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ALARP Principle

Principle 1
"HSE starts with the expectation that suitable controls must be in place to address all
significant hazards and that those controls, as a minimum, must implement authoritative
good practice irrespective of situation based risk estimates".

Principle 2
"The zone between the unacceptable and broadly acceptable regions is the tolerable region.
Risks in that region are typical of the risks from activities that people are prepared to
tolerate in order to secure benefits in the expectation that the nature and level of the risks
are properly assessed and the results used properly to determine control measures;
the residual risks are not unduly high and kept as low as reasonably practicable (the LARP
principle); and .the risks are periodically reviewed to ensure that they still meet the ALARP
criteria, for example, by ascertaining whether further or new controls need to be
introduced to take into account changes over time, such as new knowledge about the risk or
the availability of new techniques for reducing or eliminating risks."

Principle 3
"both the level of individual risks and the societal concerns engendered by the activity or
process must be taken into account when deciding whether a risk is acceptable, tolerable or
broadly acceptable’ and ‘hazards that give rise to …. individual risks also give rise to
societal concerns and the latter often play a far greater role in deciding whether risk is
unacceptable or not".

7. For high hazard sites, societal risks/concerns are normally much more relevant than individual
but individual risk must still be addressed. Although R2P2 gives clear guidance on individual
criteria, it gives only limited guidance on criterion values for societal risks (50 fatalities at less
than 1
in 5000 per annum, point on the boundary between the ALARP band and intolerable band).

Intolerable Risk
Clearly, if the risk is in this region (whether for individual or societal risk) then ALARP cannot
be demonstrated and action must be taken to reduce the risk irrespective of cost.

"Tolerable if ALARP" Risk
If the risks fall in this region then a case specific ALARP demonstration is required. The extent
of the demonstration should be proportionate to the level of risk.

Broadly Acceptable Risk
If the risk has been shown to be in this region, then the ALARP demonstration may be based on
adherence to codes, standards and established good practice. However, these must be shown to
be up-to-date and relevant to the operations in question.