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Chicago Humanities Style

This guide is intended as a general introduction to citing sources using the bibliographic
style established by the Chicago Manual of Style. An online version of the latest edition
(16th, 2010) of The Chicago Manual of Style Online is now available. A print copy of the
previous edition is to be found at REF KNIGHT Z253 .U69 2003. Note that this manual also
includes essential information on research and writing, and manuscript preparation (e.g.,
margins, use of the passive voice). There are two Chicago Style formats: Humanities style
(using footnotes) and Author-Date style (using in-text citations). This guide is for the
Humanities style, favored by writers in history and art history. Chicago Style is mostly
interchangeable with Turabian, a modified version of this style.

General Guidelines
In works with no bibliography, give full details at the first mention of a work cited; in a work
with a bibliography, the note citations can be concise.
During your research, develop a consistent system for noting bibliographic information
(author, title, date, publisher, source, page numbers) and keep it with your notes or copies
of the source material you used.
Always consult your professor/department/publisher for specific requirements.
Include as much of the requested information as is available. The most important thing
about a footnote or bibliographic entry is that the reader can use it to find the item being

Footnote Guidelines
The first time you cite a source, the note should include publication information for that
work as well as the page number on which the passage being cited may be found. For
subsequent references to a source you have already cited, give only the author's last
name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited. A short form of the title of a
book is italicized; a short form of the title of an article is put in quotation marks. E.g:

First: Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave Black
Regiment (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965), 85.
Subsequent: Burchard, One Gallant Rush, 31.

When one work by the same person is cited successively, Ibid. ("in the same place") may
be used, with a page number.
Sample List of Entries

Chicago has a different format for footnotes and bibliographic entries. Below are formats for
both types of citation, with "N" indicating an example for a footnote and "B" indicating an
example of a bibliographic entry. For citation-styles of genres not included here, please see
the Chicago Manual of Style.

N/B Citation Examples Type of Citation

William H. Rehnquist, The Supreme Court: A History(New York:

N Knopf, 2001), 204.

Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court: A History.New York:
B Knopf, 2001.

Walter J. Ong, "Oral Remembering and Narrative Structures,"

N in Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk, ed. Deborah Tannen
(Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1982), 275.

Chapter in an
Ong, Walter J. "Oral Remembering and Narrative Structures." edited book
In Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk,edited by Deborah
B Tannen, 271-279. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University
Press, 1982.

Lynn Hunt and others, The Making of the West: Peoples and
N Cultures (Boston: Bedford, 2001), 541.

Book with four or

Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po- more authors
B chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West:
Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford, 2001.

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (New York: Random

Source quoted in
N House, 1965), 11, quoted in Mark Skousen,The Making of another source
Modern Economics: The Lives and the Ideas of the Great
Thinkers (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001), 15.

Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations, 11. New York: Random

House, 1965. Quoted in Mark Skousen, The Making of Modern
B Economics: The Lives and the Ideas of the Great
Thinkers (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001), 15.

James Clifford, "On Ethnographic Authority,"Representations 1,

N no.2 (1983): 132.

Clifford, James. "On Ethnographic
B Authority."Representations 1, no. 2 (1983): 118-46.

Paul Banks and others, "Censorship: Lessons from the

N Catalyst," College Student Journal 35 (2001): 198.
Article with more
than 3 authors,
Banks, Paul, et al. "Censorship: Lessons from the pagination by issue
B Catalyst." College Student Journal 35 (2001): 177-201.

Linda Belau, "Trauma and the Material Signifier,"Postmodern

Culture 11, no. 2 (2001): par.
N 6,
r 11, 2003).
Article retrieved
from online journal
Belau, Linda. "Trauma and the Material Signifier."Postmodern
Culture 11, no. 2
B (2001).
ember 11, 2003).

Boston Globe, "Renewable Energy Rules," August 11, 2003,

N sec. A. Article in a
B Boston Globe. "Renewable Energy Rules." August 11, 2003,
sec. A.

N Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Wales."

Entry in an
Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. S.v. "Wales." encyclopedia or
[Note: "s.v." is short for the Latin phrase sub verbo, meaning dictionary
"under the word"]

The Secret of Roan Inish, DVD, directed by John Sayles (1993;

N Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Video, 2000).

Film or Video
The Secret of Roan Inish. DVD. Directed by John Sayles. 1993;
B Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Video, 2000.

Kevin Rayburn, The Website

N (The Chicago
1920s, Manual of
Style does not
advise including
the date you
accessed a Web
Rayburn, Kevin. The source, but you
B may provide an
1920s. access date after
the URL if the cited
material is time-

U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United

N States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943 (Washington, DC: GPO,
1965), 562.
U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United
B States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943. Washington, DC: GPO, 1965.