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‫‪PR – NW – 1412 - 333‬‬ ‫أس – ق ش – ‪٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢‬‬

‫‪ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G‬‬ ‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‪ – ١ :‬ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‪ :‬ﺷﻌﺒﺎن ‪١٤٢٨‬هـ‬

‫ﺇﺭﺸﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺎﺯل ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ‬
‫‪FTTH OSP IMPEMENTATION / CONSTRUCTION‬‬
‫‪GUIDELINES‬‬
‫ﺃﻋـــﺩﻩ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‬

‫ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‪ /‬ﺩﻭﻤﻴﻨﺎﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﻜﺎﻟﺩﻭ‬
‫ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‪ /‬ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺤﺴﻥ ﻜﻭﻜﻭ‬
‫ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‪ /‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺒﺩﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻴﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‪ /‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻥ ﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻴﻌﻲ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺠﻌـــﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻡ‪ /‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺒﺩﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻴﻨﻲ‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺸﻌﺒﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‪ /‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻥ ﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻴﻌﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤــﺩﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ‪/‬ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‬

‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻡ‪ /‬ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﺒﻥ ﺭﺍﺸـﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔـﺩﻯ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬

‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬

‫‪1 of 32‬‬
‫‪PR – NW – 1412 - 333‬‬ ‫أس – ق ش – ‪٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢‬‬
‫‪ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G‬‬ ‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‪ – ١ :‬ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‪ :‬ﺷﻌﺒﺎن ‪١٤٢٨‬هـ‬

‫ﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺴﺠل ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪DOCUMENT UPDATE RECORD‬‬

‫ﺸﺭﺡ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺼﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻹﺼﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫‪DESCRIPTION‬‬ ‫‪DATE OF ISSUE‬‬ ‫‪ٍissue‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﺿ ﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺩﻴـﺩ ﺸـﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻴـﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺼـﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺴـﻠﻭﺏ ﺤﺎﻟﻴـﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻻﺤﻘﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﻌﺒﺎن ‪١٤٢٨‬هـ‬
‫‪Attached is the first issue of STTP#: PR–NS–1412-333‬‬ ‫أﻏﺴﻄﺲ ‪٢٠٠٧ -‬م‬ ‫‪1.0‬‬
‫‪about Construction guidelines of outside plant for FTTH‬‬ ‫‪August, 2007G‬‬
‫‪installation. The practice is issued in English and the‬‬
‫‪Arabic version will be issued at a later date.‬‬

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

CONTENTS

1.0 PURPOSE 4
2.0 SCOPE OF APPLICATION 4
3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES 4
4.0 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 4
4.1 Definitions 4
4.2 Symbols 6
4.3 Abreviations 7
5.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES 8
5.1 Introduction 8
5.2 Trenching 10
5.3 Installation of Ducts & MHs / HHs 11

5.4 Installation of FTTH Components 15
5.5 Installation of FOC 20

5.6 Blown Fiber Installation Methods 20

5.7 Marking & Identification of FTTH Components 26
5.8 Testing & Acceptance 31
5.9 As Built Drawings 32

6.0 ASSOCIATED PRACTICES 32

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

1.0 PURPOSE
This practice has been issued to provide guidelines for the Construction & Implementation of FTTH in
Access Network. The document will help Access Network construction staff on how to install FTTH
component elements in OSP from Exchange up to subscriber's home or premises.

2.0 SCOPE OF APPLICATION
The practice is to be applied in outside plant network taking in consideration planning & design FTTH by
applying Local Convergence Point (LCP) architecture; and using Giga Passive Optical Network (GPON)
technology.

3.0 RESPONSIBILITIES
- Network Construction in the Districts.
- Contractors.

4.0 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
4.1 DEFINITIONS

Fiber To The Home (FTTH):
Access technology architecture that brings fiber optic cable from the exchange direct to customer's location at
high bandwidth delivering triple play services (voice, video and data) from a single fiber.
Passive Optical Network (PON):
An architecture using optical transmission system designed to carry signals via fiber optic cable from the
central office directly to end users such as businesses and multi dwelling units without need for power.
Passive means that there is no active or powered element in between the exchange and the customer's
location.
Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON):
ITU G.984 Recommendation that describes a flexible optical fiber access network cable of supporting
bandwidth requirements of subscriber and covers system with nominal line rates of 1.2 Gbps and 2.4 Gbps in
downstream direction; and 155 Mbps up to 2.4 Gbps in the upstream direction.
Optical Line terminal (OLT):
Located inside the exchange and serve as the final termination point of OSP Feeder fiber cables. This is an
FTTH access platform designed for ITU-T GPON standard to easily deliver RF video and TDM voice
services while providing a smooth migration path to IP Triple Play services.
Fiber Distribution Frame (FDF):
Exchange termination equipment where fibers from OLT are split and jointed to Feeder cable when there is
mass FTTH deployment.
Optical Distribution Frame (ODF):
Location where fibers from OLT ports are terminated then interfaced to Feeder cable of FTTH.

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

Main Distribution Frame (MDF):
Location where copper OSP cables are terminated inside the exchange make access to Network switch.

Fiber Distribution Terminal (FDT):
A hub where all the fiber from the telecom provider's central office is split and distributed to the end users.
Fiber Access Terminal (FAT):
A distribution point in the distribution end that distribute the all drop fibers to each customer. It can also
house splitters to distribute drops to homes and offices.
Optical Network Terminal (ONT):
A media converter that is usually installed outside/inside the home or buildings designed for delivering multi
line POTS, Data and Video.
Optical Network Unit (ONU):
A unit located outside customer's area to serve more customers, similar to RAN.
Fibre Termination Box (FTB):
Customer Lead-In Unit, installed at the customer outer wall for termination of incoming & indoor
fibres.
Passive Optical Splitter (POS):
Split the signal bi-directionally from a single fiber to multi fiber without any power application.
Centralized Topology FTTH:
Type of FTTH architecture where fiber optic cable from OLT is splitted only once before reaching customers.
There are two types of Centralized FTTH topology namely: Central Office Homerun and Local Convergence
Point.
Central Office Homerun:
Type of Centralized FTTH architecture where splitters are located inside the central office & no splitting
beyond. See Figure # (1).
Local Convergence Point (LCP):
Type of Centralized FTTH architecture where splitters are concentrated in an FDT or a manhole outside the
exchange. See Figure # (2).
Distributed / Cascaded:
Type of FTTH architecture where fiber from OLT is splitted twice (outside the Exchange/ or one in the
Exchange & one outside the Exchange) before reaching customers location. Splitting may be located in
Exchange, FDT, manholes, handholes or in FAT. See Figure # (3).
Feeder:
Equivalent to the primary cables in the copper network. The fiber cables that connect the exchange to the FDT
or a splice point in manhole that serve as a cross connect to Distribution network.
Distribution:
Equivalent to the secondary cables in copper network. In FTTH, these are the fiber cables that connect FDT
or Cross Connect Cabinet to the last distribution point (an FAT or a splice in a handhole) before Drops. In
short, it is the cable in between the Feeder and the Drops.
Drops:
The fiber from the last distribution point up to customer's location.
Communication Equipment Room (CER):
Buildings drop point to house indoor FDT cabinets, FAT and ONT's.

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

Central Office
Optical Line Splitter
Terminal 1 x 32

.

Figure # (1): Centralized FTTH Architecture (Splitter located inside the central office).

Fiber Distribution Fiber Access Terminal
Central Office
Terminal
Optical
Line 1 x 32
Terminal Splitter

Fiber Access Terminal

Figure # (2): Local Convergence Point (LCP), (Splitter Placed in an FDT ) .

Fiber Distribution Fiber Access
Central Office
Terminal Terminal
Optical
Line
Terminal
1: X
1Splitter
x4
1x8
..
Splitter
Splitter

1x8
..
Splitter

Figure # (3): Cascaded Distribution Architecture, splitting ratios shown here are as examples only.

4.2 SYMBOLS:
Symbols Used are as follows:

Central Office / Exchange

FDF
or ODF ODF / FDF

Fiber Distribution Terminal

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

Fiber Access Terminal

Fiber Optic Cable

PON Splitter 1:X, where x = 2, 4, 8, 16, 32,
or 64.

- 4 V / 100m 4 PVC ducts / length 100 meters
- 4 E / 100 m 4 Polyethylene ducts / length 100 meters
- 4 C / 100 m 4 Corrugated ducts / length 100 meters
- 4 MPE / 100 m 4 Mini polyethylene ducts / length 100 meters

4.3 ABBREVIATIONS:

PON Passive Optical Network
APON ATM Passive Optical Network
BPON Broadband Passive Optical Network
ePON Ethernet Passive Optical Network
GPON Gigabit Passive Optical Network
OLT Optical Line Terminal
ONT Optical Network Terminal
ONU Optical Network Unit
ODN Optical Distribution Network
ODF Optical Distribution Frame
FTTH Fiber To The Home
FTTB Fiber to the building
FDH Fiber distribution hub
FDT Fiber distribution Terminal
FAT Fiber Access terminal
WDM Wavelength division multiplexer
Gbps Gigabits per second
Mbps Megabits per second
RF Radio Frequency
SFU Single Family Unit
MDU Multi Dwelling Unit
NAP Network Access Point
TDM Time Division Multiplexing in downstream
TDMA Time Division Multiplexing in upstream
SO/HO Small Office/Home Office
POS (Sp) Passive Optical Splitter
LCP Local Convergence Point
CER Communication Equipment Room

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

5.0 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 FTTH Architecture:
FTTH referred to in this practice is based on Gigabit Passive Optical Networks (GPON),
which have a network very similar in design and layout to the copper network configurations and
elements. In comparison, it consist of Feeder (primary) and Distribution (secondary) network, Fiber
Distribution Terminal (Cross connect cabinet), Fiber Access Terminal (Distribution Point) and Drop
fibres (buried service wires). The Optical Line Terminal (OLT) interfaces with data switches.
The architecture adopted by STC is the Local Convergence Point topology wherein each fibers
connected to OLT ports leave the central office then splitted once before being distributed to
customers. Splitting is done in FDT, manhole or handhole.
The main components of FTTH are "as shown in Figure # (4)":
1- Optical Line Terminal OLT
2- Passive Optical Splitter POS (Sp)
3- Fiber Distribution Terminal/ Hub FDT/ FDH
4- Fiber Access Terminal FAT
5- Optical Network Terminal ONT

Exchange
Optical Line Terminal (OLT )
O O
Fiber Access Terminal N
T
N
T
Fiber Distribution Terminal FAT
FDT
F
A Optical Network Terminal (ONT )
T @ Customer Premsis
Fiber Drop Cables to the
re 2 Customers
ttil x
3 O

p 1 Fiber Distribution Cables N
S F T
OLT O
Fiber Feeder Cable A N
T O
T

N
T

O
N
T

O
N
T
F O
A N
T
T O
N
T

Figure # (4): FTTH Topology & Main Components.

For detailed planning & design information and sizing of different FTTH components refer to STTP #
PR – NW – 1412 – 201, "FTTH Planning & Design Guidelines".

5.1.2 FTTH Construction in Existing & Greenfield Areas:

1- Existing Civil Work in Secondary:

FTTH cables shall be pulled in existing or installed Subducts in existing ducts. The FAT
shall be installed in manholes & shall be placed in every second handhole, and shall feed drop
the area of the handhole where it is placed (12 customers) and area of the following handhole
(Forward drop, up to 6 customers). If the area of the previous handhole is not completely served,
then it may be possible to serve it from this handhole by backward drop (up to 6 customers). See
drawings in Figure # (5), below.

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

Drops

Forward Drops from
Backward Drops from FAT 1 Backward Drops from FAT 2
FAT1 FAT 1 FAT 2
HH 1 HH 3
HH 2 HH 4

Main Distribution FOC Main Distribution FOC

Figure # (5): FTTH Distribution in Existing secondary civil

2- New Greenfield Areas
In new areas complete construction will be executed from trenching, duct & manhole/
handhole installation, pulling of fibre cable, and installation of all FTTH components. Following are
general guidelines for construction & installation of FTTH, however detailed construction method
for each part is specified in relevant practices / instructions associated with this practice.
FAT shall be housed and installed in manholes/ handholes; and the drops & distribution to
the customers shall be as shown in the drawings figure # (6).

Figure # (6): FTTH Distribution & Drops in Greenfield Areas

5.1.3 FTTH Construction Steps
FTTH construction involves the following:
1- Trenching.
2- Installation of Ducts & Manholes.
3- Installation of FTTH Components (FDT, FAT & ONT).
4- Installation of Fibre cable.
5- Blown Fibre Installation Methods.
6- Marking & Identification of FTTH Components.
7- As Built Drawings (Plans).
8- Testing & Acceptance.

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PR – NW – 1412 - 333 ٣٣٣ - ١٤١٢ – ‫أس – ق ش‬
ISSUE Number: 1.0 – August, 2007G ‫هـ‬١٤٢٨ ‫ ﺷﻌﺒﺎن‬:‫ – ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻹﺻﺪار‬١ :‫رﻗﻢ اﻹﺻﺪار‬

5.2 Trenching.
Before starting excavation of the trench, survey of the routes in the plans is conducted to be
sure of:
o Safe locations for infrastructure.
o Safe distance from other utilities.
o Location is permanent.
o Safe working, no obstructions.
o Location not to be disturbed by other utilities.

Small trenching method, as detailed in the practice # "PR – NS – 1412 – 711, Small Trenches
Design & Implementation", shall be applied for construction & installation of FTTH cables.
The size of the trench shall be 20 cm wide x (45 – 90) cm depth, back-filled with sand &
special grout filling compound as shown in drawings below.
Main & distribution ducts shall be installed as required; and the ducts shall be arranged in the
trench as shown in Figure # (7) for maximum number of ducts that can be accommodated by the
trench.
Ducts for drop fibre cables shall be 20/ 32/ 42/ 50 mm (mini / small ducts) and may be installed in
smaller trenches (9 – 15 cm wide), see above referred practice.
Asphalt

215 Grout
mm
filling

‫ ﻣﻠﻢ‬50 ‫رﻣﻠﺔ‬
900 mm ‫ ﻤﻠﻡ‬50 ‫ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻗﻁﺭ‬

585
mm
‫ ﻤﻠﻡ‬110 ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺎة‬ ‫ ﻣﻠﻢ‬77 ‫ﻗﻨﻮات رﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
PE PEC
‫ﻟﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﺍﺒل ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻗﻨﺎة‬
PE
‫ ﻤﻠﻡ‬110 ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻁﺭ‬
‫ ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ‬5 ‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬،PEC ‫ ﻤﻡ‬77 ‫ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻁﺭ‬
‫ ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ‬3 ‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬PEC

200 mm

Figure # (7): Maximum Ducts in the Trench
The ducts can be arranged in the trench in a way to give it more stability as shown in Figure
# (8).
Asphalt

215 Grout
mm
filling

‫ ﻣﻠﻢ‬50 ‫رﻣﻠﺔ‬
900 mm ‫ ﻤﻠﻡ‬50 ‫ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻗﻁﺭ‬

585
mm

‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻨﺎة‬ ‫ ﻤﻠﻡ‬110 ‫ﻗﻁﺭ‬
‫ ﻤﻠﻡ‬110 ‫ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻁﺭ‬ PE
‫ ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ‬5 ‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬،PEC ‫ ﻤﻡ‬77 ‫ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻗﻁﺭ‬
‫ ﻗﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ‬3 ‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬PEC

200 mm

Figure # (8): Different Arrangement Of Ducts in the Trench

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5.3 Installation of Ducts& Manholes.

5.3.1 Ducts

- Main Feeder & Distribution ducts:
The main feeder & distribution ducts shall be of PE or PEC ducts sizes 110 & 77 mm fitted
with Subducts, the number of ducts shall be set as required for the particular route.

- Duct Section Length:
The objective should be to make the section lengths as long as possible and thereby reduce the number of
manholes and joints required. The length of duct sections will be influenced by location of large buildings,
underground obstructions, intersection points with other duct routes, pulling tensions, safe locations for
manholes, etc..
It is suggested that 500 m be the norm and maximum at 1500 m, with option to increase length but
consider the maximum pulling tension for both fiber and pulling machine.

- Ducts for Drop Cables to the customers:
Ducts to carry drop fibres to the customer shall be small pipes (20/ 32/ 42/ 50 mm outside
dia.). Using the smallest size allows up to three (3) pipes to enter the MH through the 50 mm
diameter drop holes, i.e. total of 72 pipes, 36 on each side of the HH, for more flexibility in
distributing drops.
Drop ducts shall be terminated on customers' outer walls as specified in the practice # "PR –
NS – 1412 – 253: Telephone Installations in Residential & Commercial Buildings &
Compounds". In empty lots, the ducts shall be placed in the furthest end protruding 30 cm above
ground & a marking post is placed over the duct; see the practice # "PR – NS – 1412 – 332:
Guidelines for Installation of secondary Network Using Ducts", for more details.

5.3.2 Manholes & Handholes

Manholes and handholes will function as housing of FAT, fibre pulling, fibre jointing points; and
pass through distribution and drop fibers from the FAT.

A)- Manhole/ Handhole Location
There are two basic requirements for manhole location:
1- Safe working area as well as a suitable location for the placing, jointing, and maintenance of cables
and equipment.
2- The manhole should be located such that subsequent work operations will not interfere with
pedestrian or traffic flow.
Manholes should not be located in the unpaved strip between traffic lanes.
The manhole should be placed not less than 30 m from the intersecting roadway. A manhole that is
located in or near an intersection is hazardous to both workmen and traffic.
The manhole is not to be used to turn corners; conduit bends are to be used instead to turn corners.
Avoid placing manholes in a curve of the road or over the edge of a hill; areas subject to flooding;
locations that will obstruct access to buildings, lane ways and entrance ways.

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B)- Manhole Type & Size
The manhole to be used with the FTTH installation is the Small Manhole type, size:
1200 (length) x 1200 (width) x 1500 (height) mm
Manhole specifications & openings shall be as shown in drawings Figure # (8) & (9).

Figure # (8): Small Size Manhole

‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎر اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎر اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬

Figure # (9): Duct Openings in Manhole Walls

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C)- Handholes Type & Size
Two-Cover Handholes may be used for drops, and have the following configurations &
specifications:

1530 mm
1330 mm

100 mm

‫ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﻐﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﻐﻄﺎء‬
650×650 mm 650×650 mm 660 mm 860mm

100 mm

50 mm ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﻗﺴﺎم ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻐﻄﺎءﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻺزاﻟﺔ‬
Removable Cover Separator
610 mm

: ‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻋﻠﻮي ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺶ ذات ﻏﻄﺎءﻳﻦ‬
1530 mm (W) x 860 mm (D) x 1000 mm (H) : ‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬

1230 mm (W) x 560 mm (D) x 800 mm (H) :‫اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬

.‫ ﻣﻠﻢ‬115 ‫ ﻓﺘﺤﺎت ﻗﻄﺮ‬4 ‫ ﻳﺤﺘﻮي‬: ‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ )أ( ﺟﻬﺔ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﻨﺔ‬ : ‫ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي‬،‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ )ب( ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺶ أﻣﺎم اﻟﻜﺒﻴﻨﺔ‬
.(Distribution) ‫ ﻣﻠﻢ ﻟﻘﻨﻮات آﻮاﺑﻞ اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ‬115 ‫ ﻓﺘﺤﺎت ﻗﻄﺮ‬4 -(1
‫ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ آﻮاﺑﻞ‬2 ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎآﺴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﺪد‬ .(Drops) ‫ ﻣﻠﻢ ﻟﻘﻨﻮات آﻮاﺑﻞ اﻹﺳﻘﺎط إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬55 ‫ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻗﻄﺮ‬12 -(2

1530 mm
860 mm
1330 mm 660 mm
1230 mm 560 mm
50 mm

130 mm
Dim55 .mm
50mm
150 mm
420 mm

800 mm
100 mm
Dim115 . Dim115 .
mm mm 1000 mm
20 mm
Dim115 . Dim115 .
mm mm
50 mm

50 mm
Dim115 . Dim115 .
150 mm
mm mm

Dim115 . Dim115 .
mm mm

100 mm

150 mm 150 mm

‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺏ‬
The specification for the concrete & reinforcing steel bars of handholes shall be as follows:- -: ‫ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ وﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺤﻮ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬
- All dimensions in mm. ‫ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬-
- Reinforcement bars are 14 mm diameter deformed steel bars of 500 MPa minimum. conforming to ASTM A615 ASTM A615, ) ‫ وﻓﻘﺎً ﻟﻠﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬.‫ ﻣﻴﻐﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻜﺎل‬500 ‫ وﻗﻮة‬،‫ﻣﻠﻢ‬14 ‫ ﻗﻀﺒﺎن ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﻮع اﻟﻤﺒﺮوم ﺑﻘﻄﺮ‬-
Grade 60. .(Grade 60
- All concrete to be of cement giving 27.5 MPa compressive strength at 28 days, minimum size aggregate 15 mm. ‫ ﻣﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰ‬150 – 100 ‫ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎت ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻀﺒﺎن اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ‬، ‫ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﻗﻀﺒﺎن ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ اﻟﺤﺎﺋﻂ‬-
-Reinforcement bars to be placed in the centre ,spacing between bars150 –100 mm center to center. ‫وﻳﺤﺘﻮى ﺣﺼﻰ ﺑﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬، ‫ ﻳﻮم‬28 ‫ ﻣﻴﻐﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﻜﺎل ﺑﻌﺪ‬5,27 ‫ ﺗﻜﻮن ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺎت ﻣﻦ اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺖ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺑﻘﻮة ﺿﻐﻂ‬-
- Moisture and soil salt resistant additives shall be included in the concrete mix. be sulfate resistance type V .‫ ﻣﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗﻞ‬15 ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬
conforming to ASTM C150. ASTM C) ‫ وﻓﻘﺎً ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎت‬،V ‫ ﻧﻮع‬،‫ﻣﻘﺎوم ﻟﻸﻣﻼح‬. ‫ ﺗﻀﺎف ﻣﻮاد ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ وأﻣﻼح اﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻠﻄﺔ اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬-
- The outer concrete surfaces of the Handholes & Pulling Boxes shall be painted with protective layers of (150
butamine. with approved bituminous material. ‫ﺑﻤﻮاد أﺳﻔﻠﺘﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬. ‫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﻠﻲ اﻷﺟﺴﺎم اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺘﻴﺔ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎت اﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ ﺑﻤﺎدة اﻟﻘﺎر اﻟﻌﺎزل‬-

Manhole cover shall be 45 Kg heavy duty cast iron. ‫ آﻴﻠﻮﺟﺮام‬45 ‫ﻳﻜﻮن ﻏﻄﺎء ﻏﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺶ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺰهﺮ ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺔ اﻟﺜﻘﻠﻴﺔ زﻧﺔ‬-

Figure # (10): Handhole Dimensions & Duct Openings

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The specification for the concrete & reinforcing steel bars of handholes shall be as follows:
- Reinforcement bars are 14 mm diameter deformed steel bars of 500 MPa minimum. conforming to
ASTM A615 Grade 60.
- All concrete to be of cement giving 27.5 MPa compressive strength at 28 days, minimum size
aggregate 15 mm.
- Reinforcement bars to be placed in the centre, spacing between bars 100 – 150 mm center to center.
- Moisture and soil salt resistant additives shall be included in the concrete mix. "sulfate resistance
type V conforming to ASTM C150".
- The outer concrete surfaces of the Handholes & Pulling Boxes shall be painted with protective
layers of butamine. with approved bituminous material.

The Frame for the HH cover shall be of galvanized iron, right angled corners, and dimensions of: 660 x 1330
mm (outside) & 560 x 1230 mm (inside).

There shall be an inverted -T- shape separator in the middle of the cover frame to separate the two covers. The
dimensions of the separator shall be 610 mm long, 50 mm wide and 50 mm high.

The cover for the HH shall be 65 cm x 65 cm in size, with a thickness of 5 cm.

The cover shall be of two types:
1- Medium Duty: to be placed in main roads & streets, and shall be made of Ductile Iron.
2- Light Duty: To be pla1ced in walkways, and shall be made of Cast Iron.
The Cover shall weigh 50 – 55 Kg.
The covers shall have Prizing Holes for lifting the cover and open the handhole.
The cover shall have STC logo and name in both Arabic & English.

D)- Distribution Network & Drops from Manhole/ Handhole
The maximum Drops per FAT shall be twenty four (24) i.e. 12 Drops on each side of the
manhole. The layout of distribution & drops cables from the manhole/ handhole shall be as shown in
the drawings figure # (10) below
.

Figure # (11): Typical Fiber Distribution and Drop duct layout for Residential areas using Small
Trenches.

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5.3.3 Cable Vault Entrance
The duct banks shall be located in a manner, which allows cables to be easily routed to the ODF without
encountering cable congestion in the long term.
The cable entrance shall be located in the front of the building at the end of the vault. The ducts entering
the vault shall be positioned such that the cables can be placed in their respective positions with little or no
bending. Ducts shall preferably enter the vault via pre-fabricated socket banks or plastic terminators. The duct
ends shall be leveled so as to remove any sharp edges.
The opposite wall to the duct entrance shall have two cast-in pulling irons centered vertically and
horizontally with each duct entrance formation for the pulling of network cables. Pulling eyes shall be
anchored to resist a pulling force of 50 kN.
Access to the cable vault or exchange via a tunnel shall be prevented by suitable locking facilities.
Each cable shall be provided with adequate supports at approximately 100 cm centers. In manholes and
Vaults, joints shall be placed horizontally. A suitable rack shall support the joint.
Supports shall be installed so as not to hinder the installation of additional cables, and to allow adequate
access for jointing purposes and reasonable working space for maintenance. A working space of 100 cm shall
be achieved where possible.
The cabling running from termination to equipment (ODF, DDF etc.) shall be provided with adequate
ladders or trays to allow a neat workmanlike installation to be achieved.
Cable brackets, trays and supports, shall ensure that the cables are supported so as to induce the minimum
strain into the materials. Manufacturer installation recommendations shall be followed regarding handling,
bending and setting radii. No sharp edges and protruding bolts etc, which may damage cable sheaths, shall be
permitted.

5.4 Installation of FTTH Components (FDT, Splitter, FAT, FTB & ONT).
5.4.1 Fibre Distribution Terminal (FDT)
* Outdoor Cabinets units are located nearest to the customers, preferably in the middle of cabinet (FDT)
area.
* The following should be considered when choosing a site for the cabinet:
- Easy reach to the cabinet and installations in all times of the day, especially after work
hours for cabinets at subscriber’s premises.
- Suitable locations for outdoors cabinet are near the mosques, schools & public parks. It
should be away from pedestrians, traffic, traffic signals, and road crossings; and should not be
subjected to direct sun rays during the mid day.
- To be placed away from Customers’ walls.
- Should not cause any inconveniences to the public.
- To be placed on solid grounds, not water and flood runways; or in wadis.
- Abide by Municipality rules and regulations.

* Indoor cabinets units are located inside customers building, in telecom equipment room (CER).The
room shall be of specifications as sated in practice # PR – NW – 1412 – 253 "Telephone Installations in
Residential & Commercial Buildings & Compounds".
Indoor FDT have various sizes: 32, 64, 96 , 128, 160, 192, etc..

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* Outdoor FDT cabinets shall be made of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyester or Glass Fibre Reinforced
Polycarbonate, and shall be sturdy construction and impact-resistant against damage during handling, placing
and installation. The cabinet shall be thermally insulated, dust and weather proof, and watertight.
The FDT capacity & size shall be:
1- 512 (576 splice ports) fibres; with approximate outer dimensions of:
1500 mm (Height) x 800 mm (Width) x 600 mm (Depth).
2- 256 (288 splice ports) fibres; with approximate outer dimensions of:
1500 mm (Height) x 800 mm (Width) x 300 mm (Depth).
The cabinet shall be full open from the front, fitted with high quality locking system. See
pictures in Figure # (12).

Figure # (12): General View of Various Sizes of Fiber Distribution Terminal Cabinet.

5.4.2 Splitters (POS- Sp)
Each FDT cabinet shall be fitted with an integrated splitter of size 16 x 1:32 or 8 x 1:32.
The splitters shall be high quality with maximum split ratio loss, including connectors 16.7 dB. The
splitters shall be pre-terminated & shall bear clear identification on the connection & distribution
points.(See picture in figure # (13).

Figure # (13): A pre -terminated type Splitter housed in FDT..

5.4.3 Fiber Access Terminal (FAT)
Fibre Access Terminal is used to link the Distribution network with the Drop fibre network, and is located
near the centre or in the shortest point for all drops.
FAT closure is placed underground inside manholes/ handholes, and shall provide a hermetically sealed
interior environment (watertight, weather proof) and secure storage for the spliced & excess fibres. FAT
closure shall accommodate (1-2) incoming fibre cables and up to 24 outgoing drop cables. The physical size
of the FAT shall be about 450 mm long, and (150 – 200) mm in diameter or square.

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5.4.4 Fibre Termination Box (FTB)
Fibre Termination Box (FTB) is the customer Lead-In Unit, installed at the customer outer wall for
termination of incoming & indoor fibres. The (FTB) shall be made of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester or
Glass Fiber Reinforced polycarbonate and suitable for flush-mounted or surface-mounted on outer concrete
walls. It shall be dust proof, splash watertight, weatherproof, and locked by a high quality and safe locking
system.
The FTB shall accommodate 1-2 incoming drop cable with (4) patch cord fitted with
adaptor/connector (FC/APC) for residential areas (SDU); and 12-24 patch cord adaptor/connector (FC/APC)
for commercial areas (MDU).

.
5.4.5 Optical Network Terminal (ONT)
Optical Network Terminal (ONT) or Optical Network Unit (ONU) is the final end point in FTTH
network; and is located inside/ outside customer's premises and provides the appropriate services towards the
customer. The minimum services which can be provided by ONT are 2 POTS + 1 Ethernet Port + 1 CATV
ports in SFU and in MDU up to 20 POTS lines, 4 10/100 Base-T Ethernet, 8 T1s and 4 CATV ports.
ONT requires electrical power source. The outdoor type is installed on the outer wall of customer's
building; and serves as fiber termination box.
ONT is to be installed upon service request. See samples of ONT / FTB in Figures # (14), (15), (16),
(16) & (17).

Figure # (14): Sample of an Outdoor ONT.

5.4.6 Termination Of Optical Network Terminal (ONT) At The Home

Sample of FTTH terminations at the subscribers' premises are shown in the drawings in Figures
# (15), (16) , (17) and (18).

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Figure # (15): ONT Outside/ Outdoor installation in Mixed Multi Dwelling Units with Small
Business Customers.

Figure # (16): Details of ONT Outside/ Outdoor installation in Mixed Multi Dwelling Units with
Small Business Customers.

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Figure # (17): ONT Installation In Residential area.

Figure # (18): Details of ONT Installation In Residential area.

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5.5 Installation of Fibre cable.
Fibre laying for FTTH can be accomplished by traditional method as specified in practice # "(PR – NW
– 1412 – 300): Fibre Optical Cable Underground Placing Guidelines"; or by blown fibre method using
special construction FOC in normal Subducts or micro-ducts, as will be explained in section (5.6) below.
Using traditional methods of pulling FOC, where short sections are encountered (i.e. distances between
manholes), it may be possible to arrange cable lengths so that some cables may be pulled through
intermediate manholes eliminating some jointing costs. Pulling tension must not exceed 2.0 kN.
Bends &curves should be checked before commencing pulling operations. The minimum dynamic
bending radius for moving fiber cable is 20 times the outside diameter of the cable. It will be good to increase
curvature for extra protection of the cable. The minimum static bend for fixed cable is 10 times the outside
diameter of the cable.
If the cable is laid out on the ground, no traffic of any form can be allowed to run over it.
Cables shall be arranged in the Manhole/ Handhole as shown in the drawings in Figure # (19).
Cables shall be pulled and terminated on Fiber Termination Box (FTB) in every existing building.

Figure # (19): FOC Installation in FAT HH/MH

5.6 Blown Fibre Installation Method.
Blowing Fibre is a method where the fibre is guided through micro ducts/ miniducts using a flow of air
that evenly distributes the installation force along the entire length of the fibre. This fibre can be blown
several kilometres along zig-zagging routes and even up and down buildings.

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5.6.1 Components & Accessories of Blown Fiber

Figure # (20): FTTH, Blown Fibre Layout.
As shown in FTTH Blown fibre layout Figure (19), the main components of the blown fibre are as
follows:

1- Optical Fibre:
The fibre used for blown fiber method shall be a Single-mode (SM), with special construction single fibre
construction; or constructed in special construction cable or bundle ready for blowing by air into the ducts. A
fibre bundle may consist of 4 or 8 or more fibres bonded together to form a flexible yet single ‘strand’. The
fiber is installed in feeder, distribution & drop parts of FTTH topology.

2- Blown Tube:
Small diameter low friction HDPE tubes provide the dedicated pathway for the optical fibre
units. The tubes are available in a variety of sizes, combinations, and protective systems supplied
on drums. The tubes have all been rigorously tested and enable the blown fibre units to be blown
the optimum distance within the tube.

Figure # (21): FTTH, Blown Tubes.

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The tubing products (for both internal and external applications) come in 1, 2, 4, 7, 12, 19
and 24 way.

a) Blown Tube – Internal
The Indoor Range of products is available in Reduced Fire Hazard/Low Smoke Zero
Halogen options, see drawing below.

b) Blown Tube – External
The Outdoor Range of products is available in standard sub-duct, heavy duty, anti-rodent, or
armoured versions to withstand the different environmental conditions.

Figure # (22): Indoor/ Internal (left) & Outdoor (right) FTTH, Blown Tubes.
.
3) Tube Accessories
An integral part of Blown Fibre method is the tube connection and tube sealing products. A
wide range of products are available which enable tubes to be connected together, sealed from water
or gas ingress, or reduced from one tube size to another, sealing & end caps (Reducers, Adaptors,
Manifolds & Plug Kits).
See shape of different accessories of FTTH blown fiber in Figure # (23).

Pigtail
Optical connector
Gas Block Connector
6091

End
Cap
OPTICAL SPLICE CASSETTE
Electronics

Bulkhead Connector

Blown Fibre Micro Duct to Pigtail
Plowing Fiber Accessories are
different than Existing

Blown Fibre

Figure # (23): FTTH, Blown Tubes Accessories.

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4) Compact Node Closure
A closure used in manholes where feeder blown fibre cables are spliced It is supplied with
12 single circuit splice trays and sufficient components for installing one cable, enabling the
breakout of up to 24 fibres (dual fibre circuits) to customer drop cables. Distribution cables are
installed through fibre cable entry kit.
5) Branching Unit (Tube Distribution Centre)
Used for management and distribution of fibres to the customers. The unit provides in-line
and diversion connections with the use of "Y" and "T" tube joints; installed underground near then
customers. Each Branching unit / Distribution centre can serve up to 5 dwelling units (subscribers).
6) Entry Kit (External Customer Splice Box)
This is the Customer Lead-In Unit, installed at the customer outer wall for termination of
incoming fibres. It may be of two parts mounted on either side of the wall connected by a length of
tube (conduit). Comprises: blow fibre unit, customer lead in unit, connecting conduit &
terminating box.

5.6.2 Equipment & Tools
Consist mainly of air Compressor, Blowing Head and fibre guiding fittings & accessories
(regulators, coilers, pan guides or supports, etc..).
The compressor provides clean dry air to the blowing head and the tubes, usually at a rate of
10 / 13 bars.
The blowing head accommodates a FOC or a bundle of number of fibres (2, 4, 8, 12 etc.) to
be blown into mini-ducts or micro-tubes at the same time.
Figure # (23) shows FTTH blown fiber equipment & tools setup details.

Figure # (24): FTTH, Blown Fibre Equipment Setup.

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5.6.3 Blowing Procedures
1) Trenching & Installation of Empty Tubes:
- Trenching for FTTH blown fiber shall be by using small trenches as specified in section (5.2)
above; and duct laying is as per normal ducting methods. Mini ducts & tubes are connected at tube
distribution units using tube connectors.
- Main & distribution ducts shall be installed in 20 cm wide trenches; and the drop ducts branching
to the customer premises may be installed in smaller trenches (9 – 15 cm wide).
- Mini-ducts (2x50 mm dia. with 7 x 12 mm dia. sub-ducts, which can carry up 96 fibres per sub-
duct) are laid from the manholes in front of the cabinet through intermediate manholes to manholes
where Node Closures are to be installed.
- Micro-ducts (35 mm dia. with 19/24 x 5 mm dia. micro-tubes) are laid from the Node Closures to
the Branching Units / Tube Distribution Centres placed buried in the trenchs. The Node will serve up
to 6 Tube Distribution Centre.
- Micro-ducts (20 mm dia. with 2x5 mm dia. Micro-tubes) are laid from the Branching units to
customer locations where the Entry kits will be installed.
The FTTH blown fibre ducts shall be installed in every lot as stated in section (5.3.1) above,
and the distribution layout shall be as shown in Figure # (25) below.

Figure # (25): FTTH, Blown Fibre Distribution & Drop Ducts Layout.

2) Blowing Fiber Into Ducts:
Methods of blowing fibre differ for the different vendors; however, they essentially involve
feeding compressed air (from air compressor) & fibre cable simultaneously into a blowing head
coupled to blown duct; and control fibre movement to the other end of the tube. Fibre flow can be
blown in stages for very long unspliced distances. Before starting blowing operation, cable size and
fibre count is defined and suitable duct is selected. The route is divided into blowing sections/

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distances and blowing points are decided. Then way & method of blowing is chosen: Single blow
(point to point), Coiling, Centre Blowing or Cascade Blowing.

- Coiling Method:
When fibre reaches the far end of a 'single blow', it is possible to continue blowing,
accumulating the arriving fibre in a standard pan. The coiler simply feeds any excess fibre into an
empty pan in the same way that it is supplied during blowing. By turning this pan over, the free end
then becomes available for further blowing, with the original blown length still attached. The coiler
is ‘automatic’, coiling at whatever speed the fibre is presented to it, stopping if necessary.

Figure # (26): The Coiler in Action
- Centre Blowing:
A simpler and quicker way to blow fibre through two sections without using the coiler is to
start the blow at the centre point (manhole # 2). Blow ‘back’ to previous manhole (#1), then stop.
Turn the pan over, and then blow the other section in the other way to next manhole (#3). The big advantage
of this is that, at any time the blow can be stopped, the fibre unit removed from the blowing head, and the
fibre pan turned over. This exposes the other end of the fibre unit, which can then be fed to blow into another
tube. This means no splice at the central point.

- Cascade Blowing:
A way to blow 'multiple' distances by the use of an accumulator and a second blowing head, so that
fibre can be blown simultaneously along both sections of routes, with the accumulator in the middle or with
the aid of a second person, controlling the middle-position blowing head.

The fibre cable/ bundle and air hose are both fed into a small chamber inside the "Blowing Head"
and the head is connected to the blown tube. The air compressor regulator is opened and from then
on, the fibre cable / bundle is inside the tube route and carried forward by airflow. Fibre is fed in
under control by the tiny feed rollers on the left. The speed is set from a portable control box. The
same rollers measure the installed fibre length.
The blowing head can be opened to permit the fibre to be removed, see figure # (27). This
does not have to be at the free end of the fibre; the blowing head can be removed at any point along a
fibre. The blowing device is automatic. If a restriction is encountered, the drive slows accordingly,
applying no stress to the fibre. With a suitable porous end cap in place, the fibre will stop
automatically when it reaches the far end.

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Figure # (27): Blowing Head In Open Position

Bundles of 2-fibre, 4-fibre, 8-fibre or 12-fibre are all easy-to-use, straight from the pan, with no de-
reeling equipment, see figure # (28). The tiny guide rollers in the blowing head are strong enough to lift fibre
unit from the pan, via the smooth fibre guide, and feed it into the blowing head and tube.

Fibre cables shall be fed from reels into the blowing head & blown tubes.

Figure # (28): Fibre Pan

5.7 Identification & Marking of FTTH Components.

All FTTH components are marked, numbered & identified by symbols as stated in section 4.2.
Each FTTH fibre cable terminated at the Optical Line Terminal, Optical Distribution Terminal or
Fibre Distribution Frame inside the exchange shall be numbered in consecutive order and shall
continue to any branch of cables outside the exchange

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5.7.1 Fiber Optic Cable
All fibers are single mode type FEFS with core and cladding diameter of 10 µm and 125 µm
respectively, where the type of cable is defined as follows:

First Letter = Conductor Insulation Type
E = Polyethylene – solid
C = Polyethylene – cellular
V = Polyvinyl chloride
F = Fibre Optic Cable

Second Letter = First Sheath Material Type
E = Polyethylene – solid
V = Polyvinyl chloride
R = Halogen free flame retardant

Subsequent Letters = Other Key Characteristics
H = High density polyethylene outer sheath
F = Filled cable with metal moisture barrier
B = Indoor (building) cable
E = Polyethylene second sheath
D = Double Tape armoring and polyethylene second sheath

• FEEDER - Cable Identification Example

Feeder Cable for Local Convergence Architecture
Assumptions:
FTTH GPON v.2, OLT cards with 4-port, each port have 2.48 Gbps max. Bandwidth transmission
capability or 4 PON per card, OLT can accommodate up to 9 cards. Each OLT can serve up to 1152 ONT.
Each ONT can deliver up to 77.5 Mbps of bit-rate theoretically. . This will be terminated in the FDF/ ODF
rack # 1 to be distributed through ports (1-48) in the ODF patch panel.
Cable # 1 of 72 fibers with 24 dark fibers coming out of the exchange, from FDF rack # 1, shelf # 1, Port
# (1 - 48) from the patch panel.

01 72 (24)F(4) R1: S1: 001 - 048 (8)

Duct assignment

Port #
Shelf #
ODF/FDF Rack Number

Feeder fiber cable size with dark fibres
FTTH fiber cable number leaving the exchange

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• DISTRIBUTION - Cable Identification Example:
Distribution Cable for Local Convergence Point Architecture
Assumption:
A fiber strand from Feeder cable in the Feeder example was splitted inside an FDT. Taking the first strand
of the Feeder cable, the following will be the identification of the cables that will come out of the splitter:
01:36F (4):FDT1: Sp1: 001 - 032 : (8)
Duct Allocation
Splitter Output Ports #
Splitter Number

FDT Number
Fibre size with dark fibre
Cable Number

• CABLE DROPS:

Fiber Drops are fibres that terminate in the customers location. Its fibre end is connected or spliced direct
to the pig tail of Optical Network Terminal. Drop cables are identified by specifying:
- Drop #,
- Drop size (2, 12, 24), and dark fibres (2, 10, etc..)
- FAT #, and ports #s where drop is connected.

03 12(10) FAT4: 01 - 02

FAT # & O/P Ports #
Drop size & dark fibres

Drop #

5.7.2 Cable Labeling
Cables will be labeled with appropriate designations & symbols written clearly on aluminum
strips and fixed on cables in every cable vault, manhole & handhole as per applied practices; (see
practice # PR – NS – 1412 – 356 " Cable Installation & Removal").
Examples of Cable Labeling:
1- Feeder Cable:
Cable # Cable Type Cable Size (Used fibres) Termination In FDF (Rack # , Shelf #) Function

01 FEFS 144 (96) R1S1 FTTH

2- Distribution Cable:
Distribution Cable Type Cable Size Feeder Cable # Termination In FDF Function
Cable # (Used fibres) (Rack # , Shelf #)

01 FEFS 144 (96) 01 R1S1 FTTH

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5.7.3 Marking Fiber Distribution Terminal (FDT)
Numbering & identification of Fiber Distribution Terminal in the plans shall contain the following
information: Feeder Route Number, FDT Number in sequence with the other FDTs in same Feeder Route;
and FDT size with spare/ unconnected fibres. The OSP Engineer and Designer will commence numbering of
FDT, with the first FDT nearest to OLT receiving the first number. All FDTs shall be numbered, and
numbering should be reflected in all design drawings including Distribution and Fiber Drops.

FDT Numbering:

FDT2 256/512 (100) 01
Feeder Route #
FDT size (Spare fibres)
FDT #

Marking & stenciling the FDT shall include: Exchange Name, Area code, Feeder route number and FDT
serial number, as shown in Figure (17).

111 / KL 111 /KL
FR 1 FR 1
FDT 2 FDT 2

Figure # (17): FDT Cabinet (Example: Stencil for FDT Cabinet # 2 in Feeder Route 1 of Huttayn
Exchange).

5.7.4 Identifying & Marking Fiber Access Terminal (FAT)

All FAT's shall be numbered and numbering should be reflected in all design drawings. Numbering of Fibre
Access Terminal shall contain the following information: FAT #, which is a serial number allocated to all
FATs connected to one FDT, FAT size and unused outlets, distribution cable number & number of fibres
connected to the FAT.

FAT Numbering:
FAT3 24(12) Sp1 : 01-12

Splitter # : Connected fibres to FAT

FAT size (Unused outlets)
FAT #

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Stenciling & marking of FAT shall contain: Exchange Name and Area Code, Feeder Route Number,
Fibre Distribution Number where it is connected, FAT number in sequence with other FAT connected to
same FDT. Location of stencil may be placed in the upper left corner for big size FAT or in the upper centre
for small FAT's. The OSP Engineer and designer will commence numbering with the first Fibre Access
Terminal nearest the Fibre Distribution Terminal receiving the first number.

111/ KL
FR 1
FDT 2
FAT 8

Figure # (18): Example: Stencil for FAT # 8 of FDT Cabinet # 2 in Feeder Route 1 of Huttayn
Exchange.

5.7.5 Identifying & Marking Splitters
Splitter Number- Assigned is based from the port designation in the Optical Line Terminal. Splitters
may be located inside the exchange FDF or outside the exchange housed in FDT or FAT. Number and Stencil
for Splitter may contain the following: Exchange Name and Site Code, OLT Number, Port connection in the
OLT & Size of Splitter.
Sp1(1:32) R1 S1 01
Port #
Shelf #
Rack #
Splitter # & size #

Example: Stencil for a splitter # 1 terminated in FDT connected to ODF Rack # 1, shelf #1, port # 5
with splitter size 1:32. on plastic or aluminum tape.

Sp1(1:32) R1 S1 05

Figure # (19): Plastic / Metal Plate attached to Splitter

5.7.6 Identifying & Marking Fibre Terminal Box – FTB:
FTB is identified by:
- FTB #
- Size (4, 12 or 24)
- connected drop fiber to FTB connector (01-02 ).

03 12 01- 02
Connected Drop fibres numbers

FTB size
FTB # / Drop #

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• Identification Plate At the Fibre Terminal Box:
The identification plate shall bear the following information:
- FTB #
- Parcel #
- Block #
- FDT #
- Area Code #
- Exchange Code/ #.

The plate shall be as shown in the drawing Figure (20).

Figure # (20): Identification Plate @ FTB

5.7.7 Marking Of Optical Network Terminal - ONT:
The ONT shall be stenciled & marked by the following information:
- ONT #
- ONT Type
- Vendor Name
- Date of Delivery in premises

5.8 Testing & Acceptance.

5.8.1 Testing the Cables
There are four basic phases in testing of fibre optic cable installation:
1. Visual (pre-installation) inspection at the delivery on site for transportation damage; (and
possible reel test).
2. Installation testing, which occurs after the cable is pulled through the conduit and at every
splice point.
3. Splice testing.
4. Final acceptance testing after installation and prior to activation.
The following is a list of testing guidelines:
• Testing reels of optical fibre cables at delivery is not required, however, testing prior to, and
after construction is essential to identify any cable performance degradation caused during
installation. Testing prior to installation provides baseline of performance
• Pre-shipment Testing – This typically consists of an OTDR (Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer) test performed at 1550 nm. All optical fibre cables must be bi-directionally
OTDR – tested prior to shipment and the test report attached to the reel. Bi-directional testing
is important to verify results and to make certain that no potential problems were missed.

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Remember, the data can flow in two directions on the fibre strand. Test to make certain that it
will.
• A pre-installation (visual) test will verify the characteristics of the cable and check for any
transportation damage. The test must be jointly conducted by the Construction Inspector and
the contractor in order to preclude future difficulties should a cable be damaged during
construction.
• Installation Testing – Cable should be tested once it has been placed in the conduit and prior
to splicing to make sure that there has been no installation damage. Installation testing is
usually done with an OTDR.
• Splice testing is done after each splice to ensure that a clean, low-loss connection was made.
OTDR, local injection detection and profile alignment can be used alone or in combination
for splice testing.
• Post Installation – Final Acceptance Testing – The usual post installation testing method is to
perform end-to-end OTDR testing for both directions. The results should be compared to the
pre-installation test. It is highly recommended that an ongoing testing program be established
after the system is powered up.
• It is important that technicians testing the fibre use same brand and model of test equipment
and the same testing profile. Use of different test equipment and profiles will result in
confusion and inconsistent test results.
• Make certain to understand the test results to verify that all specifications have been met.
• Test measurements shall be recorded which include: attenuation, splices loss, fibre ran
length, etc…as per procedures outlined in practice # (PR – NS – 1412 – 401): Provisional
Acceptance Test Procedures.

5.8.2 Testing of Other Components
Testing of all other components (FDT, Splitters, FAT, FTB, and ONT) shall be performed after
installation & construction completion as will be specified for each component & according to above
mentioned practice.

5.9 As Built Drawings (Plans).
As Built drawings shall be marked (In Red) on the design plans to show the exactly constructed &
completed works. Only changed items & portions in the design plan shall be marked and the new
constructed shall be shown in red. Unconstructed items shall be crossed out in red; and if the executed
lengths are different, the planned lengths shall be crossed and the exact constructed lengths written beside
them in red. If no change occurred on the design plans during construction, it is to be clearly written on
the plans: "Executed as per Plans".

6.0 ASSOCIATED PRACTICES

• STTP # (PR – NS – 1412 – 201): FTTH Planning & Design Guidelines.
• STTP # (PR – NS – 1412 – 232): Manhole Design.
• STTP # (PR – NS – 1412 – 711): Small Trenches Design & Implementation.
• STTP # (PR – NS – 1412 – 332): Guidelines for Installation of Secondary Network Using Ducts.
• STTP # (PR – NS – 1412 – 334): Ducts Construction Guidelines.
• STTP # (PR – NS– 1412 – 300): Fibre Optical Cable Underground Placing Guidelines.
• STTP # (PR – NS – 1412 – 401): Provisional Acceptance Test Procedures.
• STTP # (PR – NW – 1412 – 614 ): Access Network Process.

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