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Planar Detonations and Detonation


AE/ME 6766: Combustion

Wenting Sun

ZND Model: Detonation Structure
Generally, molecular collisions that equilibrate P and
translational energy precede chemical reactions
Characteristic momentum transfer collision < 1 ns
Characteristic chemical reactions > O(1 ms)

Suggests detonation is
leading shock followed
by reaction zone
Shock raises P and T
M goes subsonic
Autoignition after
Heat release, T , P , x
like deflagration shock
Induction zone reaction zone
Weak Detonations

After leading shock wave,

flow reduced to subsonic
To achieve weak
detonation, flow must
reaccelerate to M2>1
If induction/reaction zones
only have heat release
Would violate 2nd law
Cant go from subsonic to supersonic 1D flow with
heat addition (q>0 always drives toward M=1)
Weak Detonations

Look at path on Rayleigh Hugoniot

To go from d to e, need negative heat release

(endothermic reactions)
Requires chemistry to overshoot equilibrium
Chapman-Jouget Detonations
No weak (unallowed), strong (unstable) detonation

1/r1 1/r
Only leaves Chapman-Jouget solution
C-J detonation is planar detonation solution
We have constraint to add to 5 conservation and state
equations: M2=1 6 eqs., 6 unknowns
CJ Detonation Equations

Find detonation wave speed, D=u1 and product

properties (r2/r1, P2/P1, T2/T1, u2)
CJ constraint u2 a2
P2 / r 2
r2 r2 R
Mass D u2 2 T2
r1 r1 MW2

Rayleigh 1 P1 P2 r2 1 P1
2M 2
1 1
r 2 r1 1 r1 2 P2
r2 1 2 1
For strong detonation, P2/P1>>1 1
r1 2 2
2 1 R
D 2 T2 D( 2 , MW2 , T2 )
2 MW2 6
CJ Detonation Equations
Virial, P.G. P2 r 2 T2 MW2

P1 r1 T1 MW1
In above equations, still need product composition
to get 2, MW2, and T2
High P, T assume products in chem. equilibrium
Small changes in radical populations/pollutants will
not change product properties significantly
Hugoniot 1 1 1
h2 h1 P2 P1
2 r1 r 2

1 2
e2 e1 P2 P1

2 P2 r 2 2 2 MW2
Guess P2, T2; find Yi2 r2/r1D, P2/P1T2: iterate 7
Example: H2-air CJ Detonation

298 K, 1 atm

Detonation Limits

298 K, 1 atm
Dont get

Velocity (m/s)
steady, self-
detonation if
mixture is too
rich or too lean
Not equil. issue
3D Detonation Structure

Front Propagation

From: Timmes, et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 543:938-954, 2000
Experimental Evidence
Smoke foil records triple point tracks

24 mm

34 mm 12
Triple Point Region