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THE LIFE OF A GOVERNESS IN JANE EYRE

AS REFLECTED IN JANE EYRE NOVEL

A FINAL PROJECT

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Bachelor Degree of


English Literature Program

By

Nurul Anisa

082080045

ENGLISH LITERATURE PROGRAM

COLLEGE OF LANGUAGES

SULTAN AGUNG ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY

2013

i
APPROVAL

A Final Project on English Literature

THE LIFE OF A GOVERNESS IN JANE EYRE


AS REFLECTED IN JANE EYRE NOVEL

Prepared and Present by

Nurul Anisa
082080045

Approved by

Afina Murtiningrum, S.S, M.M, M. A Semarang, February 28, 2013


First Advisor

Hartono, S.S., M.Pd Semarang, February 28, 2013


Second Advisor

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VALIDATION

A Final Project on English Literature

THE LIFE OF A GOVERNESS IN JANE EYRE


AS REFLECTED IN JANE EYRE NOVEL

Prepared and Presented by


Nurul Anisa
082080045

Defended before the Board of Examiners


On March 7, 2013
and Declared Acceptable

Chairman : Afina Murtiningrum, S.S, M.M, M.A

Secretary : Hartono, S.S, M.Pd

Members : Didik Murwantono, S.S, M.Hum

Semarang, March 7, 2013


Dean of College of Languages

Drs. Widiyanto, M. Si., Ph.D

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STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

Hereby, I honestly declare that the undergraduate final project I wrote does

not contain the works or part of the works of other people, except those which

were cited in the quotation and the references, as a scientific paper should. If my

statement is not valid in the future, I absolutely agree to accept an academic

saction in the form of revocation of my paper and my degree obtained from that

paper.

Semarang, March 7, 2013

Nurul Anisa

iv
MOTTO

Hope is wishing that something will happen

Today is rising, tomorrow will be shinning

DEDICATION

I dedicate this research to God for granting me the strength to carry out this

research and overcoming the challenges I encountered. My beloved mother and

father who always supports me. For my dear family, oppa and all my best friends.

Thank you for supporting and motivating me.

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ABSTRACT

Anisa, Nurul. 2013. The Life of a Governess in Jane Eyre As Reflected in Jane
Eyre Novel. A Final Project. English Literature Program, College Of Languages
Sultan Agung Islamic University. The First Advisor: Afina Murtiningrum, S.S.,
M.M., M.A., and The Second Advisor: Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.,

This final project analyzes on the life of a governess in Jane Eyre and she
get life better by her own effort. The life of a governess is not easy because a
governess has to face negative treatment from some of the upper classes who
dislike her existence because of social position. Jane is a woman in the Victorian
era try to get better position in life and reaching her dream by her own efforts.
Although it is uneasy, she proves a woman is able to get life better.

The object of this study is Charlotte Brontes novel entitled Jane Eyre.
The study uses descriptive qualitative method. The data of the study are in the
form of phrases, sentences, and dialogue. The data were collected by reading the
novel, identifying, classifying, and reporting. The analysis was done by several
techniques including exposing, explaining and interpreting.

The analysis finds several findings. The first is the life of a governess in
Jane Eyre. She is one of single woman who take the governess position to earn her
own living. In that era, being a governess is not easy. She has to face the treatment
of governesses include she has to face negative treatment from the upper classes
who dislike the existences of governesse because of her social classes. The second
is Janes struggle to get life better. She struggles her life by her own efforts
though she lived in the middle of Victorian society. She is described as a feminist
role. She shows that a woman has right to get life better.

Keywords: Governesses, Womens struggle

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INTISARI

Anisa, Nurul. 2013. The Life of a Governess in Jane Eyre As Reflected in Jane
Eyre Novel. Skripsi. Jurusan Sastra Inggris. Universitas Islam Sultan Agung
Semarang. Pembimbing I: Afina Murtiningrum, S.S., M.M., M.A., dan
Pembimbing II: Hartono, S.S., M.Pd.,

Studi ini menganalisa tentang kehidupan pegasuh terhadap Jane Eyre dan
perjuangannya untuk mendapat hidup yang lebih baik dengan usahanya sendiri.
Kehidupan governess tidaklah mudah karena dia harus menghadapi perlakuan
negatif dari beberapa masyarakat kelas atas yang tidak menyukai keberadaannya
karena strata sosialnya. Jane adalah wanita di jaman Victoria yang ingin
mempunyai posisi lebih baik dalam hidup serta mencapai mimpi dengan usahanya
sendiri. Meskipun perjuangannya tidak mudah tapi dia membuktikan bahwa
wanita mampu mendapatkan hidup yang lebih baik.

Objek studi ini adalah novel karya Charlotte Bronte yang berjudul Jane
Eyre. Penulis menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Data diambil dari frasa,
kalimat dan dialog. Pengumpulan data dengan membaca novel, identifikasi,
klasifikasi dan laporan. Analisis diselesaikkan melalui beberapa teknik, termasuk
didalamnya pemaparan, penjelasan dan interpretasi.

Analisis ini memunculkan beberapa hasil. Yang pertama adalah kehidupan


governess terhadap Jane Eyre. Dia adalah satu dari wanita single yang bekerja
sebagai governess untuk menghidupi dirinya. Disamping itu, menjadi governess
tidaklah mudah. Dia harus menghadapi perlakuan yang sering didapat governess
termasuk dia harus menghadapi perlakuan negatif dari masyarakat kelas atas.
Yang kedua adalah perjuangan Jane untuk mendapatkan hidup yang lebih baik.
Dia memperjuangkan hidupnya dengan usahanya sendiri meski dia hidup
ditengah-tengah masyarakat Victoria. Dia digambarkan sebagai feminist. Dia
menunjukkan bahwa wanita mempunyai hak untuk mendapatkan hidup yang lebih
baik.

Keywords: Pengasuh, Perjuangan wanita.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Allah Subhanallah Wa

Taala who gives me mercy and grace so that I can accomplish this final project.

My special gratitude goes to Drs. Widiyanto, M. Si., Ph.D as the Dean of College

of Languages and Hartono, S.S, M.Pd as the Secretary to Dean of College of

Languages.

My gratefulness also goes to Prof. Dr. Warsono, M.A. as the Head of

Study and Afina Murtiningrum, S.S., M.M., M.A. as the Secretary of Literature

Study Program of College of Languages. I am also grateful to Afina

Murtiningrum, S.S., M.M., M.A. as the First Advisor and Hartono, S.S, M.Pd., as

the Second Advisor. Both of them have helped and guided me on my final project.

My everlasting thanks are directed to my family, especially my parents,

and brother. I also thank to my best friends and all of people whose names I

cannot write one by one.

I hope this final project will be useful for the readers. I know that this final

project is far from being perfect so I accept any critics or suggestions.

Semarang, March 7, 2013

Nurul Anisa
082080045

viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE........................................................................................................................i
APPROVAL............................................................................................................ii
VALIDATION.......................................................................................................iii
STATEMENT OF WORKS ORIGINALITY......................................................iv
MOTTO AND DEDICATION...............................................................................v
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................vi
INTISARI..............................................................................................................vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT....................................................................................viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................ix
LIST OF TABLE.....................................................................................................x
CHAPTER
I.INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY..........................................................1

1.2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE STUDY......................................................5

1.3. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY...............................................................6

1.4. PROBLEM FORMULATION..................................................................6

1.5. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY...............................................................6

1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY..........................................................6

1.7. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY.....................................................................7

II. REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES

2.1. SYNOPSIS................................................................................................. 8

2.2.WOMEN IN THE VICTORIAN ERA................................................10

2.3.THE LIFE OF A GOVERNESS...............................................................17

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2.4. FEMINISM IN BRIEF..............................................................................22

III. RESEARCH METHOD

3.1. THE SOURCES OF THE DATA

3.1.1. Primary data.....................................................................................26

3.1.2. Secondary data.................................................................................26

3.2. DATA COLLECTING METHOD

3.2.1. Reading the novel.............................................................................26

3.2.2. Identifying the data..........................................................................26

3.2.3. Inventorying the data........................................................................27

3.2.4. Reducing the data.............................................................................27

3.3. DATA ANALYSIS METHOD..................................................................28

IV. ANALYSIS

4.1. The life of a governess in Jane Eyre as reflected in Jane Eyre Novel........29

4.2. Jane Eyres struggle to make her life better...............................................37

V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1.CONCLUSION...........................................................................................52

5.2SUGGESTION.............................................................................................53

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

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LIST OF TABLE

Table A Over All Data

Table B Classified Data

Table C Reduced Data

Table D Selected Data

x
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses about Background of the study, Identification of the

study, Limitation of the study, Problems formulation, Ojectives of the study and

Significance of the study and Outline of the study.

1.1 Background of the Study

Gender issue always takes place in the society and it concerns on the social

and culture structures that defines male and female traits. In the Victorian era, the

society brought an ideology that made differences between women and mens

role. The society always put women as weak character and just appropriate in

domestic area such as take care of children and husbands. Womens right in that

era were limited such as in education, politic, marriage and property. (Abrams,

2001: 1).

Women in the Victorian era were limited in every field including

education. Women received a little or no education at all during Victorian era.

(Abrams, 2001: 6). It means that women were limited in education and many

women during this era were not well-educated, only the upper class who got

education meanwhile men were well-educated than women because men were

supposed to be more worthed in the society than women and womens role were

mostly at home.

Women also were limited in politics. Even Britain's head of state was a

woman, Queen Victoria, women could not vote. Ihomulo Ulim said Women

were not allowed to vote in politic and only male who had right to vote. It shows

1
2

that womens voice were supposed to be useless and it didnt give affect for the

government. Women in that era also got unfair treatment in property fields. When

women married men, all womens assets became her husbands property and

when they got divorce, the husband had full legal right to all of the wifes

property and children. (Abrams, 2001: 6).

In the Victorian era, marriage was the best option for women. It could

provide them with a better social position and economy but when they were

married, women depends on men and dependent. Married women had to stay at

home as household, did the domestic things and served their children and

husbands, they just focused on their families and home. (Morin, 1999: 492). In the

words of Calder Jenni (1997, 27). Home and the female cant be separated. It

means that a home was supposed to be a proper place for woman. Their position

as mother made them called an angel in the house.

Married women were mostly stay at home and could not do work, while

single women were given chance to be writers, governesses, nurse and secretaries

where they could maintain their economic condition. Single women were a bit

lucky because they were more independent than the married women. Single

women could earn her own living by working while married women couldnt.

Most of single women in that era could take some job include governesses

position. (Abrams, 2001: 7)

Governesses were ladies who work for living and teaching the children at

home. A lot of single women worked as governesses because it was good

occupation for them. Their aim was to get better economy so that they could earn
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their own living through their wages. Governesses required to have other abilities

such as music, drawing, speaking foreign language and knitting in order they to be

successful at profession. (Peterson, 2009: 3).

Being governesses did not only brought positive effect but also unkind

treatments from the society due to they associated in middle class. When a

governess received unkind treatment who endures of her status, they just silent. In

the words of Andrew Sanders governess endures loss of status, humiliation,

snobbery, and insult, but her account of herself is characterized by a calm sense of

her own moral justification. It describes that governesses often get negative

treatment from the society but they have to patients to face it. (Godfrey, 2005:857)

The relationship a governess and a man was rarely unheard because

between a governess and a man there was no easy attraction due to she was not his

social equal. Her financial status made her to be considered unequal socially and

the society forbade relationship that had differences classes. The position of a

governess and her master was clearly describe that they were different in social

classes. (Godfrey, 2005:855)

The Victorian society accepted governesses because of their role as

educators. In the words of Peterson They cited as ladies because of their

education. Governesses also were treated well by her master family. Governesses

could spend time with them but sometimes they could asked to unjoin. It shows

that their masters family treat them well. (Peterson, 2009: 5).

Governesses were educators who makes the children well educated. It was

their main role as governesses. Governesses is one of themes in Jane Eyre novel.
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Charlotte Bronte wrote Jane Eyre as a reflection of her life. Charlotte ever be a

governess but then she left her job because she felt uncomfortable in which

governesses got negative treatment from society at the time. In this novel, Jane

Eyre was a governess in the Victorian era in which being a governess was the best

occupation for her. It made her raise her social class to middle class women and

could earn her living though at the time, being a governess was uneasy.

Jane Eyre plays a feminist role describing about struggle for her life. She

is a lower class woman and always gets unjust treatments from her family and the

men, thats why she wants to get out from that condition though it is uneasy. She

wants to has freedom in her life and she wants to show that a woman is not weak.

Hence, Janes struggle to make her life better is described. It is related to

feminism approach.

Feminism appears because women has less opportunity in social sphere

and they are limited to show their potential because they are women who are

supposed as a weak and inferior therefore, women want to get the same right as

men in any aspects of life such as politics, economy and social. On the other

word, feminists hope that between men and women has a right equally without see

the sexes. (Bressler, 1999: 180).


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1.2 Identification of the Study

Based on the background of the study above, gender differences always

becomes the issue in society includes in the Victorian era where theres

differences in social between male and female such as women in that era were

limited in any kind of fields such as education, politic, marriage and property. It

made women were limited and they could not improve themselves.

Gender streotype made women must be stay at home, busy in domestic

area, took care of children and husband. Married women could not take a job, only

husband who looked for income. Although a marriage could give the best position

in society but women didnt have right such as in property and children. Single

women were fortune. They were given a chance to survive. They could work as

governesses or writers. Being a governess was one of profession for single women

to maintain their social class.

Being a governess became a choice for single women because it could

make them got proper life. Being a governess must be have skills such as music,

speaking foreign language and drawing. Although they as educators but they got

unkind treatment from society because of their social class. In this novel, Jane

Eyre is a single woman who take a governess position to earn her life. She

becomes a governess in wealthy family. Therefore this study will focus on THE

LIFE OF A GOVERNESS IN JANE EYRE AS REFLECTED IN JANE EYRE

NOVEL.
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1.3 Limitation of the Study

To analyze Jane Eyre novel, this study needs to make limitation. Based on

the problems above, the study wants to limit the problem here only on the analysis

of the main character, especially dealing with the life of a governess in the

Victorian era described in the novel.

1.4 Problems Formulation

Based on the title and the background of the study, this paper will focus

on:

1. How is the life of a governess depicted in the main character in the novel?

2. How does Jane Eyres struggle to make her life better?

1.5 Objectives of the Study

Based on the problem cited above, this study proposes the objectives of

the study as follows:

1. To analyze the life of a governess depicted in the novel.

2. To describe Jane Eyres struggle to make her life better.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is expected to give a condition in literary fields as reference to

the other writers in analyzing novel that has related to govenesses for the students

of College of Languages in Sultan Agung Islamic University, especially for


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Literature Program. This study is expected to give benefit to the readers to be

more understand about governesss life in Jane Eyre novel.

1.7 Outline of the Study

This writing contains of three chapter, including the bibliography. The first

chapter contains of introduction which divided into six parts, they are Background

of the study, Identification of the study, Limitation of the study, Problem

Formulation, Objective of the study and Significance of the study.

The second chapter contains of literature review in four subchapters:

Synopsis of Jane Eyre Novel, Women in the Victorian era, The Life of a

Governess in the Victorian era and Feminism In Brief.

The Third chapter contains the research method such as data collecting

method, the sources of the data, and data analysis method.

The fourth chapter contains Discussion and Analysis which are The Life of

a Governess in Jane Eyre as reflected in Jane Eyre Novel and Jane Eyres

Struggle to Make Her Life Better.

The fifth chapter provides Conclusion and Suggestion.


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES

In this chapter, review of related theories contains of Synopsis, Women in

the Victorian era, The Life of a Governess in the Victorian era and Feminism In

Brief.

2.1 Synopsis of Jane Eyre Novel

Charlotte Bronte is an author of Jane Eyre. Charlotte was born in

Yorkshire in the north of England in 1816. Her parents passed away. She was sent

away to school in 1824. She became a teacher after several years then she decided

to become a private governess. She was a tutor got a the wealthy family but she

left this job because governess often got negative treatment from society.

Charlotte Bronte wrote Jane Eyre for a reflection of herself.

The story of Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte took place in the Victorian era

that tells about young orphan girl, Jane Eyre who lives with her aunt, Mrs Reed at

Gateshead Hall. Mrs Reed and her son, John Reed hates Jane. Jane gets bad

treatments from them. Jane was ever punished and locked in the red room, a room

where her uncle died. Mrs Reed makes decision to bring Jane in boarding school

for orphan, Lowood Institute.

At Lowood, Jane studies about music, foreign language, drawing and

knitting. In that school, She gets insult from headmaster, Mr. Brocklehurst. But

she finds person who care of her, Helen Burns and her teacher, Miss Temple.

Helen and Miss Temple always supports Jane and it makes her enjoy living at

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Lowood. Helen died because an epidemic of typus that spread. Then, Miss

Temple will marry. Jane decides to leave Lowood and become a governess in

eighteen years old.

She becomes a private governess in the upper class family in Thornfield.

She is a tutor a little girl, Adele Varens. Mr Edward Rochester is the guardian of

Adele. When Jane Eyre meets her master, Rochester, they are interested in each

other. At night, Jane rescues Rochester from a fire. Rochester helds a party in

Thornfield, he invites Blance Ingram. She adores Rochester but he loves Jane

instead and has plan to marry her. During at Thornfields, Jane also visits her aunt

who is dying and she knows that her cousin, John Reed died.

Jane Eyre and her master, Rochester decides to hold a marriage ceremony

but during the ceremony in the church, Richard Mason appears, he is Berthas

brother who speaks that Rochester is a married man, his wife is Bertha Manson.

Bertha is a mentally ill so that she placed in third floor in Rochesters house.

Rochester admits that he has already married and doesnt divorce. It makes Jane

desperates and leaves Rochester and Thornfields.

Jane goes away from Thornfield, having no money and she starves. She is

founded by the Rivers family, who live at Moor House near a town called Morton.

The members of Rivers family are Diana, Mary and St. John. Jane becomes a

teacher in a local school. St. John has a plan to arranges Jane become the teacher

in a village girls school. In fact, they are Janes cousins.

St. John is a clergyman and he wants to go to India to a missionary. He

asks Jane to marry him to accompany as a missionary wife but she refuses his
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requests because Jane doesnt love him. Before St. John falls in love with Jane, he

likes other girl, Rosamond Oliver. One night, suddenly, Jane hears Rochesters

voice calling her name. The next morning, Jane decides to leaves St. Johns house

and she goes back to Thornfield to see Rochester.

Jane finds Thornfield Hall destroyed from a fire that Bertha had jumped

from the roof and died. Rochester saved his servants, but he get injuries that make

him blind and crippled. Jane meets Rochester at Ferndean and promises always

take care of him. Finally, They marry and bring back Adele from boarding school.

St. John Rivers still unmaried and goes to India alone.

2.2 Women in the Victorian era

The Victorian society was marked by Queen Victoria from 1837 to 1901.

It was referred to as the Victorian era. Victorian era was one of the most

influential and important in history. Although, Britain's head of state was a

woman, Queen Victoria, women were limited in the public sphere. Women during

this era did not have rights such as right to property, education, marriage and

politics. They were truly limited by rule of Victorian society. (Abrams, 2001: 1).

In Education, just upper class women who got it at home with a governess

or through a boarding school. In the words of Searby girls education was

different from men. That different means women were treated unequal in

education and men were well educated than women because men were supposed

more worthed in the society than women. Women could not actualize themselves

because of limitation in education. Lynn Abrams said that women were not given
11

an advanced education as they would never come in contact with situations where

they would need it. It shows that women truly were limited in education field so

that they could not develop their ability. (Abrams, 2001: 1).

According to Armstrong, education was a way of securing gender

relationships and bringing the social sphere of Victorian England. Male education

was designed to make men more capable of making money while female

education was designed to make a woman to be what a man desires. It means that

education became a pragmatic social institution to secure gender roles in society.

(Miller, 2005: 30).

In politics, women were forbidden to vote. By borrowing statement of

Ihomulo Ulim, Women were not allowed to vote in politic and only male who

had right to vote. It means that womens voice would not impact for the

government and it was useless. But the Municipal Franchise Act favoured

petitions that women could vote in elections. This act anabled women to take part

in local government. (Hebert, 2008: 5).

In this era, Victorian women could only expect to have a good marriage.

Marriage was the best option for women at the time in which marriage could give

a safe life and secure for their life. Victorian society viewed marriage as a

womens natural and best position in life. It means that a good marriage was ideal

of Victorian women, which it could give better life and securing in the social

position in society. (Miller, 2005: 33).

The Victorian ideology of marriage perhaps made women subordinate.

Louis Althusser said the assumption a woman is owned by her father, who gives
12

her to her bridegroom in the marriage ceremony. It means that a father had full

right to her daughters marriage. A woman who accept a marriage proposal was

not always have love or feeling each other and being in love in a marriage could

occur by spontaneous commitment. (Miller, 2005: 42).

When a woman accepts a marriage proposal meant that she took a

commitment in lifetime of being a wife, bearing the children and had her social

position. Perhaps that ideology was a way of keeping women subordinate.

However, most people today no longer accept this ideology. When this ideology

collapse or in this modern era, women get freedom to accept or refuse a marriage

proposal. (Miller, 2005: 43)

This freedom makes women have right to refuse or accept a marriage

proposal in which it puts women in the position of having to answer. In a sense,

falling in love and then accept a marriage proposal creates a bond between two

people and that makes english girl ought to behave when receiving a proposal. On

the other hand, under the certain circumstances, a woman also has right to refuse a

proposal eventhough she loves the man with her whole heart. (Miller, 2005: 51).

Their decision to refuse or accept of a marriage proposal is not quite so

simple. Henry James said such decisions as saying yes to a marriage proposal are

always a leap in the dark and almost always disastrous. It is necessary to decide in

order to be plunged into experience and thereby to learn what you needed to know

in order to have made a good decision in the first place. It means that accept a

proposal is more difficult but they must make good decision for their life. (Miller,

2005: 57).
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Marriage could provide them with a better social position and economy

but when husband and wife married it means that women depended on men.

(Miller, 2005: 57). By borrowing the statement of William Blackstone, "If

husband and wife were one body before God, they were one person in the law and

that person was represented by the husband." It states that husband had authority

and be the leader in the household and even in the law.

Women had far from legal rights in a marriage and divorce. Women were

not benefit in a marriage because women would not have right in property. Men

had almost absolute power over the property and children. When a couple became

married in England, her propety was now his. Women could not own property to

support themselves without depending on their husband until England passed The

Married Women's Property Act in 1870 where these act was granted and secure

womens property during the marriage. (Abrams, 2001: 5).

Men also could decide whether they wanted to divorce and their wives

could not. Each divorce in England required a separate act of Parliament. A

husband shown the evidence of his wife adultery to get a divorce, property and

custody of their children. A wife shown other evidence besides adultery to get a

divorce like cruelty. Women also could not see or being guardians of their

children after divorce. Women were not legal guardians of their children. It shows

that father had full right over children too. But then appeared The Custody of

Infants Act that give full accsses for mother to see and became a guardian for the

children after father died. (Abrams, 2001: 5).


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The Victorian era was characterised as the domestic age. The age of the

home. It was marked by Queen Victoria who came to represent a kind of

femininity centred on the family, motherhood and respectability. (Hebert, 2010:

4). In that era, womens role were mostly at home. In their proper sphere, women

should run in their duties. Married women were expected to take care of their

husband and children. In the words of Marry Poovey (1988: 8):

The moral influence of woman upon mans character and


domestic happiness, is mainly attributable to her natural and
instinctive habits. Her love, her tenderness, her affectionate
solitude for his comfort and enjoyment, her devotedness, her
unwearying care, her maternal fondness, her conjugal
attractions,exercise a most ennobling impression upon his nature,
and do more towards making him a good husband, a good father
and a useful citizen.

It means that the role of women in a family is very important. This women

dedicate their life only in their family who care of husband and children. It is an

ideal image of women.

Since women were expected became a manager of household, there was a

stereotype of Victorian woman called angel in the house. Ideology of an angel in

the house required Victorian woman to be obedient, gentle and had duty to

manage household so she could encourage her husband to get and maintain a good

position in society while men were expected to hold jobs, marry respectable

women and create the next generation.

Married women could not have works or other kinds of activities in the

outside of the house. By borrowing the statement of Calder Jenni (1997, 27).
15

It was the wife who made the home, who cared for her children

within it, who brought her husband back to it when work was

done,who provided the hot dinners and created the atmosphere of

comfort and protection.

It shows that the role of women was being mother and wives. Their role was

expected to give benefits of home and family.

Women were expected to have children when they married. Carlsson said

that Women were married and expected to have children immediately. It

describes that have children is the role of women. Tennyson also said the wifes

task to keep the household functioning smoothly and harmoniously. It means that

wives had to run their role very well and they could not have activities outside the

house in order they could focus on their role. (Abrams, 2001: 4).

Single women who had sexual intercouse with men without marriage

would be isolated by Victorian people because Victorian social perspective

considered them as a bad figures and opposed to the angel image. Victorian

society forbade sexual activity between a single woman and a man without

marriage bond. Therefore, Victorian society categorized these women as fallen

women. They were isolated in order could not influence other women. (Kunzel,

1995: 126)

The fallen woman forced herself to look for other jobs that would accept

her, such as prostitution, so she could get money to maintain her life. Besides

falling into prostitution, some of them were isolated and imprisoned to penitent

place by Victorian society. Penitentiaries was an institution in which female


16

would be change into honest women who would respectable others women. It was

established by some Victorian people who cared about fallen women and to help

and control them to change in respectable women. (Kunzel, 1995: 127)

Women who were not successfull to find a husband and way to survive

would be viewed as unmarried women. Some of these women could be helpful in

the homes and others felt that they failed to achieve in life to become wife and

mother. They called spinsters. (Abrams, 2001: 4). Vicinus said Many spinster

focuses on taking care of family. It states that spinster can do something in their

life with focus on family although they not yet got a husband.

The spinster faced economical and social problems. Economically, these

spinster could not get better life with her relatives. Socially, they were ridiculed

because not having a husband. (Abrams, 2001: 4). By borrowing statement of

Martha Vicinus, all social forces to leave the spinster emotionally and

financially. It states that the spinster as fail women who left by society because

shes failed to be an ideal of Victorian woman.

If a woman to be unmarried and her family was not able to support her,

she must earn her own living and family. The Industrial Revolution had opened up

the work for working class women. Some of lower class women worked in

factories, mines and domestic servants. They were paid low. Factories did not

provide health care for workers. Working condition was unhealthy. Women also

worked as domestic servant and worked seven days a week, each day worked

twelve hours and they were very lonely where they had to do the task. (Godfrey,

2005 : 854).
17

In 1850 nursing became a respectable chance for women. In England,

schools of nursing were started to give women a proper training. Women were

employed in offices in this era, the typewriter led to an increase in office jobs for

women, as they were found to make better typists than men. They also were

employed as telephone switchboard operators. Some women broke into

professions like medicine, law, and journalism. (Gupea, 2010: 9).

In the Victorian era, there were a lot of female writers appearing in the

literature and their number was much higher than in previous era. William

Thomphson said that novels of all Victorian women writers reflect their own

opinions on the position of a woman in the society and Brontes are not an

exception. It means that female writers had freedom to make a novel deal with

what happened in this era such as marriage, rank, male and female equality and

the working opportunities for middle class women in the Victorian era. (Gupea,

2010: 9).

The other occupations for single middle class women in the Victorian era

was teaching profession such as teacher, governess and others were writers and

nurses in hospital. According to Lecaros, teaching profession was the most

occupation for single middle class women. These work were suitable occupation

for them who wanted to earn their living and to support their family. (Peterson,

2009: 5).
18

2.3 The Life of a Governess in the Victorian era

In the nineteenth century, being a governess was a good chance for single

middle class women. A governess could keep their status. Governess was a lady

who works for living and teaching at home. She could support her family through

the salary. By borrowing the statement of Goreau, as a rule, single women who

had to earn their living preferred to be employed as a governess. It shows that the

governesses could maintain their status although they had entered employment.

(Green, 2009).

Governesses could place edvertisement of their qualification to help her in

searching for a job. The governess began her advertisement with explaining about

some of subject areas of her knowledge and her interest in independent learning. It

shows that the governesses had accsess to print media and a governess needed

skills to be successful at profession and might strength in their proffesional

qualification . (Bell, 1996: 265)

There were three kinds of governesses, they were private governess, daily

governess and resident governess. A private governess lived in her employers

home and teach, serve and accompany children. Resident governess was a

governess teach in boarding schools and Daily governess was a governess who

resided at one place and traveled to another home to teach. It shows that governess

profession needed because female and male should be educated. In the words of

Peterson (2009: 7).

a woman who taught in a school, a woman who lived at home and


travelled to her employers house to teach (called a daily
governess), or a woman who lived in her employers home and who
19

taught the children and served as a companion to them, sometimes


referred to as the private governess.

From the above quotation, it can be assumed that the existencess of governesses

was acceptable for the society to provide education for children. As the governess

was expected to be a model of appropriate values and good manners.

Governesses as educators but they also took care of children and gave

children love. In the words of Peterson (2009: 7), Governess represented one of

the profession for women because they provided better education for children.

Governesses as educators have ability to make success and achievement for her

pupils. Governess also teached taught how to socialize in the society. Hughes

said, They helped children learn a general knowledge. Children also taught the

manners and being a social female.

A private governess who was employed in a employers house sometimes

was invited to participate in some social events which was held by the employers.

Even governesses could have dinner table with them. (Bell, 1996: 266). Many

families during victorian era preffered to have a governess to take care of their

children and teach them. In the words of Peterson, Governess also become the

second mother because a governess doesnt not only as teacher but also giving the

children love. (Peterson, 2009: 10).

Although governesses were well-educated but they often received the

insult from upper class society because of their social positions and when they got

the insult they did not answer. It shows that a governess always associated as

middle class women when a governess faced insult from someone, she just silent

but it makes a governess able to calm in herself. In the words of Andrew Sanders:
20

governess endures loss of status, humiliation, snobbery, and insult, but her

account of herself is characterized by a calm sense of her own moral

justification. It states that governesses got negative treatment from the society

but they had to patients to face it.

The relationship a governess and a man was rarely unheard because

between a governess and a man there was no easy attraction due to she was not his

social equal. Her financial status made her to be considered unequal socially and

the society forbade relationship that had differences classes. The position of a

governess and her master was clearly describe that they were different. (Bell,

1996: 266).

The social position made governess discomfort with her employers

family. Peterson said the real discomfort of a governess's position in a private

family arises from the fact that it is undefined. She is not a relation, riot a guest,

not a mistress, not a servant. It shows that the governesses social status are

apparent. (Peterson, 2009: 9). Despite this fact, there were many examples of

happy situations in which the governess was respected and well-treated by her

employers and was loved by her pupils.

Governesses often entirely isolated and friendless. Governesses

relationship with the outside social appear conflicts within family. In the words of

Peterson (2009:15), Governesses needs permission of their master to go out or

governesses could meet their friend and family only in leisures day because

governess had no longer time for socialize. It also states that governesses had to

obey the rule of upper class and focus with their duty as educators.
21

The raising of governesses made wealthy middle class family wanted to

have governess in their home to educate their children, so not only upper class

family who had a governess but middle class family also. Governesses were

considered as a status symbol of power and wealth in the family because

governesses could make the children well-educated. (Peterson, 2009: 8). In the

words of Perkin, The wealthy middle class family imitated to educate their

daughters at home, with governesses.

During this era, many tradesman and farmers were using a governess in

order educate their daughters in the hope of raising their class in society. Indeed,

employment as a governess was only of very limited use even in maintaining

gentle status. It means that if Victorian family had a governess to educate their

daughters, automatically, they led to the declining position of social and economy

because Victorians belief that governess was symbol of economic power of the

Victorians middle class. (Peterson, 2009: 19).

In the Victorian period had a governess was one of the ways how to

show that the family was well-off. The governess simply increased the

respectability of the family. The governess had in a very special position between

the two groups. Gilbert states every Victorian governess received strikingly

conflicting messages (she was and was not a member of the family, was and was

not a servant). It shows that she is automatically placed at the same level as the

servants, but the servants is not like her either because she still has a more

comfortable life than they do.


22

The term governess was not always as educator. Green (2009: 17) said that

the term governess was not necessarily imply a teacher, but it could simply mean

one who was responsible for the well being of children usually those of a royal or

noble household, and for directing their education. It describes that governesses

have responsible more toward their pupils family.

Governesses worked to proof their profession deserved a place in

Victorian society. Governesses desires to be seen as a woman purely to provide

education for the children of the household not as the household member.

Governesses position in the household as a respected professional for her

knowledge and schoolroom management. (Green, 2009: 88). A governess had no

spare time, no holidays or half days off. If they were not teaching, they were

usually responsible for her pupils wardrobe such as cleaning and neat. (Lentz,

2008: 70).

In that century, increasing numbers of governess in England became proof

to economic power of the Victorian era. Therefore, Queens of College was built

in London in 1848 to provide education for governesses. The founders aim was to

give governess a training that make them better teachers and increase respect for

them. Queens provided the highest education available to women until a lot of

universities appeared. The school was also open to ladies who were not

governesses. (Pedersen, 1975: 150).

2.4 Feminism in Brief


23

Feminism appears because women want to get the same right as men in

any aspects of life such as politics, economy and social. Women has less

opportunity in social sphere and they are limited to show their potential. Feminist

fight for the equality of women and should be equally in every aspect of life.

Feminisms aim is to change the view of women so women will realize that each

woman is a valuable person possessing the same privileges and rights as every

men. (Bressler, 1999: 180).

Feminism also refers to a movement in which the movement is making a

change for women in which women and men to be equal. Women have

opportunity as men to get their future better and women are able to achieve their

future because they have ability. (Bressler, 1999: 180). There are also some types

of feminism. They are like liberal feminims, radical feminism, black feminism,

marxist feminism, socialist feminism etc. (Krolokke, 2005).

Liberal feminists believe that all people are created equal and have

opportunity. Their efforts focuses on social change through the legislation.

Radical feminist concerns on womens oppression. Marxist focuses on social class

causes differences and womens status, women are categorized in proletariat and

men as a bourgeois. Socialist feminism views womens opperassions as steaming

from their work in the family and the economy that gives their argument about the

equal opportunities for women in the public sphere. (Krolokke, 2005).

There are three waves of Feminism, which are called as waves of

feminism. First wave of feminism in the 1830, the main issues were abolition of

slavery and womens rights, the right to vote. Second wave of feminism, in this
24

wave, feminist pushed beyond for political rights to fight for greater equality

across the board such as in education, the workplace and at home. Third wave of

feminism often criticize second wave for its lack of attention to the differences

among men and women because of race, ethnicity, class and gender. (Goel, 2010:

2)

Sandra Gilbert, Susan Gubar, Betty Frieden, Elaine Showalter, Marry

Wollstonecraft and Simone de Beavoir are feminists who participated the concern

of feminism. Marry Wollstonecraft is a feminist who proposed ideas to women.

On her work, A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792), Marry Wollstonecraft

demands that women be given an education like men in order women can develop

their capacities and their human potential though at the time social condition did

not afford them to get education. She argues that education is the key of achieving

self respect and education makes a woman able to achieve life better. (Hebert,

2010: 3).

From the above explanation that describes about feminism appears

because women want to get same right socially with men without see the sexes.

When women get education, they can develop their ability as women so that

women are not supposed the other, the other here is a woman always

subordinates to the male, women have denied to be independence while men take

full responsibility. Women has to stand up for themselves as a strong and

independent women to proof their ability, to take care of themselves and what is

the best for them.


CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHOD

Research methods are strategy employed in collecting and analyzing data

to solve the problems that become the object of the study. It is divided into three

parts: Data Collecting Method, The Source of the Data and Data Analysis

Technique.

3.1 The Sources of the Data

3.1.1 Primary data were taken from the novel. Since the object of this study

is a novel, this kind of data was in the form of descriptions, sentences,

prologues and dialogues.

3.1.2 Secondary data were taken from articles, international journals, books

and sites which has related to the study.

3.2 Data Collecting Method

In collecting the data, some steps are made:

3.2.1. Reading the novel

The novel entitled Jane Eyre was closely read for several times in order

to achieve better understanding of the novel and get the elements

needed in the analysis.

25
26

3.2.2. Identifying the data

Here the word identifying means the activity of separating data and non

data by marking underlining, and bracketing the suspected data in the

novel and then numbering them. Lets see the two examples of the data

below.

[216] {I am not bird; and no net ensnares me: I am a free human being with

an independent will; which I now exert to leave you .}

[263] A wind fresh from Europe blew over the ocean and rushed through the

open casement: the strom broke, streamed, thundered, blazed, and the

air grew pure. I then framed and fixed a resolution.

To make it clear, if a data is in a form of written dialogue, it uses bracketing. If it

is in row sentences, only parts of sentences, it uses underlining. As soon as the

data has been identified either by means of bracketing and underlining, they are

then numbered to show how many data are collected.

3.2.3. Inventorying the Data

Inventorying means listing all identified data and put them in the table.

The table consist of columns of numbers, form of the data, and where

the data were found. The table of inventoried data is called Appendix.

3.2.4. Reducing the Data

Reducing means the process of taking out a small number of data form

a bigger number. In reducing the data, relevant techniques were used in

order to answer the problem.


27

3.3 Data Analysis Method

The last step is technique of analyzing data which consists of analyzing and

reporting the data. The final project analysis was taken from selected data

with its reasons why the data supports the determination of problems. The

complete analysis was reported in Chapter IV as the result of this study. The

data supports are shown in the appendix.


CHAPTER 4

ANALYSIS

4.1. The Life of a Governess as Reflected in Jane Eyre in Jane Eyre Novel

In this part, the data are analyzed to solve the problems of the study in the

introduction. The problem to be analized is about the life of a governess in Jane

Eyre novel. Being a governess in the nineteenth century was a good opportunity

for single middle class women in which being governesses could earn their own

living and families. (Peterson, 2009: 3).

Being governesses does not only bring positive effect but also negative

treatments from the society because they are associated with middle class.

Because of their class, governesses are difficult to make close relationship with

their master, especially in love. It will be impossible due the social background

because the society at the time forbade any relationship that had differences in

social rank. (Godfrey, 2005:857)

Governesses are ladies who work for living and teaching at home.

Governesses are educators who take care of children and give children love. The

career of governesses is one of the few respectable position for middle class

women. Governesses must be able to educate their pupils in academic areas.

Being a governess needed a lot of requirements, such as qualified in teaching,

geography, drawing, history, music and foreign language. (Peterson, 2009: 3).

Jane Eyre is a private governess in upper class family where she teaches a lively

54
55

French girl named Adele. Jane has qualification to be a private governess such as

playing music, drawing and speaking foreigner.

Bessie : Can you play on the piano?


Jane : A little.
Bessie : can you draw?
Jane : That is one of my paintings over the chimney-piece.
Bessie :Have you learnt French?
Jane : Yes, Bessie, I can both read it and speak it.
Bessie : And you can work on muslin and canvas?
Jane : I can.
Bessie : Oh, you are quite a lady, Miss Jane! I knew you would
be. (Chapter 10, page 78).

The dialogue describes that a governess must have abilities as mentioned above.

Jane Eyre is an image of a governess in that era in which she has qualification of

being a governess. She has abilities such as speaking foreign languages, drawing

and playing music. Moreover, governesses are defined as ladies with education.

There are three kinds of governesses, they are private, daily and resident

governesses. A private governess is a governess who lived in her employers

home to teach, serve and accompany children. A resident governess is a governess

who teaches in boarding schools, and daily governess is a governess who resides

at one place and traveles to another home to teach. (Peterson, 2009: 7). Jane Eyre

is described as a private governess in upper class family in which she can live in

her employers home to teach, serve and accompany children.

A governess is an educator who teaches the children. She has an ability to

make success and achievement for her pupils. She is teaching her pupil how to

socialize in the society. It is her main role and Jane Eyre also runs her role as a

private governess to provide better education to her pupil, Adele. In the words of
56

Peterson, (2009: 7), Governess represented one of the profession for women

because they provided better education for children.

She had no great talents, no marked traits of character, no peculiar


development of feeling or taste which raised her one inch above the
ordinary level of childhood. She made reasonable progress,
entertained for me avivacious, though perhaps not very profound,
affection; and by her simplicity, gay prattle, and efforts to please,
inspired me, in return, with a degree of attachment sufficient to make
us both content in each others society. (Chapter 12, page 92).

The quote above describes that Adele is a spoilt child but she improves a lot under

Janes instruction as her private governess. Adele shows reasonable progress such

as entertaining for someone, has affection and efforts to please in which it makes

Adele easy to socialize and being social female in society.

Many families during Victorian era preffered to have a governess to teach

and take care of their children. Jane Eyre as a governess does not only teach the

knowledge to her pupil, Adele, but also care and give her love. Jeanne Peterson

(2009:10) said Governess also become the second mother because governess is

not only as a teacher but also gives the children love.

When we went in, and I had removed her bonnet and coat, I took her
on my knee; kept her there an hour, allowing her to prattle as she
liked: not rebuking even some little freedoms and trivialities into
which she was apt to stray when much noticed, and which betrayed in
her a superficiality of character, inherited probably from her mother,
hardlymcongenial to an English mind. Still she had her merits; and I
was disposed to appreciate all that was good in her to the utmost.
(Chapter14, page 124).

The quote describes that a governess and her pupil have a deep chemistry because

a governess does not only act as a teacher but also gives her pupil love. Jane Eyre

shows that a governess is able to teach and take care of her pupil. There are nice
57

relationships between Adele and Jane, it is the fact that Jane is welcomed by

Adele.

A private governess who is employed in an upper family house sometimes

is asked to participate in some social events. As Jane Eyre who is invited to join in

the party by her master, Mr. Rochester. Bell (1996: 266) said that a governess can

spend the time with her masters family and sometimes governess is invited to

participate in some social events that held by the master.

Will you play? he [Rochester] asked. I shook my head. He did not


insist, which I rather feared he would have done: he allowed me to
return quietly to my usual seat. He and his aids now withdrew behind
the curtain: the other party which was headed by Colonel Dent, sat
down on the crescent of chairs. One of the gentlemen, Mr. Eshton,
observing me, seemed to propose that I should be asked to join
them;(Chapter 18, page 155)

The quote describes that Rochester as a master invites Jane as a governess to play

charades and join in the event but she rejects his offer because she feels

uncomfortable with the situation in which she is only a governess who has

different social class.

Governesses are treated well by their masters family. Jane Eyre as a

private governess in Thornfield Hall get treatement well by her master family,

Mrs. Fairfax is one of family member who treats Jane Eyre well. Jane is happy at

Thornfield, she feels comfortable with the people from the house. As Elizabeth

Sewell said they will be so well treated, and make entirely one of the family.

(Bell, 1996: 266).

She treats me like a visitor, thought I. I little expected such a


reception: I anticipated only coldness and stiffness: this is not like
what I have heard of the treatment of governesses; but I must not exult
too soon (Chapter 11, page 82).
58

The quote describes that Jane Eyre seems to be surprised with the behaviour of

Mrs. Fairfax who treats Jane well, though in fact Jane is only a governess who is

associated as a middle class. Jane often hears about the treatment of governesses

who gets unkind treatment from society but it is different at Thornfields when

Mrs. Fairfax treats her likes a visitor.

Although the governess gets many kind of good treatment from the master

and families, a governess relationship with the outside social is not free. A

governess is often entirely isolated and friendless. When Jane visits her aunt, she

needs permission from Mr. Rochester. Peterson (2009: 15) said that governesses

need permission from their masters to get out or governesses can meet their

friends and families only in leisures day because governesses have no longer time

for socialize.

Jane : If you please, sir, I want leave of absence for a week or


two.
Rochester : What to do?where to go?
Jane : To see a sick lady who has sent for me.
Rochester : What sick lady?where does she live?
Jane : At Gateshead; in -shire. (Chapter 21, page 190)

The dialogue describes that a governess is not free to get out therefore she has to

get permission from her master. Jane as a governess has to obey the rule of upper

class and focus with their duty as educators. She needs permission from her

master when she wants to visit her aunt, Mrs. Reed.

Governesses are associated in the middle class and they often receive

insults from the upper class society. Jane is facing insult from upper class person

but she can not against, she has to be patient and try to grow her calm sense in
59

herself because Jane Eyre comes from middle class. In the words of Andrew

Sanders, governess endures loss of status, humiliation, snobbery, and insult, but

her account of herself is characterized by a calm sense of her own moral

justification.

Listen, then, Jane Eyre, to your sentence; to-morrow, place the glass
before you, and draw in chalk your own picture, faithfully; without
softening one defect: omit no harsh line, smooth away no displeasing
irregulatery; write under it, Portrait of a Governess, disconnected,
poor and plain. (chapter 26 page 137).

The quote above shows that Jane Eyre as a governess faces insult from upper class

person. She feels humiliated. The governesses do not enjoy a good reputation in

society though they are educators.

When the governess gets insult, she grows calm by her sense, they have to

keep silent when someone insults them because they are just governesses who is

associated in middle class. Jane Eyre also silent when upper class person try to

insult her.

I kept my word. An hour or two sufficed to sketch my own portrait in


crayons; and in less than a fortnight I had completed an ivory
miniature of an imaginary Blanche Ingram. I had reason to
congratulate myself on the course of wholesome discipline to which I
had thus forced my feelings to submit. Thanks to it, I was able to meet
subsequent occurrences with a decent calm, which, had they found me
unprepared, I should probably have been unequal to maintain, even
externally. (Chapter 26, page 137).
The quotes describes that Jane Eyre as a governess who is associated with a

middle class woman who just silent when someone insults her. It makes her able

to calm herself.

Despite this fact, there are many examples of happy situations in which the

governess is respected and well treated by some of the upper class women who
60

receive the existences of governess. As Louisa and Amy who share their

experiences when governess teaches them.

Louisa and I used to quiz our governess too; but she was such a good
creature, she would bear anything; nothing put her out. She was never
cross with us. (Chapter 27, page 152).

The quote shows that there are some people who are glad of governesses

existences because of their profession as educators.

The social position makes victorian governess discomfort with her master

family. As Jane feels discomfort with the certain situation because she is just a

governess in her masters house. Peterson (2009: 9) said the real discomfort of a

governess's position in a private family arises from the fact that it is undefined.

She is not a relation, riot a guest, not a mistress, not a servant.

Rochester : I will myself put the diamond chain round your neck, and
the circlet on your forehead,which it will become: for
nature, at least, has stamped her patent of nobility on this
brow, Jane; and I will clasp the bracelets on these fine
wrists, and load these fairy-like fingers with rings.
Jane : No, no, sir! think of other subjects, and speak of other
things, and in another strain. Dont address me as if I were
a beauty; I am your plain, Quakerish governess. (Chapter
24, page 220).

The dialogue describes that Jane Eyre doesnt want to receive diamond chain from

her master, Rochester. She feels unproper to receive it, because she is only a

governess in his estate in which her social status is a middle class woman.

There are to many restrictions the governesses have to face and one of

them is having deep relationship, especially falling in love with the master. A

governess financial status makes her to be considered as having unequal socially

and the society forbade relationship that has differences in classes. A governess
61

and a wealthy man is simply unheard, especially in love. (Godfrey, 2005:855).

The relationship between Rochester as nobleman while Jane as governess is

impossible in society in which they come from different class position.

but, sitting by him, roused from the nightmare of partingcalled to


the paradise of union. I know my Maker sanction what I do. For the
worlds judgement- I wash my hands therefor. For mans opinion- I
defy it. (Chapter 23, page 217).

The quote describes that Jane knows how society react if they live together. Their

relationship is forbidden in the society because they are from different social

positions.

Even the manager of Thronfields, Mrs. Fairfax reminds Jane to stay far

away from Mr. Rochester because theres class separation among them. She asks

Jane to keep him at a distance and reminds Jane that she is inequality to him.

you cannot be too careful. Try and keep Mr. Rochester at a distance:
distrust yourself as well as him. Gentlemen in his station are not
accustoned to marry their governesses. (Chapter: 24, page 226).

The quote describes that Mrs. Fairfax is astonished with Jane and Rochesters

relationship. She is greatly surprised by closer relationship among them, therefore

she asks Jane to keep Rochester at a distance. The Victorian governess doesnt

mean to win the heart or attention of a gentleman, especially her master and Jane

as a governess also doesnt mean to win Rochesters heart because Janes love for

Rochester is not about his social status but it is pure love.

The analysis above is about the life of a governess in Jane Eyre as

reflected in Jane Eyre Novel. A governess life in the Victorian era described in

the novel gives an understanding about governess life in that era. Jane Eyre is a

governess in that era. She comes from middle class woman who works to earn her
62

own living and teach the children in home. Although her profession as an

educator, she often gets positive and negative treatment from the society. For her

social class, she cant make closer relationship with a nobleman. It is a governess

life in the Victorian era.

4.2. Jane Eyres Struggle to Make her Life Better

Feminism appears because women want to get the same right as men in

any aspects of life such as politics, economy and social. It makes feminist appears

to fight that women have right as men in the public sphere. Feminism refers to a

movement that is makes a change for women in which women and men to be

equal. (Bressler, 1999: 180).

Women have opportunity as men to get their future better and women are

able to achieve their future because they have ability. According to Bressler

(1999:180), Feminisms aim is to change the view of women, so women will

realize that each woman is a valuable person possessing the same privileges and

rights as every men. It shows that if women have rights as men, it will make them

get life better and women can show their ability in themselves.

Jane Eyre is the example of how a woman tries to have a better position in

life and tries to reach her dream based on her own effort, especially, in the

Victorian era. She refuses to marry a nobleman to secure her life. On the other

hand, she wants to proof that a woman is able to be independent without

depending on a man. In her search for freedom, Jane struggles to achieve equality

and to overcome oppression. She gets unjust treatment from men. They are John
63

Reed, Brockhlehurst, Rochester and St. John Rivers. This chapter will discuss

more about Jane Eyres struggle to get her life better.

4.2.1. Jane Eyres struggle at Gateshead Hall

Jane Eyre lives in Gateshead with her family. She always gets unjust

treatment from them, especially her aunt, Mrs. Reed and her cousin, John Reed

because of her social class. Jane is a lower social class woman. She does not have

property in her life because in the Victorian era, daughters did not have right to

get inheritance from her father and all of properties inherited by sons. If a family

did not have a son, the properties went to the nearest males relatives or even more

distant relatives. Daughters did not get benefit from their fathers properties

because it had been secured by the oldest brother. Daughters could secure their

social status through marriage because it was an important source of financial

security for women. (Rappoport, 2009).

Jane Eyre as a woman in that era did not receive inheritance from her

father, she also did not have brother so Janes father properties was given to

Janes uncle, Mr. Reed. It made Jane had nothing and be a lower social class

woman. Because of her social class, Jane was treated differently by her family.

John Reed felt that he had power over Jane in the Reeds family so he could

oppress Jane who came from a lower class. Jane was weak because she was a

woman and had nothing. Social class is manipulated in the way that one group

dominates and oppresses another. (Murfin, 460).

you are a dependent, mama says; you have no money; your father left
you none; you ought to beg, and not to live here with gentlemens
64

children like us, and eat the same meals we do, and wear clothes at our
mamas expense. (chapter 1, page 8).

The quote above shows that Jane Eyre gets unjust treatment from John Reed when

he clearly says that Jane comes from a low social class and unproper to live

together with the Reed family. He wants to separate Jane from himself. He is not

welcome Jane. His position as a sole male makes him get power to insult her.

What John Reed says makes her feels underestimated by him. She may be

poor but she does not want to belong to that unjust treatment forever. She does not

silence when John Reed tries to insult her and she attacks John by her words.

Wicked and cruel boy! I said. You are like a murderer you are
like a slave-driveryou are like the Roman emperors!. (chapter 1,
page 9).

The quote describes that Jane is brave against him. It is her climax feeling towards

John Reeds treatment. In this point, Jane wants to show how she should be

treated humanly.

Furthermore, Jane has to struggle for her childhood in Gateshead Hall in

which her life is suffering. Jane never lives in harmony because of her social class

so it makes easy for her family to treat her bad including her aunt, Mrs. Reed. She

is not good aunt. She treats Jane bad where Jane is locked in the red room. Jane is

unwanted and unloved in the home of the Reeds. According to John Peters (1996:

60) Mrs. Reed excludes Jane not only from her own family, but also from the

human family as well.

Take her away to the red-room, and lock her in there. Four hands
were immediately laid upon me, and I was borne upstairs. (chapter 1,
page 10).
65

The quote describes how Mrs. Reed shows her power as a mistress of the house.

Mrs. Reed never treats her like a family member. She takes the authority over

Jane in which Jane gets punishment from her aunt by being locked in the red

room.

Jane Eyres struggle to be free from oppression is uneasy. In her

desperation, she must be brave to fight for her own right in which she tells Mrs.

Reed about her bad manner. Jane expresses her deep feeling and her argument

towards her aunt.

I am glad you are no relation of mine: I will never call you aunt again
as long as I live. I will never come to see you when I am grown up;
and if any one asks me how I liked you, and how you treated me, I
will say the very thought of you makes me sick, and that you treated
me with miserable cruelty.
(chapter 4, page 30).

The quote describes Janes emotion that never treat well by her aunt and she hates

her aunt. The time when she is locked in the red room is one of the unjust

treatments that she gets in which it makes Jane faces deepest fear and influence

her emotional so she against her cruelty aunt. Being locked up in the red room is a

frightening experiences that effect throughout Janes life.

Because of getting unjust treatment from her family. Jane realizes that she

needs a change in her life. Therefore, Jane wants to get out from Gateshead and

asks her aunt to send her to school and search for a freedom.

Ere I had finished this reply, my soul began to expand, to exult, with
the strangest sense of freedom, of triumph, I ever felt. It seemed as if
an invisible bond had burst, and that I had struggled out into unhoped-
for liberty. (Chapter 4, page 31).
66

The quote describes how Jane tries to be free from her suffering. Jane is oppressed

by her family in which she chooses to get out from Gateshead in order to find

freedom to life because as long as she is in Gateshead she can feel herself to be no

better. She chooses to attend to school as the first way to move on in her life.

4.2.2 Jane Eyres struggle at Lowood

Continually, Jane enters Lowood. It is an orphan school. Lowood is a

charity school for female orphans in which Janes aunt, Mrs. Reed have paid

nothing to put her there. In her first month at Lowood, Jane faces unjust treatment

from Mr. Brockhlehurst. He tells that Jane is a liar and he forbids the students to

speak to her. Mr. Brocklehurst is particularly odious because, like Mrs. Reed, he

has the presence and the authority of a parent but none of the compassion or

understanding. (Siebenschuh, 1976: 314).

you must watch her: keep your eyes on her movements, weigh well
her words, scrutinise her actions, punish her body to save her soul: if,
indeed, such salvation be possible, for (my tongue falters while I tell
it) this girl, this child, the native of a Christian land, worse than many
a little heathen who says its prayers to Brahma and kneels before
Juggernautthis girl isa liar!. (chapter 7, page 56).

The quote describes that Mr. Brocklehurst is using his authority at Lowood to

treats Jane bad after Mrs. Reed tells him about Janes supposed habit of lying. Mr.

Brockhlehurst tries to keep Jane in the inferior position because she is a lower

class girl. He tells all the school to shun Janes existences.

After getting unjust treatment of Mr. Brocklehurst, Jane realizes that she

doesnt want to be treated in inferior position again like in Gateshead therefore


67

she wants to do so much at Lowood. She has to proof what Mr. Brocklehurst says

is wrong. She has desire to change and does the progress.

Already I had made visible progress; that very morning I had reached
the head of my class; Miss Miller had praised me warmly; Miss
Temple had smiled approbation; she had promised to teach drawing,
and to let me learn French, if I continued to make similar
improvement two months longer: and then I was well received by my
fellow-pupils; treated as an equal by those of my own age, and not
molested by any; (Chapter 8, page 58).

The quote describes that the time when Mr. Brocklehurst insults her, Jane feels

underestimated by him but then Jane thinks that she has to make progress in her

life especially as long as at Lowood in order she doesnt treat inferior by Mr.

Brocklehurst. She proves her ability in knowledge and makes improvement in it.

What Jane does describes how she can overcome the unjust treatment.

At Lowood, Jane befriends with Helen Burns. She impresses Jane with her

knowledge and patiently face up the cruelest thing that happens in Lowood. Helen

offers love and affection for Jane. According to Gilbert, Helen becomes a mother

figure for Jane. (Franklin, 1995: 465).

you are too impulsive, too vehement; the sovereign hand that created
your frame, and put life into it, has provided you with other resources
than your feeble self, or than creatures feeble as you. Besides this
earth, and besides the race of men, there is an invisible world and a
kingdom of spirits: that world is round us, for it is everywhere; and
those spirits watch us, for they are commissioned to guard us; and if
we were dying in pain and shame, if scorn smote us on all sides, and
hatred crushed us, angels see our tortures, recognise our innocence.
(chapter 8, page 59).

The quote describes that Helen refuses to say anything negative about the people

and Jane feels impression. Helen tries to tell Jane that good thing always there and

it makes Jane realizes it. Thats why, Helen called as a mother figure for Jane.
68

However, Lowood is a different place from Gateshead in which, Jane can

develop herself freely. Here, she learns how to be a governess. Such education at

Lowood makes Jane possible to get a way of independence. As Marry

Wollstonecraft in her work, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, demands that

women can develop their capacities and their human potential through an

education. (Hebert, 2010: 3)

I remained an inmate of its wall, after itsregenaration, for eight


years: six as pupil, and two as teacher; and in both capacities I bear
my testimony to its value and importance. (Chapter 10, page 71).

The qoute describes that Jane spends eight years having some knowledge at

Lowood. She becomes a teacher for 2 years. It proves that a woman has right to

get education in which she is able to develop human potential. Education is

necessary for an poor orphan girl like Jane to create the place for herself in

society.

After spending her time for education, and performs her skill as a teacher

at Lowood. Jane decides to leave Lowood and struggle to reach her dream in

which she thinks that she has to develop herself to get life better.

My world had for some years been in Lowood: my experience had


been of its rules and systems; now I remembered that the real world
was wide, and that a varied field of hopes and fears, of sensations and
excitements, awaited those who had courage to go forth into its
expanse, to seek real knowledge of life amidst its perils. (chapter 10,
page 72).

The quote describes that after spending time at Lowood, she is ready to face the

challenges in the real world because she knows that the life is not easy to run. So,

she must fight and struggle for achieving her dream. Jane Eyres struggle to

survive is her ability to make real her dream by having knowledge.


69

4.2.3 Jane Eyres struggle at Thornfield Hall

Finally, after getting out from Lowood, Jane becomes a private governess

in Thornfield because she has to earn her own living. Jane begins a new journey

of her life moving to Thornfield. Thornfields owner is Mr. Rochester. Jane will

be tutoring Adele Varens, an eight years old.

Jane finds herself as a person through creative work, it is a governess job

in which it proves that a woman is able to show herself as a person who has

ability and she can earn her own living through a job. According to Frieden The

only way for a woman, as for a man, to find herself, to know herself as a person,

is by creative work of her own. There is no other way. (Goel, 2010: 3).

A young lady accustomed to tuition (had I not been a teacher two


years?) is desirous of meeting with a situation in a private family
where the children are under fourteen (I thought that as I was barely
eighteen, it would not do to undertake the guidance of pupils nearer
my own age). She is qualified to teach the usual branches of a good
English education, together with French, Drawing, and Music.
(Chapter 10 page 74).

The quote shows that Janes decision as a private governess is a way to find

herself as a person that she has her own ability besides she can earn her living.

Equality makes woman entry to the world of work and adventure. She wants to be

independents and being improvement a governess raises her social class.

When Jane runs her role as a governess, her master, Rochester is in love to

her. He wants to marry her. She finds the man who is makes her feels love. It is

the first time she feels true love. She hopes to be happy in marriage with him but

the manager of Thornfields, Mrs. Fairfax reminds Jane to far away from Mr.

Rochester because theres class separation among them in which Jane is a


70

governess while Rochester is a nobleman. She asks Jane to keep him at a distance

and reminds Jane that she is inequality to him. Victorian society forbade a

relationship that had differences in social classes. As mentioned in problem

formulation 1.

Beside the social classes, the other fact appears, Rochester is a married

man, it makes Jane has to take the decision. She has to leave Rochester. Jane is

right to leave him, but she is not wrong still to love him. Meanwhile, Bertha

Mason is Rochesters wife. Within the story, she is a symbol of Victorian wife in

the nineteenth century who was expected to stay at home and losing her

independent as a woman. Berthas existences makes Jane realizes that she feels

living with Rochester as his mistress, she will loss of her dignity, she will become

dependent upon him while women unprotected by marriage bond. According to

Julia Kristeva, Jane is a potential to Berthas experience. (Beattie, 1996: 495).

Rochester : But Ill shut up Thornfield Hall: Ill nail up the front door
and board the lower windows: Ill give Mrs. Poole two
hundred a year to live here with my wife,
Jane : Sir, I interrupted him, you are inexorable for that
unfortunate lady: you speak of her with hatewith
vindictive antipathy. It is cruelshe cannot help being
mad. (chapter 27, page 256).

The quote describes that Berthas existences influences Janes development

toward marriage. If Jane marries Rochester, she will stay at home, dependent and

everything unders control men. It is true that Jane flees Rochester and Thornfield

with the reason that she doesnt want to live under Rochesters power.

Berthas existences represents wife in the nineteenth century whos only at

home. Throughout the story, Jane must overcome it and show that a woman is
71

able to have the same right as man and also be independent. Gender equality

defined as the equality of the sexes in many aspects of life. As Jane Eyre believes

that between women and men should be equal. According to Sally Baden (2000,

10), Gender equality denotes women have the same opportunities in life as men,

including the ability to participate in the public sphere.

Women are supposed to be very calm generally: but women feel just
as men feel; they need exercise for their faculties, and a field for their
efforts as much as their brothers do; they suffer from too rigid a
restraint, too absolute a stagnation, precisely as men would suffer; and
it is narrow minded in their more privileged fellow creatures to say
that they ought to confine themselves to making puddings and knitting
stockings, to playing on the piano and embroidering bags. It is
thoughtless to condemn them, or laugh at them, if they seek to do
more or learn more than custom has pronounced necessary for their
sex. (XII: 93).

The quote describes that women in nineteenth century society were expected to

confine themselves to do domesticity. Gender equality has been expressed by

Jane, streotype about women who should be at home, do the domesticity are

breaks by Jane in which women need action and more to do than simple

housework. Jane Eyre chooses to more action in her life by working in which a

woman has opportunity in life as men.

4.2.4 Jane Eyres struggle at Moor House

When Jane leaves Rochester, she has no idea where she will go, she helps

her three siblings who live in Moor House. They are St. John, Mary, and Diana

Rivers. St. John is a clergyman. He finds Jane a job teaching at charity school.
72

Charlotte Bronte argues that Janes struggle that can be achieved through work

and recognition.

It is a village school: your scholars will be only poor girls


cottagers childrenat the best, farmers daughters. Knitting, sewing,
reading, writing, ciphering, will be all you will have to teach. What
will you do with your accomplishments? What, with the largest
portion of your mindsentimentstastes? Save them till they are
wanted. They will keep. (chapter 30, page 330).

The quote describes that Jane desires a job to make herself independent with

ability that she has, moreover she has teaching experience. Working can liberate

Jane as a woman in which working is a better chance for Janes personal freedom.

Working as a teacher proves that Jane can be independent.

Finally, when St. John tells Jane that they are family, he informs their

mutual uncle has left her a large fortune. Jane Eyre gets inheritance from her

uncle, Mr. Eyre. He has left Jane all his properties and now Jane is rich. As Susan

Fraiman said Jane represents, at the same time, "the happy, rich, and

conventionally respectable lady and the overworked.

St. John : Merely to tell you that your uncle, Mr. Eyre of Madeira, is
dead that he has left you all his property, and that you are
now richmerely thatnothing more.
Jane : I!rich?
St. John : Yes, you, richquite an heiress.(Chapter 28, page 325).

The quote describes that Jane gets large fortune, it is inheritance from her uncle

and she is rich now. It makes her financially secure and it changes herself being a

respectable lady in her era in which social class was important in society.

During her stay in Moor House, Jane is offered a marriage and a life as the

wife of a missionary in India by St. John. He urges Jane to accompany him as his

wife. It outlines that when he invites her to come to India with him as a
73

missionary wife, he offers Jane the chance to make a more Jane to be a missionary

wife.

Jane, come with me to India: come as my help-meet and fellow-


labourer. (chapter 34 page 342)

The quote describes that St. Johns mariage proposal, undirectly, makes Jane will

be a wife for the missionary in which he has power over Jane. It is a difficult

decision for her because she loves him only as her cousin.

Jane rejects that offer because he is passionless and unable to offer her to

love she needs in which if she marries him, he will control on her and she will

lose her autonomy. As Lilian Melani describes, Jane is a woman who believes in

living according to her own sense of right and wrong, not society's values..

but as his wife-at his side always, and always restrained, and always
checked-forced to keep the fire of my nature continually low, to
compel it to burn inwardly never utter a cry, though the imprisoned
flame consumed vital-this would be unendurable. (Chapter 34, page
347).

The quote describes that Janes answer is shocking coming from a woman in fact,

in that era, marriage was the best position for women and they would secure

financially in their life but Jane doesnt follow societys values. She has right to

refuse a marriage proposal because she feels his proposal is wrong.

St. John has forceful personality in which he pressures Jane to ignore her

feelings and submit more to his power to accept his proposal. St. John feels

rejected by Janes answer. He never stops inviting Jane to be his wife. He is an

ambitious man. Jeffrey Franklin (1995: 458) said that St. Johns character is a

violent that potentially sweeping Jane into oblivion.


74

And do not forget that if you reject it, it is not me you deny, but God.
Through my means, He opens to you a noble career, as my wife only
can you enter upon it. Refuse to be my wife, and you limit yourself for
ever to a track of selfish ease and barren obscurity. (chapter 34, page
348).

The quote describes that St. John is an ambitious man in which he is pressing her

to reach decision about his proposal of marriage. He wants to control Jane in

marriage. He also brings God to make sure Jane in order accepts his proposal

because he thinks that rejecting his proposal means she rejects God.

Jane must escape from such control in order to remain true to herself

because she knows that control is dealing with oppression. For Jane, marriage

without love is no better than slavery therefore, she decides to leave St. John with

consideration with a reason she does not love him. However, as long as stay in

Moor House, Jane enjoys economic independent, get useful work; teaching the

poor and gets a marriage proposal again in her life. It makes Jane knows what it is

that she needs to make her happy and fulfilled.

One night, Jane hears Rochesters voice calling her name. In declining St.

Johns wife, she immediately go back to Thornfield but she finds the fact that

Thornfields is burn and Bertha lost her life in the fire. Then, Jane goes to

Rochesters house, Ferndean. Her flight back to him describes her final journey

for maturity in which she knows that Rochesters love for her is sincere passion.

4.2.5 Jane Eyres struggle at Ferndean

Ferndean is the last place for Jane Eyres life. She makes great change as

an independent woman after getting inheritance. According to literary critic, the


75

novel is a proof for women that there was a possibility to change from less

powerful to equal in this society.

I am an independent woman now. (Chapter 37, page 370).

The quote describes that Jane is increasing economically. She changes to be an

independent woman. It also changes her social class in society.

Jane returns to Rochester as a new woman that rich and independent. She

rebuild relationship with Rochester and soon marry though the symbol of

Rochesters male authority, has been destroyed in which he has lost his properties,

his hand and his eye. They are now free from Bertha Mason. They are able to

marry at last though he is physically incapable to leading her but Jane now finds

herself and Rochester is equal because of the autonomy that she has reach by

knowing herself more fully to her husband, Rochester. She is Rochesters guide

as well as his "prop," "leading" him as well as "waiting on" him. (Wyatt, 1985:

212).

I have now been married ten years. I know what it is to live entirely
for and with what I love best on earth. I hold myself supremely
blestblest beyond what language can express; because I am my
husbands life as fully is he is mine. No woman was ever nearer to her
mate than I am: ever more absolutely bone of his bone and flesh of his
flesh. (chapter 38, page 383).

The quote describes that Jane Eyres story is happy ending in which Jane feels

happy with her right man, Rochester. Jane as an equal partner in the relationship

in which she is usefull for him though he has lost his house, crippled and blinded.

He needs Jane as much as she needs him and she can be financially independent.

Jane and Rochester find their proper relationship on more equal. Jane is happy
76

with little Adele and her grow up. Although Jane describes herself happy, she also

implies that she has been the good woman she is supposed to be.

The analysis above is about Jane Eyres struggle to make her life better. In

her struggle, Jane Eyre has to move from one place to another to get it. She has to

face unjust treatment from men and her family. Although she comes from a lower

social class woman but she does progress in her life. She runs education and being

a teacher then take a governess position. She can be independent by finding a job.

She also get two marriage proposal in her life.

Jane Eyre is a woman who has strong sense and brave to express her

feeling. She also talks about gender in which a woman in that era, had less

opportunity in society. She wants to show that women and men have the same

right. The woman has feeling for being an independent and reach her dream,

including Jane though she has to struggle in the middle of Victorian society.
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1. Conclusion

This study briefly reports that the life of a governess is uneasy because

being a governess does not only bring positive effect but also negative treatments

from the society for she is associated in middle class. Being a governess is the

best occupation and women become independent. Jane Eyre is one of single

woman who take the governess position to earn her own living. Social class brings

a governess in love problem that a governess is forbide by society to have love

relationship with the nobleman.

What Jane does to fight her right, how feminism describes. Feminism

appears because women had less opportunity in social sphere and they were

limited to show their potential because they were women who supposed as weak

and inferior. Feminism refers to a movement in which it is making a change for

women and this movement make women get life better. Although womens

struggle is not easy but they have to fight their right because they are wishing a

movement for women to get life better future. It means that women need action in

their life include working because it is one of way to proof that women have

abilities and potential in themselves.

51
52

5.2 Suggestion

For the next research can be discussed about feminism in the Victorian era

and right now. In the Victorian era, women were supposed proper to stay at home,

focused on the family and womens right also were limited in any kind of field

such as in education, politic even in marriage so women could not develop

themselves freely and it made women treated subordinates. Women being seen as

inferior to men in the Victorian era. Therefore, feminism appears and refers to a

movement in which the movement is making a change for women. This change

will make womens life better in the future.

A lot of feminist appears and make a change in order women get their

right in politic and education so that women can participate and do the progress in

their life. The Womens Liberation Movement makes women are not treat

subordinates anymore. Nowadays, womens emancipation becomes popular,

include in Indonesia. Indonesia also has a feminist role, she is RA. Kartini. In her

work, Habis Gelap Terbitlah Terang brings a change for women in which

women get education as men. Education makes women become smart and have

intellectual capabilities. They can participate in work world to show their potential

and independent economically.

Many Indonesians women can show their potential by their own effort.

Women can work in any kinds of field such as in politic, education, bussiness, and

etc. Many job vacancy has opened for women now, for example, women can join

in the politic such as being a president and prime minister. It describes that

women can develop their human potential to get life better, there is no limitation
53

for women to develop themselves positively. The new women have potential and

intellectual capabilities. Women are not passive anymore but they have freedom

to express and imagine what exist in their mind.


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A. TABLE OF OVER ALL DATA

Datum of Found in the novel


Content Form of Data Comments
Number Chapter Page
What can you do? Can you play on the
Jane Eyre as a governess has
piano?
qualification such as in music,
A little.
drawing and speaking foreign
1 There was one in the room; Bessie went Dialogue 10 78
language. She becomes a private
and opened it, and then asked me to sit
governess in wealthy family and
down and give her a tune: I played a waltz
Adele is Janes pupil.
or two, and she was charmed...
She had no great talents, no marked traits
Adele shows progress after she
of character, no peculiar development of
teached by her new governess, Jane
feeling or taste which raised her one inch
Eyre. A governess is an educator
2 above the ordinary level of childhood. She Monologue 12 92
who teaches the children because
made reasonable progress, entertained for
they provided better education for
me a vivacious, though perhaps not very
children.
profound, affection;
When we went in, and I had removed her The relation between a governess and
bonnet and coat, I took her on my knee; her pupil have a deep chemistry
kept her there an hour, allowing her to because a governess does not only
prattle as she liked: not rebuking even some act as a teacher but also gives her
little freedoms and trivialities into which pupil love. Jane Eyre shows that a
3 Monologue 14 124
she was apt to stray when much noticed, governess is able to teach and take
and which betrayed in her a superficiality of care of her pupil. There are nice
character, inherited probably from her relationships between Adele and
mother, hardlymcongenial to an English Jane, it is the fact that Jane is
mind.. welcomed by Adele.
4 Will you play? he [Rochester] asked. I Dialogue 18 155 Rochester is Adeles father in which

57
58

shook my head. He did not insist, which I he as a master invites Jane to play
rather feared he would have done: he charades but she rejects his offer
allowed me to return quietly to my usual because she feels uncomfortable due
seat. He and his aids now withdrew behind to she is only a governess and her
the curtain: the other party which was social class is different with them.
headed by Colonel Dent, sat down on the
crescent of chairs...
but Lady Ingram instantly negatived the When Jane is invited by her master to
notion. "NO" I heard her say: "she looks too join in the party, there is one of upper
5 stupid for any game of the sort." Dialogue 18 155 class person who dislike with Janes
existences in the room because Jane
comes from a middle class.
Mrs. Fairfax is one of Rochester
She treats me like a visitor, thought I. I family where she treats Jane well.
little expected such a reception: I Mrs Fairfaxs behaviour toward Jane
anticipated only coldness and stiffness: this makes her seems to be surprised
6 is not like what I have heard of the Monologue 11 82 because Jane often hears about
treatment of governesses; but I must not treatments of governess who get
exult too soon unkind treatment from society but it
is different when she works in
Rochesters family.
Jane : If you please, sir, I want leave
of absence for a week or two. Jane as a private governess needs
Rochester :What to do? Where to go? permission from her master if she
Jane : To see a sick lady who has 21 wants to out to visit her family or
7 Dialogue 190
sent for me. relatives because they dont have
Rochester :What sick lady?where does longer time to socialize.
she live?
Jane : At Gateshead; in -shire.
Listen, then, Jane Eyre, to your sentence; Jane is facing insult from upper class
8 Dialogue 26 137
to-morrow, place the glass before you, and person but she can not against them,
59

draw in chalk your own picture, faithfully; because Jane comes from a middle
without softening one defect: omit no harsh class.
line, smooth away no displeasing
irregulatery; write under it, Portrait of a
Governess, disconnected, poor and plain.

I kept my word. An hour or two sufficed to As a governess who associated as


sketch my own portrait in crayons; and in middle class, Jane just silent when
less than a fortnight I had completed an someone insult her. It makes her able
ivory miniature of an imaginary Blanche to calm in herself.
Ingram. I had reason to congratulate myself Andrew Sanders said that its
9 Monologue 26 137
on the course of wholesome discipline to governess endures loss of status,
which I had thus forced my feelings humiliation, snobbery, and insult, but
to submit. her account of herself is
characterized by a calm sense of her
own moral justification.
Louisa and I used to quiz our governess Although upper class dislike with
too; but she was such a good creature, she governesses existences but theres
would bear anything; nothing put her out. some of uppers class who glad with
10 Dialogue 27 152
She was never cross with us. governesses existences because
they as an educator and they can care
of her pupil.
I will myself put the diamond chain round Jane doesnt wanna receive diamond
your neck, and chain from her master, Rochester
the circlet on your forehead,which it will because Jane feels unproper to
become: for nature, receive it, because she is only a
11 at least, has stamped her patent of nobility Dialogue 24 220 governess in his estate.
on this brow, The real discomfort of a governess's
Jane; and I will clasp the bracelets on these position in a private family arises
fine wrists, and from the fact that it is undefined. She
load these fairy-like fingers with rings. is not a relation, riot a guest, not a
60

No, no, sir! think of other subjects, and mistress, not a servant. (Peterson, pg
speak of other 9).
things, and in another strain. Dont address
me as if I were a beauty; I am your plain,
Quakerish governess.
The relationship between Rochester
as nobleman while Jane as governess
but, sitting by him, roused from the
is impossible in society in which they
nightmare of partingcalled to the paradise
come from different class position
of union. I know my Maker sanction what I
and society at the time forbade that
do. For the worlds judgement- I wash my
12 Monologue 23 217 relation who has different social
hands therefor. For mans opinion- I defy
class.
it.
The relation between a governess and
a wealthy man is simply unheard,
especially in love. (Esther Godfrey,
pg 857)
Mrs. Fairfax astonished with Jane
you cannot be too careful. Try and keep
and Rochesters relationship. She
Mr. Rochester at a distance: distrust
asks Jane to keep Rochester at a
13 yourself as well as him. Gentlemen in his Dialogue 24 226
distance because their social
station are not accustoned to marry their
background is different.
governesses.
Jane lives with her family at
Gateshead where she gets unjust
you are a dependent, mama says; you have
treatment by John Reed. John Reed is
no money; your father left you none; you
Janes cousin. He clearly says that
ought to beg, and not to live here with
14 Dialogue 1 8 Jane comes from a low class and
gentlemens children like us, and eat the
unproper to live together with the
same meals we do, and wear clothes at our
Reed family.
mamas expense.
Social class is manipulated in the
way that one group dominates and
61

oppresses another. (Murfin, pg 460)


Wicked and cruel boy! I said. You are Jane is bravely against him. It is her
like a murderer you are like a slave- climax feeling towards John Reeds
15 driveryou are like the Roman Dialogue 1 9 treatment. In this point, Jane wants to
emperors!. show how she should be treat
humanly.
Take her away to the red-room, and lock Mrs. Reed is Janes aunt. She also
her in there. Four hands were immediately treats Jane bad such as when Mrs.
16 laid upon me, and I was borne upstairs. Dialogue 1 10 Reed takes the authority over Jane in
which Jane gets punishment from her
aunt by being locked in the red room.
Janes emotional that never treat well
I am glad you are no relation of mine: I
by her aunt and she hates her aunt.
will never call you aunt again as long as I
The time when she has locked in the
live. I will never come to see you when I
red room is one of the unjust
am grown up; and if any one asks me how I
17 Dialogue 4 30 treatments that she gets in which it
liked you, and how you treated me, I will
makes Jane faces deepest fear and
say the very thought of you makes me sick,
influence her emotional so she
and that you treated me with miserable
against her cruelty aunt.
cruelty.
Ere I had finished this reply, my soul Because of getting unjust treatment
began to expand, to exult, with the from her family. Jane realizes that
strangest sense of freedom, of triumph, I she needs a change in her life. she
ever felt. It seemed as if an invisible bond chooses to get out from Gateshead in
18 had burst, and that I had struggled out into Monologue 4 31 order to find freedom to life because
unhoped-for liberty. as long as she is in Gateshead she can
feel herself to be no better. She
chooses attend to school as the first
way to move on in her life.
you must watch her: keep your eyes on Continually, Jane enters Lowood. It
19 Monologue 10 71
her movements, weigh well her words, is an orphan school. Janes first
62

scrutinise her actions, punish her body to month at Lowood, she faces unjust
save her soul: if, indeed, such salvation be treatment from Brockhlehurst. He
possible, for (my tongue falters while I tell tells that Jane is a liar and he forbids
it) this girl, this child, the native of a the students to speak to her. He treats
Christian land, worse than many a little Jane bad and he tries to keep Jane in
heathen who says its prayers to Brahma the inferior position because she is a
and kneels before Juggernautthis girl lower class girl.
isa liar!.
The time when Brocklehurst insults
Already I had made visible progress; that
her, Jane feels underestimated by him
very morning I had reached the head of my
but then Jane thinks that she has to
class; Miss Miller had praised me warmly;
make progress in her life especially
Miss Temple had smiled approbation; she
as long as at Lowood in order she
had promised to teach drawing, and to let
20 Monologue 8 58 doesnt treat inferior by Mr.
me learn French, if I continued to make
Brocklehurst. She begins proof her
similar improvement two months longer:
ability in knowledge and make
and then I was well received by my fellow-
improvement in it. What Jane does, it
pupils; treated as an equal by those of my
describes how she can overcome
own age, and not molested by any;
unjust treatment.
you are too impulsive, too vehement; the Helen is Janes friend at Lowood.
sovereign hand that created your frame, Helen refuses to say anything
and put life into it, has provided you with negative about the people and Jane
other resources than your feeble self, or feels impression. Helen tries to tell
21 than creatures feeble as you. Besides this Dialogue 8 59 Jane that good thing always there and
earth, and besides the race of men, there is it makes Jane realizes it. Thats why,
an invisible world and a kingdom of Helen called as a mother figure for
spirits: that world is round us, for it is Jane.
everywhere;....
I remained an inmate of its wall, after Jane spends eight years having some
22 itsregenaration, for eight years: six as Monologue 10 71 knowledge at Lowood. She becomes
pupil, and two as teacher; and in both a teacher for 2 years in there. It
63

capacities I bear my testimony to its value proves that a woman has right to get
and importance. education in which she is able to
develop human potential. Education
is necessary for an poor orphan girl
like Jane to create the place for
herself in society.
After spending time in education,
My world had for some years been in
Jane grows up with excellent and
Lowood: my experience had been of its
talent, she performs her skill as a
rules and systems; now I remembered that
23 Monologue 10 72 teacher at Lowood. After being a
the real world was wide, and that a varied
teacher, Jane decides to leave
field of hopes and fears, of sensations and
Lowood and struggle to reach her
excitements...
dream.
A young lady accustomed to tuition (had After getting out at Lowood, Jane
I not been a teacher two years?) is becomes a private governess at
desirous of meeting with a situation in a Thornfield. Jane will be tutoring
private family where the children are under Adele Varens, an eight years old.
24 Monologue 10 74
fourteen (I thought that as I was barely Janes decision as a private
eighteen, it would not do to undertake the governess is a way to find herself as
guidance of pupils nearer my own age). a person that she has her own ability
besides she can earn her living.
Jane : Sir, your wife is living: that is
a fact acknowledged this When Jane runs her role as a
morning by yourself. If I lived governess, her master, Rochester is
with you as you desire, I in love to her. He wants to marry
should then be your mistress: Jane. On the day of their wedding,
25 Dialogue 27 259
to say otherwise is the fact appears, he is a married man,
sophisticalis false. his wife is Bertha Mason. So, Jane
Rochester : Jane, I am not a gentle- leaves him because if she stays with
tempered manyou forget him as his mistress, it is a false.
that: I am not long-enduring; I
64

am not cool and dispassionate.


Still indomitable was the reply I care Moral values that expressed by Jane
for myself. The more solitary, the more through her action leaves Rochester
friendless, the more unsustained I am, the though she wants to be with him
more I will respect myself. I will keep the describes that she is showing
26 Dialogue 27 270
law given by God; sanctioned by man. I religious side in herself. She sees
will hold to the principles received by me God as the giver of the law in which
when I was sane, and not madas I am Jane has to keep the law.
now.
Rochester : But Ill shut up Thornfield Berthas existences influences Janes
Hall: Ill nail up the front door development toward married. If Jane
and board the lower windows: marries him, she would stay at house,
Ill give Mrs. Poole two could not have activities outside and
hundred a year to live here everything under control men.
with my wife, Knowing that it is impossible for her
27 Dialogue 27 256
Jane : Sir, I interrupted him, you are to be with Rochester, Jane flees
inexorable for that unfortunate Thornfield though she doesnt want
lady: you speak of her with to leave him but she must leave him.
hatewith vindictive
antipathy. It is cruelshe
cannot help being mad.
Women are supposed to be very calm Berthas existences represent wife in
generally: but women feel just as men feel; the nineteenth century whos only at
they need exercise for their faculties, and a home. Throughout of the story, Jane
field for their efforts as much as their must overcome it and shows that a
brothers do; they suffer from too rigid a woman is able to have the same right
28 Monologue 12 93
restraint, too absolute a stagnation, as men and also independent. Gender
precisely as men would suffer; and it is equality defined as the equality of the
narrow minded in their more privileged sexes in many aspects of life. As Jane
fellow creatures to say that they ought to Eyre believes that between women
confine themselves to making puddings and men should be equal.
65

and knitting stockings, to playing on the


piano and embroidering bags.
It is a village school: your scholars will When Jane leaves Rochester. She
be only poor girlscottagers childrenat stays in Moor House with St. John
the best, farmers daughters. Knitting, and decides to work because it can
29 Dialogue 30 330
sewing, reading, writing, ciphering, will be liberate Jane as a woman in which
all you will have to teach... work is a better chance for Janes
personal freedom.
Merely to tell you that your uncle, Mr. Jane gets fortune, it is inheritance
Eyre of Madeira, is dead that he has left from her uncle, Mr. Eyre. He has left
you all his property, and that you are Jane all his property and now Jane is
now richmerely thatnothing more. rich.
30 I!rich? Dialogue 28 325 As Susan Fraiman said Jane
Yes, you, richquite an heiress, represents, at the same time, "the
happy, rich, and conventionally
respectable lady and the
overworked.
Jane, come with me to India: come as my During her stay in Moor House, Jane
help-meet and fellow-labourer. is offered a marriage proposal by St.
John. He is a sincere man who plans
31 Dialogue 34 342
to go to India as a missionary and he
urges Jane to accompany him as his
wife.
but as his wife-at his side always, and Jane refuses his proposal because she
always restrained, and always checked- knows, St. Johns mariage proposal,
forced to keep the fire of my nature undirectly, make her will be a wife
continually low, to compel it to burn for the missionary in which he has
32 Monologue 34 347
inwardly never utter a cry, though the power over Jane. Jane will never gets
imprisoned flame consumed vital-this freedom as a woman and he will
would be unendurable. control on her so she refuses that
proposal.
66

St. John is an ambitious man in


And do not forget that if you reject it, it is which he is pressing her to reach
not me you deny, but God. Through my decision about his proposal of
means, He opens to you a noble career, as marriage. He wants to control Jane.
33 my wife only can you enter upon it. Refuse Dialogue 34 348 He also brings God to make sure
to be my wife, and you limit yourself for Jane in order accepts his proposal
ever to a track of selfish ease and barren because he thinks that rejecting his
obscurity. proposal means she rejects God.

After getting inheritances, Jane is


rich now. Jane Eyre makes great
34 I am an independent woman now. Monologue 37 370 change as an independence woman.
It also changes her social class in
society.
Jane Eyres story is happy ending in
I have now been married ten years. I know
which Jane feels happy with her right
what it is to live entirely for and with what
man, Rochester. She also finds equal
I love best on earth. I hold myself
in marriage to Rochester because she
supremely blestblest beyond what
is usefull for him though he has lost
35 language can express; because I am my Monologue 38 383
his house, his hand and his eye, he
husbands life as fully is he is mine. No
needs Jane as much as she needs him
woman was ever nearer to her mate than I
and she can be financially
am: ever more absolutely bone of his bone
independent.
and flesh of his flesh.
67

A. TABLE OF CATERGORIZED DATA

B.1 ANSWERING QUESTION NO. 1

Datum of Found in the novel


Content Form of Data Comment
Number Chapter Page
What can you do? Can you play on the
Jane Eyre as a governess has
piano?
qualification such as in music,
A little.
drawing and speaking foreign
1 There was one in the room; Bessie went Dialogue 10 78
language. She becomes a private
and opened it, and then asked me to sit
governess in wealthy family and
down and give her a tune: I played a
Adele is Janes pupil.
waltz or two, and she was charmed...
She had no great talents, no marked
traits of character, no peculiar Adele shows progress after she
development of feeling or taste which teached by her new governess,
raised her one inch above the ordinary Jane Eyre. A governess is an
2 Monologue 12 92
level of childhood. She made educator who teaches the children
reasonable progress, entertained for me because they provided better
a vivacious, though perhaps not very education for children.
profound, affection;
When we went in, and I had removed The relation between a governess
her bonnet and coat, I took her on my and her pupil have a deep
knee; kept her there an hour, allowing chemistry because a governess
her to prattle as she liked: not rebuking does not only act as a teacher but
even some little freedoms and also gives her pupil love. Jane
3 Monologue 14 124
trivialities into which she was apt to Eyre shows that a governess is
stray when much noticed, and which able to teach and take care of her
betrayed in her a superficiality of pupil. There are nice relationships
character, inherited probably from her between Adele and Jane, it is the
mother, hardlymcongenial to an English fact that Jane is welcomed by
68

mind.. Adele.
Will you play? he [Rochester] asked. I Rochester is Adeles father in
shook my head. He did not insist, which he as a master invites Jane
which I rather feared he would have to play charades but she rejects
done: he allowed me to return quietly his offer because she feels
4 to my usual seat. He and his aids now Dialogue 18 155 uncomfortable due to she is only a
withdrew behind the curtain: the other governess and her social class is
party which was headed by Colonel different wih them
Dent, sat down on the crescent of
chairs..
Mrs. Fairfax is one of Rochester
She treats me like a visitor, thought I. family where she treats Jane well.
I little expected such a reception: I Mrs Fairfaxs behaviour toward
anticipated only coldness and stiffness: Jane makes her seems to be
5 this is not like what I have heard of the Monologue 11 82 surprised because Jane often hear
treatment of governesses; but I must not about treatments of governess
exult too soon who get unkind treatment from
society but it is different when she
works in Rochesters family.
Jane : If you please, sir, I want leave of
absence for a week or
two. Jane as a private governess needs
Rochester :What to do? Where to permission from her master if she
go? 21 wants to out to visit her family or
6 Dialogue 190
Jane : To see a sick lady who has relatives because they dont have
sent for me. longer time to socialize.
Rochester :What sick lady?where
does she live?
Jane : At Gateshead; in -shire.
Listen, then, Jane Eyre, to your Jane is facing insult from upper
7 Dialogue 26 137
sentence; to-morrow, place the glass class person but she can not
69

before you, and draw in chalk your against them, because Jane comes
own picture, faithfully; without from middle class.
softening one defect: omit no harsh
line, smooth away no displeasing
irregulatery; write under it, Portrait of
a Governess, disconnected, poor and
plain.
I kept my word. An hour or two As a governess who associated as
sufficed to sketch my own portrait in middle class women, Jane just
crayons; and in less than a fortnight I silent when someone insult her. It
had completed an ivory miniature of an makes her able to calm in herself.
imaginary Blanche Ingram. I had Andrew Sanders said that its
8 Monologue 26 137
reason to congratulate myself on the governess endures loss of status,
course humiliation, snobbery, and insult,
of wholesome discipline to which I had but her account of herself is
thus forced my feelings characterized by a calm sense of
to submit.. her own moral justification.
Louisa and I used to quiz our Although upper class dislike with
governess too; but she was such a good governesses existences but
creature, she would bear anything; theres some of uppers class who
9 Dialogue 27 152
nothing put her out. She was never glad with governesses existences
cross with us. because they as an educator and
they can care of her pupil.
I will myself put the diamond chain Jane doesnt wanna receive
round your neck, and diamond chain from her master,
the circlet on your forehead,which it Rochester because Jane feels
will become: for nature, unproper to receive it, because she
10 Dialogue 24 220
at least, has stamped her patent of is only a governess in his estate.
nobility on this brow, the real discomfort of a
Jane; and I will clasp the bracelets on governess's position in a private
these fine wrists, and family arises from the fact that it
70

load these fairy-like fingers with rings. is undefined. She is not a relation,
No, no, sir! think of other subjects, riot a guest, not a mistress, not a
and speak of other servant. (Peterson, 9).
things, and in another strain. Dont
address me as if I were a beauty; I am
your plain, Quakerish governess.
The relationship between
Rochester as nobleman while Jane
but, sitting by him, roused from the as governess is impossible in
nightmare of partingcalled to the society in which they come from
paradise of union. I know my Maker different class position and
sanction what I do. For the worlds society at the time forbade that
11 Monologue 23 217
judgement- I wash my hands therefor. relation who has different social
For mans opinion- I defy it. class.
The relation between a governess
and a wealthy man is simply
unheard, especially in love.
(Esther Godfrey, pg 857)
Mrs. Fairfax astonished with Jane
you cannot be too careful. Try and
and Rochesters relationship. She
keep Mr. Rochester at a distance:
asks Jane to keep Rochester at a
12 distrust yourself as well as him. Dialogue 24 226
distance because their relationship
Gentlemen in his station are not
is different.
accustoned to marry their governesses.
71

B.2 ANSWERING QUESTION NO. 2

Datum of Found in the novel


Contents Form of Data Comments
Number Chapter Page
Jane lives with her family at
Gateshead where she gets unjust
treatment by John Reed. John
you are a dependent, mama says; you
Reed is Janes cousin. He clearly
have no money; your father left you
says that Jane is low in social
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
1 Dialogue 1 8 class and unproper to live together
here with gentlemens children like us,
with the Reed family.
and eat the same meals we do, and
Social class is manipulated in the
wear clothes at our mamas expense.
way that one group dominates and
oppresses another. (Murfin, pg
460)
Wicked and cruel boy! I said. You Jane is bravely against him. It is
are like a murderer you are like a her climax feeling towards John
slave-driveryou are like the Roman Reeds treatment. In this point,
2 Dialogue 1 9
emperors!. Jane wants to show how she
should be treat humanly.

Mrs. Reed shows her power as a


mistress of the house. She takes
Take her away to the red-room, and the authority over Jane in which
lock her in there. Four hands were Jane gets punishment from her
immediately laid upon me, and I was aunt by being locked in the red
3 Dialogue 1 10
borne upstairs. room.
Mrs. Reed excludes Jane not only
from her own family, but also
from the human family as well.
(John Peters, pg 60)
72

I am glad you are no relation of Janes emotional that never treat


mine: I will never call you aunt again well by her aunt and she hates her
as long as I live. I will never come to aunt. The time when she is locked
see you when I am grown up; and if in the red room is one of the
4 any one asks me how I liked you, and Dialogue 4 30 unjust treatments that she gets in
how you treated me, I will say the which it makes Jane faces deepest
very thought of you makes me sick, fear and influence her emotional
and that you treated me with so she against her cruelty aunt.
miserable cruelty.
Ere I had finished this reply, my soul Because of getting unjust
began to expand, to exult, with the treatment from her family. Jane
strangest sense of freedom, of realizes that she needs a change in
triumph, I ever felt. It seemed as if an her life. she chooses to get out
invisible bond had burst, and that I from Gateshead in order to find
5 Monologue 4 31
had struggled out into unhoped-for freedom to life because as long as
liberty. she is in Gateshead she can feel
herself to be no better. She
chooses attend to school as the
first way to move on in her life.
you must watch her: keep your eyes Continually, Jane enters Lowood.
on her movements, weigh well her It is an orphan school. Janes first
words, scrutinise her actions, punish month at Lowood, she faces
her body to save her soul: if, indeed, unjust treatment from
such salvation be possible, for (my Brockhlehurst. He tells that Jane
6 tongue falters while I tell it) this girl, Monologue 7 56 is a liar and he forbids the
this child, the native of a Christian students to speak to her. He treats
land, worse than many a little heathen Jane bad and he tries to keep Jane
who says its prayers to Brahma and in the inferior position because
kneels before Juggernautthis girl she is a lower class girl.
isa liar!.
73

Already I had made visible progress; The time when Brocklehurst


that very morning I had reached the insults her, Jane feels
head of my class; Miss Miller had underestimated by him but then
praised me warmly; Miss Temple had Jane thinks that she has to make
smiled approbation; she had promised progress in her life especially as
to teach drawing, and to let me learn long as at Lowood in order she
7 French, if I continued to make similar Monologue 8 58 doesnt treat inferior by Mr.
improvement two months longer: and Brocklehurst. She begins proof
then I was well received by my her ability in knowledge and
fellow-pupils; treated as an equal by make improvement in it. What
those of my own age, and not Jane does, it describes how she
molested by any; can overcome unjust treatment.

you are too impulsive, too Helen is Janes friend at Lowood.


vehement; the sovereign hand that Helen refuses to say anything
created your frame, and put life into negative about the people and
it, has provided you with other Jane feels impression. Helen tries
resources than your feeble self, or to tell Jane that good thing always
8 Dialogue 8 59
than creatures feeble as you. Besides there and it makes Jane realizes
this earth, and besides the race of it. Thats why, Helen called as a
men, there is an invisible world and a mother figure for Jane.
kingdom of spirits: that world is
round us, for it is everywhere,.....
Jane spends eight years having
some knowledge at Lowood. She
I remained an inmate of its wall,
becomes a teacher for 2 years in
after itsregenaration, for eight years:
there. It proves that a woman has
9 six as pupil, and two as teacher; and Monologue 10 71
right to get education in which she
in both capacities I bear my testimony
is able to develop human
to its value and importance.
potential. Education is necessary
for an poor orphan girl like Jane
74

to create the place for herself in


society.

My world had for some years been in After spending time to education,
Lowood: my experience had been of Jane grows up with excellent and
its rules and systems; now I talent, she performs her skill as a
remembered that the real world was teacher at Lowood. After being a
wide, and that a varied field of hopes teacher, Jane decides to leave
10 Monologue 10 72
and fears, of sensations and Lowood and struggle to reach her
excitements, awaited those who had dream.
courage to go forth into its expanse, to
seek real knowledge of life amidst its
perils.
A young lady accustomed to tuition After getting out at Lowood, Jane
(had I not been a teacher two years?) becomes a private governess at
is desirous of meeting with a Thornfield. Jane will be tutoring
situation in a private family where the Adele Varens, an eight year old.
11 children are under fourteen (I thought Monologue 10 74 Janes decision as a private
that as I was barely eighteen, it would governess is a way to find herself
not do to undertake the guidance of as a person that she has her own
pupils nearer my own age). ability besides she can earn her
living.
Jane : Sir, your wife is living: When Jane runs her role as a
that is a fact governess, her master, Rochester
acknowledged this is in love to her. He wants to
morning by yourself. If I marry Jane. On the day of their
12 lived with you as you Dialogue 27 259 wedding, the fact appears, he is a
desire, I should then be married man, his wife is Bertha
your mistress: to say Mason. So, Jane leaves him
otherwise is because if she stays with him as
sophisticalis false. his mistress, it is a false.
75

Rochester : Jane, I am not a gentle-


tempered manyou
forget that: I am not
long-enduring; I am not
cool and dispassionate.
Still indomitable was the reply I Moral values that expressed by
care for myself. The more solitary, the Jane through her action leaves
more friendless, the more unsustained Rochester though she wants to be
I am, the more I will respect myself. I with him describes that she is
13 Dialogue 27 270
will keep the law given by God; showing religious side in herself.
sanctioned by man. I will hold to the She sees God as the giver of the
principles received by me when I was law in which Jane has to keep the
sane, and not madas I am now. law.
Rochester : But Ill shut up Thornfield Berthas existences influences
Hall: Ill nail up the front Janes development toward
door and board the lower married. If Jane marries him, she
windows: Ill give Mrs. would stay at house, could not
Poole two hundred a year have activities outside and
to live here with my wife, everything under control men.
Jane : Sir, I interrupted him, Knowing that it is impossible for
14 Dialogue 27 256
you are inexorable for her to be with Rochester, Jane
that unfortunate lady: flees Thornfield though she
you speak of her with doesnt want to leave him but she
hatewith vindictive must leave him.
antipathy. It is cruel
she cannot help being
mad.
Women are supposed to be very Berthas existences represent wife
calm generally: but women feel just as in the nineteenth century whos
15 Monologue 12 93
men feel; they need exercise for their only at home. Throughout of the
faculties, and a field for their efforts story, Jane must overcome it and
76

as much as their brothers do; they shows that a woman is able to


suffer from too rigid a restraint, too have the same right as men and
absolute a stagnation, precisely as also independent. Gender equality
men would suffer; and it is narrow defined as the equality of the
minded in their more privileged sexes in many aspects of life. As
fellow creatures to say that they ought Jane Eyre believes that between
to confine themselves to making women and men should be equal.
puddings and knitting stockings, to
playing on the piano and
embroidering bags.
It is a village school: your scholars When Jane leaves Rochester. She
will be only poor girlscottagers stays in Moor House with St. John
childrenat the best, farmers and decides to work because it
16 Dialogue 30 330
daughters. Knitting, sewing, reading, can liberate Jane as a woman in
writing, ciphering, will be all you will which work is a better chance for
have to teach... Janes personal freedom.
Merely to tell you that your uncle, Jane gets fortune, it is inheritance
Mr. Eyre of Madeira, is dead that he from her uncle, Mr. Eyre. He has
has left you all his property, and that left Jane all his property and now
you are Jane is rich.
17 now richmerely thatnothing Dialogue 28 325 As Susan Fraiman said Jane
more. represents, at the same time, "the
I!rich? happy, rich, and conventionally
Yes, you, richquite an heiress, respectable lady and the
overworked.
Jane, come with me to India: come During her stay in Moor House,
as my help-meet and fellow- Jane is offered a marriage
labourer. proposal by St. John. He is a
18 Dialogue 34 342
sincere man who plans to go to
India as a missionary and he urges
Jane to accompany him as his
77

wife.
but as his wife-at his side always, Jane refuses his proposal because
and always restrained, and always she knows, St. Johns mariage
checked-forced to keep the fire of my proposal, undirectly, make her
nature continually low, to compel it to will be a wife for the missionary
19 Monologue 34 347
burn inwardly never utter a cry, in which he has power over Jane.
though the imprisoned flame Jane will never gets freedom as a
consumed vital-this would be woman and he will control on her
unendurable. so she refuses that proposal.
St. John is an ambitious man in
And do not forget that if you reject which he is pressing her to reach
it, it is not me you deny, but God. decision about his proposal of
Through my means, He opens to you marriage. He wants to control
a noble career, as my wife only can Jane. He also brings God to make
20 Dialogue 34 348
you enter upon it. Refuse to be my sure Jane in order accepts his
wife, and you limit yourself for ever proposal because he thinks that
to a track of selfish ease and barren rejecting his proposal means she
obscurity. rejects God.

After getting inheritances, Jane is


rich now. Jane Eyre makes great
21 I am an independent woman now. Monologue 37 370 change as an independence
woman. It also changes her social
class in society.
I have now been married ten years. I Jane Eyres story is happy ending
know what it is to live entirely for and in which Jane feels happy with
with what I love best on earth. I hold her right man, Rochester. She also
22 myself supremely blestblest beyond Monologue 38 383 finds equal in marriage to
what language can express; because I Rochester because she is usefull
am my husbands life as fully is he is for him though he has lost his
mine. No woman was ever nearer to house, his hand and his eye, he
78

her mate than I am: ever more needs Jane as much as she needs
absolutely bone of his bone and flesh him and she can be financially
of his flesh. independent.
79

C. TABLE OF REDUCE THE DATA


C.1 ANSWERING QUESTION NO. 1 & 2

Datum of Found in the Novel


Content Form of Data Comment
Number Chapter Page
What can you do? Can you play on the
Jane Eyre has qualification as a
piano?
private governess such as in
A little.
music, drawing and speaking
1 There was one in the room; Bessie went Dialogue 10 78
foreign language. She becomes a
and opened it, and then asked me to sit
private governess in wealthy
down and give her a tune: I played a
family and Adele is Janes pupil.
waltz or two, and she was charmed...
She had no great talents, no marked Adele shows progress after she
traits of character, no peculiar teached by her new governess,
development of feeling or taste which Jane Eyre. A governess is an
raised her one inch above the ordinary educator who teaches the children.
2 Monologue 12 92
level of childhood. She made Governess represented one of the
reasonable progress, entertained for me profession for women because
a vivacious, though perhaps not very they provided better education for
profound, affection; children.(Peterson, pg 7)
When we went in, and I had removed The relation between a governess
her bonnet and coat, I took her on my and her pupil have a deep
knee; kept her there an hour, allowing chemistry because a governess
her to prattle as she liked: not rebuking does not only act as a teacher but
3 Monologue 14 124
even some little freedoms and also gives her pupil love. Jane
trivialities into which she was apt to Eyre shows that a governess is
stray when much noticed, and which able to teach and take care of her
betrayed in her a superficiality of pupil. There are nice relationships
80

character, inherited probably from her between Adele and Jane, it is the
mother, hardlymcongenial to an fact that Jane is welcomed by
English mind. Still she had her merits; Adele.
and I was disposed to appreciate all that
was good in her to the utmost.
Will you play? he [Rochester] asked. I
Rochester is Adeles father in
shook my head. He did not insist,
which he as a master invites Jane
which I rather feared he would have
to play charades but she rejects his
done: he allowed me to return quietly
offer because she feels
to my usual seat. He and his aids now
uncomfortable due to she is only a
withdrew behind the curtain: the other
4 Dialogue 18 155 governess and her social class is
party which was headed by Colonel
different wih them
Dent, sat down on the crescent of
As a private governess, Jane often
chairs. One of the gentlemen, Mr.
invites in some social event. She
Eshton, observing me, seemed to
can spend time with her masters
propose that I should be asked to join
family
them;
Mrs. Fairfax is one of Rochester
family where she treats Jane well.
Mrs Fairfaxs behaviour toward
She treats me like a visitor, thought I.
Jane makes her seems to be
I little expected such a reception: I
surprised because Jane often hear
anticipated only coldness and stiffness:
about treatments of governess who
5 this is not like what I have heard of the Monologue 11 82
get unkind treatment from society
treatment of governesses; but I must
but it is different when she works
not exult too soon
in Rochesters family.
they will be so well treated, and
make entirely one of the family.
(Elizabeth Seweell).
Jane : If you please, sir, I want leave 21 Jane as a private governess needs
6 Dialogue 190
of absence for a week or permission from her master if she
81

two. wants to out to visit her family or


Rochester :What to do? Where to relatives because they dont have
go? longer time to socialize.
Jane : To see a sick lady who has
sent for me.
Rochester :What sick lady?where
does she live?
Jane : At Gateshead; in -shire.
Listen, then, Jane Eyre, to your
sentence; to-morrow, place the glass
before you, and draw in chalk your Jane is facing insult from upper
own picture, faithfully; without class person but she can not
7 softening one defect: omit no harsh Dialogue 26 137 against them, because Jane comes
line, smooth away no displeasing from lower class.
irregulatery; write under it, Portrait of
a Governess, disconnected, poor and
plain.
I kept my word. An hour or two
sufficed to sketch my own portrait in
crayons; and in less than a fortnight I As a governess who associated as
had completed an ivory miniature of an working class women, Jane just
imaginary Blanche Ingram. I had silent when someone insult her. It
reason to congratulate myself on the makes her able to calm in herself.
course Its governess endures loss of
8 Monologue 26 137
of wholesome discipline to which I had status, humiliation, snobbery, and
thus forced my feelings insult, but her account of herself is
to submit. Thanks to it, I was able to characterized by a calm sense of
meet subsequent her own moral justification.
occurrences with a decent calm, which, (Sanders).
had they found me unprepared, I should
probably have been unequal to
82

maintain, even externally.


Louisa and I used to quiz our Although upper class dislike with
governess too; but she was such a good governesses existences but theres
creature, she would bear anything; some of uppers class who glad
9 Dialogue 27 152
nothing put her out. She was never with governesses existences
cross with us. because they as an educator and
they can care of her pupil.
I will myself put the diamond chain
Jane doesnt wanna receive
round your neck, and
diamond chain from her master,
the circlet on your forehead,which it
Rochester because Jane feels
will become: for nature,
unproper to receive it, because she
at least, has stamped her patent of
is only a governess in which her
nobility on this brow,
social status is only as his
Jane; and I will clasp the bracelets on
10 Dialogue 24 220 employer.
these fine wrists, and
The real discomfort of a
load these fairy-like fingers with rings.
governess's position in a private
No, no, sir! think of other subjects,
family arises from the fact that it is
and speak of other
undefined. She is not a relation,
things, and in another strain. Dont
riot a guest, not a mistress, not a
address me as if I were a beauty; I am
servant. (Peterson, 9).
your plain, Quakerish governess.
The relationship between
but, sitting by him, roused from the Rochester as nobleman while Jane
nightmare of partingcalled to the as governess is impossible in
paradise of union. I know my Maker society in which they come from
sanction what I do. For the worlds different class position and society
11 Monologue 23 217
judgement- I wash my hands therefor. at the time forbade that relation
For mans opinion- I defy it. who has different social class.
The relation between a governess
and a wealthy man is simply
unheard, especially in love.
83

Mrs. Fairfax astonished with Jane


you cannot be too careful. Try and
and Rochesters relationship. She
keep Mr. Rochester at a distance:
asks Jane to keep Rochester at a
distrust yourself as well as him.
distance because their relationship
Gentlemen in his station are not
is different. The Victorian
accustoned to marry their governesses.
governess is no meant to capture
the heart or attention of a
12 Dialogue 24 226
gentleman, especially her master.
This belief makes strained
between the governess and her
master. The strained appears
because of the differences in their
classes.

Jane lives with her family at


Gateshead where she gets unjust
treatment by John Reed. John
you are a dependent, mama says; you
Reed is Janes cousin. He clearly
have no money; your father left you
says that Jane is low in social class
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
13 Dialogue 1 8 and unproper to live together with
here with gentlemens children like us,
the Reed family.
and eat the same meals we do, and wear
Social class is manipulated in the
clothes at our mamas expense.
way that one group dominates and
oppresses another. (Murfin, pg
460)
Wicked and cruel boy! I said. You Jane is bravely against him. It is
are like a murderer you are like a her climax feeling towards John
slave-driveryou are like the Roman Reeds treatment. In this point,
14 Dialogue 1 9
emperors!. Jane wants to show how she
should be treat humanly.
84

Take her away to the red-room, and Mrs. Reed is Janes aunt. She also
lock her in there. Four hands were treat Jane bad. Such as when Mrs.
immediately laid upon me, and I was Reed takes the authority over Jane
15 Dialogue 1 10
borne upstairs. in which Jane gets punishment
from her aunt by being locked in
the red room.
Janes emotional that never treat
I am glad you are no relation of mine:
well by her aunt and she hates her
I will never call you aunt again as long
aunt. The time when she is locked
as I live. I will never come to see you
in the red room is one of the unjust
when I am grown up; and if any one
16 Dialogue 4 30 treatments that she gets in which it
asks me how I liked you, and how you
makes Jane faces deepest fear and
treated me, I will say the very thought
influence her emotional so she
of you makes me sick, and that you
against her cruelty aunt.
treated me with miserable cruelty.
Ere I had finished this reply, my soul Because of getting unjust
began to expand, to exult, with the treatment from her family. Jane
strangest sense of freedom, of triumph, realizes that she needs a change in
I ever felt. It seemed as if an invisible her life. she chooses to get out
bond had burst, and that I had struggled from Gateshead in order to find
out into unhoped-for liberty. freedom to life because as long as
17 Monologue 4 31
she is in Gateshead she can feel
herself to be no better. She
chooses attend to school as the
first way to move on in her life.

you must watch her: keep your eyes Continually, Jane enters Lowood.
on her movements, weigh well her It is an orphan school. Janes first
18 Monologue 10 71
words, scrutinise her actions, punish month at Lowood, she faces unjust
her body to save her soul: if, indeed, treatment from Brockhlehurst. He
85

such salvation be possible, for (my tells that Jane is a liar and he
tongue falters while I tell it) this girl, forbids the students to speak to
this child, the native of a Christian her. He treats Jane bad and he tries
land, worse than many a little heathen to keep Jane in the inferior
who says its prayers to Brahma and position because she is a lower
kneels before Juggernautthis girl class girl.
isa liar!. (chapter 7, page 56).

The time when Brocklehurst


Already I had made visible progress;
insults her, Jane feels
that very morning I had reached the
underestimated by him but then
head of my class; Miss Miller had
Jane thinks that she has to make
praised me warmly; Miss Temple had
progress in her life especially as
smiled approbation; she had promised
long as at Lowood in order she
to teach drawing, and to let me learn
19 Monologue 8 58 doesnt treat inferior by Mr.
French, if I continued to make similar
Brocklehurst. She begins proof her
improvement two months longer: and
ability in knowledge and make
then I was well received by my fellow-
improvement in it. What Jane
pupils; treated as an equal by those of
does, it describes how she can
my own age, and not molested by any;
overcome unjust treatment.

you are too impulsive, too vehement; Helen is Janes friend at Lowood.
the sovereign hand that created your Helen refuses to say anything
frame, and put life into it, has provided negative about the people and Jane
you with other resources than your feels impression. Helen tries to tell
20 feeble self, or than creatures feeble as Dialogue 8 59 Jane that good thing always there
you. Besides this earth, and besides the and it makes Jane realizes it.
race of men, there is an invisible world Thats why, Helen called as a
and a kingdom of spirits: that world is mother figure for Jane.
round us, for it is everywhere,.....
21 I remained an inmate of its wall, after Monologue 10 71 Jane spends eight years having
86

itsregenaration, for eight years: six as some knowledge at Lowood. She


pupil, and two as teacher; and in both becomes a teacher for 2 years in
capacities I bear my testimony to its there. It proves that a woman has
value and importance. right to get education in which she
is able to develop human potential.
Education is necessary for an poor
orphan girl like Jane to create the
place for herself in society.

My world had for some years been in After spending time to education,
Lowood: my experience had been of its Jane grows up with excellent and
rules and systems; now I remembered talent, she performs her skill as a
that the real world was wide, and that a teacher at Lowood. After being a
22 varied field of hopes and fears, of Monologue 10 72 teacher, Jane decides to leave
sensations and excitements, awaited Lowood and struggle to reach her
those who had courage to go forth into dream.
its expanse, to seek real knowledge of
life amidst its perils.
A young lady accustomed to tuition After getting out at Lowood, Jane
(had I not been a teacher two years?) becomes a private governess at
is desirous of meeting with a situation Thornfield. Jane will be tutoring
in a private family where the children Adele Varens, an eight year old.
23 are under fourteen (I thought that as I Monologue 10 74 Janes decision as a private
was barely eighteen, it would not do to governess is a way to find herself
undertake the guidance of pupils nearer as a person that she has her own
my own age). ability besides she can earn her
living.
Jane : Sir, your wife is living: When Jane runs her role as a
that is a fact governess, her master, Rochester
24 Dialogue 27 259
acknowledged this is in love to her. He wants to
morning by yourself. If I marry Jane. On the day of their
87

lived with you as you wedding, the fact appears, he is a


desire, I should then be married man, his wife is Bertha
your mistress: to say Mason. So, Jane leaves him
otherwise is sophistical because if she stays with him as
is false. his mistress, it is a false.
Rochester : Jane, I am not a gentle-
tempered manyou
forget that: I am not long-
enduring; I am not cool
and dispassionate.
Still indomitable was the reply I Moral values that expressed by
care for myself. The more solitary, the Jane through her action leaves
more friendless, the more unsustained I Rochester though she wants to be
am, the more I will respect myself. I with him describes that she is
25 Dialogue 27 270
will keep the law given by God; showing religious side in herself.
sanctioned by man. I will hold to the She sees God as the giver of the
principles received by me when I was law in which Jane has to keep the
sane, and not madas I am now. law.
Rochester : But Ill shut up Thornfield Berthas existences influences
Hall: Ill nail up the front Janes development toward
door and board the lower married. If Jane marries him, she
windows: Ill give Mrs. would stay at house, could not
Poole two hundred a year have activities outside and
to live here with my wife, everything under control men.
26 Jane : Sir, I interrupted him, you Dialogue 27 256 Knowing that it is impossible for
are inexorable for that her to be with Rochester, Jane
unfortunate lady: you flees Thornfield though she
speak of her with hate doesnt want to leave him but she
with vindictive antipathy. must leave him.
It is cruelshe cannot
help being mad.
88

Women are supposed to be very calm Berthas existences represent wife


generally: but women feel just as men in the nineteenth century whos
feel; they need exercise for their only at home. Throughout of the
faculties, and a field for their efforts as story, Jane must overcome it and
much as their brothers do; they suffer shows that a woman is able to
from too rigid a restraint, too absolute a have the same right as men and
27 stagnation, precisely as men would Monologue 12 93 also independent. Gender equality
suffer; and it is narrow minded in their defined as the equality of the sexes
more privileged fellow creatures to say in many aspects of life. As Jane
that they ought to confine themselves Eyre believes that between women
to making puddings and knitting and men should be equal.
stockings, to playing on the piano and
embroidering bags.
It is a village school: your scholars When Jane leaves Rochester. She
will be only poor girlscottagers stays in Moor House with St. John
childrenat the best, farmers and decides to work because it can
28 Dialogue 30 330
daughters. Knitting, sewing, reading, liberate Jane as a woman in which
writing, ciphering, will be all you will work is a better chance for Janes
have to teach... personal freedom.
Merely to tell you that your uncle, Mr. Jane gets fortune, it is inheritance
Eyre of Madeira, is dead that he has from her uncle, Mr. Eyre. He has
left you all his property, and that you left Jane all his property and now
are Jane is rich.
29 now richmerely thatnothing Dialogue 28 325 As Susan Fraiman said Jane
more. represents, at the same time, "the
I!rich? happy, rich, and conventionally
Yes, you, richquite an heiress, respectable lady and the
overworked.
Jane, come with me to India: come as During her stay in Moor House,
30 my help-meet and fellow-labourer. Dialogue 34 342 Jane is offered a marriage proposal
by St. John. He is a sincere man
89

who plans to go to India as a


missionary and he urges Jane to
accompany him as his wife.
but as his wife-at his side always, and Jane refuses his proposal because
always restrained, and always checked- she knows, St. Johns mariage
forced to keep the fire of my nature proposal, undirectly, make her will
continually low, to compel it to burn be a wife for the missionary in
31 Monologue 34 347
inwardly never utter a cry, though the which he has power over Jane.
imprisoned flame consumed vital-this Jane will never gets freedom as a
would be unendurable. woman and he will control on her
so she refuses that proposal.
St. John is an ambitious man in
And do not forget that if you reject it, which he is pressing her to reach
it is not me you deny, but God. decision about his proposal of
Through my means, He opens to you a marriage. He wants to control
noble career, as my wife only can you Jane. He also brings God to make
32 Dialogue 34 348
enter upon it. Refuse to be my wife, sure Jane in order accepts his
and you limit yourself for ever to a proposal because he thinks that
track of selfish ease and barren rejecting his proposal means she
obscurity. rejects God.

After getting inheritances, Jane is


rich now. Jane Eyre makes great
33 I am an independent woman now. Monologue 37 370 change as an independence
woman. It also changes her social
class in society.
I have now been married ten years. I Jane Eyres story is happy ending
know what it is to live entirely for and in which Jane feels happy with her
34 with what I love best on earth. I hold Monologue 38 383 right man, Rochester. She also
myself supremely blestblest beyond finds equal in marriage to
what language can express; because I Rochester because she is usefull
90

am my husbands life as fully is he is for him though he has lost his


mine. No woman was ever nearer to house, his hand and his eye, he
her mate than I am: ever more needs Jane as much as she needs
absolutely bone of his bone and flesh him and she can be financially
of his flesh. independent.
91

D. TABLE OF SELECTED DATA

Datum Found in the novel


Contents Form of Data Comments
No. Chapter Page
What can you do? Can you play on the
Jane Eyre has qualification as a
piano?
private governess such as in
A little.
music, drawing and speaking
1 There was one in the room; Bessie went Dialogue 10 78
foreign language. She becomes a
and opened it, and then asked me to sit
private governess in wealthy
down and give her a tune: I played a
family and Adele is Janes pupil.
waltz or two, and she was charmed...
She had no great talents, no marked Adele shows progress after she
traits of character, no peculiar teached by her new governess,
development of feeling or taste which Jane Eyre. A governess is an
raised her one inch above the ordinary educator who teaches the children.
2 Monologue 12 92
level of childhood. She made Governess represented one of the
reasonable progress, entertained for me profession for women because
a vivacious, though perhaps not very they provided better education for
profound, affection; children.(Peterson, pg 7)
When we went in, and I had removed The relation between a governess
her bonnet and coat, I took her on my and her pupil have a deep
knee; kept her there an hour, allowing chemistry because a governess
her to prattle as she liked: not rebuking does not only act as a teacher but
even some little freedoms and also gives her pupil love. Jane
trivialities into which she was apt to Eyre shows that a governess is
3 Monologue 14 124
stray when much noticed, and which able to teach and take care of her
betrayed in her a superficiality of pupil. There are nice relationships
character, inherited probably from her between Adele and Jane, it is the
mother, hardlymcongenial to an fact that Jane is welcomed by
English mind. Still she had her merits; Adele.
and I was disposed to appreciate all that
92

was good in her to the utmost.


Will you play? he [Rochester] asked. I
Rochester is Adeles father in
shook my head. He did not insist,
which he as a master invites Jane
which I rather feared he would have
to play charades but she rejects his
done: he allowed me to return quietly
offer because she feels
to my usual seat. He and his aids now
uncomfortable due to she is only a
withdrew behind the curtain: the other
4 Dialogue 18 155 governess and her social class is
party which was headed by Colonel
different wih them
Dent, sat down on the crescent of
As a private governess, Jane often
chairs. One of the gentlemen, Mr.
invites in some social event. She
Eshton, observing me, seemed to
can spend time with her masters
propose that I should be asked to join
family
them;
Mrs. Fairfax is one of Rochester
family where she treats Jane well.
Mrs Fairfaxs behaviour toward
She treats me like a visitor, thought I.
Jane makes her seems to be
I little expected such a reception: I
surprised because Jane often hear
anticipated only coldness and stiffness:
about treatments of governess who
5 this is not like what I have heard of the Monologue 11 82
get unkind treatment from society
treatment of governesses; but I must not
but it is different when she works
exult too soon
in Rochesters family.
they will be so well treated, and
make entirely one of the family.
(Elizabeth Seweell).
Jane : If you please, sir, I want leave Jane as a private governess needs
of absence for a week or permission from her master if she
two. 21 wants to out to visit her family or
6 Dialogue 190
Rochester :What to do? Where to relatives because they dont have
go? longer time to socialize.
Jane : To see a sick lady who has
93

sent for me.


Rochester :What sick lady?where
does she live?
Jane : At Gateshead; in -shire.
Listen, then, Jane Eyre, to your
sentence; to-morrow, place the glass
before you, and draw in chalk your Jane is facing insult from upper
own picture, faithfully; without class person but she can not
7 softening one defect: omit no harsh Dialogue 26 137 against them, because Jane comes
line, smooth away no displeasing from lower class.
irregulatery; write under it, Portrait of
a Governess, disconnected, poor and
plain.
I kept my word. An hour or two
sufficed to sketch my own portrait in
crayons; and in less than a fortnight I
As a governess who associated as
had completed an ivory miniature of an
working class women, Jane just
imaginary Blanche Ingram. I had
silent when someone insult her. It
reason to congratulate myself on the
makes her able to calm in herself.
course
Its governess endures loss of
8 of wholesome discipline to which I had Monologue 26 137
status, humiliation, snobbery, and
thus forced my feelings
insult, but her account of herself is
to submit. Thanks to it, I was able to
characterized by a calm sense of
meet subsequent
her own moral justification.
occurrences with a decent calm, which,
(Sanders).
had they found me unprepared, I should
probably have been unequal to
maintain, even externally.
Louisa and I used to quiz our Although upper class dislike with
9 governess too; but she was such a good Dialogue 27 152 governesses existences but theres
creature, she would bear anything; some of uppers class who glad
94

nothing put her out. She was never with governesses existences
cross with us. because they as an educator and
they can care of her pupil.
I will myself put the diamond chain
round your neck, and
Jane doesnt wanna receive
the circlet on your forehead,which it
diamond chain from her master,
will become: for nature,
Rochester because Jane feels
at least, has stamped her patent of
unproper to receive it, because she
nobility on this brow,
is only a governess in his estate.
Jane; and I will clasp the bracelets on
10 Dialogue 24 220 The real discomfort of a
these fine wrists, and
governess's position in a private
load these fairy-like fingers with rings.
family arises from the fact that it is
No, no, sir! think of other subjects,
undefined. She is not a relation,
and speak of other
riot a guest, not a mistress, not a
things, and in another strain. Dont
servant. (Peterson, 9).
address me as if I were a beauty; I am
your plain, Quakerish governess.
The relationship between
but, sitting by him, roused from the
Rochester as nobleman while Jane
nightmare of partingcalled to the
as governess is impossible in
paradise of union. I know my Maker
society in which they come from
sanction what I do. For the worlds
different class position and society
11 judgement- I wash my hands therefor. Monologue 23 217
at the time forbade that relation
For mans opinion- I defy it. (Chapter
who has different social class.
23, page 217).
The relation between a governess
and a wealthy man is simply
unheard, especially in love.
Mrs. Fairfax astonished with Jane
you cannot be too careful. Try and
and Rochesters relationship. She
12 keep Mr. Rochester at a distance: Dialogue 24 226
asks Jane to keep Rochester at a
distrust yourself as well as him.
distance because their relationship
95

Gentlemen in his station are not is different. The Victorian


accustoned to marry their governesses. governess is no meant to capture
the heart or attention of a
gentleman, especially her master.
This belief makes strained
between the governess and her
master. The strained appears
because of the differences in their
classes.

Jane lives with her family at


Gateshead where she gets unjust
treatment by John Reed. John
you are a dependent, mama says; you
Reed is Janes cousin. He clearly
have no money; your father left you
says that Jane is low in social class
none; you ought to beg, and not to live
13 Dialogue 1 8 and unproper to live together with
here with gentlemens children like us,
the Reed family.
and eat the same meals we do, and wear
Social class is manipulated in the
clothes at our mamas expense.
way that one group dominates and
oppresses another. (Murfin, pg
460)
Wicked and cruel boy! I said. You Jane is bravely against him. It is
are like a murderer you are like a her climax feeling towards John
slave-driveryou are like the Roman Reeds treatment. In this point,
14 Dialogue 1 9
emperors!. Jane wants to show how she
should be treat humanly.

Take her away to the red-room, and Mrs. Reed is Janes aunt. She also
lock her in there. Four hands were treat Jane bad. Such as when Mrs.
15 Dialogue 1 10
immediately laid upon me, and I was Reed takes the authority over Jane
borne upstairs. in which Jane gets punishment
96

from her aunt by being locked in


the red room.
Janes emotional that never treat
I am glad you are no relation of mine:
well by her aunt and she hates her
I will never call you aunt again as long
aunt. The time when she is locked
as I live. I will never come to see you
in the red room is one of the unjust
when I am grown up; and if any one
16 Dialogue 4 30 treatments that she gets in which it
asks me how I liked you, and how you
makes Jane faces deepest fear and
treated me, I will say the very thought
influence her emotional so she
of you makes me sick, and that you
against her cruelty aunt.
treated me with miserable cruelty.
Ere I had finished this reply, my soul Because of getting unjust
began to expand, to exult, with the treatment from her family. Jane
strangest sense of freedom, of triumph, realizes that she needs a change in
I ever felt. It seemed as if an invisible her life. she chooses to get out
bond had burst, and that I had struggled from Gateshead in order to find
17 Monologue 4 31
out into unhoped-for liberty. freedom to life because as long as
she is in Gateshead she can feel
herself to be no better. She
chooses attend to school as the
first way to move on in her life.
you must watch her: keep your eyes Continually, Jane enters Lowood.
on her movements, weigh well her It is an orphan school. Janes first
words, scrutinise her actions, punish month at Lowood, she faces unjust
her body to save her soul: if, indeed, treatment from Brockhlehurst. He
such salvation be possible, for (my tells that Jane is a liar and he
18 Monologue 10 71
tongue falters while I tell it) this girl, forbids the students to speak to
this child, the native of a Christian her. He treats Jane bad and he tries
land, worse than many a little heathen to keep Jane in the inferior
who says its prayers to Brahma and position because she is a lower
kneels before Juggernautthis girl class girl.
97

isa liar!.
Already I had made visible progress; The time when Brocklehurst
that very morning I had reached the insults her, Jane feels
head of my class; Miss Miller had underestimated by him but then
praised me warmly; Miss Temple had Jane thinks that she has to make
smiled approbation; she had promised progress in her life especially as
to teach drawing, and to let me learn long as at Lowood in order she
19 Monologue 8 58
French, if I continued to make similar doesnt treat inferior by Mr.
improvement two months longer: and Brocklehurst. She begins proof her
then I was well received by my fellow- ability in knowledge and make
pupils; treated as an equal by those of improvement in it. What Jane
my own age, and not molested by any; does, it describes how she can
overcome unjust treatment.
you are too impulsive, too vehement; Helen is Janes friend at Lowood.
the sovereign hand that created your Helen refuses to say anything
frame, and put life into it, has provided negative about the people and Jane
you with other resources than your feels impression. Helen tries to tell
20 feeble self, or than creatures feeble as Dialogue 8 59 Jane that good thing always there
you. Besides this earth, and besides the and it makes Jane realizes it.
race of men, there is an invisible world Thats why, Helen called as a
and a kingdom of spirits: that world is mother figure for Jane.
round us, for it is everywhere,.....
Jane spends eight years having
some knowledge at Lowood. She
I remained an inmate of its wall, after becomes a teacher for 2 years in
itsregenaration, for eight years: six as there. It proves that a woman has
21 pupil, and two as teacher; and in both Monologue 10 71 right to get education in which she
capacities I bear my testimony to its is able to develop human potential.
value and importance. Education is necessary for an poor
orphan girl like Jane to create the
place for herself in society.
98

My world had for some years been in After spending time to education,
Lowood: my experience had been of its Jane grows up with excellent and
rules and systems; now I remembered talent, she performs her skill as a
that the real world was wide, and that a teacher at Lowood. After being a
22 varied field of hopes and fears, of Monologue 10 72 teacher, Jane decides to leave
sensations and excitements, awaited Lowood and struggle to reach her
those who had courage to go forth into dream.
its expanse, to seek real knowledge of
life amidst its perils.
A young lady accustomed to tuition After getting out at Lowood, Jane
(had I not been a teacher two years?) becomes a private governess at
is desirous of meeting with a situation Thornfield. Jane will be tutoring
in a private family where the children Adele Varens, an eight year old.
23 are under fourteen (I thought that as I Monologue 10 74 Janes decision as a private
was barely eighteen, it would not do to governess is a way to find herself
undertake the guidance of pupils nearer as a person that she has her own
my own age). ability besides she can earn her
living.
Rochester : But Ill shut up Thornfield Berthas existences influences
Hall: Ill nail up the front Janes development toward
door and board the lower married. If Jane marries him, she
windows: Ill give Mrs. would stay at house, could not
Poole two hundred a year have activities outside and
to live here with my wife, everything under control men.
24 Dialogue 27 256
Jane : Sir, I interrupted him, you Knowing that it is impossible for
are inexorable for that her to be with Rochester, Jane
unfortunate lady: you flees Thornfield though she
speak of her with hate doesnt want to leave him but she
with vindictive antipathy. must leave him.
It is cruelshe cannot
99

help being mad.


Women are supposed to be very calm Berthas existences represent wife
generally: but women feel just as men in the nineteenth century whos
feel; they need exercise for their only at home. Throughout of the
faculties, and a field for their efforts as story, Jane must overcome it and
much as their brothers do; they suffer shows that a woman is able to
from too rigid a restraint, too absolute a have the same right as men and
25 stagnation, precisely as men would Monologue 12 93 also independent. Gender equality
suffer; and it is narrow minded in their defined as the equality of the sexes
more privileged fellow creatures to say in many aspects of life. As Jane
that they ought to confine themselves Eyre believes that between women
to making puddings and knitting and men should be equal.
stockings, to playing on the piano and
embroidering bags.
It is a village school: your scholars When Jane leaves Rochester. She
will be only poor girlscottagers stays in Moor House with St. John
childrenat the best, farmers and decides to work because it can
26 Dialogue 30 330
daughters. Knitting, sewing, reading, liberate Jane as a woman in which
writing, ciphering, will be all you will work is a better chance for Janes
have to teach... personal freedom.
Merely to tell you that your uncle, Mr. Jane gets fortune, it is inheritance
Eyre of Madeira, is dead that he has from her uncle, Mr. Eyre. He has
left you all his property, and that you left Jane all his property and now
are Jane is rich.
27 now richmerely thatnothing Dialogue 28 325 As Susan Fraiman said Jane
more. represents, at the same time, "the
I!rich? happy, rich, and conventionally
Yes, you, richquite an heiress, respectable lady and the
overworked.
Jane, come with me to India: come as During her stay in Moor House,
28 Dialogue 34 342
my help-meet and fellow-labourer. Jane is offered a marriage proposal
100

by St. John. He is a sincere man


who plans to go to India as a
missionary and he urges Jane to
accompany him as his wife.
but as his wife-at his side always, and Jane refuses his proposal because
always restrained, and always checked- she knows, St. Johns mariage
forced to keep the fire of my nature proposal, undirectly, make her will
continually low, to compel it to burn be a wife for the missionary in
29 Monologue 34 347
inwardly never utter a cry, though the which he has power over Jane.
imprisoned flame consumed vital-this Jane will never gets freedom as a
would be unendurable. woman and he will control on her
so she refuses that proposal.
St. John is an ambitious man in
And do not forget that if you reject it,
which he is pressing her to reach
it is not me you deny, but God.
decision about his proposal of
Through my means, He opens to you a
marriage. He wants to control
noble career, as my wife only can you
30 Dialogue 34 348 Jane. He also brings God to make
enter upon it. Refuse to be my wife,
sure Jane in order accepts his
and you limit yourself for ever to a
proposal because he thinks that
track of selfish ease and barren
rejecting his proposal means she
obscurity.
rejects God.
After getting inheritances, Jane is
rich now. Jane Eyre makes great
31 I am an independent woman now. Monologue 37 370 change as an independence
woman. It also changes her social
class in society.
I have now been married ten years. I Jane Eyres story is happy ending
know what it is to live entirely for and in which Jane feels happy with her
32 with what I love best on earth. I hold Monologue 38 383 right man, Rochester. She also
myself supremely blestblest beyond finds equal in marriage to
what language can express; because I Rochester because she is usefull
101

am my husbands life as fully is he is for him though he has lost his


mine. No woman was ever nearer to house, his hand and his eye, he
her mate than I am: ever more needs Jane as much as she needs
absolutely bone of his bone and flesh him and she can be financially
of his flesh. independent.