Chapter 12 Journals Est.

World Trade Routes 1000-1500
The Geography and Philosophies of Early Economic Systems Trade and Traders
-Trade diasporas-networks of interconnected commercial communities living and working in major trade cities throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia -In the W. Hemisphere 2 major trade networks developed: -Northern network served Mexico -Southern network ran north to south both along the Pacific Coast and inland along the Andes Mtns. -Little traffic between N. and S. America and none between the W. and E. hemispheres -Leif Eriksson²Viking explorer who reached Newfoundland in 1000 CE -Incas consolidated empire in the 15th century: mtn ppls generated extensive trade -Linked together 32 million ppl -Highland ppl specialized in gold working and crafts -Trade important up and down mtn sides with peaks of up to 20,000 feet -Under Inca rulers from the 1400s-the Spanish conquest in 1535, 15,000 miles worth of road was only available to gov¶t officials -Yucatan Peninsula of C. and N. America: Mayan ppl flourished from 200 BCE-900 CE -Traders flourished independently; disproportionate spread of wealth -Spanish arrived in the 1520s: Maya had weakened; Aztecs dominated -Aztec marketplace: Tenochtitlan -Under tight gov¶t control -Officers kept peace, collected taxes, and checked accuracy of weights/measures -Pochteca were a guild of traders hired for international trade -Goods were transported by animal and boat -Africa S. of Sahara was well integrated in trade relationships -W. Africa: traders dispatched caravans of goods on camel back across the Sahara; linked forest cultivators and miners in S. with merchants and rulers of Mediterranean Coast -Dates were a major commodity of trade

and E. learned patterns of seasonal monsoon winds and learned to sail with them. Europe and Africa -1250: trade networks connected main population and production centers of Asia.-Muslim traders of 8th century leave records -Ghana (700-1100) empire. Mali (1100-1400). and Europe -The Polynesians are Austronesian-speaking ppls who migrated from S. contact with Hawaii and Easter Island -Malay sailors of S. Indonesia -Greatest sailors in history -Est. made regular 3000 mile voyages across the Indian Ocean -1100-1500: Indian Ocean major crossroad of world¶s shipping lanes -Arab Muslim sailors were masters of sailing the Indian Ocean -By 1500 China was the most economically advanced region in the world -Internal trade outweighed external trade because of size of empire -Ming dynasty overthrew the Mongols and forbade China to trade overseas -Ocean traders came to China -China constructed a powerful navy and merchant marine to deal with sea trade -Ming dynasty: Emperor Yung-lo dispatched 7 voyages under the Muslim eunuch. China left cargo ships: jongs(or Junks). Zheng He through the Indian Ocean . Africa: traders along the coast produced gold and ivory and sold them to seafaring merchants of the Indian Ocean -Kingdom of Axum in Christian Ethiopia dominated traded of the Red Sea to Arabian Sea -Arab traders gained control with rise of Islam and restricted Ethiopian power -After the 9th century Arab merchants provided main trading link to Indian Ocean -Muslim Arab traders played critical role in the development of African trade networks -Religion and ethnicity formed trust needed to conduct business -Islam encouraged trade -Trade flourished with the hajj -Jews carried on international trade from China to W. the Philippines. China to Taiwan. balance-lug square sails. Africa. Songhay (1300-1600) -E.

Iran. lead by a khan -³Pax Mongolica´²intercontinental trade could flourish across reopened silk routes -Ibn Battuta of Morocco and Marco Polo give insight into exotic trade route -Before Chinggis Khan there were no written records of the Mongol Empire -Chinggis Khan Temujin (Genghis Khan) sought to unify the Mongols -Skilled at negotiation. and largest politically unified country in the world -Agricultural improvements. Samarkand. and Central Asia -Khanates were sub-empires: four of them throughout Mongol empire -Disease followed trade routes . prevented Mongol fleet from sailing -Conquered Tashkent. and textile production inspired trade revolution -Common ppl became involved in production of goods -Currency was the most important medium for trade -Printed the 1st paper money in the world -Luxury products (silk. innovations in iron and coal industry. Russia. Germans. Iraq. most technologically progressive. and tea) attracted Muslim Arabs.-Ming gov¶t limited contact with foreigners and prohibited private overseas trade by Chinese merchants -1275: Marco Polo arrives in China -Described China as the richest. infamous for brutality -Conquered Chinese capital and killed thousands -Est. Khwarizm. Lombards and French -Mongol Empire: largest land empire ever known. and Tbilisi -Killed many people -After death. Tabriz. Punjab (Indus R in India). traffic on silk routes revived -2 million Mongols divided into warring tribes. porcelain. Mongol dynasty in China (1276-1368) -Kamikaze: divine winds. his four sons continued to expand empire -Conquered Moscow and destroyed Kiev -Internal quarrels brought Mongol expansion to Europe to a halt -Captured and destroyed Baghdad and killed caliph of Abbasid dynasty -1279-1360: Mongols ruled China.

-The Black Death devastated Eurasia¶s population in the 1300s -Cause of Mongol Empire¶s decline -Ming dynasty overthrew Mongol empire and population increased sharply -During Mongol dynasty 90% of ppl lived in the south -South produced 3 of China¶s most valuable products -After Mongol dynasty ppl started moving to the North -1500s marked turning point in world trade patterns -Trade routes became interconnected -Europe seized control of the Americas -Introduced new regimes of trade and domination into world history .

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