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IGCSE chemistry SET 1 (Polymer)

A3 More than 60 000 plastic materials, or polymers, are in use.

The table gives some information about five important polymers.

density maximum useable solubility in


polymer
in kg/m3 temperature / C organic solvents

low density
920 85 soluble above 80 C
poly(ethene)

high density
960 120 soluble above 80 C
poly(ethene)

poly(phenylethene) 1050 65 soluble

poly(chloroethene) 1390 60 soluble

poly(propene) 900 150 insoluble

(a) Which polymer would be most suited for making a pipe to carry lubricating oil at 100 C?
Give two reasons for your answer.

answer .....................

reasons ............................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) State one use for poly(ethene).

......................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Describe some of the problems of the disposal of waste polymers.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(d) Poly(propene) is made from the monomer propene.


Draw the structure of poly(propene).

[2]

(e) Terylene is a condensation polymer.


The structure of Terylene is shown below.

(i) What is the name of the linkage shown in the structure of Terylene?

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Name a natural macromolecule that contains the same linkage as Terylene.

...................................................................................................................................
[2]

(f) Draw the structure of a polyamide such as nylon.

[1]
Total / 10
IGCSE chemistry SET 2 (Polymer)

B11 Macromolecules are large molecules built up from many small units.

Proteins and fats are natural macromolecules.


Poly(chloroethene) and poly(ethene) are synthetic macromolecules.

(a) Name the type of linkage joining the units in fats.

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

(b) Proteins can be hydrolysed into monomers by boiling with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

(i) Name the monomers produced in this hydrolysis.

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

(ii) Suggest why clothes made from nylon are damaged by concentrated hydrochloric acid.

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

(c) Poly(chloroethene) is made from the monomer chloroethene. The structure of chloroethene is
shown below.
(i) Draw the structure of poly(chloroethene).

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

(ii) Explain why poly(chloroethene) has a low melting point.

...................................................................................................................................

(1)

(iii) Describe what you would observe when bromine reacts with chloroethene and state
what type of reaction takes place.
Explain why bromine will not readily react with poly(chloroethene).

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

(3)

(d) State and explain why plastics such as poly(ethene) may cause problems of pollution.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

(2)
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Polymer)

B12 The macromolecule below is an addition polymer.

(a) Draw the structure of the monomer from which polymer X is formed.

................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) The atoms in polymer X are covalently bonded.

(i) Explain what is meant by a covalent bond

................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Polymer X is used as an insulating cover for electrical wires.
Explain why polymer X does not conduct electricity.
................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Polymer X is non-biodegradable.

(i) Describe one pollution problem that this causes.

................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Polymer X can be disposed of by burning at high temperature. This produces waste
gases, some of which are toxic such as hydrogen chloride.
The hydrogen chloride can be removed by reacting the waste gases with moist calcium
carbonate powder.
Name the three products of this reaction.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................... [3]

(d) Ethene can be used to make poly(ethene).

(i) Draw a dot-and-cross diagram for an ethene molecule, C2H4. You must draw all of the
electrons.

[2]
(ii) What is the maximum mass of poly(ethene) that can be made from 28 tonnes of
ethene?

................................................................................................................................... [1]

[Total: 10]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Polymer)

A7 Poly(chloroethene) is an addition polymer. It is often found in solid household waste.

The diagram shows the repeat unit of poly(chloroethene).

(a) Draw the structure of the monomer used to make poly(chloroethene).

[1]

(b) One way to dispose of solid household waste is to burn it at a high temperature. The
burning of poly(chloroethene) gives the waste gases hydrogen chloride, carbon dioxide
and water.

(i) Balance the following equation to show the burning of poly(chloroethene).

..C2H3Cl + ..O2 .....HCl + .....CO2 + ..H2O


[1]

(ii) Hydrogen chloride gas is removed from the waste gases by reacting with moist
powdered calcium carbonate. Name the solid product formed.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) Name and state the use of a man-made condensation polymer.

name of condensation polymer ........................................................................................

use of condensation polymer ....................................................................................... [2]

[Total: 5]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Polymer)

B11 Styrene-butadiene rubber is a synthetic rubber. It is made by polymerising a mixture of the


monomers butadiene and styrene.
H H H H

C C C C

H X H C2H3

styrene butadiene
(a) What type of polymerisation will take place when the monomers polymerise? Explain
your reasoning.

..............................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

One possible structure for the polymer is shown below.

styrene butadiene styrene butadiene styrene butadiene

(b) Give the full structural formula for the repeating unit in this polymer structure.

[1]

(c) When the mixture of styrene and butadiene polymerises, the polymer is unlikely to
contain only this regular, repeating pattern. Explain why.

..............................................................................................................................
[1]

Butadiene can be made by cracking butane in a cracking tower.

(d) (i) Butane cracks to form butadiene and one other product.
Write an equation to show this reaction.
..............................................................................................................................
(ii) Give a use of the other product of this reaction.

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(e) 2.90 kg of butane entered the cracking tower. After the reaction, 2.16 kg of
butadiene had been made.
Calculate the percentage yield of butadiene.
[3]
IGCSE QUESTIONS SET X (Polymer)

2 These diagrams show sections of the polymer chain of two condensation polymers.
Nylon
H H H

N C (CH2)4 C N (CH2)6 N C (CH2)4

O O O

Terylene

O C (C6H4) C O (CH2)2 O C (C6H4)

(a) (i) Draw a circle around an amide linkage in the diagram. Label this amide.
(ii) Draw a circle around an ester linkage in the diagram. Label this ester. [2]

(b) Name a type of naturally occurring polymer that has a similar linkage to nylon.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) The formulae of the two monomers used to make nylon are shown below.

Nylon monomers HOOC(CH2)4COOH H2N(CH2)6NH2

Deduce the formulae of the two monomers that are used to make Terylene.

Terylene monomers

[2]

(d) Sea fishing nets used to be made from natural fibres. Many nets are now made from
nylon. Suggest one advantage, other than strength, and one disadvantage of using
nylon rather than natural fibres to make sea fishing nets.

advantage ........................................................................................................................

disadvantage ............................................................................................................... [2]


[Total: 7 marks]

B8 Propanoic acid, C2H5CO2H, is a weak acid.

(a) Explain what is meant by the term weak acid.

...................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................[1]

[1] (b) Propanoic acid reacts with sodium carbonate. Write the equation for this [2]
reaction. (
d
[1] (c) Magnesium reacts with propanoic acid to form magnesium propanoate and )

hydrogen. T
e
Mg + 2C2H5CO2H (C2H5CO2)2Mg + H2 r
y
A student added 4.80 g of magnesium to 30.0 g of propanoic acid. l
e
n
e

h
a
s

t
h
e

s
i
m
p
l
i
f
(i) Which one of these reactants, magnesium or propanoic acid, is in excess? i
e
Explain your answer. d

................................................................................................................................... s
t
................................................................................................................................... r
u
................................................................................................................................... c
t
................................................................................................................................ [3] u
r
[2] e

(ii) Calculate both the number of moles of hydrogen and the volume of s
hydrogen formed at r.t.p. h
o
[2] w
n
.

(i) State the functional groups on the monomers used to make Terylene.

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) state the type of polymerization that occurs when Terylene is made.

...................................................................................................................................

(iii) State one large scale used of Terylene.

................................................................................................................................ [3]

(e) Many problems are caused by the disposal of plastics.


Describe one method of disposal of a plastic and a problem caused by this method.

................................................................................................................................ [1]

[Total: 10]
A6 Electrolysis is used to produce many important chemicals such as chlorine, sodium
hydroxide and aluminium.

(a) Chlorine is used in both water treatment and as a bleach.

(i) Why is chlorine used in water treatment?

...................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Name a substance, other than chlorine, that is used to bleach wood pulp.
[
...................................................................................................................... [1] 1
]
(b) Chlorine is used to make chloroethene

Chloroethene can be polymerised to form poly(chloroethene).


Draw a section of a poly(chloroethene) chain to show at least two repeating units.
(c) In the production of aluminium, sodium hydroxide is used to separate aluminium
oxide from the impurities in the bauxite ore. The main impurity in the ore is
iron(III) oxide. Aluminium oxide is an amphoteric oxide whilst iron(III) oxide is a
basic oxide.
Suggest how these two oxides can be separated by the addition of aqueous sodium
hydroxide.

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................. [2]

(d) Aluminium is extracted by the electrolysis of a mixture of molten aluminium oxide and
cryolite. What is the function of the cryolite?

...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(e) Acidic foods can be safely packed in aluminium containers.


Explain why the acid in the food does not attack the aluminium, despite the fact that
aluminium is a reactive metal.

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

[Total: 8]
+
2H2O
B8 Fumaric acid is a colourless solid which can be extracted from plants.
18.
0
cm
3

of
0.2
00
mo
l/d
m3
(a) Describe the reaction of aqueous fumaric acid with aqueous bromine, giving so
the equation for the reaction and stating any observations. diu
m
.......................................................................................................................................... hy
dro
.......................................................................................................................................... xid
e
.......................................................................................................................................... we
re
.......................................................................................................................................... req
uir
.......................................................................................................................................... ed
to
...................................................................................................................................... ne
[3] utr
ali
(b) A solution of fumaric acid was titrated against aqueous sodium se
hydroxide.

HO2CCH=CHCO2H + 2NaOH NaO2CCH=CHCO2Na


3
60.0 cm of fumaric acid solution.
Calculate the concentration, in mol / dm3, of the fumaric acid solution.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
[3]
(
d
(c) Suggest the type of condensation polymer which is made when fumaric acid reacts with
)
ethane-1,2-diol, HOCH2CH2OH N
yl
...................................................................................................................................... [1] o
n
is
a
c
o
n
densation polymer. C10H2
State one use of nylon.
...................................................................................................................................... [1] C8H18
+
C2H4

(e) Describe two pollution problems caused by the disposal of non-biodegradable plastics.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

[Total: 10]

4 Catalytic cracking is carried out by oil companies to produce high grade petrol.
The process is carried out using an aluminium oxide catalyst.
The reaction is a type of thermal decomposition.

(a) Explain the meaning of

(i) thermal decomposition.


St
................................................................................................................................... ate
the
................................................................................................................................... na
me
of
(ii) catalyst. the
un
................................................................................................................................... sat
ura
..............................................................................................................................[2] ted
co
(b) A typical cracking reaction is mp
ou
nd in this equation.

......................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) The table shows some of the products obtained by cracking 100g of different fractions
under the same conditions.

products obtained / g per 100g of fraction cracked

fraction
cracked hydrogen methane ethene petrol

ethane 10 5 75 2

paraffin 1 15 30 23

diesel 0 6 20 17

(i) Which fraction is the best source of fuel for cars?

...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Calculate the amount of paraffin fraction needed to make 600g of methane.

(iii) Complete the equation for the cracking of ethane to produce hydrogen and ethene.
C2H6 +
[4]
(d) Ethene can be polymerised to form poly(ethene).

(i) Complete the equation below to show the structure of two units in the
poly(ethene) molecule.

(ii) State the name given to this type of polymerisarion.

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(d) Ethene can be polymerised to form poly(ethene).

(i) Complete the equation below to show the structure of two units in the
poly(ethene) molecule.

(ii) State the name given to this type of polymerisarion.

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii) State the name given to this type of polymerisarion.

...............................................................................................................................[2]
4 Poly(ethene) is a plastic which is made by polymerizing ethene, C2H4.

(a) Which one of the following best describes the ethene molecules in this reaction?
Put a ring around the correct answer.

alcohols alkanes monomers polymers products [1]

(b) The structure of ethane is shown below.


H H

H C C H

H H

Explain, by referring to its bonding, why ethane cannot be polymerized.

[1]

(c) Draw the structure of ethene, showing all atoms and bonds.

[1]

(d) Ethene is obtained by cracking alkanes.

(i) Explain the meaning of the term cracking.

(ii) What condition is needed to crack alkanes?

[1]

(iii) Complete the equation for cracking decane, C10H22.


[1]
C10H22 C2H4 + .................
[1]
(e) Some oil companies crack the ethane produced when petroleum is distilled.

(i) Complete the equation for this reaction.


C2H6 C2H4 + .................
[1]
(ii) Describe the process of fractional distillation which is used to separate the different fractions in
petroleum.
(iii) State a use for the following petroleum fractions.

petrol fraction

[2]

6 This question is about polymers and plastics.

Look at the picture.

The milk container and bottle are non-biodegradable.

(a) What does non-biodegradable mean?

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................ [1] (b)

Write about some ways local councils dispose of these plastic containers.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................ [2]

[Total: 3]
lubricating fraction [2]

3 A major food retailer in the UK is going to distribute sandwiches using hydrogen-powered vehicles.

(a) A sandwich contains three of the main constituents of food.


bread
contains
carbohydr
ate

butter
contain
s fat

meat
contains
protein

These constituents of food can all be hydrolysed by boiling with acid or alkali.

constituent of food linkage product of hydrolysis

protein

fat

complex
carbohydrate

(i) Complete the table. [5]

(ii) What type of synthetic polymer contains the same linkage as

proteins, .............................................................................................................

....... fats?

......................................................................................................................[2]

(iii) Fats can be unsaturated or saturated. A small amount of a fat was dissolved
in an organic solvent. Describe how you could find out if this fat was
saturated or unsaturated.

reagent................................................................................................................

result if saturated..............................................................................................

result if unsaturated...........................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................[3]

power
(b) One of the reasons for using hydrogen as a fuel is to reduce air pollution. Petroleum- e
d
v
ehicles are a major cause of air pollution. This pollution can be decreased by reactions
of the type shown below.

2CO + 2NO N2 + 2CO2

(i) Where in a vehicle does this type of reaction occur?

..................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Explain how carbon monoxide is formed in the engine.

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii) Give a reason why the hydrogen-powered vehicle produces less pollution.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Outline how hydrogen is manufactured from water.

..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[2]

6 In 2002, Swedish scientists found high levels of acrylamide in starchy foods that has been cooked above
120oC. Acrylamide, which is thought to be a risk to human health, has the following structure.

(a) (i) It readily polymerises to polyacrylamide. Draw the structure of this polymer.

[2]

(ii) Starch is formed by polymerisation. It has a structure of the type shown below.
Name the monomer.

[1]

(iii) What are the differences between these two polymerisation reactions, one forming
polyacrylamide and the other starch?

[2]

(b) Acrylamide hydrolyses to form acrylic acid and ammonium ions.

(i) Describe the test for the ammonium ion.

test

result [2]

(ii) Given an aqueous solution, concentration 0.1 mol / dm 3, how could you show that
acrylic acid is a weak acid.

[2]

(c) The structural formula of acrylic acid is shown below. It forms compounds called acrylates.
COOH C C
H

(i) Acrylic acid reacts with ethanol to form the following compound.

COOCH2CH3
C

C
H

Deduce the name of this compound. What type of organic compound is it?

name

type of compound [2]

(ii) Acrylic acid is an unsaturated compound. It will react with bromine.


Describe the colour change and draw the structural formula of the
product of this addition reaction.

colour change

structural formula of product

[2]
3 A South Korean chemist has discovered a cure for smelly socks. Small particles of silver are attached to
a polymer, poly(propene), and this is woven into the socks.

(a) (i) Give the structural formula of the monomer. [1]

[1]

(ii) Draw the structural formula of the polymer.

[2]

(iii) Suggest which one, monomer or polymer, will react with aqueous bromine and why?

[2]

(b) To show that the polymer contains silver the following test was carried out.

The polymer fibres were chopped into small pieces and warmed with nitric acid. The
silver atoms were oxidised to silver(I) ions. The mixture was filtered. Aqueous sodium
chloride was added to the filtrate and a white precipitate formed.

(i) Why was the mixture filtered?

[1]

(ii) Explain why the change of silver atoms to silver ions is oxidation.
[1]

(iii) Give the name of the white precipitate.

[1]

(c) The unpleasant smell is caused by carboxylic acids. Bacteria cause the fats on the skin to be
hydrolysed to these acids. Silver kills the bacteria and prevents the hydrolysis of the fats.

(i) Fats are esters. Give the name and structural formula of an ester.

name [1]

structural formula

[1]

(ii) Complete the word equation.


Ester + water carboxylic acid + [1]

(d) Propanoic acid is a weak acid.

(i) The following equation represents its reaction with ammonia.

CH3 CH2 COOH + NH3 CH3 CH2 COO + NH4+

Explain why propanoic acid behaves as an acid and ammonia as a base.

[3]

(ii) Explain the expression weak acid.


[1]

7 Esters, fats and polyesters all contain the ester linkage.

(a) The structural formula of an ester is given below.

H
O
H H H H
H C C
O C C C C H
H
H H H H
Name two chemicals that could be used to make this ester and draw their
structural formulae. Show all bonds.

names and [2]

structural formulae

[2]

(b) (i) Draw the structural formula of a polyester such as Terylene.

[2]

(ii) Suggest a use for this polymer.

[1]

(c) Cooking products, fats and vegetable oils, are mixtures of saturated and unsaturated esters.

The degree of unsaturation can be estimated by the following experiment. 4 drops of


3
the oil are dissolved in 5 cm of ethanol. Dilute bromine water is added a drop at a time
until the brown colour no longer disappears. Enough bromine has been added to the
sample to react with all the double bonds.

mass of
cooking mass of saturated fat in number of drops of
unsaturated fat in
product 100 g of product / g bromine water
100 g of product / g

margarine 35 35 5

butter 45 28 4

corn oil 10 84 12

soya oil 15 70 10
lard 38 56

(i) Complete the one blank space in the table. [1]

(ii) Complete the equation for bromine reacting with a double bond.

C C + Br2
[2]
(iii) Using saturated fats in the diet is thought to be a major cause of heart disease.
Which of the products is the least likely to cause heart disease?

[1]

(d) A better way of measuring the degree of unsaturation is to find the iodine number of the unsaturated
compound. This is the mass of iodine that reacts with all the double bonds in 100 g of the fat.

Use the following information to calculate the number of double bonds in one molecule
of the fat.

Mass of one mole of the fat is 884 g.

One mole of I2 reacts with one mole C C


.
The iodine number of the fat is 86.2 g.

Complete the following calculation.

100 g of fat reacts with 86.2 g of iodine.

884 g of fat reacts with g of iodine.

One mole of fat reacts with moles of iodine molecules.

Number of double bonds in one molecule of fat is [3]

[Total:14]
6 Polymers are extensively used in food packaging. Poly(dichloroethene) is used because gases can
only diffuse through it very slowly. Polyesters have a high thermal stability and food can be cooked in a
polyester bag.

(a) (i) The structure of poly(dichloroethene) is given below.

H Cl

C C

H Cl n

Draw the structural formula of the monomer.

[1]

(ii) Explain why oxygen can diffuse faster through the polymer bag than carbon
dioxide can.

[2]

(b) (i) A polyester can be formed from the monomers HO-CH2CH2-OH and
HOOC-C6H4-COOH. Draw the structure of this polyester.

[2]

(Ii) Name a naturally occurring class of compounds that contains the ester linkage.

[1]
(iii) Suggest what is meant by the term thermal stability.

[1]

(c) (i) Describe two environmental problems caused by the disposal of plastic (polymer)
waste.

[2]

(ii) The best way of disposing of plastic waste is recycling to form new plastics. What
is another advantage of recycling plastics made from petroleum?

[1]

8 The three types of food are carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

(a) Aqueous starch is hydrolysed to maltose by the enzyme amylase.


The formula of maltose is:

HO O OH

Starch is hydrolysed by dilute sulphuric acid to glucose.

HO OH

(i) What is an enzyme?

[1]

(ii) Draw the structure of starch.


[1]

(iii) Name the technique that would show that the products of these two hydrolyses
are different.

[1]

(b) Proteins have the same linkage as nylon but there is more than one monomer in
the macromolecule.

(i) Draw the structure of a protein.

[2]

(ii) What class of compound is formed by the hydrolysis of proteins?

[1]

(c) Fats are esters. Some fats are saturated, others are unsaturated.

(i) Write the word equation for the preparation of the ester, propyl ethanoate.

[2]

(ii) Deduce the structural formula of this ester showing each individual bond.

(iii) How could you distinguish between these two fats? CH2
Fat 1 has the formula
CO2
CH2 CO2 C17H33
C17H
CH CO2 C17H33 33
[2]
Fat 2 has the formula

CH2 CO2 C17H35

CH CO2 C17H35

CH2 CO2 C17H35

test

result with fat 1

result with fat 2 [3]

(iv) Both of these fats are hydrolysed by boiling with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
What type of compounds are formed?

and [2]

2. This question is about polymerisation.

Polymerisation changes many small molecules into large molecules.

polymerisation
small molecules large molecules

(a) Look at this list.

alkane

methane

monomer

polymer

Write down the name of the small molecules used in polymerisation.

Choose from the list.

........................................................................................................................................[1]

(b) Polymerisation is used to make plastics.

Plastics are used to make many things. Draw

lines to link each plastic to its use.


plastic use

poly(ethene) clothing

nylon insulation

poly(styrene) plastic bags

[1]

(c) Poly(ethene) is made from a small molecule called ethene.

Write down the name of the small molecule used to make poly(tetrafluoroethene).

........................................................................................................................................[1]
(d) There are more than 60 000 different plastics.

Plastics are made from polymer molecules.

This table shows some information about five polymers.

polymer density in maximum usable solubility in oil


3 O
kg/m temperature in C
low density O
920 85 insoluble below 80 C
poly(ethene)
high density O
960 120 insoluble below 80 C
poly(ethene)
poly(styrene)
1050 65 soluble
poly(chloroethene)
1390 60 soluble
poly(propene)
900 150 insoluble

Look at the table.

(i) Which polymer has the highest density?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

O
(ii) Which polymer would be best for making a pipe to carry oil at 100 C?

Name of polymer........................................................................................................

Write down two reasons for your answer.

1 .................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

2 .................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[3]

(e) Most polymers do not decay naturally. They are not biodegradable.

Chemists are trying to find polymers that are biodegradable.

Suggest two reasons why this research work is useful.

1 ..........................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................

2 ..........................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................[2] [Total:

9]

2 This question is about plastics.

Plastics contain large molecules.

Look at the equation.

many small molecules large molecules

It shows how these large molecules are made.

(a) Look at the list.

catalysts elements

monomers polymers
Finish these sentences.

Choose from the list.

(i) The small molecules used to make plastics are called ............................................... . [1]

(ii) The large molecules in plastics are called .................................................................. . [1]

(b) A plastic is made when lots of ethene molecules are joined together.

Write down the name of this plastic.

...............................................................................................................................................[1]

(c) Ethene, C2H4, is a hydrocarbon.

Write down the names of the two elements found in a hydrocarbon.

................................................................... and ....................................................................[2]

(d) Look at the picture.

These plastic objects are non biodegradable.

They are often thrown away and cause litter.

Explain the problems of disposing of these objects in landfill sites.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[2]
[Total: 7]

4 This question is about plastics.

(a) Look at the table.

It shows the properties of some plastics.

property

plastic flexibility hardness ease of melting point


colouring in C

A very flexible soft easy 367

B rigid soft not easy 200

C rigid hard not easy 874

D very flexible soft very easy 178

(i) A plastic part of an electric toaster must not melt.

Which plastic has the highest melting point?

Choose from A, B, C or D.

answer ......................................................... [1]

(ii) Plastic B is polystyrene.

Write down one use for polystyrene.

..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) Many plastics are non-biodegradable.

Write down what is meant by non-biodegradable.

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [1]

(c) Disposal of waste plastics causes problems.

One of these problems is litter.

Write about other problems of disposing of plastics.

...................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................. [2]

[Total : 5]
4 Poly(ethene) is a plastic which is made by polymerizing ethene, C2H4.

(a) Which one of the following best describes the ethene molecules in this reaction?
Put a ring around the correct answer.

alcohols alkanes monomers polymers products [1]

(b) The structure of ethane is shown below.


H H

H C C H

H H

Explain, by referring to its bonding, why ethane cannot be polymerized.

[1]

(c) Draw the structure of ethene, showing all atoms and bonds.

[1]

(d) Ethene is obtained by cracking alkanes.

(i) Explain the meaning of the term cracking.

[1]

(ii) What condition is needed to crack alkanes?

(iii) Complete the equation for cracking decane, C10H22.


C10H22 C2H4 + . [1]
(e) Some oil companies crack the ethane produced when petroleum is distilled.

(i) Complete the equation for this reaction.


C2H6 C2H4 + .................
[1]

(ii) Describe the process of fractional distillation which is used to separate the different
fractions in petroleum.
[2]

(iii) State a use for the following petroleum fractions.

petrol fraction
lubricating fraction [2]

3 A South Korean chemist has discovered a cure for smelly socks. Small particles of silver are attached to
a polymer, poly(propene), and this is woven into the socks.
(a) (i) Give the structural formula of the monomer.

[1]

(ii) Draw the structural formula of the polymer.

[2]

(iii) Suggest which one, monomer or polymer, will react with aqueous bromine and why?

[2]
(b) To show that the polymer contains silver the following test was carried out.

The polymer fibres were chopped into small pieces and warmed with nitric acid. The silver
atoms were oxidised to silver(I) ions. The mixture was filtered. Aqueous sodium chloride was
added to the filtrate and a white precipitate formed.

(i) Why was the mixture filtered?

[1]

(ii) Explain why the change of silver atoms to silver ions is oxidation.

[1]

(iii) Give the name of the white precipitate.

[1]
(c) The unpleasant smell is caused by carboxylic acids. Bacteria cause the fats on the skin to be
hydrolysed to these acids. Silver kills the bacteria and prevents the hydrolysis of the fats.

(i) Fats are esters. Give the name and structural formula of an ester.

name [1]

structural formula

[1]

(ii) Complete the word equation.


Ester + water carboxylic acid + [1]

(d) Propanoic acid is a weak acid.

(i) The following equation represents its reaction with ammonia.

CH3 CH2 COOH + NH3 CH3 CH2 COO + NH4+

Explain why propanoic acid behaves as an acid and ammonia as a base.

(ii) Explain the expression weak acid.


. [1]
3 Hydrogen is a fuel which can be obtained from water by electrolysis.
Petrol is a fuel obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum.

(a) (i) Complete the equation for the burning of hydrogen.

H2 + O2 H2O [1]

(ii) Suggest why hydrogen is a renewable source of energy.

[1]

(iii) When hydrogen is burnt, heat is given off. State the name of the type of reaction
which gives off heat.

[1]

(b) Petrol is a mixture of alkanes.


One of the alkanes in petrol is octane, C8H18.

What products are formed when octane is completely burnt in air?

[2]

(c) Petrol is only one of the fractions obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum.
State the name of two other fractions obtained from the distillation of petroleum. Give a
use for each of these fractions.

fraction

use

fraction

use [4]

(d) More petrol can be made by cracking less useful petroleum fractions.

(i) What do you understand by the term cracking?


[1]

(ii) State two conditions needed for cracking.

[2]

(iii) Alkenes can be formed by cracking. The simplest alkene is ethene.


Draw a diagram to show the structure of ethene.
Show all atoms and bonds.

[1]

[Total: 13]

7 Esters, fats and polyesters all contain the ester linkage.

(a) The structural formula of an ester is given below.

H
O
H H H H
H C C
O C C C C H
H
H H H H
Name two chemicals that could be used to make this ester and draw their
structural formulae. Show all bonds.

names and [2]

structural formulae

[2]

(b) (i) Draw the structural formula of a polyester such as Terylene.

[2]

(ii) Suggest a use for this polymer.

[1]

(c) Cooking products, fats and vegetable oils, are mixtures of saturated and unsaturated esters.

The degree of unsaturation can be estimated by the following experiment. 4 drops of


3
the oil are dissolved in 5 cm of ethanol. Dilute bromine water is added a drop at a time
until the brown colour no longer disappears. Enough bromine has been added to the
sample to react with all the double bonds.

mass of
cooking mass of saturated fat in number of drops of
unsaturated fat in
product 100 g of product / g bromine water
100 g of product / g

margarine 35 35 5

butter 45 28 4

corn oil 10 84 12

soya oil 15 70 10
lard 38 56

(i) Complete the one blank space in the table. [1]

(ii) Complete the equation for bromine reacting with a double bond.

C C + Br2
[2]

(iii) Using saturated fats in the diet is thought to be a major cause of heart disease.
Which of the products is the least likely to cause heart disease?

[1]

(d) A better way of measuring the degree of unsaturation is to find the iodine number of the unsaturated
compound. This is the mass of iodine that reacts with all the double bonds in 100 g of the fat.

Use the following information to calculate the number of double bonds in one molecule
of the fat.

Mass of one mole of the fat is 884 g.

One mole of I2 reacts with one mole C C


.
The iodine number of the fat is 86.2 g.

Complete the following calculation.

100 g of fat reacts with 86.2 g of iodine.

884 g of fat reacts with g of iodine.

One mole of fat reacts with moles of iodine molecules.

Number of double bonds in one molecule of fat is [3]

[Total:14]