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Kinds of Degrees of Comparison

Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree

Degree of Equality Progressive Degree

Degree of Inequality Parallel Degree


ADJECTIVE
Positive Comparative Superlative
tall taller tallest
wide wider widest
clever more clever most clever
intelligent more intelligent most intelligent
ADVERBS
Positive Comparative Superlative
fast faster fastest
hard harder hardest
quickly more quickly most quickly
beautifully more beautifully most beautifully
Forming Comparative and Superlative for Adjectives
1. Adjectives of one syllable

Adjectives of one syllable add er and est. Adjectives ending on 'e' just add -r and -st.
Some adjectives double the final consonant.
Adjective Comparative Superlative
small smaller smallest
warm warmer warmest
old older oldest
nice nicer nicest
big bigger biggest
2. Adjectives of two syllables
Some adjectives of two syllables add -er and -est. Adjectives ending in 'y' use -ier and -iest.
Adjectives ending in -ful, -less, -ing, -ed use more and most. Some other adjectives of two syllables
use more and most (modern, famous, normal, correct, ...).
Adjective Comparative Superlative
narrow narrower narrowest
happy happier happiest
useful more useful most useful
boring more boring most boring
modern more modern most modern
3. Adjectives of three or more syllables
Adjectives of three or more syllables use more and most.
Adjective Comparative Superlative
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
dangerous more dangerous most dangerous
exciting more exciting most exciting
4. Irregular adjectives
You will have to learn these by heart.
Positive Comparative Superlative
good (well) better best
bad worse worst
little less least
much, many more most
far farther, further farthest
late later last, latest
old older, elder older, oldest
Forming Comparative and Superlative for Adverbs
1. Monosyllabic Adverbs form their Comparative and Superlative Degree by adding -er and -est.
Example:
Positive Comparative Superlative
fast faster fastest
hard harder hardest
late later latest
long longer longest
near nearer nearest
2. Adverbs ending -ly form their Comparative and Superlative Degree by adding more and most.
Example :
Positive Comparative Superlative
beatifully more beatifully most beatifully
cleverly more cleverly most cleverly
easily more easily most easily
healthly more healthly most healthly
strongly more strongly most strongly
3. Irregular Adverbs
Example :
Positive Comparative Superlative
bad worse worst
early earlier earliest
far farther farthest
good better best
many more most
a) Monosyllabic adjectives form their COMPARATIVE and
SUPERLATIVE by adding - ER and - EST to the POSITIVE
degree.

tall tallER THAN THE tallEST


warm warmER THAN THE warmEST

Exceptions:

just MORE just THAN THE MOST just


right MORE right THAN THE MOST right
real MORE real THAN THE MOST real
wrong MORE wrong THAN THE MOST wrong
b) Adjectives with more than two syllables form their
COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE by putting MORE and THE MOST
in front of the adjective.

difficult MORE difficult THAN THE MOST difficult


important MORE important THAN THE MOST important
c) Disyllabic (two syllables) adjectives form their
COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE in two different ways:
1. Adjectives ending in ED, ING, RE, FUL, OUS and those
with the stress on the first syllable usually take MORE
and THE MOST:

charming MORE charming THAN THE MOST charming


famous MORE famous THAN THE MOST famous
hopeful MORE hopeful THAN THE MOST hopeful
frightened MORE frightened THAN THE MOST frightened
obscure MORE obscure THAN THE MOST obscure
2. Adjectives ending in ER, Y, LE, OW and those with the
stress on the second syllable add ER and EST to the
POSITIVE degree.

clever cleverER THAN THE cleverEST


narrow narrowER THAN THE narrowEST
pretty prettiER THAN THE prettiEST
polite politER THAN THE politEST
simple simplER THAN THE simplEST

Note: Adjectives ending in SOME and the words cheerful,


common, cruel, pleasant, quiet, civil may be compared by
adding ER and EST or by MORE and MOST.

pleasant pleasantER THAN THE pleasantEST

or

pleasant MORE pleasant THAN THE MOST pleasant


05. ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTES
a) Add R and ST to adjectives ending in E.

large largeR THAN THE largeST


ripe ripeR THAN THE ripeST

b) VOWEL SANDWICH (VOWEL + CONSONANT + VOWEL) (THE LAST


VOWEL IS DOUBLED)

big bigGER THAN THE bigGEST


fat fatTER THAN THE fatTEST

NO SANDWICH (JUST THE SUFFIX)

small smallER THAN THE smallEST


sweet sweetER THAN THE sweetEST
c) Adjectives ending in - y preceded by a consonant,
change Y into I before ER and EST.

happY happIER THAN THE happIEST

Exceptions:

shY shYER THAN THE shYEST


gaY gaYER THAN THE gaYEST
greY greYER THAN THE greYEST
6. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS

good better than the best


bad worse than the worst
little less than the least
much more than the most
many more than the most
far farther than the farthest
far further than the furthest
old older than the oldest
old elder than the eldest

NOTES:
1. FARTHER and FARTHEST generally refer to distance;
FURTHER and FURTHEST also refer to distance but they may
have the meaning of "additional".
I live farther from here than you do.
Give me further details.
2. OLDER and OLDEST refer to persons or things; ELDER and
ELDEST can only be used for members of the same family:
My elder sister is afraid of mice.
My older friend is afraid of wasps.
but ELDER can not be placed before THAN so OLDER is used:
My sister is two years older than I am.
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
1. COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE of SUPERIORITY.
a) Monosyllabic adverbs from their comparative and
superlative of superiority in the same way as monosyllabic
adjectives.

high highER THAN THE highEST


soon soonER THAN THE soonEST
fast fastER THAN THE fastEST

b) Adverbs of more than one syllable take MORE and MOST.

quickly MORE quickly THAN THE MOST quickly


slowly MORE slowly THAN THE MOST slowly
seldom MORE seldom THAN THE MOST seldom
Exception:

early earliER THAN THE earliEST

2. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS

well better than the best


badly worse than the worst
little less than the least
much more than the most
late later than the last

MARCO SUCUPIRA LANGUAGE MATERIALS