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Math for All Learners:

Specialized Instruction
Day 2

Math for All Learners

Design a menu for a Tier 2 or 3
student with whom you work.

What did you include?

How does it lead to understanding
Cocktail Party for Sharing
Error Analysis: George
Error Analysis: Mary
Error Analysis: Babette
Error Analysis: Joe
Error Analysis: Dorothy
S4Y Assessments
Formative Probes Classroom
(CRA) Teachers

Collaborative Instructional
Study Leaders

Clinical Special Educators

Formative Probes (CRA)

Understanding and Implementing

CRA looks at 3 kinds of
Uses physical materials
Difficult to document (pictures of process)

Mathematical representations

Symbolic representations
Information we get from a
The problem:

The Necklace Problem

Maria wants to make necklaces for her friends. She has 4
Each necklace needs 10 beads.
Maria buys three bags of beads.
If each bag has 17 beads, will Maria have enough beads to make
all her friends a necklace?
Information we get from a
Kelseys response at the Concrete Station:

Teacher notes:

Kelsey, tried to answer the problem at the concrete

station by making a pile of 3 beads and then a pile of 17
beads (3x17) to show that she is multiplying three and
Information we get from a

Kelsey, who wrote only equations for her work at the

abstract station:

4 10 = 40

17 3 = 51
Planning a CRA
Choose a mathematical focus

Connect this focus to local curriculum and standards

Choose appropriate problems.

What do you expect the assessment to show?

Change problem or keep it the
Same problem/same number
Clearest way to see changes in modeling

Same problem/different numbers

Seeing modeling changes
Higher engagement

Different problem/different numbers

High engagement
Test for transferability
Planning a CRA:
Choose appropriate problems

The problem must assess the mathematical focus

youve identified.
This isnt a time for review

The problem must have context.

Worksheets or computation practice dont make for
good CRAs

The problem should be solvable using common

classroom models.
Decide on the management system for administering the

Three stations/student-determined rotation

Three stations/teacher-determined group rotation

Whole class
Analyzing a CRA

Two passes through student work:

What patterns did you notice?

Any particular type of model that was difficult (or
Was one station more difficult?
Were there any common difficulties or misconceptions?

How might you sort this work?

Analyzing a CRA: Sorting
How could we sort these pieces?

What might we look for?

What would the sorting tell us?

Analyzing a CRA: Unproductive
High - Medium Low

Got it - almost got it - dont have it

Unarticulated characteristics

Inferred (unobserved) characteristics

Analyzing a CRA: Productive Sorting

Sort by model used at each station

Sort samples with misconceptions and those without

Sort by strategy used to solve

Sort by observable characteristics

Analyzing a CRA:
The Questions Pile
When sorting, the fewer piles (beyond 2) the better

Students who dont fit into any category (unique in

some way) go into a separate pile for further

The Questions Pile papers will require a flexible

Analyzing a CRA

The goal of analyzing a CRA assessment is to:

identify the instructional needs of the class

find potential areas of struggle for particular learners.

The goal of a CRA is to plan for

Sorting Work
Using samples provided (First Grade
CRA Samples)
Sort the student work
Create a menu activity to address the
need identified
Review the Formative Probe Example
Collaborative Study

Tool for collaboration in assessment

Requires the teacher to focus on details about the
student in question
Is used for the development of testable theories
about the source of difficulty
May be useful for principals or coaches to create a
focus on student work
Collaborative Study

Leader (Learning Specialist, Math coach, Principal)

convenes at Study Group
Team often includes:
Current classroom teacher
Learning Specialist
Administrative Representative
Another classroom teacher

History of the students math performance

Data/impressions from teachers and parents
Collaborative Study
Theories are developed to explain student thinking

Theories are tested

Evidence supports a theory Still confused about student thinking

Action Plan is created Monitor is decided Clinical interview

Theories from interview are tested

Action Plan is created Monitor is decided

Collaborative Study
History (remember confidentiality rules)
Past report cards (relevant to area of concern)
Achievement test scores (State or Normed)
IEP information
Relevant class assessments (Unit tests)
Any other assessment information that might inform the differential
Personal history:
Talk with parents about math learning
BE CAREFUL! Not all personal history is relevant.
Collaborative Study
Work samples demonstrating the concern
Highlight specific samples that have caused you concern.
This should serve as evidence for the struggle
Highlight areas of competence, too.

Be prepared to share the results of a flexible

What did you learn from this?
Collaborative Study
Leader presents at least one personal theory
Use evidence to suggest what might be happening
If possible, share other potential theories

Solicit other theories or suggestions

Help colleagues to brainstorm theories about the causes of your
students difficulties.
Collaborative Study
Develop ways to test the theories youve come up
What kind of problems would give you more insight?
Are there other assessments you could use to figure out whats
going on?
How will you know if youre right?
Collaborative Study Case
Read the case study provided

What theories would you want to


How would you explore them?