Topic about structural loads

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Topic about structural loads

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8.1.1 Loads Definition and Categories

8.1.2 Static and Dynamic Loads

8.1.3 Design and Fatigue Loads

8.1.4 Normal and Failure Loads

8.1.5 Loads Airworthiness Regulations

8.1.6 Flight Loads Conditions

8.1.7 Ground Loads Conditions

8.2 Flight and Mass Envelopes

8.2.1 Diagram of manoeuvre

8.2.2 Flight envelope (V, h, NZ)

8.2.3 Selection of Mass States

8.3 Balanced NZ conditions

8.3.1 Overview

8.3.2 Pull-up and Push-over

8.3.3 Steady Turn

8.3.4 Wing Root Loads

8.4 Discrete Gusts

8.4.1 Step Gust encounter

8.4.2 Gust Alleviation Factor

8.4.3 Dynamic Tuned Gusts

8.4.4 Static Gusts with Flaps down

8.5 Bibliography

8-2 STRUCTURAL LOADS

The structural loads are the distribution of total forces and moments acting on the aircraft,

as a sum of:

Aerodynamic loads

Inertial loads

Propulsive loads

Landing gear loads

Aircraft loads can be classified attending to several criteria, as summarized in next table:

Depending on: Categories

Operational source Flight loads

Ground loads

Structural response Static loads

Dynamic loads

Reiteration Design loads

Fatigue loads

Aircraft condition Loads in normal conditions

Loads in case of system failures

Loads for structural damage tolerance

Table 8.1: Loads categories

In both flight and ground phases:

Dynamic Loads conditions are those that require taking into account the vibratory

response of the structure and the associated dynamic aeroelastic effects.

Static Loads conditions are those in which it is enough taking into account the static

quasi-steady structural deformation and the associated static aeroelastic effects.

The most relevant load conditions are enclosed in the next table:

Static Loads Dynamic Loads

Flight Loads Flight Manoeuvres Gust in cruise configuration

Gusts with flaps down Continuous Turbulence

Engine Failure: unsymmetrical Engine Failure: loads due

loads on the aircraft to dynamic vibrations

Ground Loads Ground Handling Dynamic Landing

Landing bookcases Taxi on unpaved runways

Take-off and rotation

Table 8.2

Main load conditions attending to operational source and structural response

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-3

The Design Loads are the maximum loads that are foreseen to appear during the aircraft

operational life.

The Fatigue Loads are lower and reached more frequently than the design loads. They

can be more critical than the design loads for certain parts of the structure.

Load Design

Loads

zone

Fatigue

Loads

zone

Number of appearances

during the aircraft life

Figure 8-1

The aircraft loads in normal conditions are evaluated assuming that all aircraft systems

work properly and the structure is undamaged.

These conditions provide the limit loads that the structure must be able to support

without permanent deformation.

The limit loads multiplied by a factor of safety (FS) of 1.5 are the ultimate loads that

the structure must support without rupture for at least 3 seconds.

Tension

Boundary of

ultimate loads

Boundary of

limit loads

within the elastic limits at

least up to the limit loads

Deformation

Figure 8-2

Apart from the normal conditions, two additional scenarios must be considered:

1. Loads in case of failures of aircraft systems.

2. Loads to be combined with damaged structure.

8-4 STRUCTURAL LOADS

The aircraft loads due to failures of systems, such as flight control system, hydraulic and

electrical systems, sensors (see figure 8-3), fuel system, etc. are multiplied by factors of

safety (FS) between 1 and 1.5 and then applied as ultimate loads.

Figure 8-3

Schematic diagram of A330 EFCS (Electronic Flight Control System)

Depending on the consequences of the failure, these loads are classified in two groups:

Loads at the time of occurrence, when the failure provokes a transient condition that

develops significant aircraft loads. The factor of safety FS to be applied depends on

the probability of the failure per flight hour.

Loads for continuation of flight, when the failure originates a degraded condition that

worsens the normal flight and/or ground loads. The factor of safety FS depends not

only on the probability of the failure but also on the subsequent flight time with the

aircraft exposed to this scenario.

The failures can be detected or undetected. In the first case, realistic pilot corrective

actions can be considered at the time of occurrence and, if needed, operational limitations

can be established for continuation of flight.

The loads for structural damage tolerance account for two possible scenarios in which the

structure is not intact. In these cases the set of applicable loads is relaxed with respect to

the normal conditions. The two situations are:

Fail-safe loads, to be combined with structural degradation due to internal failures

by fatigue and other sources. The residual structure must withstand with a factor of

safety FS=1 the normal loads up to the maximum cruise speed. That is, the limit

loads are considered directly as ultimate loads.

Discrete source loads, to be applied when there is a structural damage due to

external actions (for instance a bird strike, figure 8-4). The damaged structure must

withstand with a factor of safety FS=1 the loads which are reasonably expected to

occur after that.

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-5

The design structural loads are calculated in accordance with certification bases like:

FAR-25 (civil, USA)

CS-25 (civil, Europe)

DEF STAN (military, United Kingdom)

JSSG and former MIL (military, USA)

Most usual regulations in transport aircraft are CS-25 and FAR-25 (subpart C Structure),

which are very similar between them. In general there are 2 kinds of paragraphs in the

regulations for loads:

Those establishing general application criteria, flight envelopes, design airspeeds,

load factors NZ, factors of safety, limit and ultimate loads definitions, fuel conditions,

power conditions, etc.

Those defining the manoeuvre and gust conditions that the aircraft must withstand.

CS-25 & FAR-25 general criteria to calculate loads are established in several paragraphs

of the regulations:

General criteria 25.301 Loads

for all loads

25.303 Factor of safety

25.321 General

General criteria 25.333 Flight manoeuvring envelope

for Flight Loads

25.335 Design airspeeds

25.337 Limit manoeuvring load factors

25.343 Design fuel and oil loads

General criteria 25.471 General

for Ground Loads

25.473 Landing load conditions and assumptions

25.477 Landing gear arrangement

25.489 Ground handling conditions

Table 8.3: General airworthiness criteria for loads

8-6 STRUCTURAL LOADS

CS-25 & FAR-25 flight loads conditions for the complete a/c can be classified in 7 groups:

Flight Load condition CS/FAR Specific conditions

paragraph

1 Balanced NZ conditions 25.331 Quasi-steady vertical turn at specified NZ

Steady level turn at specified NZ

2 Pitch manoeuvres 25.331 Maximum pitch action at VA

Checked manoeuvre (dq/dt versus NZ)

3 Discrete gusts and CT 25.341 Discrete tuned gust (*)

for cruise configuration Continuous turbulence (*)

(*) Both including structural dynamic effects

4 Discrete gusts with 25.345 Head-on gusts

flaps down Vertical and lateral gusts

5 Roll manoeuvres 25.349 Maximum roll acceleration (dp/dt)

Steady roll rate (p)

6 Yaw manoeuvres 25.351 Yaw including overshoot

Steady sideslip + rudder centring

7 Engine failure conditions 25.367 Transient after engine failure including

pilot corrective actions

Table 8.4: Flight Loads conditions

These flight conditions can affect to several aircraft zones. The major aircraft components

that typically can be sized by each flight condition are shown in figure 8-5 and table 8-5.

On the other hand, the main design parameters having an influence on flight loads are

collected in table 8-6.

loads loads loads

conditions manoeuvres (vertical & lateral)

Figure 8-5(a)

Typical potential sizing of a/c components by flight load conditions

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-7

loads loads loads

(vertical, lateral & head-on) manoeuvres engine failure conditions

Figure 8-5(b)

Typical potential sizing of a/c components by flight load conditions

vert. lat.

1 Balanced NZ conditions X Rear X

2 Pitch manoeuvres Rear X

3 Discrete gusts and CT, cruise configuration X X X X X

4 Discrete gusts, flaps down X Rear X

5 Roll manoeuvres Outer Rear X X

6 Yaw manoeuvres Rear X

7 Engine failure conditions Rear X

Table 8-5

Typical potential sizing of a/c components by flight load conditions

vert. lat.

Maximum design vertical load factor NZ X X X

Maximum p or aileron deflection limits Outer Rear X X

Maximum or rudder deflection limits Rear X

Maximum q and dq/dt or elevator deflection limits Rear X

vert. lat.

Design weights (MTOM, MZFM, etc) X X X

Forward and rear limits of centre of gravity X X X X X

Design airspeeds and maximum Mach X X X X X

Table 8-6

Influence of design parameters on flight loads of a/c components

8-8 STRUCTURAL LOADS

Supplementary conditions in 25.361 to 25.373 for engine installation, pressurised

compartments and speed control devices.

Specific control surfaces and system loads in 25.375 to 25.459.

Ground loads calculation requires availability of landing gear models.

CS-25 & FAR-25 landing conditions refer to dynamic landing loads and bookcases

stating static load calculations based on characteristic points of the time histories of

landing gear reactions:

o 25.479 Level landing conditions

o 25.481 Tail-down landing conditions

o 25.483 One-gear landing conditions

o 25.485 Side load conditions

o 25.487 Rebound landing condition

CS-25 & FAR-25 ground-handling conditions refer to a/c manoeuvres on ground:

o 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll

o 25.493 Braked roll conditions

o 25.495 Turning

o 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing

o 25.499 Nose-wheel yaw and steering

o 25.503 Pivoting

o 25.507 Reversed braking

o 25.509 Towing loads

o 25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple wheel units

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-9

The vertical load factor NZ (in body axes, as shown in figure 8-6) is defined as the sum of

aerodynamic and propulsive vertical up-forces divided by the aircraft weight:

FZA FZT

NZ (8.1)

mg

X (FZA+FZT) = NZmg

Z

Figure 8-6

Figure 8-7 depicts the manoeuvring envelope, also known as diagram of manoeuvre,

established by CS/FAR 25.333 in terms of required vertical load factor NZ versus

equivalent airspeed (EAS).

NZ NZmax

VA VC VD

EAS

-1

Figure 8-7

24000

NZ max 2.1 MTOM 10000 ( with MTOM in lb)

(8.2)

In any case : 2.5 N

Z max 3.8

There are 3 design airspeeds involved in the diagram of manoeuvre:

8-10 STRUCTURAL LOADS

VD is the design dive speed, which must comply with condition (8.3) unless a lower

margin in a diving manoeuvre is justified by calculation and flight tests.

VD 1.25 VC (8.3)

VA is the design manoeuvring speed, which must comply with condition (8.4), being

VS1 the stalling speed at 1g (i.e. at NZ=1).

VA VS1 NZ max (8.4)

In practice, the minimum speed compatible with NZmax, namely corner speed Va, is

different from the design speed VA because of two principal reasons:

1) Usually a unique design speed VA is selected covering all weights. Then VA is

determined by MTOM, while the corner speed Va is lesser for lower weights, as

shown in figure 8-8.

2) Usually CLmax decreases with Mach, displacing the stall curve at high NZ towards the

right side with respect to the theoretical parabola given by the simplified formula

VS1 NZ , as shown in figure 8-9.

speed speed

NZmax

VS1NZ1/2 VS1NZ1/2

OEM MTOM

1g

EAS

VS1 Va VS1 VA

OEM MTOM

Figure 8-8

Difference between VA and corner speed due to weight effects

man. speed speed

NZmax

VS1NZ1/2

CLmax

1g

EAS

Mach VS1 VA Va

Figure 8-9

Difference between VA and corner speed due to compressibility effects

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-11

Next figure shows a typical variation of the design speeds V A, VC and VD with altitude.

Usually the zone at high altitude is limited by maximum Mach: design cruise Mach (MC)

and design dive Mach (MD).

In this zone VA would

Altitude be equal to VC

hmo

VA

VS1N1/2 in the

theoretical case of

constant CLmax Va VC VD

EAS

Figure 8-10

Typical design airspeeds

Inside the Mass-Xcg diagram, usually the most significant mass cases for loads are:

Operating Empty Mass (OEM).

Minimum weight with fwd Xcg and rear Xcg.

Maximum Zero Fuel Mass (MZFM) with forward and rear Xcg; these cases can be

replaced by MZFM plus minimum reserve fuel.

Maximum Take-Off Mass (MTOM) based on the above MZFM cases.

MTOM with maximum fuel.

Maximum Landing Mass (MLM): equivalent cases to above MTOM ones, for landing

and approach configurations.

Mass Max.

fuel

MTOM

MZFM

OEM

Xcg

Fwd c.g. Aft c.g.

Figure 8-11

8-12 STRUCTURAL LOADS

FAR/CS 25.321 requires:

To comply with the flight loads conditions at each weight from the design minimum

weight to the design maximum weight appropriate to each particular flight load

condition.

To consider any practicable distribution of disposable load within the operating

limitations recorded in the Aeroplane Flight Manual.

For those fuselage zones where inertia loads are dominant (or go in the same direction

than aerodynamic loads), the most critical cases correspond to maximum possible payload

in the extremes of forward and rear fuselage, combined with the minimum aircraft weight

compatible with the diagram Mass-Xcg.

Figure 8-12

Wing loads are specially influenced by the fuel distribution inside the aircraft. Figure 8-13

shows a typical arrangement of fuel tanks

Figure 8-13

Example of fuel tanks (A330)

At fixed NZ, taking as starting point the MZFM, the addition of fuel to the aircraft produces

the following effects on the wing:

Adding fuel always requires additional lift in the wing with respect to MZFM.

If the fuel is stored in tanks outside the wing, it is equivalent to additional payload.

As this worsens the flight wing loads, the fuel sequence is usually defined to fill

firstly the wing tanks and afterwards the fuselage and/or HTP tanks.

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-13

If the fuel is received in the wing tanks, it produces wing loads alleviation due to the

inertia loads. Then:

o From the point of view of wing shear force (FZ), extra aerodynamic lift and

extra inertia alleviation are approximately counterbalanced. Even the net

load decreases, because extra lift is usually not supported to a 100% by the

wing, while the extra inertia load (relief) is.

o Wing bending moment (MX) is driven by the relative position of the fuel tank

c.g. with respect to the lateral aerodynamic centre of pressure (usually about

40% of wing span). In general, filling outer tanks decreases the bending

moment while filling inner tanks increases the bending moment at wing root.

Lift NZ W(a/c)

Bending moment

at wing root

Empty fuel NZ

fuel

wing

Figure 8-14

Next diagram shows a typical evolution of the wing root bending moment at fixed NZ.

at wing root are typically

at MZFM or MTOM

Figure 8-15

8-14 STRUCTURAL LOADS

8.3.1 Overview

Balanced conditions at given NZ are calculated in 2 ways:

Vertical turn (pull-up & push-over)

Level turn

These conditions involve:

Null angular accelerations

Steady or quasi-steady angular rates at given NZ

Symmetric or quasi-symmetric flight conditions

Balanced NZ conditions are potentially critical for wing, HTP, rear fuselage and powerplant.

Vertical turns are unsteady manoeuvres where the aircraft is performing a turn in a vertical

plane. For loads calculation purposes, both extremes of the manoeuvring envelope, at

NZmax and NZ = 1, can be fulfilled with this kind of vertical manoeuvre.

At NZ > 1: Lower point of the trajectory in a pull-up.

At NZ < 1: Upper point of the trajectory in a push-over.

It is a symmetrical manoeuvre, with null roll rate and null yaw rate.

It is a non-steady manoeuvre because d/dt0, changing and consequently the

projection of the gravity force in body axes. So the loads have to be understood as

instantaneous loads just happening at the extremes of the trajectory.

The pitch rate is given by:

q NZ 1

g

(8.5)

V

R

L = NZ mg

mg

Figure 8-16

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-15

Level turns are steady manoeuvres where the aircraft is performing a turn in a horizontal

plane. Only the positive extreme of the diagram of manoeuvre at NZmax can be covered

with this manoeuvre.

It is a steady turn with = 0 and NZ > 1.

It is non-symmetrical (yaw rate, rudder and roll controls are not null), but can be

considered quasi-symmetrical.

Pitch rate:

1 g

q NZ (8.6)

NZ V

Yaw rate (there are two possible turns with r > 0 and r < 0 respectively):

1

r q cos q (8.7)

NZ

L = NZ mg

R

q

mg r

Figure 8-17

Given NZ, there are two simplified formulas to estimate the shear force FZ and the bending

moment MX of the exposed wing at root:

1 CLew

FZ m m ew Nz g (8.8)

2 CLac

1 CLew

MX my aer y root m ew y ewcg y root Nz g (8.9)

2 CLac

Being:

CLew / CLac = exposed wing to complete aircraft lift ratio.

m = aircraft mass.

mew = mass of exposed wing (including fuel).

yroot = lateral position of wing root (with respect to the plane of symmetry).

yaer = lateral position of exposed wing lift centre of pressure.

yewcg = lateral position of exposed wing centre of gravity (including fuel).

NZ = vertical load factor.

g = gravity acceleration.

8-16 STRUCTURAL LOADS

For some aircrafts (particularly transport aircraft flying at high speed), the design maximum

loads are not caused by manoeuvring but result from encounters with gusts or air

turbulence.

Figure 8-18 illustrates an aircraft that abruptly encounters a vertical step gust. Really,

gusts have not usually a sharp-edged shape; but most standards for gust loading are

specified in terms of an equivalent step gust.

The main effect of the vertical gust is to change the effective angle of attack. This suddenly

increases the lift and can create very heavy loads on the wings structure.

Figure 8-18

The change in angle of attack is given by (8.10):

arctg Vgust V Vgust V (8.10)

The change of lift coefficient is given by (8.11), where CL is the lift slope of the

complete aircraft:

CL CL CL Vgust V (8.11)

1 2 Vgust SCL V Vgust

L QSC L V SCL (8.12)

2 V 2

The change of load factor is given by (8.13):

L CL V Vgust

N Z (8.13)

W 2 ( W / S)

Considering up & down gusts and assuming that the flight prior to the gust encounter is at

1g, the load factor that is reached due to the gust is:

CL V Vgust

NZgust 1 NZ 1 (8.14)

2 ( W / S)

For a given aircraft weight (W), the incremental load factor (NZ) given by the equation

(8.14) is proportional to the flight speed (V) and the gust intensity (Vgust), apart from

compressibility (Mach) effects on CL. This evolution of NZ with V and Vgust is represented

in figure 8-19, which is comparable to the diagram of manoeuvre given in figure 8-8.

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-17

Figure 8-19

Although the step gust is a good simple model, in the design specifications and regulations

the equation (8.14) is modified by a gust alleviation factor Kg, which accounts for the fact

that true sharp-edged gusts do not exist.

Sharp-edged

gust

Typical

(1-cos) gust

Figure 8-20

Actual response of the aircraft to smooth gusts is less than predicted by the preceding

analysis for step gusts. Inserting the gust alleviation factor Kg yields next equation:

K g CL V Vgust

N Zgust 1 (8.15)

2 ( W / S)

In previous equations, V and Vgust are true airspeeds (TAS) while is the actual density.

Generally it is better to use equivalent airspeeds, replacing equation (8.15) by (8.16) that

combines:

0 = sea-level density

VE and VEgust = flight EAS and gust EAS, respectively

K g 0 CL VE VEgust

NZgust 1 (8.16)

2 ( W / S)

This equation (8.16) lets to compare gust loads with manoeuvre loads by means of the

load factor NZ. Note that:

Regulations establish NZmax for pull-up manoeuvres.

Regulations specify the gust intensity (VEgust); then NZgust grows with flight speed.

High speed aircrafts tend to be sized by gusts while low speed aircrafts tend to be

sized by manoeuvres.

Particularly, the Pratt-formula (8.17) has been widely used to formulate Kg for gusts with

shape (1-cos) and gust length equal to 25MAC. The non-dimensional mass coefficient ,

8-18 STRUCTURAL LOADS

given by equation (8.18), where c is the MAC, accounts for the adaptation of the aircraft

to the gust. This coefficient indicates the ratio between inertia and aerodynamic vertical

forces. Note that light aircrafts develop more alleviation (smaller Kg) than heavy aircrafts

because they have more tendency to be shifted by the wind, decreasing the effective angle of

attack

0.88

Kg (8.17)

5.3

2m

(8.18)

S c CL

0.8

0.6

Kg

0.4

0.2

0

0 50 100 150

Figure 8-21

CS 25.341 requires calculating dynamic loads due to vertical and lateral gusts with cruise

configuration (flaps 0).

Gust shape is (1-cos) with gust gradient H varying from 30 to 350 ft.

Figure 8-22

Gust intensity depends on altitude, speed, operational parameters and gradient H, as

given by equation (8.19), where Fg is an operational alleviation factor (around 0.9):

1/ 6

H

Uds Uref Fg (8.19)

350

Reference gust velocities are:

o At VC: Uref (EAS) = 56 fps at s/l, 44 fps at 15 kft, 26 fps at 50 kft.

o At VD: 50% Uref (EAS).

STRUCTURAL LOADS 8-19

The analysis must take into account unsteady aerodynamic characteristics and all

significant structural degrees of freedom including the rigid body motions. Such analysis is

complex and needs a refined structural model. However, it is possible to apply the

following simplified method for preliminary design purposes:

Pratt-formula can be applied at gust gradient 12.5MAC.

Once estimated NZ, the same equations (8.1) and (8.2) used for balanced

manoeuvres are valid to estimate FZ and MX at wing root.

Some dynamic-tuning loads adjustment factor (based on previous experience) can

be applied on top of the previous results.

CS 35.345 requires calculating static loads due to:

Vertical (up & down) and lateral gusts of 25 fps, shape (1-cos) and gust length

25MAC (gust gradient 12.5MAC).

Head-on gust of 25 fps (EAS).

Vertical

gust

25 ft/s

Head-on gust

Lateral

gust

Figure 8-23

These conditions are potentially critical for wing torsion, flaps, horizontal tailplane and rear

fuselage.

8-20 STRUCTURAL LOADS

8.5 Bibliography

References for chapter 8:

8R1. D. P. Raymer.

Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach.

AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics) Education Series.

1st edition 1989 5th edition 2012.

8R2. A. K. Kundu.

Aircraft Design.

Cambridge University Press.

2010.

8R3. D. Howe.

Aircraft Conceptual Design Synthesis.

Professional Engineering Publishing.

2000.

8R4. T. Lomax

Structural Loads Analysis for Commercial Transport Aircraft

AIAA Education Series, 1996.

8R5. European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)

Certification Specification and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Large

Aeroplanes, CS-25

Amendment 16, Mar-2015.

8R6. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

Title 14 of Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

Part 25: Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes

Amendment 25-141, Sep-2015.

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