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The Importance of Databases

Emerged in 1970s
One of the most important components of Information
Unit 33: Data analysis Before, paper-based record keeping (ie. ledger books)

and design Speed: retrieving reports from papers?

Databases are everywhere
Lesson 1: Database Fundamentals No organization can function their business operations
without DBMS.

Examples of Use What is a database?

Supermarket checkout
Purchasing using a credit card
Booking (hotel, airticket, cinema ticket etc.)
A database is a computerised record keeping
Using a library
Taking insurance
Sales analysis Date, C.J. (2003).
Student data in college An Introduction to Database Systems
8 Edition, Pearson Education
Banking etc.

Record Keeping Systems Database Functions

File system on a computer Databases should be able to:
Word documents Store
Excel Spreadsheets Manipulate (CRUD)
Manual card index file Retrieve
Media data in a broadcasting industry

Are these all databases?


Database Size Database Size

Databases range in size: They can be very large:
Single user databases on a PC Organization Database Size Transactions
Small office database with everyone doing the same Walmart 500T as 2004 statistics
sorts of tasks Amazon 42 TB 59 Millions Users
Medium size database system with core data but people YouTube 45 TB 100 Millions/day
doing different tasks ChoicePoint 250 TB
Corporate databases spread over many sites Sprint 2.85 Trillion rows 70,000 calls/sec
Very large databases and data-warehouses Google 450-500 TB 91 Million search/day
AT&T 323 TB

But databases arent like buckets More Detailed Definition

Database systems are not just a mass of data
It isnt just about what they can hold
They are organized
A database is an organised collection of logically
So we need a more precise definition related data

Hoffer,J., Ramesh V., and Toppi H. (2010)

Modern Database Management,
10th Edition.
Pearson Prentice Hall.

What does it means? What does it means?

Organised Organised
Logically related Logically related
Data Data

Data is structured so as to be easily stored, manipulated and

retrieved by users (CRUD)

It is no good if we dont know how to get it; to look at it and

use it.


What does it means? Student Activity: What is data?

Organised What data might be of interest to:
Logically related College or university
Data A retail store
A hotel

Pieces of data do not exist in isolation. For example: A cinema hall

In a salespersons database, it is natural for the Air ticketing agent
customers name and the customers address to be
stored together.
They are related.
Together, with other data about the customer, they are
part of a meaningful set.

Types of Data 1: Traditional Types of Data 2: Multi-media

Text such as names, address etc. Images
Numbers such as: how many children. Sounds
Dates such as a date of birth Video
Scans of documents

Data and Information Activity: Generate Information

Data are raw facts Data Information

Data that has been processed and given meaning Qty In ReOrder ReOrder Is Business Meaning or
Hand Level Qty Stop Concept
Aircon 20 10 50 N
Data Information
TV 30 35 100 N
Name Math Rules Exam Result Ref 0 10 50 N
Notebook -5 20 80 N
Mg Ba 60 =60 Water Pot 5 20 30 Y
Mg Hla 55 >=40 Marker Pen 0 50 100 Y

Mg Mya 81 >=80 A. In Stock D. Over sold. Place order now.

B. Reorder level reached. Place order now. E. In stock. STOPPED.
Mg Myint 30 <40 C. Out of stock. Place order now F. STOPPED.


Information is Important Evolutions of Databases 1

Economically File-based database
Logic how to read/write/modify data is coded together with the
Politically application.
Personally Database operations such as sorting, searching have to be
developed as well.
No reusable.
Databases are the key to get valuable information. Designed for single user environment

Evolutions of Databases 2 Evolutions of Databases 3

Desktop-based database Server-based database
Almost the same as file-based DBMS process is separated
Except, the code to deal with database is offered by Windows DBMS manages all database activities
or third party. Database clients make process calls to DBMS process
Developer does not to deal with internal details of the physical A special language is required (SQL)
database file structure
DBMS process Server
Much more productive.
Client application becomes data independent (no dependency
Designed for single-user environment on the structure of data/ specific server/ vendor etc.)
Very slow if you use for multi-user environment

Database Environments
OLTP Online Transaction Processing
OLAP Online Analytical Processing


RDBMS Responsibilities
Maintain the relationship among data in the database.
Ensure that data is store correctly and constraints are not
Recovering all data to a point of known consistency; in the
event of system failure.

Information Technology Information System

Any technology that concerns with the capture, storage Information System/ IS is any system that feeds information
and presentation of information when required. to the management team with information which is
produced by make use of the IT.
can be paper-based accounting system or paper-based
recording keeping system which can capture all the daily IS helps the management to make the right decision,
operation of the business, recorded in the book and it can monitoring business functions, planning and evaluation.
be used to find required information such as monthly sales,
goods in hand etc.
In another words, IT is a technology that can manage
information either in paper form or digital form.

Information Systems in Business

Operational information is collected and used at the
bottom of the pyramid to control day-to-day functions.
This information is used in a summarized form by the next
layer in the pyramid.

In this middle layer, information is used to maintain control

over the enterprise and to take corrective action to ensure
that business goals are met.

Information is passed in a summarized form to the next

layer up, where such internal information is combined with
external information (e.g. competitor data, the overall
marketplace etc.) in order to formulate long-term


Chapter 1 of Connolly, T and Begg, C (2009). Database Systems:
A Practical Approach to Design, Implementation and
Management 5th Edition. Addison Wesley
Chapter 1 of Date, C.J. (2003). An Introduction to Database
Systems 8th Edition. Pearson Education
Chapter 1 of Hoffer,J., Ramesh, V. and Toppi, H. (2010). Modern
Database Management, 10th Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Schuman, E. (2004). At WalMart, Worlds Largest Retail Data
Warehouse Gets Even Bigger. 13/10/2004 [Available