Math Symbols

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Math Symbols

© All Rights Reserved

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Mathematical Symbols

List of all mathematical symbols and signs - meaning and examples.

Basic math symbols

Geometry symbols

Algebra symbols

Logic symbols

Number symbols

2.5K 4.2K

Greek symbols

Geometry symbols

= equals sign equality

Statistical symbols

not equal sign inequality

Logic symbols

approximately equal approximation

Set symbols

> strict inequality greater than Calculus symbols

Greek symbols

inequality greater than or equal to

Roman numerals

inequality less than or equal to

() parentheses

first

calculate expression inside Recommend Site

[] brackets

first

Send Feedback

+ plus sign addition

About

2.5K 4.2K

both plus and minus

plus - minus

operations

both minus and plus

minus - plus

operations

* asterisk multiplication

times sign multiplication

decimal point, decimal

. period

separator

ab power exponent

a square root a a = a

3

a cube root 3

a 3a 3a = a

4

a fourth root 4

a 4a 4a 4a = a

% percent 1% = 1/100

ppt per-trillion 1ppt = 10-12

Geometry symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

measured angle

spherical angle

right angle = 90

deg degree 1 turn = 360deg

prime arcminute, 1 = 60

equivalence of geometric

congruent to

shapes and size

|x-y| distance

y

= 3.141592654...

is the ratio between the

pi constant

circumference and diameter of a

circle

c radians radians angle unit

g gradians / gons grads angle unit

Algebra symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

equivalence identical to

:= equal by definition equal by definition

proportional to proportional to

() parentheses

first

calculate expression inside

[] brackets

first

{} braces set

x ceiling brackets

integer

delta change / difference

discriminant = b2 - 4ac

summation - sum of all values

sigma

in range of series

capital pi

in range of series

= 3.141592654...

is the ratio between the

pi constant

circumference and diameter of a

circle

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

inner product

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

P(A) probability function probability of event A

P(A B) intersection B

P(A | B) conditional probability function

event B occured

probability density function

f (x) (pdf)

P(a x b) = f (x) dx

F(x) (cdf)

F(x) = P(X x)

E(X) expectation value

variable X

expected value of random

E(X | Y) conditional expectation

variable X given Y

std(X) standard deviation

variable X

standard deviation value of

X standard deviation

random variable X

middle value of random

median

variable x

covariance of random

cov(X,Y) covariance

variables X and Y

correlation of random variables

corr(X,Y) correlation

X and Y

correlation of random variables

X,Y correlation

X and Y

summation - sum of all values

summation

in range of series

Mo mode

frequently in population

MR mid-range MR = (xmax+xmin)/2

half the population is below this

Md sample median

value

25% of population are below

Q1 lower / first quartile

this value

50% of population are below

Q2 median / second quartile

this value = median of samples

75% of population are below

Q3 upper / third quartile

this value

s2 sample variance

estimator

population samples standard

s sample standard deviation

deviation estimator

zx standard score zx = (x-x) / sx

X~ distribution of X

X

f (x) = c xc-1e-x / (c),

x0

f (x) = xk/2-1e-x/2 / ( 2k/2

2(k) chi-square distribution

(k/2) )

F (k1, k2) F distribution

Geom(p) geometric distribution f (k) = p(1-p) k

HG(N,K,n) hyper-geometric distribution

Combinatorics Symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

n! factorial n! = 123...n

nPk permutation

nCk

combination

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

AB intersection

and set B

AB union

set B

A is a subset of B. set A is

AB subset

included in set B.

A is a subset of B, but A is not

AB proper subset / strict subset

equal to B.

A is a superset of B. set A

AB superset

includes set B

AB superset not equal to A.

A=B equality

members

all the objects that do not

Ac complement

belong to set A

objects that belong to A and

A\B relative complement

not to B

objects that belong to A and

A-B relative complement

not to B

objects that belong to A or B

A B symmetric difference

but not to their intersection

AB symmetric difference

but not to their intersection

AB cartesian product

and B

the number of elements of set

|A| cardinality

the number of elements of set

|A| cardinality

A

the number of elements of set

#A cardinality

A

infinite cardinality of natural

aleph-null

numbers set

cardinality of countable ordinal

aleph-one

numbers set

0 numbers set (with zero) 0 = {0,1,2,3,4,...}

1 numbers set (without zero) 1 = {1,2,3,4,5,...}

= {z | z=a+bi, -

complex numbers set

<a<, -<b<}

Logic symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

and and

+ plus or

reversed caret or

| vertical line or

circled plus / oplus exclusive or - xor

~ tilde negation

implies

for all

there exists

therefore

because / since

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

epsilon

represents a very small

epsilon

number, near zero

time derivative

notation

partial derivative

integration of function of 2

double integral

variables

integration of function of 3

triple integral

variables

i imaginary unit i -1

z complex conjugate z = a+bi z = a-bi

vector

unit vector

delta function

Numeral symbols

Name European Roman Hebrew

zero 0

one 1 I

two 2 II

three 3 III

four 4 IV

five 5 V

six 6 VI

seven 7 VII

eight 8 VIII

nine 9 IX

ten 10 X

eleven 11 XI

twelve 12 XII

thirteen 13 XIII

fourteen 14 XIV

fifteen 15 XV

sixteen 16 XVI

seventeen 17 XVII

eighteen 18 XVIII

nineteen 19 XIX

twenty 20 XX

thirty 30 XXX

forty 40 XL

fifty 50 L

fifty 50 L

sixty 60 LX

seventy 70 LXX

eighty 80 LXXX

ninety 90 XC

Letter Name

Upper Case Letter Lower Case Letter Greek Letter Name

Pronounce

Alpha al-fa

Beta be-ta

Gamma ga-ma

Delta del-ta

Epsilon ep-si-lon

Zeta ze-ta

Eta eh-ta

Theta te-ta

Iota io-ta

Kappa ka-pa

Lambda lam-da

Mu m-yoo

Nu noo

Xi x-ee

Omicron o-mee-c-ron

Pi pa-yee

Rho row

Sigma sig-ma

Tau ta-oo

Upsilon oo-psi-lon

Phi f-ee

Chi kh-ee

Psi p-see

Omega o-me-ga

Roman numerals

Number Roman numeral

0 not defined

1 I

2 II

3 III

4 IV

5 V

6 VI

7 VII

8 VIII

9 IX

10 X

11 XI

12 XII

13 XIII

14 XIV

15 XV

16 XVI

17 XVII

18 XVIII

19 XIX

20 XX

30 XXX

40 XL

50 L

60 LX

70 LXX

80 LXXX

90 XC

100 C

200 CC

300 CCC

400 CD

500 D

600 DC

700 DCC

800 DCCC

900 CM

1000 M

5000 V

10000 X

50000 L

100000 C

100000 C

500000 D

1000000 M

See also

Algebra symbols

Geometry symbols

Statistical symbols

Logic symbols

Number symbols

Roman numerals

Infinity symbol

Math calculators

Your Name

your@email.com

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