2110 Datasheet

53
54
55
56
CURRICULUMVITAE

(Short Bio-data of the student)


1. Name :

2. Date of Birth :

3. Email :

4. Address for Communication :

5. Education :

6. Interests :

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