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Mathematical Symbols
List of all mathematical symbols and signs - meaning and examples.

Basic math symbols

Geometry symbols

Algebra symbols

Probability & statistics symbols

Set theory symbols

Logic symbols

Calculus & analysis symbols

Number symbols
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Greek symbols

Roman numerals M ATH SYM BOLS

Basic math symbols Basic math symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Algebra symbols

Geometry symbols
= equals sign equality
Statistical symbols
not equal sign inequality
Logic symbols
approximately equal approximation
Set symbols
> strict inequality greater than Calculus symbols

< strict inequality less than Number symbols

Greek symbols
inequality greater than or equal to
Roman numerals
inequality less than or equal to

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() parentheses
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[] brackets
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+ plus sign addition
About

minus sign subtraction


2.5K 4.2K
both plus and minus
plus - minus
operations
both minus and plus
minus - plus
operations

* asterisk multiplication

times sign multiplication


times sign multiplication

multiplication dot multiplication

division sign / obelus division

/ division slash division

horizontal line division / fraction

mod modulo remainder calculation


decimal point, decimal
. period
separator

ab power exponent

a^b caret exponent

a square root a a = a

3
a cube root 3
a 3a 3a = a

4
a fourth root 4
a 4a 4a 4a = a

na n-th root (radical)

% percent 1% = 1/100

per-mille 1 = 1/1000 = 0.1%

ppm per-million 1ppm = 1/1000000

ppb per-billion 1ppb = 1/1000000000


ppt per-trillion 1ppt = 10-12

Geometry symbols
Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

angle formed by two rays

measured angle
spherical angle

right angle = 90

degree 1 turn = 360


deg degree 1 turn = 360deg

prime arcminute, 1 = 60

double prime arcsecond, 1 = 60

line infinite line

AB line segment line from point A to point B

ray line that start from point A

arc arc from point A to point B

perpendicular perpendicular lines (90 angle)

|| parallel parallel lines

equivalence of geometric
congruent to
shapes and size

~ similarity same shapes, not same size

triangle triangle shape

distance between points x and


|x-y| distance
y
= 3.141592654...
is the ratio between the
pi constant
circumference and diameter of a

circle

rad radians radians angle unit


c radians radians angle unit

grad gradians / gons grads angle unit


g gradians / gons grads angle unit

Algebra symbols
Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

x x variable unknown value to find

equivalence identical to

equal by definition equal by definition

:= equal by definition equal by definition


:= equal by definition equal by definition

~ approximately equal weak approximation

approximately equal approximation

proportional to proportional to

lemniscate infinity symbol

much less than much less than

much greater than much greater than

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() parentheses
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[] brackets
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{} braces set

x floor brackets rounds number to lower integer

rounds number to upper


x ceiling brackets
integer

x! exclamation mark factorial

|x| single vertical bar absolute value

f (x) function of x maps values of x to f(x)

(f g) function composition (f g) (x) = f (g(x))

(a,b) open interval (a,b) = {x | a < x < b}

[a,b] closed interval [a,b] = {x | a x b}

delta change / difference


delta change / difference

discriminant = b2 - 4ac
summation - sum of all values
sigma
in range of series

sigma double summation

product - product of all values


capital pi
in range of series

e e constant / Euler's number e = 2.718281828...

Euler-Mascheroni constant = 0.527721566...

golden ratio golden ratio constant

= 3.141592654...
is the ratio between the
pi constant
circumference and diameter of a

circle

Linear Algebra Symbols


Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

dot scalar product

cross vector product

AB tensor product tensor product of A and B

inner product

[] brackets matrix of numbers

() parentheses matrix of numbers

|A| determinant determinant of matrix A

det(A) determinant determinant of matrix A

|| x || double vertical bars norm

AT transpose matrix transpose

A Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose

A* Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose

A -1 inverse matrix A A-1 = I

rank(A) matrix rank rank of matrix A

dim(U) dimension dimension of matrix A

Probability and statistics symbols


Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

P(A) probability function probability of event A


P(A) probability function probability of event A

probability of events probability that of events A and


P(A B) intersection B

P(A B) probability of events union probability that of events A or B

probability of event A given


P(A | B) conditional probability function
event B occured
probability density function
f (x) (pdf)
P(a x b) = f (x) dx

cumulative distribution function


F(x) (cdf)
F(x) = P(X x)

population mean mean of population values

expected value of random


E(X) expectation value
variable X
expected value of random
E(X | Y) conditional expectation
variable X given Y

var(X) variance variance of random variable X

2 variance variance of population values

standard deviation of random


std(X) standard deviation
variable X
standard deviation value of
X standard deviation
random variable X
middle value of random
median
variable x
covariance of random
cov(X,Y) covariance
variables X and Y
correlation of random variables
corr(X,Y) correlation
X and Y
correlation of random variables
X,Y correlation
X and Y
summation - sum of all values
summation
in range of series

double summation double summation

value that occurs most


Mo mode
frequently in population

MR mid-range MR = (xmax+xmin)/2
half the population is below this
Md sample median
value
25% of population are below
Q1 lower / first quartile
this value
50% of population are below
Q2 median / second quartile
this value = median of samples
75% of population are below
Q3 upper / third quartile
this value

x sample mean average / arithmetic mean

population samples variance


s2 sample variance
estimator
population samples standard
s sample standard deviation
deviation estimator

zx standard score zx = (x-x) / sx


zx standard score zx = (x-x) / sx

distribution of random variable


X~ distribution of X
X

N(,2) normal distribution gaussian distribution

U(a,b) uniform distribution equal probability in range a,b

exp() exponential distribution f (x) = e-x , x0

gamma(c, ) gamma distribution


f (x) = c xc-1e-x / (c),
x0
f (x) = xk/2-1e-x/2 / ( 2k/2
2(k) chi-square distribution
(k/2) )
F (k1, k2) F distribution

Bin(n,p) binomial distribution f (k) = nCk pk (1-p)n-k

Poisson() Poisson distribution f (k) = k e- / k!


Geom(p) geometric distribution f (k) = p(1-p) k
HG(N,K,n) hyper-geometric distribution

Bern(p) Bernoulli distribution

Combinatorics Symbols
Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

n! factorial n! = 123...n

nPk permutation

nCk

combination

Set theory symbols


Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

{} set a collection of elements

objects that belong to set A


AB intersection
and set B

objects that belong to set A or


AB union
set B

A is a subset of B. set A is
AB subset
included in set B.
A is a subset of B, but A is not
AB proper subset / strict subset
equal to B.

AB not subset set A is not a subset of set B

A is a superset of B. set A
AB superset
includes set B

proper superset / strict A is a superset of B, but B is


AB superset not equal to A.

AB not superset set A is not a superset of set B

2A power set all subsets of A

power set all subsets of A

both sets have the same


A=B equality
members
all the objects that do not
Ac complement
belong to set A
objects that belong to A and
A\B relative complement
not to B
objects that belong to A and
A-B relative complement
not to B
objects that belong to A or B
A B symmetric difference
but not to their intersection

objects that belong to A or B


AB symmetric difference
but not to their intersection

aA element of set membership

xA not element of no set membership

(a,b) ordered pair collection of 2 elements

set of all ordered pairs from A


AB cartesian product
and B
the number of elements of set
|A| cardinality
the number of elements of set
|A| cardinality
A
the number of elements of set
#A cardinality
A
infinite cardinality of natural
aleph-null
numbers set
cardinality of countable ordinal
aleph-one
numbers set

empty set ={}

universal set set of all possible values

natural numbers / whole


0 numbers set (with zero) 0 = {0,1,2,3,4,...}

natural numbers / whole


1 numbers set (without zero) 1 = {1,2,3,4,5,...}

integer numbers set = {...-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,...}

rational numbers set = {x | x=a/b, a,b }

real numbers set = {x | - < x <}

= {z | z=a+bi, -
complex numbers set
<a<, -<b<}

Logic symbols
Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

and and

^ caret / circumflex and

& ampersand and

+ plus or

reversed caret or

| vertical line or

x' single quote not - negation

x bar not - negation

not not - negation

! exclamation mark not - negation


circled plus / oplus exclusive or - xor

~ tilde negation

implies

equivalent if and only if (iff)

equivalent if and only if (iff)

for all

there exists

there does not exists

therefore

because / since

Calculus & analysis symbols


Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition

limit limit value of a function

represents a very small


epsilon
represents a very small
epsilon
number, near zero

e e constant / Euler's number e = 2.718281828...

y' derivative derivative - Lagrange's notation

y '' second derivative derivative of derivative

y(n) nth derivative n times derivation

derivative derivative - Leibniz's notation

second derivative derivative of derivative

nth derivative n times derivation

derivative by time - Newton's


time derivative
notation

time second derivative derivative of derivative

Dx y derivative derivative - Euler's notation

Dx2y second derivative derivative of derivative

partial derivative

integral opposite to derivation

integration of function of 2
double integral
variables
integration of function of 3
triple integral
variables

closed contour / line integral

closed surface integral

closed volume integral

[a,b] closed interval [a,b] = {x | a x b}

(a,b) open interval (a,b) = {x | a < x < b}

i imaginary unit i -1

z* complex conjugate z = a+bi z*=a-bi


z complex conjugate z = a+bi z = a-bi

nabla / del gradient / divergence operator

vector

unit vector

x*y convolution y(t) = x(t) * h(t)

Laplace transform F(s) = {f (t)}

Fourier transform X() = {f (t)}

delta function

lemniscate infinity symbol

Numeral symbols
Name European Roman Hebrew
zero 0
one 1 I

two 2 II

three 3 III

four 4 IV

five 5 V

six 6 VI

seven 7 VII

eight 8 VIII

nine 9 IX

ten 10 X

eleven 11 XI

twelve 12 XII

thirteen 13 XIII

fourteen 14 XIV

fifteen 15 XV

sixteen 16 XVI

seventeen 17 XVII

eighteen 18 XVIII

nineteen 19 XIX

twenty 20 XX

thirty 30 XXX

forty 40 XL

fifty 50 L
fifty 50 L

sixty 60 LX

seventy 70 LXX

eighty 80 LXXX

ninety 90 XC

one hundred 100 C

Greek alphabet letters


Letter Name
Upper Case Letter Lower Case Letter Greek Letter Name
Pronounce

Alpha al-fa

Beta be-ta

Gamma ga-ma

Delta del-ta

Epsilon ep-si-lon

Zeta ze-ta

Eta eh-ta

Theta te-ta

Iota io-ta

Kappa ka-pa

Lambda lam-da

Mu m-yoo

Nu noo

Xi x-ee

Omicron o-mee-c-ron

Pi pa-yee

Rho row

Sigma sig-ma

Tau ta-oo

Upsilon oo-psi-lon

Phi f-ee

Chi kh-ee

Psi p-see

Omega o-me-ga

Roman numerals
Number Roman numeral
0 not defined
1 I
2 II
3 III
4 IV
5 V
6 VI
7 VII
8 VIII
9 IX
10 X
11 XI
12 XII
13 XIII
14 XIV
15 XV
16 XVI
17 XVII
18 XVIII
19 XIX
20 XX
30 XXX
40 XL
50 L
60 LX
70 LXX
80 LXXX
90 XC
100 C
200 CC
300 CCC
400 CD
500 D
600 DC
700 DCC
800 DCCC
900 CM
1000 M
5000 V
10000 X
50000 L
100000 C
100000 C
500000 D
1000000 M

See also

Algebra symbols

Geometry symbols

Statistical symbols

Logic symbols

Set theory symbols

Calculus & analysis symbols

Number symbols

Greek alphabet symbols

Roman numerals

Infinity symbol

Math calculators

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