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-located in the orbital cavity -occupies the anterior portion of the orbital cavity
-spherical structures
Orbital Cavity -have 3 coats that enclose the 4 refractive media
- has a conical or pyramidal shape -lodged into the orbital cavity and is embedded
- four-sided pyramidal space into the fat and connective tissue
- tapers as it goes to the posterior part of the
orbital cavity 3 Coats:
- contents: 1) Fibrous Coat
1. Eyeball -divided into the:
2. Accessory Organs Cornea (1/6)
-also considered as a refractive media
ACCESSORY ORGANS because bends the light rays and
1. Lacrimal Apparatus focuses them on the retina
-consists of the:
Lacrimal gland Sclera (5/6)
-located superolaterally -gives the shape of eye
-main function is to secrete tears -serves as attachment for the intrinsic
muscles of the eye
Lacrimal canaliculi/ Lacrimal duct -provides for the physical protection,
-short ducts, upper and lower, that will mechanical support for the eye, as well as
receive the secretions coming from the attachment for the external muscles of the
lacrimal gland eye
-opens at the lacrimal punctum (summit of
the papilla) 2) Vascular Coat
-contains the:
Lacrimal sac Ciliary Body
-lacrimal duct drains here -ciliary body is the continuation of choroid
-occupies the lacrimal fossa -composed of the ciliary ring, ciliary
-continues inferiorly as nasolacrimal duct processes, and ciliary muscles

Nasolacrimal duct o Ciliary Muscles

-opens into the inferior nasal opening -considered as an intrinsic muscle of
the eye
Lacrimal Fold / Valve of Hasner -responsible for the process of
-valve that guides the opening of the accommodation
nasolacrimal duct into the nose -if you are looking at a distant object,
lens become flat but if you are
Flow of Tears looking at a close object, the lens
1. Lacrimal gland contracts
2. Ducts from gland
3. Conjunctiva More than 6 meters- lens are
4. Conjunctiva drains into lacrimal canaliculi relaxed
5. Lacrimal Sac
6. Nasolacrimal duct Less than 6 meters- lens have
more contraction
-Action that facilitates the spread of secretion from o Ciliary Rings
the eye -these are the vascular and the
nervous part of the ciliary body
o Ciliary Process Optic Disc / Optic Papilla
-this is the margin of the lens and the -indicates the entry of the optic nerve to
peripheral boundary of iris the retina
-area of physiologic blind spot because
Choroid there are no receptor cells
-for vascular functions
-contains the papillary networks that will Ora Serrata
provide nutrients and oxygen to the retina -scalloped anterior margin of the retina
-junction between retina and ciliary body
Iris -functions in the production of aqueous
-the central aperture of the iris is called the humor
-sudden exposure of light will cause this to Optic Nerve (CN I)
constrict -main function is to carry electrical
-Less light will result to dilation impulses into the retina to the occipital
-pupil diameter is caused by the iris muscle lobes

Sympathetic- dilate Refractive Media

Parasympathetic- constrict -enclosed by the 3 layers
-composed of the Cornea, Lens, Aqueous
o Iris muscle humor, and Vitreous humor
- controls the pupil diameter a. Cornea
-contracts depending on the amount
of light received b. Aqueous humor
-fills the anterior and posterior
3) Neural Tunic or Retina chamber
-derived from optic nerve
o Optic disk and Ora Serrata Functions:
-part where it is attached to the eye provides nutrients and
-has 2 layers: immunoglobulins or antibodies
Outer layer- in contact with the choroid removes waste products from
Inner layer- in contact with the retina anterior chamber of the eye
proper helps in focusing light

Retina Proper -Anterior chamber is bounded by:

-contains the photoreceptors (rods and cones) i. Iris
a) Rods ii. Lens- posterior
-functions when its night iii. Cornea anterior
-night vision
-Posterior chamber is bounded by:
b) Cones i. Iris- anterior
-functions when its day ii. Ciliary body- lateral
-daylight vision iii. Vitreous Body- posterior
iv. Lens- center
Macula Lutea
-area of highest visual acuity c. Crystalline Lens
-the depression on its center is called the -transparent biconvex disk between
Fovea Centralis, which contains the the iris in front and the vitreous body
highest concentration of cone behind
-this is the one that changes in shape
depending on the forces exerted by
the ciliary muscle
-focuses the light entering into at the
eye into the papilla of the retina

d. Vitreous Body
-gives shape to the eye
-located behind the lens
-jelly-like substance and is mainly
filled with water


Intrinsic Muscles

Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye

-attached to sclera of the eye

4 Recti Muscles
o Superior
- directs pupil towards the medial
o Lateral
- directs pupil towards the lateral
or opposite side
-supplied by Abducens Nerve

2 Oblique Muscles
o Superior Oblique
- rotates the eyeball and directs the
pupil laterally and downward
-supplied by Trochlear Nerve

o Inferior Oblique
- rotates the eyeball and directs the
pupil laterally and upward
-supplied by Oculomotor Nerve

Levator PalpebraSuperioris
-elevates eye
-part of the muscle of facial expression