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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,


28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for


shallow foundations on granular soil

Braja M. Das
Dean Emeritus, California State University, Sacramento, U.S.A., brajamdas@gmail.com

Cavit Atalar
Department of Civil Engineering, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus, catalar@neu.edu.tr

Eun Chul Shin


Dept. Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Incheon, Incheon, Korea,
ecshin@incheon.ac.kr

KEYWORDS: Cone penetration test, elastic settlement, granular soil, shallow foundation, standard
penetration test

ABSTRACT: Developments in major procedures available in the literature relating to elastic


settlement of shallow foundations supported by granular soil are presented and compared. The
discrepancies between the observed and the predicted settlement are primarily due to the inability to
estimate the modulus of elasticity of soil using the results of the standard penetration tests and/or
cone penetration tests. Based on the procedures available at this time, recommendations have been
made for the best estimation of settlement of foundations.

1 INTRODUCTION

The estimation of settlement of shallow foundations is an important topic in the design and
construction of buildings and other related structures. In general, settlement of a foundation consists
of two major componentselastic settlement (Se) and consolidation settlement (Sc). In turn, the
consolidation settlement of a submerged clay layer has two parts; that is, the contribution of primary
consolidation settlement (Sp) and that due to secondary consolidation (Ss). For a foundation supported
by granular soil within the zone of influence of stress distribution, the elastic settlement is the only
component that needs consideration. This paper is a general overview of various aspects of the
elastic settlement of shallow foundations supported by granular soil deposits. During the last fifty
years or so, a number of procedures have been developed to predict elastic settlement; however, there
is a lack of a reliable standardized procedure.

2 ELASTIC SETTLEMENT CALCULATION PROCEDURESGENERAL

Various methods to calculate the elastic settlement available at the present time can be divided into
two general categories. They are as follows:

1. Methods Based on Observed Settlement of Structures and Full Scale Prototypes. These methods
are empirical or semi-empirical in nature and are correlated with the results of the standard in
situ tests such as the standard penetration test (SPT), the cone penetration test (CPT), the flat
dilatometer test, and the Pressuremeter test (PMT). The procedures usually referred to in practice
now are those developed by Terzaghi and Peck (1948, 1967), Meyerhof (1956, 1965), DeBeer

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

and Martens (1957), Hough (1969), Peck and Bazaraa (1969), Schmertmann (1970),
Schmertmann et al. (1978), Burland and Burbidge (1985), Briaud (2007), and Lee et al. (2008).
2. Methods Based on Theoretical Relationships Derived from the Theory of Elasticity. The
relationships for settlement calculation available in this category contain the term modulus of
elasticity (Es).
The general outline for some of these methods is given in the following sections.

METHODS BASED ON OBSERVED SETTLEMENT

3 TERZAGHI AND PECKS METHOD

Terzaghi and Peck (1948) proposed the following empirical relationship between the settlement (Se)
of a prototype foundation measuring BB in plan and the settlement of a test plate [Se(1)] measuring
B1B1 loaded to the same intensity

Se 4
= (1)
S e (1) B1 2
1 +
B

Although a full-sized footing can be used for a load test, the normal practice is to employ a plate of
the order of 0.3 m to 1 m. Bjerrum and Eggestad (1963) provided the results of 14 sets of load
settlement tests. This is shown in Figure 1 along with the plot of Eq. (1). For these tests, B1 was 0.35
m for circular plates and 0.32 m for square plates. It is obvious from Figure 1 that, although the
general trend is correct, Eq. (1) represents approximately the lower limit of the field test results.
Bazaraa (1967) also provided several field test results. Figure 2 shows the plot of Se/Se(1) versus B/B1
for all tests results provide by Bjerrum and Eggestad (1963) and Bazaraa (1967) as compiled by
DAppolonia et al. (1970). The overall results with the expanded data base are similar to those in
Figure 1 as they relate to Eq. (1).
Terzaghi and Peck (1948, 1967) proposed a correlation for the allowable bearing capacity,
standard penetration number (N60), and the width of the foundation (B) corresponding to a 25 -mm
settlement based on the observation given by Eq. (1). This correlation is shown in Figure 3. The
curves shown in Figure 3 can be approximated by the relation
2
3q B
Se (mm) = (2)
N 60 B + 0.3

where q = bearing pressure in kN/m2


B = width of foundation (m)
If corrections for ground water table location and depth of embedment are included, then Eq. (2)
takes the form

2
3q B
Se = CW CD (3)
N 60 B + 0.3

where CW = ground water table correction


CD = correction for depth of embedment = 1 (Df /4B)
Df = depth of embedment
The magnitude of CW is equal to 1.0 if the depth of water table is greater than or equal to 2B
below the foundation, and it is equal to 2.0 if the depth of water table is less than or equal to B below
the foundation. The N60 value that is to be used in Eqs. (2) and (3) should be the average value of N60
up to a depth of about 3B to 4B measured from the bottom of the foundation.

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Figure 1 Variation of Se/Se(1) versus B/B1 from the load settlement results of Bjerrum and Eggestad (1963)
(Note: B1 = 0.36 m for circular plates and 0.32 m for square plates).

Figure 2 Variation of Se/Se(1) versus B/B1 based on the data of Bjerrum and Eggestad (1963) and Bazaraa
(1967) (adapted from DAppolonia et al., 1970).

Jayapalan and Boehm (1986) and Papadopoulos (1992) summarized the case histories of 79
foundations. Sivakugan et al (1998) used those case histories to compare with the settlement
predicted by the Terzaghi and Peck method. This comparison is shown in Figure 4. It can be seen
from this figure that, in general, the predicted settlements were significantly higher than those
observed. The average value of Se(predicted)/Se(observed) 2.18.
Similar observations were also made by Bazaraa (1967). With B1 = 0.3 m, Eq. (1) can be
rewritten as

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
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Figure 3. Terzaghi and Pecks (1948, 1967) recommendation for allowable bearing capacity for 25-mm
settlement variation with B and N60.

2
Se
= 4
B

Se (1) B + 0.3

or

B = 1 Se
2

(4)
B + 0.3 4 Se (1)

Combining Eqs. (2) and (4)

3q 1 Se
Se =

N 60 4 Se (1)

or

q N 60
= (5)
Se (1) 0.75

Bazaraa (1967) plotted a large number of plate load test results (B1 = 0.3 m) in the form of q/Se(1)
versus N60 as shown in Figure 5. It can be seen that the relationship given by Eq. (5) is very
conservative. In fact, q/Se(1) versus N60/0.5 will more closely represent the lower limiting condition.

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
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Figure 4. Sivakugan et al.s (1998) comparison of predicted with observed settlement for 79 foundations
predicted settlement based on Terzaghi and Peck method (1948, 1967).

Figure 5. Bazaraas plate load test resultsplot of q/Se(1) versus N60.

4 MEYERHOFS METHOD

In 1956, Meyerhof proposed relationships for the elastic settlement of foundations on granular soil
similar to Eq. (2). In 1965 he compared the predicted (by the relationships proposed in 1956) and
observed settlements of eight structures and suggested that the allowable pressure (q) for a desired
magnitude of Se can be increased by 50% compared to what he recommended in 1956. The revised
relationships including the correction factors for water table location (CW) and depth of embedment
(CD) can be expressed as

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

1.25q
S e = CW C D (for B 1.22 m) (6)
N 60

and

2
2q B
Se = CW CD (for B > 1.22 m) (7)
N 60 B + 0.3

CW = 1.0 (8)

and

Df
CD = 1.0 (9)
4B

If these equations are used to predict the settlement of the 79 foundations shown in Figure 4, then we
will obtain Se(predicted)/Se(observed) 1.46. Hence, the predicted settlements will overestimate the
observed values by about 50% on the average.
Table 1 shows the comparison of the maximum observed settlements of mat foundations
considered by Meyerhof (1965) and the settlements predicted by Eq. (7). The ratios of the predicted
to observed settlements are generally in the range of 0.8 to 2. This is also what Meyerhof concluded
in his 1965 paper.

Table 1. Comparison of observed maximum settlements provided by Meyerhof (1965) for eight mat
foundations with those predicted by Eq. (7)
Maximum Se(predicted) S e ( predicted)
B Average q Se(observed) by Eq. (7)
Structure (m) N60 (kN/m2) (mm) (mm) S e ( observed )
T. Edison, Sao Paulo 18.3 15 229.8 15.24 29.66 1.95
Banco do Brasil, Sao Paulo 22.9 18 239.4 27.94 25.74 0.99
Iparanga, Sao Paulo 9.15 9 220.2 35.56 45.88 1.29
C.B.I. Esplanada, Sao Paulo 14.6 22 383.0 27.94 33.43 1.20
Riscala, Sao Paulo 3.96 20 229.8 12.70 19.86 1.56
Thyssen, Dusseldorf 22.6 25 239.4 24.13 18.65 0.77
Ministry, Dusseldorf 15.9 20 220.4 21.59 21.23 0.98
Chimney, Cologne 20.4 10 172.4 10.16 33.49 3.30
Average 1.5

5 DE BEER AND MARTENS METHOD

DeBeer and Martens (1957) and DeBeer (1965) proposed the following relationship to estimate the
elastic settlement of a foundation

2.3 +
Se = log10 o H (10)
C o

where C = a constant of proportionality


o = effective overburden pressure at the depth considered
= increase in pressure at that depth due to foundation loading
H = thickness of the layer considered
The value of C can be approximated as

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
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qc
C 1.5 (11)
o
where qc = cone penetration resistance.
Equation (10) is essentially in the form of the relationship for estimating the consolidation
settlement of normally consolidated clay. We can rewrite Eq. (10) as

Cc +
Se = H log10 o (12)
1 + eo o

Cc
where = 1.5 o (13)
1 + eo qc

Cc = compression index
eo = in situ void ratio
For the field cases considered by DeBeer and Martens (1957), the average ratio of predicted to
observed settlement was about 1.9. DeBeer (1965) further observed that the above stated method
only applies to normally consolidated sands. For overconsolidated sand, a reduction factor needs to
be applied which can be obtained from cyclic loading tests carried out in an oedometer. Hough
(1969) expressed Cc in Eq. (12) as

Cc = a ( eo b) (14)

Approximate values of a and b are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Values of a and b from Eq. (14) (based on Hough, 1969)


Value of constant
Type of soil
a b*
Uniform cohesionless material (uniformity coefficient Cu 2)
Clean gravel 0.05 0.50
Coarse sand 0.06 0.50
Medium sand 0.07 0.50
Fine sand 0.08 0.50
Inorganic silt 0.10 0.50
Well-graded cohesionless soil
Silty sand and gravel 0.09 0.20
Clean, coarse to fine sand 0.12 0.35
Coarse to fine silty sand 0.15 0.25
Sandy silt (inorganic) 0.18 0.25
*
The value of the constant b should be taken as emin whenever the latter is known
or can conveniently be determined. Otherwise, use tabulated values as a rough
approximation.

6 THE METHOD OF PECK AND BAZARAA

Peck and Bazaraa (1969) recognized that the original Terzaghi and Peck method in Section 3 was
overly conservative and revised Eq. (3) to the following form
2
2q B
Se = CW CD (15)
( N1 )60 B + 0.3

where Se is in mm, q is in kN/m2, and B is in m

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(N1)60 = corrected standard penetration number

o at 0.5B below the bottom of the foundation


CW = (16)
o at 0.5B below the bottom of the foundation

o = total overburden pressure


o = effective overburden pressure

0 .5
D
CD = 1.0 0.4 f (17)
q

= unit weight of soil


The relationships for (N1)60 are as follow:

4 N 60
( N 1 ) 60 = (for o 75 kN/m2 ) (18)
1 + 0.04 o

and

4 N 60
( N 1 )60 = (for o > 75 kN/m2 ) (19)
3.25 + 0.01 o

where o is the effective overburden pressure (kN/m2)


DAppolonia et al. (1970) compared the observed settlement of several shallow foundations from
several structures in Indiana (USA) with those estimated using the Peck and Bazaraa method, and
this is shown in Figure 6. It can be seen from this figure that the calculated settlement from theory
greatly overestimates the observed settlement. It appears that this solution will provide nearly the
level of settlement that was obtained from Meyerhofs revised relationships (Section 5).

Figure 6 Plot of measured versus predicted settlement based on Peck and Bazaraas method (adapted from
DAppolonia et al., 1970).

7 STRAIN INFLUENCE FACTOR METHOD

Based on the theory of elasticity, the equation for vertical strain z at a depth below the center of a
flexible circular load of diameter B, can be given as

q(1 + s )
z= [(1 2 s ) A + B]
Es

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
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or

z Es
Iz = = (1 + s )[(1 2 s ) A + B ] (20)
q

where A' and B' = f (z/B)


q = load per unit area
Es = modulus of elasticity
s = Poissons ratio
Iz = strain influence factor
Figure 7 shows the variation of Iz with depth based on Eq. (20) for s = 0.4 and 0.5. The
experimental results of Eggestad (1963) for variation of Iz are also given in this figure. Considering
both the theoretical and experimental results cited in Figure 7, Schmertmann (1970) proposed a
simplified distribution of Iz with depth that is generally referred to as 2B0.6Iz distribution and it is
also shown in Figure 7. According to the simplified method,

2B Iz
Se = C1C2 q z (21)
o Es

where q = net effective pressure applied at the level of the foundation


q
C1 = correction factor for embedment of foundation = 1 0.5 o (22)
q
qo = effective overburden pressure at the level of the foundation

t
C2 = correction factor to account for creep in soil = 1 + 0.2 log (23)
0.1
t = time, in years
For use in Eq. (21) and the strain influence factor shown in Figure 7, it was recommended that

E S = 2 qc (24)

where qc = cone penetration resistance

Figure 7 Theoretical and experimental distribution of vertical strain influence factor below the center of a
circular loaded area (based on Schmertmann, 1970).

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Figure 8 Sivakugan et al.s comparison (1998) of predicted and observed settlements from 79 foundations
predicted settlement based on 2B0.6Iz procedure.

Figure 9 Revised strain influence factor diagram suggested by Schmertmann et al. (1978).

Sivakugan et al. (1998) used the case histories of the 79 foundations given in Figure 4 and
compared those with the settlements obtained using the strain influence factor shown in Figure 7 and
Eq. (21), and this is shown in Figure 8. From this figure, it can be seen that se(predicted)/Se(observed) 3.39.
Schmertmann et al. (1978) modified the strain influence factor variation (2B0.6Iz) shown in
Figure 7. The revised distribution is shown in Figure 9 for use in Eqs. (21)(23). According to this,
For square or circular foundations:
Iz = 0.1 at z = 0
Iz(peak) at z = zp = 0.5B
Iz = 0 at z = zo = 2B
For foundations with L/B 10:
Iz = 0.2 at z = 0
Iz(peak) at z = zp = B
Iz = 0 at z = zo = 4B
where L = length of foundation. For L/B between 1 and 10, interpolation can be done. Also

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
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0.5
q
I z ( peak ) = 0.5 + 0.1 (25)
o

The value of o in Eq. (25) is the effective overburden pressure at a depth where Iz(peak) occurs.
Salgado (2008) gave the following interpolation for Iz at z = 0, zp, and zo (for L/B = 1 to L/B 10.

L
I z ( at z =0 ) = 0.1 + 0.0111 0.2 (26)
B

zp L
= 0.5 + 0.0555 1 1 (27)
B B

zo L
= 2 + 0.222 1 4 (28)
B B

Noting that stiffness is about 40% larger for plane strain compared to axisymmetric loading,
Schmertmann et al. (1978) recommended that.

E s = 2.5qc (for square and circular foundations) (29)

and

E s = 3.5qc (for strip foundation) (30)


With the modified strain-influence factor diagram,

z = zo Iz
S e = C1C2 z (31)
z =0 Es

The modified strain influence factor and Eqs. (29) and (30) will definitely reduce the average ratio of
predicted to observed settlement. However, it may still overestimate the actual elastic settlement in
the field.

8 RECENT MODIFICATIONS IN STRAIN-INFLUENCE FACTOR DIAGRAMS

More recently some modifications have been proposed to the strain-influence factor diagram
suggested by Schmertmann et al. (1978). Two of these suggestions are discussed below.

8.1 Modification Suggested by Terzaghi, Peck and Mesri (1996)

The modification suggested by Terzaghi et al. (1996) is shown in Figure 10. For this case, for surface
foundation condition (that is, Df/B = 0)

Iz = 0.2 at z = 0
Iz = Iz(peak) = 0.6 at z = zp = 0.5B
Iz = 0 at z = zo

L
zo = 2 1 + log 4 (32)
B

For Df/B > 0, Iz should be modified to I z . Figure 11 shows the variation of I z / I z with Df/B.

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
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Figure 10 Strain influence diagram suggested by Terzaghi et al. (1996).

Figure 11 Variation of I z / I z with Df/B (after Terzaghi et al. 1996).

The end of construction settlement can be estimated as

z = zo I z
Se = q z (33)
z =0 Es

The settlement due to creep can be calculated as

0.1 t
Screep = zo log days (34)
qc 1 day

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
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where qc = weighted mean value of measured qc values of sublayers between z = 0 and z = zo


(MN/m2)
It has also been suggested that

Es( L / B ) L
= 1 + 0.4 log 1.4 (35)
E s ( L / B =1) B

where E s ( L / B =1) = 3.5qc (36)

Figure 12 shows the plot of Es versus qc from 81 foundations and 92 plate load tests on which Eq.
(36) has been established. The magnitude of Es recommended by Eq. (36) is about 40% higher than
that obtained from Eq. (29). Figure 13 shows a comparison of the end-of-construction predicted
[using Eqs. (33), (35) and (36)] and measured settlement of foundations on sand and gravelly soils
(Terzaghi et al., 1996).

Figure 12 Correlation between Es and qc for square and circularly loaded areas [adapted from Terzaghi et al.
(1996)].

Figure 13 Comparison of end of construction predicted and measured Se of foundations on sand and gravelly
soils based on Eqs. (33), (35) and (36) [adapted from Terzaghi et al. (1996)].

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
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8.2 Modification Suggested by Lee et al. (2008)

Based on finite element analysis, Lee et al. (2008) suggested the following modifications to the strain
influence factor diagram suggested by Schmertmann et al. (1978). This assumes that Iz(peak) and Iz at z
= 0 is the same as given by Eqs. (25) and (26). However Eqs. (27) and (28) are modified as

zp L L
= 0.5 + 0.11 1 with a maximum of 1 at = 6 (37)
B B B

zo L L
= 0.95 cos 1 + 3 with a maximum at = 6 (38)
B 5 B B

With these modifications, the elastic settlement can be calculated using Eq. (21).

9 METHOD OF BURLAND AND BURBIDGE (1985)

Burland and Burbidge (1985) proposed a method for calculating the elastic settlement of sandy soil
using the field standard penetration number N60. The method can be summarized as follows:

9.1 Determination of Variation of Standard Penetration Number with Depth

Obtain the field penetration numbers (N60) with depth at the location of the foundation. The
following adjustments of N60 may be necessary, depending on the field conditions:

For gravel or sandy gravel,

N 60(a) 1.25N 60 (39)

For fine sand or silty sand below the ground water table and N60 > 15,
N 60(a) 15 + 0.5( N 60 15) (40)

where N60(a) = adjusted N60 value

9.2 Determination of Depth of Stress Influence (z)

In determining the depth of stress influence, the following three cases may arise:
Case I. If N60 [or N60(a)] is approximately constant with depth, calculate z' from
0 .75
z B
= 1.4 (41)
BR BR

where BR = reference width = 0.3 m


B = width of the actual foundation (m)
Case II. If N60 [or N60(a)] is increasing with depth, use Eq. (41) to calculate z'.
Case III. If N60 [or N60(a)] is decreasing with depth, calculate z' = 2B and z' = distance from the
bottom of the foundation to the bottom of the soft soil layer (= z"). Use z' = 2B or z' = z" (whichever
is smaller).

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
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9.3 Determination of Depth of Stress Influence Correction Factor

The correction factor is given as

H H
= 2 1 (42)
z z

where H = thickness of the compressible layer

9.4 Calculation of Elastic Settlement

The elastic settlement of the foundation Se can be calculated as:


A. For normally consolidated soil
2
L
Se 1.71 1.25 B B
0 .7
q
= 0.14 (43)
1.4
BR [
N 60 orN 60(a) ] 0.25 + L
BR pa

B

where L = length of the foundation


pa = atmospheric pressure ( 100 kN/m2)
B. For overconsolidated soil (q c ; where c = overconsolidation pressure)
2
L
Se 0.57 1.25 B B
0 .7
q
= 0.047 (44)
1.4
BR [
N 60 or N 60(a) ] 0.25 + L
BR pa

B

C. For overconsolidated soil (q > c )


2
L
Se 0.57 1.25 B B
0 .7
q 0.67 c
= 0.14 (45)
1.4
BR [
N 60 or N 60(a) ] 0.25 + L BR pa

B

Sivakugan and Johnson (2004) used a probabilistic approach to compare the predicted settlements
obtained by the methods of Terzaghi and Peck (1948, 1967), Schmertmann et al. (1970), and Burland
and Burbidge (1985). Table 3 gives a summary of their studythat is, predicted settlement versus
the probability of exceeding 25 mm settlement in the field. This shows that the method of Burland
and Burbidge (1985), although conservative, is a substantially improved technique to estimate elastic
settlement.

10 LOAD-SETTLEMENT CURVE APPROACH BASED ON PRESSUREMETER TESTS


(PMT)

Briaud (2007) presented a method based on field Pressuremeter tests to develop a load-settlement
curve for a given foundation from which the elastic settlement at a given load intensity can be
estimated. This takes into account the foundation load eccentricity, load inclination, and the location

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Table 3. Probability of exceeding 25 mm settlement in the field


Predicted Probability of exceeding 25 mm settlement in field
settlement Terzaghi and Peck Schmertmann et al. Burland and
(mm) (1948, 1967) (1970) Burbidge (1985)
1 0.00 0.00 0.00
5 0.00 0.00 0.03
10 0.00 0.02 0.15
15 0.09 0.13 0.25
20 0.20 0.20 0.34
25 0.26 0.27 0.42
30 0.31 0.32 0.49
35 0.35 0.37 0.55
40 0.387 0.42 0.61
Compiled from Sivakugan and Johnson (2004)

of the foundation on a slope (Figure 14). Following is a step-by-step procedure of the procedure
suggested by Briaud (2007).
1. Conduct several Pressuremeter tests at the site at various depths.
2. Plot the PMT curves as pressure pp on the cavity wall versus relative increase in cavity radius
R/Ro. Extend the straight line part of the PMT curve to zero pressure and shift the vertical axis
to the value of R/Ro where that strain line portion intersects the horizontal axis (Figure 15).
3. Plot the strain influence factor diagram proposed by Schmertmann et al. (1978) for the
foundation. Based on the pp versus R/Ro diagrams (Step 2) and the location of the depth of the
tests, develop a mean plot of pp versus R/Ro as shown in Figure 16.
The mean pp for a given R/Ro can be given as

A1 A A
p p ( mean ) = p p (1) + 2 p p ( 2 ) + 3 p p ( 3) + . . . (46)
A A A

where A1, A2, A3, . . . are the areas tributary to each test under the influence diagram
A = total area of the strain-influence factor diagram

Figure 14 Pressuremeter test to obtain load-settlement curve.

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
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Figure 15 Adjustment of field Pressuremeter test plot of pp versus R/Ro.

Figure 16 Development of the mean pp versus R/Ro plot.

4. Convert the plot of pp(mean) versus R/Ro plot to q versus Se/B plot using the following equations.

q = ( )( f L / B f e f f ,d ) p p ( mean ) (47)

Se R
= 0.24 (48)
B Ro

where = Gamma function linking q and pp(mean) (see Figure 17)


B
f B / L = shape factor = 0.8 + 0.2 (49)
L

e
f e = load eccentricity factor = 1 0.33 (center) (50)
B
0.5
e
fe = 1 (edge) (51)
B

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Figure 17 Variation of function.

(degrees)
f = inclination factor = 1 (center) (52)
90
0.5
(degrees)
f = 1 (edge) (53)
360
0.1
d
f ,d = slope factor = 0.81 + (3 : 1 slope) (54)
B
0.15
d
f ,d = 0.71 + (2 : 1 slope) (55)
B

5. Based on the load-settlement diagram developed in Step 4, obtain the actual Se(maximum) which
corresponds to the actual intensity of load q to which the foundation will be subjected.
6. To account for creep over the life-span of the structure,
0.3
t
Se (t ) Se (maximum) (56)
t1

where Se(t) = settlement after time t


Se(maximum) = settlement obtained from Step 5
t = time, in minutes
t1 = reference time = 1 minute

SETTLEMENT CALCULATION BASED ON THEORY OF ELASTICITY

11 STEINBRENNERS (1934) AND FOXS (1948) THEORY

Based on the observations made on elastic settlement calculation using empirical correlations and the
wide range in the predictions obtained, it is desirable to consider alternative solutions based on the
theory of elasticity. With that in mind, Figure 18 shows a schematic diagram of the elastic settlement
profile for a flexible and rigid foundation. The shallow foundation measures BL in plan and is
located at a depth Df below the ground surface. A rock layer (or a rigid layer) is located at a depth H
below the bottom of the foundation.

26
Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
Das, B.M., Atalar, C. & Shin, E.C.

Figure 18 Settlement profile for shallow flexible and rigid foundation.

Theoretically, if the foundation is perfectly flexible (Figure 18), the settlement may be expressed as
(see Bowles, 1987)

1 s2
S e = q( B ) IsI f (57)
Es

where q = net applied pressure on the foundation


s = Poissons ratio of soil
Es = average modulus of elasticity of the soil under the foundation, measured from z =
0 to about z = 4B
B' = B/2 for center of foundation (= B for corner of foundation)
1 2 s
Is = shape factor (Steinbrenner, 1934) = F1 + F2 (58)
1 s

1
F1 = ( A0 + A1 ) (59)

n
F2 = tan 1 A2 (60)
2

(1 + )
m2 + 1 m2 + n2
A0 = m ln
(
m 1+ m + n2 +1
2
) (61)

A1 = ln
(m + )
m2 + 1 1 + n2
(62)
m + m + n2 +1
2

m
A2 = (63)
n + m2 + n2 + 1
Df L
I f = depth factor (Fox, 1948) = f , s , and (64)
B B
' = a factor that depends on the location below the foundation where settlement is being
calculated
To calculate settlement at the center of the foundation, we use

27
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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

= 4 (65)

L
m= (66)
B

and
H
n= (67)
B

2

To calculate settlement at a corner of the foundation,

=1 (68)

L
m=
B
and
H
n=
B

The variations of F1 and F2 with m and n are given Tables 4 and 5. Based on the works of Fox
(1948), the variations of depth factor If for s = 0.3 and 0.4 and L/B have been determined by Bowles
(1987) and are given in Table 6. Note that If is not a function of H/B.
Due to the non-homogeneous nature of a soil deposit, the magnitude of Es may vary with depth.
For that reason, Bowles (1987) recommended

E s ( i ) z
Es = (69)
z

where Es(i) = soil modulus within the depth z


z = 5B or H (if H < 5B)
Bowles (1987) also recommended that

E s = 500( N 60 + 15) kN/m 2 (70)

The elastic settlement of a rigid foundation can be estimated as

S e ( rigid ) 0.93S e (flexible, center) (71)

Bowles (1987) compared this theory with 12 case histories that provided reasonable good results.

28
Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
Das, B.M., Atalar, C. & Shin, E.C.

Table 4. Variation of F1 with m and n

m
n
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
0.25 0.014 0.013 0.012 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
0.50 0.049 0.046 0.044 0.042 0.041 0.040 0.038 0.038 0.037 0.037
0.75 0.095 0.090 0.087 0.084 0.082 0.080 0.077 0.076 0.074 0.074
1.00 0.142 0.138 0.134 0.130 0.127 0.125 0.121 0.118 0.116 0.115
1.25 0.186 0.183 0.179 0.176 0.173 0.170 0.165 0.161 0.158 0.157
1.50 0.224 0.224 0.222 0.219 0.216 0.213 0.207 0.203 0.199 0.197
1.75 0.257 0.259 0.259 0.258 0.255 0.253 0.247 0.242 0.238 0.235
2.00 0.285 0.290 0.292 0.292 0.291 0.289 0.284 0.279 0.275 0.271
2.25 0.309 0.317 0.321 0.323 0.323 0.322 0.317 0.313 0.308 0.305
2.50 0.330 0.341 0.347 0.350 0.351 0.351 0.348 0.344 0.340 0.336
2.75 0.348 0.361 0.369 0.374 0.377 0.378 0.377 0.373 0.369 0.365
3.00 0.363 0.379 0.389 0.396 0.400 0.402 0.402 0.400 0.396 0.392
3.25 0.376 0.394 0.406 0.415 0.420 0.423 0.426 0.424 0.421 0.418
3.50 0.388 0.408 0.422 0.431 0.438 0.442 0.447 0.447 0.444 0.441
3.75 0.399 0.420 0.436 0.447 0.454 0.460 0.467 0.458 0.466 0.464
4.00 0.408 0.431 0.448 0.460 0.469 0.476 0.484 0.487 0.486 0.484
4.25 0.417 0.440 0.458 0.472 0.481 0.484 0.495 0.514 0.515 0.515
4.50 0.424 0.450 0.469 0.484 0.495 0.503 0.516 0.521 0.522 0.522
4.75 0.431 0.458 0.478 0.494 0.506 0.515 0.530 0.536 0539 0.539
5.00 0.437 0.465 0.487 0.503 0.516 0.526 0.543 0.551 0.554 0.554
5.25 0.443 0.472 0.494 0.512 0.526 0.537 0.555 0.564 0.568 0.569
5.50 0.448 0.478 0.501 0.520 0.534 0.546 0.566 0.576 0.581 0.584
5.75 0.453 0.483 0.508 0.527 0.542 0.555 0.576 0.588 0.594 0.597
6.00 0.457 0.489 0.514 0.534 0.550 0.563 0.585 0.598 0.606 0.609
6.25 0.461 0.493 0.519 0.540 0.557 0.570 0.594 0.609 0.617 0.621
6.50 0.465 0.498 0.524 0.546 0.563 0.577 0.603 0.618 0.627 0.632
6.75 0.468 0.502 0.529 0.551 0.569 0.584 0.610 0.627 0.637 0.643
7.00 0.471 0.506 0.533 0.556 0.575 0.590 0.618 0.635 0.646 0.653
7.25 0.474 0.509 0.538 0.561 0.580 0.596 0.625 0.643 0.655 0.662
7.50 0.477 0.513 0.541 0.565 0.585 0.601 0.631 0.650 0.663 0.671
7.75 0.480 0.516 0.545 0.569 0.589 0.606 0.637 0.658 0.671 0.680
8.00 0.482 0.519 0.549 0.573 0.594 0.611 0.643 0.664 0.678 0.688
8.25 0.485 0.522 0.552 0.577 0.598 0.615 0.648 0.670 0.685 0.695
8.50 0.487 0.524 0.555 0.580 0.601 0.619 0.653 0.676 0.692 0.703
8.75 0.489 0.527 0.558 0.583 0.605 0.623 0.658 0.682 0.698 0.710
9.00 0.491 0.529 0.560 0.587 0.609 0.627 0.663 0.687 0.705 0.716
9.25 0.493 0.531 0.563 0.589 0.612 0.631 0.667 0.693 0.710 0.723
9.50 0.495 0.533 0.565 0.592 0.615 0.634 0.671 0.697 0.716 0.719
9.75 0.496 0.536 0.568 0.595 0.618 0.638 0.675 0.702 0.721 0.735
10.00 0.498 0.537 0.570 0.597 0.621 0.641 0.679 0.707 0.726 0.740
20.00 0.529 0.575 0.614 0.647 0.677 0.702 0.756 0.797 0.830 0.858
50.00 0.548 0.598 0.640 0.678 0.711 0.740 0.803 0.853 0.895 0.931
100.00 0.555 0.605 0.649 0.688 0.722 0.753 0.819 0.872 0.918 0.956

29
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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

Table 4. (Continued)

m
n
4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 25.0 50.0 100.0
0.25 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
0.50 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.036 0.036
0.75 0.073 0.073 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.071 0.071 0.071 0.071
1.00 0.114 0.113 0.112 0.112 0.112 0.111 0.111 0.110 0.110 0.110
1.25 0.155 0.154 0.153 0.152 0.152 0.151 0.151 0.150 0.150 0.150
1.50 0.195 0.194 0.192 0.191 0.190 0.190 0.189 0.188 0.188 0.188
1.75 0.233 0.232 0.229 0.228 0.227 0.226 0.225 0.223 0.223 0.223
2.00 0.269 0.267 0.264 0.262 0.261 0.260 0.259 0.257 0.256 0.256
2.25 0.302 0.300 0.296 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.291 0.287 0.287 0.287
2.50 0.333 0.331 0.327 0.324 0.322 0.321 0.320 0.316 0.315 0.315
2.75 0.362 0.359 0.355 0.352 0.350 0.348 0.347 0.343 0.342 0.342
3.00 0.389 0.386 0.382 0.378 0.376 0.374 0.373 0.368 0.367 0.367
3.25 0.415 0.412 0.407 0.403 0.401 0.399 0.397 0.391 0.390 0.390
3.50 0.438 0.435 0.430 0.427 0.424 0.421 0.420 0.413 0.412 0.411
3.75 0.461 0.458 0.453 0.449 0.446 0.443 0.441 0.433 0.432 0.432
4.00 0.482 0.479 0.474 0.470 0.466 0.464 0.462 0.453 0.451 0.451
4.25 0.516 0.496 0.484 0.473 0.471 0.471 0.470 0.468 0.462 0.460
4.50 0.520 0.517 0.513 0.508 0.505 0.502 0.499 0.489 0.487 0.487
4.75 0.537 0.535 0.530 0.526 0.523 0.519 0.517 0.506 0.504 0.503
5.00 0.554 0.552 0.548 0.543 0.540 0.536 0.534 0.522 0.519 0.519
5.25 0.569 0.568 0.564 0.560 0.556 0.553 0.550 0.537 0.534 0.534
5.50 0.584 0.583 0.579 0.575 0.571 0.568 0.585 0.551 0.549 0.548
5.75 0.597 0.597 0.594 0.590 0.586 0.583 0.580 0.565 0.583 0.562
6.00 0.611 0.610 0.608 0.604 0.601 0.598 0.595 0.579 0.576 0.575
6.25 0.623 0.623 0.621 0.618 0.615 0.611 0.608 0.592 0.589 0.588
6.50 0.635 0.635 0.634 0.631 0.628 0.625 0.622 0.605 0.601 0.600
6.75 0.646 0.647 0.646 0.644 0.641 0.637 0.634 0.617 0.613 0.612
7.00 0.656 0.658 0.658 0.656 0.653 0.650 0.647 0.628 0.624 0.623
7.25 0.666 0.669 0.669 0.668 0.665 0.662 0.659 0.640 0.635 0.634
7.50 0.676 0.679 0.680 0.679 0.676 0.673 0.670 0.651 0.646 0.645
7.75 0.685 0.688 0.690 0.689 0.687 0.684 0.681 0.661 0.656 0.655
8.00 0.694 0.697 0.700 0.700 0.698 0.695 0.692 0.672 0.666 0.665
8.25 0.702 0.706 0.710 0.710 0.708 0.705 0.703 0.682 0.676 0.675
8.50 0.710 0.714 0.719 0.719 0.718 0.715 0.713 0.692 0.686 0.684
8.75 0.717 0.722 0.727 0.728 0.727 0.725 0.723 0.701 0.695 0.693
9.00 0.725 0.730 0.736 0.737 0.736 0.735 0.732 0.710 0.704 0.702
9.25 0.731 0.737 0.744 0.746 0.745 0.744 0.742 0.719 0.713 0.711
9.50 0.738 0.744 0.752 0.754 0.754 0.753 0.751 0.728 0.721 0.719
9.75 0.744 0.751 0.759 0.762 0.762 0.761 0.759 0.737 0.729 0.727
10.00 0.750 0.758 0.766 0.770 0.770 0.770 0.768 0.745 0.738 0.735
20.00 0.878 0.896 0.925 0.945 0.959 0.969 0.977 0.982 0.965 0.957
50.00 0.962 0.989 1.034 1.070 1.100 1.125 1.146 1.265 1.279 1.261
100.00 0.990 1.020 1.072 1.114 1.150 1.182 1.209 1.408 1.489 1.499

30
Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
Das, B.M., Atalar, C. & Shin, E.C.

Table 5. Variation of F2 with m and n

m
n 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
0.25 0.049 0.050 0.051 0.051 0.051 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052 0.052
0.50 0.074 0.077 0.080 0.081 0.083 0.084 0.086 0.086 0.087 0.087
0.75 0.083 0.089 0.093 0.097 0.099 0.101 0.104 0.106 0.107 0.108
1.00 0.083 0.091 0.098 0.102 0.106 0.109 0.114 0.117 0.119 0.120
1.25 0.080 0.089 0.096 0.102 0.107 0.111 0.118 0.122 0.125 0.127
1.50 0.075 0.084 0.093 0.099 0.105 0.110 0.118 0.124 0.128 0.130
1.75 0.069 0.079 0.088 0.095 0.101 0.107 0.117 0.123 0.128 0.131
2.00 0.064 0.074 0.083 0.090 0.097 0.102 0.114 0.121 0.127 0.131
2.25 0.059 0.069 0.077 0.085 0.092 0.098 0.110 0.119 0.125 0.130
2.50 0.055 0.064 0.073 0.080 0.087 0.093 0.106 0.115 0.122 0.127
2.75 0.051 0.060 0.068 0.076 0.082 0.089 0.102 0.111 0.119 0.125
3.00 0.048 0.056 0.064 0.071 0.078 0.084 0.097 0.108 0.116 0.122
3.25 0.045 0.053 0.060 0.067 0.074 0.080 0.093 0.104 0.112 0.119
3.50 0.042 0.050 0.057 0.068 0.070 0.076 0.089 0.100 0.109 0.116
3.75 0.040 0.047 0.054 0.060 0.067 0.073 0.086 0.096 0.105 0.113
4.00 0.037 0.044 0.051 0.057 0.063 0.069 0.082 0.093 0.102 0.110
4.25 0.036 0.042 0.049 0.055 0.061 0.066 0.079 0.090 0.099 0.107
4.50 0.034 0.040 0.046 0.052 0.058 0.063 0.076 0.086 0.096 0.104
4.75 0.032 0.038 0.044 0.050 0.055 0.061 0.073 0.083 0.093 0.101
5.00 0.031 0.036 0.042 0.048 0.053 0.058 0.070 0.080 0.090 0.098
5.25 0.029 0.035 0.040 0.046 0.051 0.056 0.067 0.078 0.087 0.095
5.50 0.028 0.033 0.039 0.044 0.049 0.054 0.065 0.075 0.084 0.092
5.75 0.027 0.032 0.037 0.042 0.047 0.052 0.063 0.073 0.082 0.090
6.00 0.026 0.031 0.036 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.079 0.087
6.25 0.025 0.030 0.034 0.039 0.044 0.048 0.058 0.068 0.077 0.085
6.50 0.024 0.029 0.033 0.038 0.042 0.046 0.056 0.066 0.075 0.083
6.75 0.023 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.041 0.045 0.055 0.064 0.073 0.080
7.00 0.022 0.027 0.031 0.035 0.039 0.043 0.053 0.062 0.071 0.078
7.25 0.022 0.026 0.030 0.034 0.038 0.042 0.051 0.060 0.069 0.076
7.50 0.021 0.025 0.029 0.033 0.037 0.041 0.050 0.059 0.067 0.074
7.75 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.039 0.048 0.057 0.065 0.072
8.00 0.020 0.023 0.027 0.031 0.035 0.038 0.047 0.055 0.063 0.071
8.25 0.019 0.023 0.026 0.030 0.034 0.037 0.046 0.054 0.062 0.069
8.50 0.018 0.022 0.026 0.029 0.033 0.036 0.045 0.053 0.060 0.067
8.75 0.018 0.021 0.025 0.028 0.032 0.035 0.043 0.051 0.059 0.066
9.00 0.017 0.021 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.034 0.042 0.050 0.057 0.064
9.25 0.017 0.020 0.024 0.027 0.030 0.033 0.041 0.049 0.056 0.063
9.50 0.017 0.020 0.023 0.026 0.029 0.033 0.040 0.048 0.055 0.061
9.75 0.016 0.019 0.023 0.026 0.029 0.032 0.039 0.047 0.054 0.060
10.00 0.016 0.019 0.022 0.025 0.028 0.031 0.038 0.046 0.052 0.059
20.00 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.013 0.014 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.027 0.031
50.00 0.003 0.004 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.013
100.00 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.006

31
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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

Table 5. (continued)

m
n 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 25.0 50.0 100.0
0.25 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.053 0.053
0.50 0.087 0.087 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088 0.088
0.75 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.110 0.110 0.110 0.110 0.111 0.111 0.111
1.00 0.121 0.122 0.123 0.123 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.125 0.125 0.125
1.25 0.128 0.130 0.131 0.132 0.132 0.133 0.133 0.134 0.134 0.134
1.50 0.132 0.134 0.136 0.137 0.138 0.138 0.139 0.140 0.140 0.140
1.75 0.134 0.136 0.138 0.140 0.141 0.142 0.142 0.144 0.144 0.145
2.00 0.134 0.136 0.139 0.141 0.143 0.144 0.145 0.147 0.147 0.148
2.25 0.133 0.136 0.140 0.142 0.144 0.145 0.146 0.149 0.150 0.150
2.50 0.132 0.135 0.139 0.142 0.144 0.146 0.147 0.151 0.151 0.151
2.75 0.130 0.133 0.138 0.142 0.144 0.146 0.147 0.152 0.152 0.153
3.00 0.127 0.131 0.137 0.141 0.144 0.145 0.147 0.152 0.153 0.154
3.25 0.125 0.129 0.135 0.140 0.143 0.145 0.147 0.153 0.154 0.154
3.50 0.122 0.126 0.133 0.138 0.142 0.144 0.146 0.153 0.155 0.155
3.75 0.119 0.124 0.131 0.137 0.141 0.143 0.145 0.154 0.155 0.155
4.00 0.116 0.121 0.129 0.135 0.139 0.142 0.145 0.154 0.155 0.156
4.25 0.113 0.119 0.127 0.133 0.138 0.141 0.144 0.154 0.156 0.156
4.50 0.110 0.116 0.125 0.131 0.136 0.140 0.143 0.154 0.156 0.156
4.75 0.107 0.113 0.123 0.130 0.135 0.139 0.142 0.154 0.156 0.157
5.00 0.105 0.111 0.120 0.128 0.133 0.137 0.140 0.154 0.156 0.157
5.25 0.102 0.108 0.118 0.126 0.131 0.136 0.139 0.154 0.156 0.157
5.50 0.099 0.106 0.116 0.124 0.130 0.134 0.138 0.154 0.156 0.157
5.75 0.097 0.103 0.113 0.122 0.128 0.133 0.136 0.154 0.157 0.157
6.00 0.094 0.101 0.111 0.120 0.126 0.131 0.135 0.153 0.157 0.157
6.25 0.092 0.098 0.109 0.118 0.124 0.129 0.134 0.153 0.157 0.158
6.50 0.090 0.096 0.107 0.116 0.122 0.128 0.132 0.153 0.157 0.158
6.75 0.087 0.094 0.105 0.114 0.121 0.126 0.131 0.153 0.157 0.158
7.00 0.085 0.092 0.103 0.112 0.119 0.125 0.129 0.152 0.157 0.158
7.25 0.083 0.090 0.101 0.110 0.117 0.123 0.128 0.152 0.157 0.158
7.50 0.081 0.088 0.099 0.108 0.115 0.121 0.126 0.152 0.156 0.158
7.75 0.079 0.086 0.097 0.106 0.114 0.120 0.125 0.151 0.156 0.158
8.00 0.077 0.084 0.095 0.104 0.112 0.118 0.124 0.151 0.156 0.158
8.25 0.076 0.082 0.093 0.102 0.110 0.117 0.122 0.150 0.156 0.158
8.50 0.074 0.080 0.091 0.101 0.108 0.115 0.121 0.150 0.156 0.158
8.75 0.072 0.078 0.089 0.099 0.107 0.114 0.119 0.150 0.156 0.158
9.00 0.071 0.077 0.888 0.097 0.105 0.112 0.118 0.149 0.156 0.158
9.25 0.069 0.075 0.086 0.096 0.104 0.110 0.116 0.149 0.156 0.158
9.50 0.068 0.074 0.085 0.094 0.102 0.109 0.115 0.148 0.156 0.158
9.75 0.066 0.072 0.083 0.092 0.100 0.107 0.113 0.148 0.156 0.158
10.00 0.065 0.071 0.082 0.091 0.099 0.106 0.112 0.147 0.156 0.158
20.00 0.035 0.039 0.046 0.053 0.059 0.065 0.071 0.124 0.148 0.156
50.00 0.014 0.016 0.019 0.022 0.025 0.028 0.031 0.071 0.113 0.142
100.00 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.011 0.013 0.014 0.016 0.039 0.071 0.113

32
Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
Das, B.M., Atalar, C. & Shin, E.C.

Table 6. Variation of If (Fox, 1948)*

L/B
Df/B 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 5.0
Poissons ratio s = 0.30
0.05 0.979 0.981 0.982 0.983 0.984 0.985 0.990
0.10 0.954 0.958 0.962 0.964 0.966 0.968 0.977
0.20 0.902 0.911 0.917 0.923 0.927 0.930 0.951
0.40 0.808 0.823 0.834 0.843 0.851 0.857 0.899
0.60 0.738 0.754 0.767 0.778 0.788 0.796 0.852
0.80 0.687 0.703 0.716 0.728 0.738 0.747 0.813
1.00 0.650 0.665 0.678 0.689 0.700 0.709 0.780
2.00 0.562 0.571 0.580 0.588 0.596 0.603 0.675
Poissons ratio s = 0.40
0.05 0.989 0.990 0.991 0.992 0.992 0.993 0.995
0.10 0.973 0.976 0.978 0.980 0.981 0.982 0.988
0.20 0.932 0.940 0.945 0.949 0.952 0.955 0.970
0.40 0.848 0.862 0.872 0.881 0.887 0.893 0.927
0.60 0.779 0.795 0.808 0.819 0.828 0.836 0.886
0.80 0.727 0.743 0.757 0.769 0.779 0.788 0.849
1.00 0.689 0.704 0.718 0.730 0.740 0.749 0.818
2.00 0.596 0.606 0.615 0.624 0.632 0.640 0.714
*
Adapted from Bowles (1987)

12 ANALYSIS OF MAYNE AND POULOS BASED ON THEORY OF ELASTICITY

Mayne and Poulos (1999) presented an improved formula for calculating the elastic settlement of
foundations. The formula takes into account the rigidity of the foundation, the depth of embedment
of the foundation, the increase in the modulus of elasticity of the soil with depth, and the location of
rigid layers at a limited depth. To use the equation of Mayne and Poulos, one needs to determine the
equivalent diameter Be of a rectangular foundation, or

4 BL
Be = (72)

For circular foundations,

Be = B (73)

where B = diameter of foundation


Figure 19 shows a foundation with an equivalent diameter Be located at a depth Df below the
ground surface. Let the thickness of the foundation be t and the modulus of elasticity of the
foundation material be Ef. A rigid layer is located at a depth H below the bottom of the foundation.

Figure 19 Mayne and Poulos procedure (1999) for settlement calculation.

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

The modulus of elasticity of the compressible soil layer can be given as

E s = Eo + kz (74)

where k = rate of increase in Es with depth (kN/m2/m)


With the preceding parameters defined, the elastic settlement below the center of the foundation
is

Se =
qBe I G I R I E
(1 s2 ) (75)
Eo
E H
where I G = influence factor for the variation of E s with depth = f = o ,
kBe Be
IR = foundation rigidity correction factor
IE = foundation embedment correction factor
Figure 20 shows the variation of IG with = Eo/kBe and H/Be. The foundation rigidity correction
factor can be expressed as

1
IR = + (76)
4
Ef 2t 3
4.6 + 10
E + Be k Be
o
2

Figure 20 Variation of IG with .


Similarly, the embedment correction factor is

1
IE = 1 (77)
B
3.5 exp(1.22 s 0.4) e + 1.6
Df

Figures 21 and 22 show the variation of IR with IE as a function of the terms expressed in Eqs.
(76) and (77).

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Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
Das, B.M., Atalar, C. & Shin, E.C.

Figure 21 Variation of IR with KF.

Figure 22 Variation of IE with s and Df/Be.

13 BERARDI AND LANCELLOTTAS METHOD

Berardi and Lancellotta (1991) proposed a method to estimate the elastic settlement that takes into
account the variation of the modulus of elasticity of soil with the strain level. This method is also
described by Berardi et al. (1991). According to this procedure,

qB
Se = I s (78)
Es

where Is = influence factor for a rigid foundation (Tsytovich, 1951)


Es = modulus of elasticity of soil
The variation of Is (Tsytovich, 1951) with Poissons ratio s = 0.15 is given in Table 7.

Table 7. Variation of Is
Depth of influence HI /B
L/B 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
1 0.35 0.56 0.63 0.69
2 0.39 0.65 0.76 0.88
3 0.40 0.67 0.81 0.96
5 0.41 0.68 0.84 0.99
10 0.42 0.71 0.89 1.06

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

Using analytical and numerical evaluations, Berardi and Lancellotta (1991) have shown that, for a
circular foundation,

H 25 = (0.8 to 1.3) B (79)

For plane strain condition (that is, L/B 10)

H 25 = (1.5 to 1.7) H 25(circle) (80)

where H25 = depth from the bottom of the foundation below which the residual settlement is 25% of
the total settlement
The above implies that H25 2.5B for practically all foundations. Thus the depth of influence HI can
be taken to be H25. The modulus of elasticity Es in Eq. (78) can be evaluated as (Janbu, 1963)

0 .5
+ 0.5
E s = K E pa o (81)
pa

where pa = atmospheric pressure


o and ' = effective overburden pressure and net effective stress increase due to the
foundation loading, respectively, at a depth B/2 below the foundation
KE = dimensionless modulus number
After reanalyzing the performance of 130 structures foundations on predominantly silica sand as
reported by Burland and Burbidge (1985), Berardi and Lancellotta (1991) obtained the variation of
KE with the relative density Dr at Se/B = 0.1% and KE at varying strain levels. Figures 23 and 24 show
the average variation of KE with Dr at Se/B = 0.1% and K E ( Se /B ) / K E ( Se /B =0 .1%) with Se/B.
In order to estimate the elastic settlement of the foundation, an iterative procedure is suggested
which can be described as follows:
1. Determine the variation of the blow count N60 from standard penetration tests within the zone of
influence, that is H25.
2. Determine the corrected blow count (N1)60 as

2
( N1 )60 = N 60 (82)
1 + 0.01 o

where o = vertical effective stress in kN/m2

3. Determine the average corrected blow count from standard penetration tests (N 1 ) 60 and hence the
average relative density as

0.5
N
Dr = 1 (83)
60

4. With a known value of Dr, determine K E ( Se /B =0 .1%) from Figure 23 and hence Es from Eq. (81) for
Se/B = 0.1%
5. With the known value of Es (Step 4), the magnitude of Se can be calculated from Eq. (78).
6. If the calculated Se/B is not the same as the assumed value, then use the calculated value of Se/B
from Step 5 and Figure 24 to estimate a revised K E ( Se /B ) . This value can now be used in Eqs. (81)
and (78) to obtain a revised Se. The iterative procedures can be continued until the assumed and
calculated values are the same.

36
Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
Das, B.M., Atalar, C. & Shin, E.C.

Figure 23 Variation of KE with Dr and N60 (adapted from Berardi and Lancellotta, 1991).

Figure 24 Plot of K E ( Se /B ) / K E ( Se /B =0 .1%) with Se/B (adapted from Berardi and Lancellotta, 1991).

Based on a probabilistic study conducted by Sivakugan and Johnson (2004), the probability of
exceeding 25 mm settlement in the field for various predicted settlement levels using the iteration
procedure of Berardi and Lancellotta (1991) is shown in Table 8. When compared with Table 3, this
shows a promise of improved prediction in elastic settlement.

Table 8. Probability of exceeding 25 mm settlement in the fieldprocedure of Berardi and Lancellotta (1991)
(based on Sivakugan and Johnson, 2004)
Predicted settlement Probability of exceeding 25 mm in the field
(mm) (%)
1 6
5 19
10 32
15 43
20 52
25 60
30 66
35 72
40 77

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

14 GENERAL COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS

A general review of the major developments over the last sixty years for estimating elastic settlement
of shallow foundations on granular soil is presented. Based on the above review, the following
general observations can be made.
1. Meyerhofs relationship (1965) is fairly simple to use. It will probably yield predicted
settlements that are 50% higher on the average than those observed in the field. Peck and
Bazaraas method (1969) provides results that are almost similar to those obtained from
Meyerhofs method (1965).
2. Burland and Burbidges solution (1985) will provide more reasonable estimations of Se than
those obtained from the solution of Meyerhof (1965). However it will be difficult to determine
the overconsolidation ratio and the preconsolidation pressure for granular soils from field
exploration.
3. The modified strain influence factor diagrams presented by Schmertmann et al. (1978), Terzaghi
et al. (1996), and Lee et al. (2008) will all provide reasonable estimations of the elastic
settlement provided a more realistic value of Es is assumed in the calculation. The authors feel
that the empirical relationships for Es provided by Eqs. (35) and (36) are more reasonable.
4. The relationships for Es provided by Eqs. (35) and (36) are based on the field cone penetration
resistance. These equations can be converted to expressions in terms of N60 and D50 (mean grain
size). Figure 25 shows some of the relationships available in the literature. Based on the data of
Burland and Burbidge et al. (1985)

qc

pa = 8D 0.305 (84)
50
N 60

Based on the data of Robertson and Campanella (1983) and Seed and DeAlba (1986)

qc

pa = 6D 0.228 (85)
50
N 60

Based on the data of Anagnostopoulos et al. (2003)

qc

pa = 7.6429 D 0.26 (86)
50
N 60

where pa = atmospheric pressure (same unit as qc)


D50 = mean grain size, in mm.
5. The procedure for developing the load-settlement plot based on Pressuremeter tests is a versatile
technique; however, the cost effectiveness should be taken into account.
6. Relationships for elastic settlement using the theory of elasticity will be equally as good as the
other methods, provided a realistic value of Es is adopted. This can be accomplished using the
iteration method suggested by Berardi and Lancellotta (1991). In lieu of that, the Es relationship
given by Terzaghi et al. (1996) can be used.

38
Developments in elastic settlement estimation procedures for shallow foundations on granular soil
Das, B.M., Atalar, C. & Shin, E.C.

Figure 25 Variation of (qc/pa)/N60 with D50. (a) Adapted from Terzaghi et al. (1996); (b) Adapted from
Anagnostopoulos, 2003).

In his landmark paper in 1927 entitled The Science of Foundations, Karl Terzaghi wrote
Foundation problems, throughout, are of such character that a strictly theoretical mathematical
treatment will always be impossible. The only way to handle them efficiently consists of finding out,
first, what has happened on preceding jobs of a similar character; next, the kind of soil on which the
operations were performed; and, finally, why the operations have lead to certain results. By
systematically accumulating such knowledge, the empirical data being well defined by the results of
adequate soil investigations, foundation engineering could be developed into a semi-empirical
science, . . . .
What is presented in this paper is a systematic accumulation of knowledge and data over the past
sixty years. In summary, the parameters for comparing settlement prediction methods are accuracy
and reliability. Reliability is the probability that the actual settlement would be less than that
computed by a specific method. In choosing a method for design, it all comes down to keeping a
critical balance between reliability and accuracy which can be difficult at times knowing the non-
homogeneous nature of soil in general. We cannot be over-conservative but, at the same time, not be
accurate. We need to keep in mind what Karl Terzaghi said in the 45th James Forrest Lecture at the
Institute of Civil Engineers in London: Foundation failures that occur are not longer an act of
God.

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2n International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
28-30 May 2009, Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus

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