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Civil Military Coordination in Airport Operations

Athens, November 23rd, 2012


1. Airports in Greece

2. Pros and Cons of Joint Airport Use

3. Case Study on Cologne/Bonn Airport

4. Rules for Success

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Greece is characterized by its highly diversified airports portfolio in
terms of air traffic, passenger types and seasonality 1

Geographic distribution of International and domestic airports

39 airports in public use

39 million pax in 2011

50% of traffic generated at

Athens and Heraklion

Remaining 37 airports are

very diverse in size
handling between 4,000
and 4 million pax 2011)

11 are operated as
mixed civil and military

13 airports currently serve

domestic flights only

26 airports handled
international flights in 2011

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Currently Greek regional airports show room for improvement by
professional investors 1

Situation of the Greek regional airports

Infrastructural Challenges Financial Data and Situation

Several passenger terminals require Historic financial data for airports is not always
refurbishment and installations upgrade easy accessible

Public construction works have already Smaller airports partially relying on public
been contracted at 12 airports service obligation routes

Airfield capacity saturation Some small airports show

at major island airports absence of cost-accounting
might be overcome by scheme
better OPS

Procedures often Airport development tax

limit the facilities capacity as sole revenue source

Seasonal peaks cannot No differentiated

always be accommodated aeronautical charges
Civil-military arrangements for joint use of
airspace and runway Unexploited opportunities in several business
areas (car parking)
Involvement of state in the provision of airport
services (e.g. fire-fighting, security) No sustainable incentives strategy

Operational Chances Commercial Opportunities

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However, Greece has geopolitical challenges to manage and the
operation of air force bases is of high importance in the region 1


Greece is an active member of NATO and is obligated to maintain operational

ready military bases

The unstable situation in the region is not supporting scenarios of airport


Joint use of strategic important airports is already being practiced (e.g Nea
Anchiallos) however increased traffic expectations through low cost
carriers will require a solid planning and coordination of operations

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Due to joint civil and military use various types of challenges are
encountered in airport operations, management and development 2

Key domains and challenges at jointly used airports

Limitation in airspace capacity

Airfield / Maneuvering area capacity
Air Traffic Management Slot adherence during peak periods
Civil-military coordination in ATFCM1 and dynamic
demand/capacity management

Joint use of runway and taxiways

Airfield Infrastructure and Preventive and corrective maintenance
Facilities Aircraft fire-fighting and rescue services
Civil and military aviation security requirements

Airport noise level reductions

Operational restrictions due to (civil) night curfews
Environmental Impact
Aircraft fire-fighting and rescue services

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Civil use of military airports will support the infrastructure
development of the regions 2


Better utilization of an expensive infrastructure which was paid by tax payers


By introducing civil traffic at an air force base the airports vicinity can benefit
from real economic impact of the airport

Military and civil air traffic have similar infrastructure requirements for the
airside infrastructure

Partition of the airport land is possible in many cases

Strategic reasons to hide away air force bases in remote areas have diluted in
a world of satellite surveillance

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Project profitability and location of the air force base may not be
suitable for an civil use 2


Due to strategic reasons most military airports are located in remote areas and
thus actually do not support a civil use because of low demand in the
catchment area

Thus, any dual use project has to ensure medium- to long-term profitability
within an individual analysis which reflects & evaluates civil aviation demand

Dual use is thus not (!) a standard problem solver to accelerate regional
prosperity on its own

Military has to accept that the full control over the infrastructure will be lost

A clear governance structure needs to be established to make dual use work, if

this is not in place, problems will occur

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Airport Cologne/Bonn Case Study 3

Aerodrome Chart Infrastructure

3 Runways
14L/32R Intercontinental
14R/32L Small Runway
06/24 Crosswind

9 Aprons

110 Parking positions

2 Terminals

3 Car parks

1 Cargo center

1 ATC tower

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Airport Cologne/Bonn Case Study 3

Facts and Figures

Airport Surface 10 km
Ownership structure 30,94% Germany, 30,94% State of Northern
Westfalia, 31,12% City of Cologne, 6,06%
City of Bonn, remaining % is with the
surrounding counties
Directors & Sociates Chairman of Management Board, Managing
Director and Supervisory Board
Three representatives each of the central
government, the federal state, and the city of
Cologne, one representative of the "minor
shareholders" as well as five employee

Employee Civil / Military ca. 1.750 / 900

Total Movements 132.000
Military share 4.000
Passenger / Cargo Airlines 31 / 12
Passenger / Cargo Destinations 106 / 62

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Airport Cologne/Bonn Case Study 3


Airport is responsible for the area and all aviation surfaces, in cooperation with
police, border police and airport security

Airport and Federal Forces have their own entrances for the security area,
security checks done based at least on ICAO standards

Special security installation for the military apron and buildings in place


Navigation is done for both, civil and military vessels, by the Federal Air Traffic
Control (ATC), based on ICAO standards

During normal operations no determination

Due to 30 (LuftVG) air traffic act Federal Forces are allowed to increase
priority status in case of special circumstances

Direct matching between airport and federal forces in case of any questions

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Airport Cologne/Bonn Case Study 3

Emergency and Crisis

Civil and military side have a fire brigade

Overall responsibility is with the Airport Authority, Federal Forces supporting
If military equipment involved (e.g. aircraft accident) federal forces responsibly
for the first contact, airport when situation clear
In case of a crisis, airport and federal forces working close together with
involved public authorities according to emergency plans

Financial Issues

Position fee will not be charged as the German Federal Armed Forces have
their own apron with own parking positions
The German Federal Armed Forces have to pay an annual flat rate for Central
Infrastructure which covers all military flights. Only private companies that use
the military part of the airport need to pay Central Infrastructure fee
Landing fees for military aircraft are charged according MTOW
Variable landing fees (passenger fees) will not be charged for military flights,
unless if passengers from military flights use the terminals of the civil part of the
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Establish a true partnership among all involved parties to the
benefit of everybody 4

Rules for Success

Establish balanced governance structure between military and civil


Ensure reliable civil operating/opening hours (no ad-hoc closing due to military
training /maneuvers etc.)

If Military ATC / Ground control remains in place, provision of services has to

be ensured
Landside separation of infrastructure as far as possible

Free access to civil terminal

Separate civil apron / taxiway

Jointly used runway

A service culture needs to be established at joint infrastructure elements (e.g.

fuelling, CFR etc.)

Contractual agreements of jointly used services For CFR / Fuelling etc. this
often means provisioning of longer opening hours including payment terms

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Greece is facing challenging task in the next years which
need to be carefully planned and implemented 4


The Memorandum of Cooperation (in place since April 2006) between the
HCAA and the HAF regulates the interface between civil and military activities,
obligations and responsibilities
Whereas this may be sufficient for the relationship of two core public sector
entities, it requires detailed revision and expansion, if these airports are to be
operated by the private sector in order to sufficiently address the issues raised

Arrangements between HAF, HCAA

and the future airport operator
Enhance of civil-military through coordination tools,
coordination at high-density, supporting civil-military
mixed-use airports collaborative decision-making
Delivering to airspace users under
the future SES ATM concept of

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